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Oxygen delivery

Ayse Betul Ergul, Emrah Calıskan, Hasan Samsa, Ikbal Gokcek, Ali Kaya, Gozde Erturk Zararsiz, Yasemin Altuner Torun
The effectiveness of using a face mask with a small diffuser for oxygen delivery (OxyMask) was compared to use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with moderate or severe bronchiolitis.The study population in this open, phase 4, randomized controlled trial consisted of 60 patients aged 1-24 months diagnosed with moderate or severe bronchiolitis and admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for oxygen therapy. The patients were randomized into two groups according to the method of oxygen delivery: a diffuser mask group and an HFNC group...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Elena Gazzano, Loretta Lazzarato, Barbara Rolando, Joanna Kopecka, Stefano Guglielmo, Costanzo Costamagna, Konstantin Chegaev, Chiara Riganti
Antitumor chemotherapy remains one of the most important challenge of the medicinal chemistry. Emerging research in chemotherapy is focused on exploiting the biochemical differences between cancer cell and normal cell metabolism in order to reduce the side effects and increase antitumor therapy efficacy. The higher mitochondrial transmembrane potential of cancer cells compared to not-transformed cells favors the intra-mitochondrial accumulation of cationic drugs in the former. This feature could be exploited to allow selective delivery of antineoplastic drugs to the cancer cells...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shutao Gao, Pengli Zheng, Zhenhua Li, Xiaochen Feng, Weixiao Yan, Shizhu Chen, Weisheng Guo, Dandan Liu, Xinjian Yang, Shuxiang Wang, Xing-Jie Liang, Jinchao Zhang
Improving the supply of O2 and the circulation lifetime of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in vivo would be a promising approach to eliminate hypoxic tumors. Herein, by taking advantage of the significant gas-adsorption capability of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a biomimetic O2 -evolving photodynamic therapy (PDT) nanoplatform with long circulating properties was fabricated. Zirconium (IV)-based MOF (UiO-66) was used as a vehicle for O2 storing, then conjugated with indocyanine green (ICG) by coordination reaction, and further coated with red blood cell (RBC) membranes...
June 7, 2018: Biomaterials
Marie-Claude Gagnon, Michèle Auger, Jean-François Paquin
The synthesis and biophysical studies of fluorinated phospholipids have attracted a lot of interest over the past 40 years. Mono- and polyfluorinated phospholipids, containing 1-4 fluorine atoms, are designed mostly with the goal of developing new model membranes. The fluorine atoms are herein used as probes, mainly in 19F-NMR spectroscopy, to study biomolecule complexes. In this case, the spectroscopic features of the fluorine atom and the preservation of the parent lipid properties are of primary importance...
June 18, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Lara-Antonia Beer, Helma Tatge, Nicole Reich, Michel Tenspolde, Alexandra Olling, Sebastian Goy, Klemens Rottner, Alexi Kirilov Alekov, Ralf Gerhard
Toxin A and Toxin B (TcdA/TcdB) are large glucosyltransferases produced by Clostridium difficile. TcdB but not TcdA induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated early cell death when applied at high concentrations. We found that non-glucosylated Rac1 is essential for induction of early cell death since inhibition of Rac1 impedes this effect. Early cell death only occurs when TcdB is rapidly endocytosed. This was shown by generation of chimeras using the trunk of TcdB from a hypervirulent strain. TcdB from hypervirulent strain has been described to translocate from endosomes at higher pH values and thus, meaning faster than reference type TcdB...
June 14, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
J Trent Magruder, Charles D Fraser, Joshua C Grimm, Todd C Crawford, Claude A Beaty, Alejandro Suarez-Pierre, Ronald L Hayes, Michael V Johnston, William A Baumgartner
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to assess the relationship between low oxygen delivery (DO2 ) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and a neuron-specific biomarker of neurologic injury, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of patient charts and prospectively collected blood samples. SETTING: University-affiliated tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Johanna Kaartinen, Stéphane Lair, Michael T Walsh, Patrick Burns, Marion Desmarchelier, Jessica M Pang, Daniel S J Pang
  Walruses are a challenging species to anesthetize as a result of their large mass, limited access for drug delivery, unique physiology, and small number of reports describing anesthetic procedures. Three aquarium-housed walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus) ranging in age from 3 to 11 yr old (344-1,000 kg) were anesthetized for dental or ophthalmic surgical procedures, with one animal anesthetized twice and one anesthetized three times. Preanesthetic medication was with intramuscular midazolam (0.1-0.2 mg/kg) and meperidine (2-3 mg/kg)...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Feng Li, Chao Chen, Xixi Yang, Xinyu He, Zhangyan Zhao, Jie Li, Yue Yu, Xianzhu Yang, Jun Wang
Nanocarrier-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT), which involves the systemic delivery of photosensitizers (PSs) into tumor tissue and tumor cells, has emerged as an attractive treatment for cancer. However, insufficient PS release limits intracellular cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which has become a major obstacle to improving the PDT therapeutic efficacy. Herein, a novel hyperbranched polyphosphoester (hbPPE) containing numerous acetal bonds (S-hbPPE/Ce6) was explored as a chlorin e6 (Ce6) nanocarrier for PDT...
