Read by QxMD icon Read


Rebekah Elizabeth Mahoney, Jorge Azpurua, Benjamin A Eaton
Altered insulin signaling has been linked to widespread nervous system dysfunction including cognitive dysfunction, neuropathy and susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease. However, knowledge of the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin on neuronal function is incomplete. Here, we show that cell autonomous insulin signaling within the Drosophila CM9 motor neuron regulates the release of neurotransmitter via alteration of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This effect of insulin utilizes the FOXO-dependent regulation of the thor gene, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the eif-4e binding protein (4eBP)...
2016: ELife
Ying Lai, Ucheor B Choi, Yunxiang Zhang, Minglei Zhao, Richard A Pfuetzner, Austin L Wang, Jiajie Diao, Axel T Brunger
Complexin activates Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release and regulates spontaneous release in the presynaptic terminal by cooperating with the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and the Ca(2+)-sensor synaptotagmin. The N-terminal domain of complexin is important for activation, but its molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. Here, we observed that a split pair of N-terminal and central domain fragments of complexin is sufficient to activate Ca(2+)-triggered release using a reconstituted single-vesicle fusion assay, suggesting that the N-terminal domain acts as an independent module within the synaptic fusion machinery...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
E R Mingazov, M V Ugrumov
It is assumed that one of the causes of the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is the dysregulation of the vesicle cycle, which is ensured by a number of proteins including syntaxin I, synaptotagmin I, complexins I and II, and Rab5. It was shown that there is a compensatory increase in gene expression of proteins responsible for exocytosis at the preclinical stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the in substantia nigra (SN) in mice. Conversely, in the model of the clinical stage of PD, the decreases of gene expression of proteins responsible for exocytosis, endocytosis, and neuronal survival, which may be among the triggers of motor dysfunctions...
May 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Norbert Babai, Anna Sendelbeck, Hanna Regus-Leidig, Michaela Fuchs, Jasmin Mertins, Kerstin Reim, Nils Brose, Andreas Feigenspan, Johann Helmut Brandstätter
UNLABELLED: Complexins (Cplxs) are SNARE complex regulators controlling the speed and Ca(2+) sensitivity of SNARE-mediated synaptic vesicle fusion. We have shown previously that photoreceptor ribbon synapses in mouse retina are equipped with Cplx3 and Cplx4 and that lack of both Cplxs perturbs photoreceptor ribbon synaptic function; however, Cplx3/4 function in photoreceptor synaptic transmission remained elusive. To investigate Cplx3/4 function in photoreceptor ribbon synapses, voltage-clamp recordings from postsynaptic horizontal cells were performed in horizontal slice preparations of Cplx3/4 wild-type (WT) and Cplx3/4 double knock-out (DKO) mice...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ming Ying, Xiaojing Sui, Yanling Zhang, Qian Sun, Zhongsen Qu, Xiaobin Luo, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Jiazuan Ni, Jianjun Liu, Xifei Yang
The molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unclear. In the present study, we were aimed to identify the potential key molecules involved in spatial memory impairment in a triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mouse model of AD. By employing two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry, we revealed a total of 24 differentially expressed proteins in hippocampus of 9-month-old 3xTg-AD mice with significant spatial memory impairment in comparison to the age-matched controls...
June 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Jaewook Kim, Yicheng Zhu, Yeon-Kyun Shin
Complexin (Cpx) is a major regulator for Ca(2+)-triggered fast neuroexocytosis which underlies neuronal communication. Many psychiatric and neurological disorders accompany changes in the Cpx expression level, suggesting that abnormal Cpx levels may elicit aberrant cognitive symptoms. To comprehend how the changes in the Cpx level might affect neuronal communication, we investigated Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis at various Cpx concentrations. Ca(2+)-triggered content-mixing between a single proteoliposome of t-SNARE and another single proteoliposome of v-SNARE plus Ca(2+)-sensor synaptotagmin 1 was examined with total internal reflection microscopy...
