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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910706/intravenous-oxygen-a-novel-method-of-oxygen-delivery-in-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure
#1
Jonathan A Gehlbach, Kyle J Rehder, Michael A Gentile, David A Turner, Daniel J Grady, Ira M Cheifetz
Hypoxemic respiratory failure is a common problem in critical care. Current management strategies, including mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membranous oxygenation, can be efficacious but these therapies put patients at risk for toxicities associated with invasive forms of support. Areas Covered: In this manuscript, we discuss intravenous oxygen (IVO2), a novel method to improve oxygen delivery that involves intravenous administration of a physiologic solution containing dissolved oxygen at hyperbaric concentrations...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908340/end-points-of-sepsis-resuscitation
#2
REVIEW
John C Greenwood, Clinton J Orloski
Resuscitation goals for the patient with sepsis and septic shock are to return the patient to a physiologic state that promotes adequate end-organ perfusion along with matching metabolic supply and demand. Ideal resuscitation end points should assess the adequacy of tissue oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption, and be quantifiable and reproducible. Despite years of research, a single resuscitation end point to assess adequacy of resuscitation has yet to be found. Thus, the clinician must rely on multiple end points to assess the patient's overall response to therapy...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907969/neuroprotection-in-critical-care-neurology
#3
Menno R Germans, Hieronymus D Boogaarts, R Loch Macdonald
Ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury-all have in common early brain injury due to brain tissue destruction, reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery, and overall substantial morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of brain tissue damage likely includes common cellular mechanisms. Neuroprotection has seldom, if ever, been shown to reduce early brain injury. Secondary brain injury develops after these conditions due to macroscopic events such as increased intracranial pressure and reduced cerebral blood flow, as well as cellular processes including vascular damage, inflammation, and apoptotic/necrotic cell death...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907860/co-delivery-of-vp-16-and-bcl-2-targeted-antisense-on-peg-grafted-omwcnts-for-synergistic-in-vitro-anti-cancer-effects-in-non-small-and-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Zbynek Heger, Hana Polanska, Sona Krizkova, Jan Balvan, Martina Raudenska, Simona Dostalova, Amitava Moulick, Michal Masarik, Vojtech Adam
Present study describes the preparation of a polyethylene glycol-grafted oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs-PEG) hybrid nanosystem as a carrier of etoposide (VP-16) and Bcl-2 phosphorothioate antisense deoxyoligonucleotides (Aso) to achieve a superior cytostastic efficacy in non-small and small cell lung cancer in vitro. We have demonstrated that the adsorption of hydrophobic VP-16 and Bcl-2 Aso results in a stable nanotransporter exhibiting good dispersion with excellent release profiles (both, in pH 7...
November 19, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907119/gray-matter-hypoxia-in-the-brain-of-the-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Thomas W Johnson, Ying Wu, Nabeela Nathoo, James A Rogers, V Wee Yong, Jeff F Dunn
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a significant inflammatory component and may have significant gray matter (GM) pathophysiology. Brain oxygenation is a sensitive measurement of the balance between metabolic need and oxygen delivery. There is evidence that inflammation and hypoxia are interdependent. In this paper, we applied novel, implanted PO2 sensors to measure hypoxia in cortical and cerebellar GM, in an inflammation-induced mouse model of MS. OBJECTIVE: Quantify oxygenation in cortical and cerebellar GM in the awake, unrestrained experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and to relate the results to symptom level and disease time-course...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906706/effects-of-cardiopulmonary-bypass-on-renal-perfusion-filtration-and-oxygenation-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#6
Lukas Lannemyr, Gudrun Bragadottir, Vitus Krumbholz, Bengt Redfors, Johan Sellgren, Sven-Erik Ricksten
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is a common complication after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The authors evaluated the effects of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass on renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and renal oxygen supply/demand relationship, i.e., renal oxygenation (primary outcome) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: Eighteen patients with a normal preoperative serum creatinine undergoing cardiac surgery procedures with normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (2...
