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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027909/cytotoxicity-and-cellular-uptake-of-different-sized-gold-nanoparticles-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#1
Dhiraj Kumar, Isha Mutreja, Kenny Chitcholtan, Peter Sykes
Nanomedicine has advanced the biomedical field with the availability of multifunctional nanoparticle (NPs) systems that can target a disease site enabling drug delivery and helping to monitor the disease. In this paper, we synthesised the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with an average size 18, 40, 60 and 80 nm, and studied the effect of nanoparticles size, concentration and incubation time on ovarian cancer cells namely, OVCAR5, OVCAR8, and SKOV3. The size measured by transmission electron microscopy images was slightly smaller than the hydrodynamic diameter; measured size by ImageJ as 14...
October 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025748/compromised-cerebrovascular-regulation-and-cerebral-oxygenation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Simon Malenfant, Patrice Brassard, Myriam Paquette, Olivier Le Blanc, Audrey Chouinard, Valérie Nadeau, Philip D Allan, Yu-Chieh Tzeng, Sébastien Simard, Sébastien Bonnet, Steeve Provencher
BACKGROUND: Functional cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms are important for maintaining constant cerebral blood flow and oxygen supply in heathy individuals and are altered in heart failure. We aim to examine whether pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with abnormal cerebrovascular regulation and lower cerebral oxygenation and their physiological and clinical consequences. METHODS AND RESULTS: Resting mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAvmean); transcranial Doppler), cerebral pressure-flow relationship (assessed at rest and during squat-stand maneuvers; analyzed using transfer function analysis), cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, and central chemoreflex were assessed in 11 patients with PAH and 11 matched healthy controls...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024300/accounting-for-the-role-of-hematocrit-in-between-subject-variations-of-mri-derived-baseline-cerebral-hemodynamic-parameters-and-functional-bold-responses
#3
Feng Xu, Wenbo Li, Peiying Liu, Jun Hua, John J Strouse, James J Pekar, Hanzhang Lu, Peter C M van Zijl, Qin Qin
Baseline hematocrit fraction (Hct) is a determinant for baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and between-subject variation of Hct thus causes variation in task-based BOLD fMRI signal changes. We first verified in healthy volunteers (n = 12) that Hct values can be derived reliably from venous blood T1 values by comparison with the conventional lab test. Together with CBF measured using phase-contrast MRI, this noninvasive estimation of Hct, instead of using a population-averaged Hct value, enabled more individual determination of oxygen delivery (DO2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 )...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021519/bone-marrow-mononuclear-cells-transplantation-in-treatment-of-established-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-case-report
#4
Nguyen Thanh Liem, Tran Lien Anh, Trieu T Hong Thai, Bui Viet Anh
BACKGROUND Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BDP) is an incurable disease. This study reports the successful treatment of a 30-week-old neonate with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia by bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNCs) transplantation. CASE REPORT The preterm infant with BPD requiring continuous oxygen administration for 4 months post-delivery underwent BM MNCs. Bone marrow was obtained from the patient's iliac crests and mononuclear cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation method. BM MNCs were delivered via endotracheal and intravenous routes...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019742/the-impact-of-hypoxia-on-out-of-field-cell-survival-after-exposure-to-modulated-radiation-fields
#5
Hannah F Thompson, Karl T Butterworth, Stephen J McMahon, Mihaela Ghita, Alan R Hounsell, Kevin M Prise
Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy achieve highly conformal dose distributions within target tumor volumes through the sequential delivery of multiple spatially and temporally modulated radiation fields and have been shown to influence radiobiological response. The goals of this study were to determine the effect of hypoxia on the cell survival responses of different cell models (H460, DU145, A549, MDA231 and FADU) to modulated fields and to characterize the time dependency of signaling under oxic conditions, following reoxygenation and after prolonged hypoxia...