July 5, 2016: Biochemistry
Lena S Mortensen, Silvia J H Park, Jiang-Bin Ke, Benjamin H Cooper, Lei Zhang, Cordelia Imig, Siegrid Löwel, Kerstin Reim, Nils Brose, Jonathan B Demb, Jeong-Seop Rhee, Joshua H Singer
Complexin (Cplx) proteins modulate the core SNARE complex to regulate exocytosis. To understand the contributions of Cplx to signaling in a well-characterized neural circuit, we investigated how Cplx3, a retina-specific paralog, shapes transmission at rod bipolar (RB)→AII amacrine cell synapses in the mouse retina. Knockout of Cplx3 strongly attenuated fast, phasic Ca(2+)-dependent transmission, dependent on local [Ca(2+)] nanodomains, but enhanced slower Ca(2+)-dependent transmission, dependent on global intraterminal [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]I)...
June 7, 2016: Cell Reports
Linxiang Yin, Jaewook Kim, Yeon-Kyun Shin
Complexin (Cpx) is thought to be a major regulator of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-dependent membrane fusion. Although the inhibition of membrane fusion by Cpx has been frequently reported, its structural basis has been elusive and an anticipated disruption of the SNARE core has never been observed. In the present study, to mimic the natural environment, we assembled a single SNAREpin between two nanodisc membrane patches. Single-molecule FRET (smFRET) detects a large conformational change, specifically at the C-terminal half, whereas no conformational change is observed at the N-terminal half...
July 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Dominique C Stephens, Hye Mi Kim, Arvind Kumar, Abdelbasset A Farahat, David W Boykin, Gregory M K Poon
Heterocyclic dications are receiving increasing attention as targeted inhibitors of transcription factors. While many dications act as purely competitive inhibitors, some fail to displace protein efficiently at drug concentrations expected to saturate their DNA target. To achieve a mechanistic understanding of these non-competitive effects, we used a combination of dications, which are intrinsically fluorescent and spectrally-separated fluorescently labeled DNA to dissect complex interactions in multi-component drug/DNA/protein systems...
May 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Satoshi Tadokoro, Naohide Hirashima, Naoko Utsunomiya-Tate
Mast cells are involved in allergic responses and undergo exocytotic release of inflammatory mediators in response to antigen stimulation. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins are involved in this membrane fusion process; some SNARE-binding proteins regulate SNARE-dependent liposome membrane fusion. SNARE-binding protein complexin II is expressed in mast cells, where it positively regulates exocytotic release after antigen stimulation. We found that complexin II suppressed SNARE-dependent membrane fusion between mast cell SNARE-containing liposomes...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ana María Cárdenas, Fernando D Marengo
The pattern of stimulation defines important characteristics of the secretory process in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, including the pool of secretory vesicles being recruited, the type and amount of transmitters released, the mode of membrane retrieval, and the mechanisms associated with vesicle replenishment. This review analyzes the mechanisms that regulate these processes in chromaffin cells, as well as in other neuroendocrine and neuronal models. A common factor in these mechanisms is the spatial and temporal distribution of the Ca(2+) signal generated during cell stimulation...
June 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Thorsten Trimbuch, Christian Rosenmund
When it comes to fusion with the neuronal cell membrane, does a synaptic vesicle have a choice whether to stop or to go? Recent work suggests that complexin, a tiny protein found within the synaptic terminal, contributes to the mechanism through which this choice is made. How complexin plays this consulting part and which synaptic vesicle proteins it interacts with remain open questions. Indeed, studies in mice and flies have led to the proposal of different models of complexin function. We suggest that understanding the modular nature of complexin will help us to unpick its role in synaptic vesicle release...
February 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Laura J McMeekin, Elizabeth K Lucas, James H Meador-Woodruff, Robert E McCullumsmith, Robert C Hendrickson, Karen L Gamble, Rita M Cowell
The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) has been linked to multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, but its involvement in the pathophysiology of these disorders is unclear. Experiments in mice have revealed a set of developmentally-regulated cortical PGC-1α-dependent transcripts involved in calcium buffering (parvalbumin, PV), synchronous neurotransmitter release (synaptotagmin 2, Syt2; complexin 1, Cplx1) and axonal integrity (neurofilamaent heavy chain, Nefh)...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Xiaofei Yang, Jimin Pei, Yea Jin Kaeser-Woo, Taulant Bacaj, Nick V Grishin, Thomas C Südhof
Complexins are synaptic SNARE complex-binding proteins that cooperate with synaptotagmins in activating Ca(2+)-stimulated, synaptotagmin-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis and in clamping spontaneous, synaptotagmin-independent synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Here, we show that complexin sequences are conserved in some non-metazoan unicellular organisms and in all metazoans, suggesting that complexins are a universal feature of metazoans that predate metazoan evolution. We show that complexin from Nematostella vectensis, a cnidarian sea anemone far separated from mammals in metazoan evolution, functionally replaces mouse complexins in activating Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis, but is unable to clamp spontaneous exocytosis...