December 1, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906055/mesenchymal-stem-cells-multipotent-stromal-cells-mscs-are-glycolytic-and-thus-glucose-is-a-limiting-factor-of-in-vitro-models-of-msc-starvation
#7
Austin Nuschke, Melanie Rodrigues, Albin W Wells, Kyle Sylakowski, Alan Wells
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair but are challenged during wound healing when the blood supply is disrupted, thereby limiting nutrient delivery. Survival mechanisms against 'starvation' include autophagy, which we previously found to enhance differentiation efficiency. MSC response to models of in vitro nutrient deprivation are of great interest for improving MSC survival and therapeutic efficacy; however, the rate-limiting nutrients are unknown...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904934/part-2-analytical-expressions-of-concentrations-of-glucose-oxygen-and-gluconic-acid-in-a-composite-membrane-for-closed-loop-insulin-delivery-for-the-non-steady-state-conditions
#8
N Mehala, L Rajendran, V Meena
A mathematical model developed by Abdekhodaie and Wu (J Membr Sci 335:21-31, 2009), which describes a dynamic process involving an enzymatic reaction and diffusion of reactants and product inside glucose-sensitive composite membrane has been discussed. This theoretical model depicts a system of non-linear non-steady state reaction diffusion equations. These equations have been solved using new approach of homotopy perturbation method and analytical solutions pertaining to the concentrations of glucose, oxygen, and gluconic acid are derived...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903204/service-delivery-model-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-an-australian-regional-hospital
#9
Joe McCaffrey, Neil R Orford, Nicholas Simpson, Jill Lamb Jenkins, Christopher Morley, Vin Pellegrino
BACKGROUND: The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for adults in regional centres with low numbers of patients receiving ECMO is unclear. A robust service delivery model may assist in the quality provision of ECMO. OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel ECMO service delivery model in a regional Australian hospital, reporting on patient characteristics and outcomes before and after its implementation. METHODS: An observational cohort study of all patients receiving ECMO at the University Hospital Geelong intensive care unit before and after implementation of a new ECMO clinical service model...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901396/effects-of-dobutamine-hydrochloride-on-cardiovascular-function-in-horses-anesthetized-with-isoflurane-with-or-without-acepromazine-maleate-premedication
#10
Mara F Schier, Anthea L Raisis, Cristy J Secombe, Giselle Hosgood, Gabrielle C Musk, Guy D Lester
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of acepromazine maleate premedication on cardiovascular function before and after infusion of dobutamine hydrochloride for 30 minutes in isoflurane-anesthetized horses. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Each horse was anesthetized once following premedication with acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg, IV) administered 30 minutes prior to anesthetic induction (ACP+ treatment) and once without premedication (ACP- treatment). Anesthesia was induced with IV administration of xylazine hydrochloride (0...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899343/long-term-high-fat-diet-induces-hippocampal-microvascular-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#11
Zhuo Fu, Jing Wu, Tanseli Nesil, Ming D Li, Kevin W Aylor, Zhenqi Liu
Insulin action on hippocampus improves cognitive function and obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with decreased cognitive function. Cerebral microvasculature plays a critical role in maintaining cerebral vitality and function by supplying nutrients, oxygen and hormones such as insulin to cerebral parenchyma including hippocampus. In skeletal muscle insulin actively regulates microvascular opening and closure and this action is impaired in the insulin resistant states. To examine insulin's action on hippocampal microvasculature and parenchyma and the impact of diet-induced obesity we determined cognitive function, and microvascular insulin responses, parenchyma insulin responses and capillary density in the hippocampus in 2-month and 8-month rats on chow diet and 8-month rats on long-term high-fat diet (6 months)...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897408/muscle-fibre-capillarization-is-a-critical-factor-in-muscle-fibre-hypertrophy-during-resistance-exercise-training-in-older-men
#12
Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Sophie Joanisse, Marika Leenders, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon, Gianni Parise
BACKGROUND: Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889618/cell-death-mechanistic-study-of-photodynamic-therapy-against-breast-cancer-cells-utilizing-liposomal-delivery-of-5-10-15-20-tetrakis-benzo-b-thiophene-porphyrin
#13
Geewoo Nam, Sabarinathan Rangasamy, Hee Ju, Annie Agnes Suganya Samson, Joon Myong Song
5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(benzo[b]thiophene) porphyrin (BTP) is a newly synthesized hydrophobic photosensitizer with fluorescence quantum yield in toluene: ΦF=0.062. Previously, its limitations in solubility had hindered scientific experimentation regarding its photodynamic effects on cancer cells. By utilizing various compositions of liposomes in order to alter the solubility of BTP, the photocytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, and subcellular localization of the liposomal BTP were identified in this work...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888446/cesarean-section-in-the-setting-of-severe-pulmonary-hypertension-requiring-extracorporeal-life-support
#14
Ryosuke Hara, Shuhei Hara, Chin Siang Ong, Gary Schwartz, Christopher Sciortino, Narutoshi Hibino
We describe the use of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a 35-year-old female with severe fixed pulmonary hypertension who went into cardiogenic shock during a Cesarean section. Pregnancy in the presence of severe pulmonary hypertension is typically contraindicated due to high maternal mortality rates. This patient visited our hospital at 37 weeks of gestation after experiencing dyspnea and chest pain. Clinical evaluation revealed severe fixed pulmonary hypertension. At the time of the planned delivery, femoral lines were placed; in case of emergency, ECMO became necessary during the delivery...