June 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J Skytte Larsson, G Bragadottir, B Redfors, S-E Ricksten
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is commonly seen after liver transplantation. The optimal perioperative target mean arterial pressure (MAP) for renal filtration, perfusion and oxygenation in liver recipients is not known. The effects of norepinephrine-induced changes in MAP on renal blood flow (RBF), oxygen delivery (RDO2 ), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal oxygenation (=renal oxygen extraction, RO2 Ex) were therefore studied early after liver transplantation. METHODS: Ten patients with an intra- and post-operative vasopressor-dependent systemic vasodilation were studied early after liver transplantation during sedation and mechanical ventilation...
June 12, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Chun-Yang Sun, Ziyang Cao, Xue-Jun Zhang, Rong Sun, Chun-Shui Yu, Xianzhu Yang
The simple integration of chemotherapeutic drugs and photosensitizers (PSs) into the same nanocarriers only achieves a combination of chemo-photodynamic therapy but may not confer synergistic effects. The boosted intracellular release of chemotherapeutic drugs during the photodynamic therapy (PDT) process is necessary to achieve a cascade of amplified synergistic therapeutic effects of chemo-photodynamic therapy. Methods: In this study, we explored an innovative hyperbranched polyphosphate (RHPPE) containing a singlet oxygen (SO)-labile crosslinker to boost drug release during the PDT process...
2018: Theranostics
Yu Han, Zhongping Chen, Hong Zhao, Zengshi Zha, Wendong Ke, Yuheng Wang, Zhishen Ge
Tumor hypoxia strikingly restricts photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy and limits its clinical applications in cancer therapy. The ideal strategy to address this issue is to develop oxygen-independent PDT systems. Herein, the rationally designed tumor pH-responsive polymeric micelles are devised to realize oxygen-independent combined PDT and photothermal therapy (PTT) under near-infrared light (NIR) irradiation. The triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethyl methacrylate) (PEG-b-PCL-b- PPEMA), was prepared to co-encapsulate cypate and singlet oxygen donor (diphenylanthracene endoperoxide, DPAE) via self-assembly to obtain the micellar delivery system (C/O@N-Micelle)...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Leonti Grin, Simon Shenhav, Ahmed Elasbah, Mark Rabinovich, Hadar Sofer, Eyal Anteby, Efraim Zohav
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review a single center experience in follow-up and management of fetuses with umbilical vein varix (UVV) and to assess the effect of UVV on fetal Doppler parameters. METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively maternal antenatal records, delivery records, and newborn records to identify cases of UVV. Further, we retrospectively compared 25 fetuses with isolated UVV and available cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) analysis with 75 matched controls. RESULTS: We identified 67 cases of UVV...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sergio Caravita, Andrea Faini, Claudia Baratto, Grzegorz Bilo, Josè Luis Macarlupu, Morin Lang, Miriam Revera, Carolina Lombardi, Francisco C Villafuerte, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Gianfranco Parati
BACKGROUND: Acute exposure to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia induces a blood pressure rise in hypertensive humans, both at rest and during exercise. It is unclear whether this phenomenon reflects specific blood pressure hyperreactivity or rather an upward shift of blood pressure levels. We aimed at evaluating the extent and rate of blood pressure rise during exercise in hypertensive subjects acutely exposed to high altitude, and how these alterations can be counterbalanced by antihypertensive treatment...