October 2015: EMBO Reports
Ralf Mohrmann, Madhurima Dhara, Dieter Bruns
Despite intensive research, it is still unclear how an immediate and profound acceleration of exocytosis is triggered by appropriate Ca(2+)-stimuli in presynaptic terminals. This is due to the fact that the molecular mechanisms of "docking" and "priming" reactions, which set up secretory vesicles to fuse at millisecond time scale, are extremely hard to study. Yet, driven by a fruitful combination of in vitro and in vivo analyses, our mechanistic understanding of Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle fusion has certainly advanced in the past few years...
November 2015: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yu-Hui Wong, Chia-Ming Lee, Wenjun Xie, Bianxiao Cui, Mu-ming Poo
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to modulate synapse development and plasticity, but the source of synaptic BDNF and molecular mechanisms regulating BDNF release remain unclear. Using exogenous BDNF tagged with quantum dots (BDNF-QDs), we found that endocytosed BDNF-QDs were preferentially localized to postsynaptic sites in the dendrite of cultured hippocampal neurons. Repetitive neuronal spiking induced the release of BDNF-QDs at these sites, and this process required activation of glutamate receptors...
August 11, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Josep Rizo, Junjie Xu
Extensive research has yielded crucial insights into the mechanism of neurotransmitter release, and working models for the functions of key proteins involved in release. The SNAREs Syntaxin-1, Synaptobrevin, and SNAP-25 play a central role in membrane fusion, forming SNARE complexes that bridge the vesicle and plasma membranes and that are disassembled by NSF-SNAPs. Exocytosis likely starts with Syntaxin-1 folded into a self-inhibited closed conformation that binds to Munc18-1. Munc13s open Syntaxin-1, orchestrating SNARE complex assembly in an NSF-SNAP-resistant manner together with Munc18-1...
2015: Annual Review of Biophysics
A Ramos-Miguel, W G Honer, H N Boyda, K Sawada, C L Beasley, R M Procyshyn, A M Barr
Schizophrenia patients treated with olanzapine, or other second-generation antipsychotics, frequently develop metabolic side-effects, such as glucose intolerance and increased adiposity. We previously observed that modeling these adverse effects in rodents also resulted in hippocampal shrinkage. Here, we investigated the impact of olanzapine treatment, and the beneficial influence of routine exercise, on the neurosecretion machinery of the hippocampus. Immunodensities and interactions of three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins (syntaxin-1, synaptosome-associated protein of 25kDa (SNAP-25) and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)), synaptotagmin and complexins-1/2 were quantified in the hippocampus of sedentary and exercising rats exposed over 9weeks to vehicle (n=28) or olanzapine (10mg/kg/day, n=28)...
August 20, 2015: Neuroscience
Shuwen Chang, Kerstin Reim, Meike Pedersen, Erwin Neher, Nils Brose, Holger Taschenberger
Complexins (Cplxs) are small synaptic proteins that cooperate with SNARE-complexes in the control of synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion. Studies involving genetic mutation, knock-down, or knock-out indicated two key functions of Cplx that are not mutually exclusive but cannot easily be reconciled, one in facilitating SV fusion, and one in "clamping" SVs to prevent premature fusion. Most studies on the role of Cplxs in mammalian synapse function have relied on cultured neurons, heterologous expression systems, or membrane fusion assays in vitro, whereas little is known about the function of Cplxs in native synapses...
May 27, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sandra Siegert, Jinsoo Seo, Ester J Kwon, Andrii Rudenko, Sukhee Cho, Wenyuan Wang, Zachary Flood, Anthony J Martorell, Maria Ericsson, Alison E Mungenast, Li-Huei Tsai
Noncoding variants in the human MIR137 gene locus increase schizophrenia risk with genome-wide significance. However, the functional consequence of these risk alleles is unknown. Here we examined induced human neurons harboring the minor alleles of four disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in MIR137. We observed increased MIR137 levels compared to those in major allele-carrying cells. microRNA-137 gain of function caused downregulation of the presynaptic target genes complexin-1 (Cplx1), Nsf and synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1), leading to impaired vesicle release...
July 2015: Nature Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"