November 25, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886191/hemodynamic-and-metabolic-effects-of-a-new-pediatric-dobutamine-formulation-in-hypoxic-newborn-pigs
#15
Victoria E Mielgo, Adolf Valls-I-Soler, Juan M Lopez de Heredia, Heike Rabe, Carmen Rey-Santano
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to measure drug-related changes in hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in response to different doses of an age-appropriate dobutamine formulation in hypoxic pigs. A secondary aim was to validate superior vena cava flow (SVCF) as a marker of cardiac index (CI) for subsequent clinical trials of this formulation in humans. METHODS: Newborn pigs (n=18) were exposed to 2h-hypoxia (10-15% oxygen) followed by reoxygenation (21-30% oxygen 4h)...
November 25, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884637/phototheranostic-nanoplatform-based-on-a-single-cyanine-dye-for-image-guided-combinatorial-phototherapy
#16
Tony Duong, Xiaoning Li, Bona Yang, Canan Schumann, Hassan A Albarqi, Olena Taratula, Oleh Taratula
This study represents a novel phototheranostic nanoplatform based on the near-infrared (NIR) heptamethine cyanine dye, IR775, which is capable of concurrent real-time fluorescence imaging and cancer eradication with combinatorial phototherapy. To achieve water solubility and enhance tumor delivery, the hydrophobic IR775 dye was loaded into a biocompatible polymeric nanoparticle with a diameter of ~40nm and slightly negative surface charge (-2.34mV). The nanoparticle-encapsulated hydrophobic IR775 dye (IR775-NP) is characterized by an enhanced fluorescence quantum yield (16%) when compared to the water soluble analogs such as ICG (2...
November 21, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884557/laryngeal-trauma-following-an-inhalation-injury-a-review-and-case-report
#17
REVIEW
Gemma Hogg, Jay Goswamy, Sadie Khwaja, Nadeem Khwaja
The primary concern when managing a patient with inhalation injury is security of the airway. Airflow may be impeded by both edema of the upper airway and reduction of oxygen delivery to the lower respiratory tract. Although there has been much discussion regarding management of the latter, the focus of this article is the management of the former. This review aimed to determine the optimum management in burn victims with upper airway inhalation injury as an attempt to prevent laryngeal trauma leading to long-term voice disorders and upper airway dyspnea...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884421/interpreting-the-incremental-cardiopulmonary-exercise-test
#18
REVIEW
Samir Nusair
The incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an increasingly used diagnostic method that serves to evaluate patients with chief complaint of dyspnea during exercise. Performing maximal symptom-limited CPET can show if the tested subject has a reduced exercise capacity and give clues to the mechanism of such exercise capacity reduction, cardiac, pulmonary, or pulmonary vascular source. In this review, it is suggested that the evaluation of the complex results of CPET should be performed by first determining if myocardial/circulatory insufficiency is present and second if there is gas exchange abnormality...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883129/platinum-complexes-as-light-promoted-anticancer-agents-a-redefined-strategy-for-controlled-activation
#19
Koushambi Mitra
Site-specific delivery and amenable activation of prodrugs are indispensible criteria for designing novel anticancer agents. Platinum based drugs vanguard the chemotherapeutic regimes and over the years significant attention has been paid to achieve more efficacious drugs with fewer adverse effects. The switch from platinum(ii) drugs to the inert platinum(iv) analogues proved advantageous but the new prodrugs still suffered from unspecific cytotoxic actions. Thus the photoactivation of an inert platinum prodrug specifically within neoplastic cells provided the desired spatio-temporal control over drug activation by means of illumination, thereby limiting the cytotoxic events to only at the targeted tumors...
November 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882555/a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-of-vo2-max-testing-a-potential-model-for-measuring-relative-in-vivo-efficacy-of-different-red-blood-cell-products
#20
Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Evelyn L Lockhart, Nicholas Bandarenko, Mary L Campbell, Michael J Natoli, Veronika K Jamnik, Timothy R Carter, Richard E Moon
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials, for example, RECESS, comparing "young" (median, 7-day) versus "middle-aged" (median, 28-day) red blood cells (RBCs), showed no difference in outcome. These data are important; however, they do not inform us about the safety and effectiveness of the oldest RBCs, which some patients receive. It may not be feasible to conduct a clinical trial randomizing patients to receive the oldest blood. Therefore, we propose strenuous exercise (VO2 max testing) as a model to study the relative efficacy to increase oxygen delivery to tissue of different RBC products, for example, extremes of storage duration...
November 23, 2016: Transfusion
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