October 11, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019495/a-novel-visible-light-responsive-nanosystem-for-cancer-treatment
#6
M Martínez-Carmona, D Lozano, A Baeza, M Colilla, M Vallet-Regí
A novel singlet-oxygen sensitive drug delivery nanocarrier able to release its cargo after exposure to visible (Vis) light from a common lamp is presented. This nanodevice is based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) decorated with porphyrin-caps grafted via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-cleavable linkages. In the presence of Vis light porphyrin-nanocaps produce singlet oxygen molecules that break the sensitive-linker, which triggers pore uncapping and therefore allows the release of the entrapped cargo (topotecan, TOP)...
October 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019293/evolution-of-the-concept-of-oxygen-transport-in-the-critically-ill-with-a-focus-on-children-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#7
Jia Li
The concept of oxygen transport, defined as the relation between oxygen consumption (VO2) and delivery (DO2), is of fundamental importance in critically ill patients. The past 200 years have witnessed a stepwise progressive improvement in the understanding of pathophysiological disturbances in the balance of DO2 and VO2 in critically ill patients including those after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Intermittent spectacular technological achievements have accelerated the rate of progress. Therapeutic advances have been particularly impressive during the recent decades...
October 11, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019267/ge11-peptide-conjugated-selenium-nanoparticles-for-egfr-targeted-oridonin-delivery-to-achieve-enhanced-anticancer-efficacy-by-inhibiting-egfr-mediated-pi3k-akt-and-ras-raf-mek-erk-pathways
#8
Jiang Pi, Jinhuan Jiang, Huaihong Cai, Fen Yang, Hua Jin, Peihui Yang, Jiye Cai, Zheng W Chen
Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) have attracted increasing interest in recent decades because of their anticancer, immunoregulation, and drug carrier functions. In this study, GE11 peptide-conjugated Se NPs (GE11-Se NPs), a nanosystem targeting EGFR over-expressed cancer cells, were synthesized for oridonin delivery to achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy. Oridonin loaded and GE11 peptide conjugated Se NPs (GE11-Ori-Se NPs) were found to show enhanced cellular uptake in cancer cells, which resulted in enhanced cancer inhibition against cancer cells and reduced toxicity against normal cells...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017884/molecular-and-immunological-toxic-effects-of-nanoparticles
#9
REVIEW
Rajan Kumar Pandey, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Nanoparticles have emerged as a boon for the public health applications such as drug delivery, diagnostic, and imaging. Biodegradable and non-bio degradable nanoparticles have been used at a large scale level to increase the efficiency of the biomedical process at the cellular, animal and human level. Exponential use of nanoparticles reinforces the adverse immunological changes at the human health level. Physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles often lead to a variety of immunotoxic effects such as activation of stress-related genes, membrane disruption, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994337/aerosol-therapy-through-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-pediatric-patients
#10
Awni M Al-Subu, Scott Hagen, Marlowe Eldridge, Juan Borriosi
High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used in pediatric patients suffering from respiratory failure. In some disease processes, patients may also benefit from aerosol therapy. Therefore, the use of HFNC to deliver aerosolized medications is a convenient and attractive option. Areas covered: This review aims to appraise available evidence concerning the efficiency of aerosol nebulized therapy delivery using HFNC in pediatric patients. Expert commentary: Delivery of aerosol particles is a very complex process and depends on the use of oxygen vs...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992406/constructing-anisotropic-triple-pass-tubular-framework-within-lyophilized-porous-gelatin-gel-scaffold-using-dexamethasone-dex-loaded-functionalized-whatman-paper-fp-to-reinforce-its-mechanical-strength-and-promote-osteogenisis
#11
Jiabing Ran, Hao Zeng, Janak Lal Pathak, Pei Jiang, Yi Bai, Pan Yan, Guanglin Sun, Xinyu Shen, Hua Tong, Bin Shi
In bone tissue engineering (BTE), most of the currently developed scaffolds still lack the ability to demonstrate high porosity and high mechanical strength simultaneously or the ability to maintain bioactivity and sustained release of loaded biofactors. In this work, we constructed an anisotropic triple-pass tubular framework within a lyophilized porous GEL scaffold using FP, which was prepared by coating DEX-covered Whatman paper (WP) using silk fibroin (SF) membrane with β-sheet conformation. This novel structural design endowed the functionalized paper frame (FPF)/scaffold implant high porosity, high mechanical strength, and sustained DEX delivery capability...