June 9, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
David O'Connor, Deyi Hou, Yong Sik Ok, Yinan Song, Ajit Sarmah, Xuanru Li, Filip M G Tack
The removal of recalcitrant organic pollutants in groundwater is a challenge being faced around the world. Achieving effective long-term remediation of contaminated aquifers faces a variety of significant issues such as back diffusion, tailing, and rebound. In recent years, some researchers have proposed the use of controlled release materials (CRMs) as a new approach to counteracting such issues. The novelty of CRMs lies in that they release their active products slowly, over prolonged periods of time, in order to sustain in situ treatments and long-term effectiveness...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Shiva Pathak, Shobha Regmi, Tiep Tien Nguyen, Biki Gupta, Milan Gautam, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim, Youlim Son, Jae-Ryong Kim, Min Hui Park, Young Kyung Bae, So Young Park, Daewon Jeong, Simmyung Yook, Jee-Heon Jeong
Attenuation of senescence progression may be attractive way to preserve the functionality of pancreatic islets (PI) after transplantation. In this study, we developed a model for in vitro induction of premature senescence in rat PI and showed the effectiveness of quercetin (QU) to prevent the senescence. To provide targeted-delivery of QU to the PI after transplantation, we prepared the hybrid clusters (HC) of islet single cells (ISC) and QU-loaded polymeric microspheres (QU; ∼7.55 ng HC-1 ). Long-term culture of the HC revealed reduced levels of reactive oxygen species and decreased expression of senescence-associated beta galactosidase, Rb, p53, p16, and p21 compared to that of the control islets...
June 5, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Paween Mahinthichaichan, Robert B Gennis, Emad Tajkhorshid
The superfamily of heme‑copper oxidoreductases (HCOs) include both NO and O2 reductases. Nitric oxide reductases (NORs) are bacterial membrane enzymes that catalyze an intermediate step of denitrification by reducing nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2 O). They are structurally similar to heme‑copper oxygen reductases (HCOs), which reduce O2 to water. The experimentally observed apparent bimolecular rate constant of NO delivery to the deeply buried catalytic site of NORs was previously reported to approach the diffusion-controlled limit (108 -109  M-1  s-1 )...
June 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Randall L Barbour, Harry L Graber, San-Lian S Barbour
SUMMARY: In this report we introduce a weak-model approach for examination of the intrinsic time-varying properties of the hemoglobin signal, with the aim of advancing the application of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) for the detection of breast cancer, among other potential uses. The developed methodology integrates concepts from stochastic network theory with known modulatory features of the vascular bed, and in doing so provides access to a previously unrecognized dense feature space that is shown to have promising diagnostic potential...
2018: PloS One
Lei Chen, Chuan Chen, Wei Chen, Ke Li, Xiaozhen Chen, Xudong Tang, Ganfeng Xie, Xi Luo, Xiaojiao Wang, Houjie Liang, Songtao Yu
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has been found to be closely related to tumor transformation, growth, and metastasis. Thus, delivery of hTERT small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an important approach for cancer gene therapy. However, single anticancer effect of gene silencing is often limited by poor specificity or low efficiency in siRNA delivery and release. In this work, we present small and thin black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets as a biodegradable delivery system for hTERT siRNA. The BP nanosheets prepared with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI) modification (PPBP), exhibited high siRNA loading capacity and robust cell uptake...
June 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matteo Parotto, Maral Ouzounian, Ludwik Fedorko, George Oreopoulos, Thomas Lindsay, Rita Katznelson
BACKGROUND: Complex aortic repair (CAR) carries high rates of debilitating postoperative complications, including spinal cord injury. The rate of spinal cord deficits post-CAR is approximately 10%, with permanent paraplegia in 2.9% and paraparesis in 2.4% of patients. Treatment options are limited. Rescue therapies include optimization of spinal cord perfusion and oxygen delivery by mean arterial pressure augmentation (> 90 mm Hg), cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and preservation of adequate haemoglobin concentration (> 100 g L⁻¹)...
June 8, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Meng Qiu, Wen Xiu Ren, Taeho Jeong, Miae Won, Geun Young Park, David Kipkemoi Sang, Li-Ping Liu, Han Zhang, Jong Seung Kim
Phosphorene, also known as single- or few-layer black phosphorus (FLBP), is a new member of the two-dimensional (2D) material family and has attracted significant attention in recent years for applications in optoelectronics, energy storage and biomedicine due to its unique physicochemical properties and excellent biocompatibility. FLBP is regarded as a potential biological imaging agent for cancer diagnosis due to its intrinsic fluorescence (FL) and photoacoustic (PA) properties and negligible cytotoxicity...
June 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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