October 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991109/patient-blood-management-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-a-review
#12
Jill M Cholette, David Faraoni, Susan M Goobie, Victor Ferraris, Nabil Hassan
Efforts to reduce blood product transfusions and adopt blood conservation strategies for infants and children undergoing cardiac surgical procedures are ongoing. Children typically receive red blood cell and coagulant blood products perioperatively for many reasons, including developmental alterations of their hemostatic system, and hemodilution and hypothermia with cardiopulmonary bypass that incites inflammation and coagulopathy and requires systemic anticoagulation. The complexity of their surgical procedures, complex cardiopulmonary interactions, and risk for inadequate oxygen delivery and postoperative bleeding further contribute to blood product utilization in this vulnerable population...
October 5, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990403/redox-potential-and-ros-mediated-nanomedicines-for-improving-cancer-therapy
#13
Sterling Glass, Laura Gonzalez Fajardo, Andre Beringhs, Xiuling Lu
SIGNIFICANCE: The overabundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in cancer cells represents a challenge for therapeutic intervention, while also providing an opportunity for the development of new strategies to improve clinical therapeutic outcomes. Recent Advances: Nanotechnology has advanced tremendously in recent decades and now offers many potential opportunities to leverage altered redox status to improve conventional therapies. Highly tunable nanoparticle delivery systems have shown great promise for improving: 1) chemotherapy via selective redox-sensitive drug release in tumor cells and limited systemic toxicity; 2) photodynamic therapy via enhancing photoactivation and/or ROS production; and 3) radiation therapy via enhancing ROS production...
October 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989656/computational-investigation-of-o2-diffusion-through-an-intra-molecular-tunnel-in-alkb-influence-of-polarization-on-o2-transport
#14
Hedieh Torabifard, G Andrés Cisneros
E. Coli AlkB catalyzes the direct dealkylation of various alkylated bases in damaged DNA. The diffusion of molecular oxygen to the active site in AlkB is an essential step for the oxidative dealkylation activity. Despite detailed studies on the stepwise oxidation mechanism of AlkB, there is no conclusive picture of how O2 molecules reach the active site of the protein. Yu et al. (Nature, 439, 879) proposed the existence of an intra-molecular tunnel based on their initial crystal structures of AlkB. We have employed computational simulations to investigate possible migration pathways inside AlkB for O2 molecules...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989540/immunotheranostic-polymersomes-modularly-assembled-from-tetrablock-and-diblock-copolymers-with-oxidation-responsive-fluorescence
#15
Fanfan Du, Yu-Gang Liu, Evan Alexander Scott
INTRODUCTION: Intracellular delivery is a key step for many applications in medicine and for investigations into cellular function. This is particularly true for immunotherapy, which often requires controlled delivery of antigen and adjuvants to the cytoplasm of immune cells. Due to the complex responses generated by the stimulation of diverse immune cell populations, it is critical to monitor which cells are targeted during treatment. To address this issue, we have engineered an immunotheranostic polymersome delivery system that fluorescently marks immune cells following intracellular delivery...
October 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989102/comparative-evaluation-of-electrospraying-and-lyophilization-techniques-on-solid-state-properties-of-erlotinib-nanocrystals-assessment-of-in-vitro-cytotoxicity
#16
Shreya Thakkar, Dilip Sharma, Manju Misra
INTRODUCTION: Erlotinib is a well known FDA approved drug from category of tyrosine kinase inhibitors; used for the treatment of lung cancer. However its use is limited because of its poor water solubility. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present work was to improve solubility by developing a stable nanocrystal based drug delivery system of ERL with the aid of sodium lauryl sulfate as potential stabilizer and to carry out comparative evaluation of electrospraying and lyophilization as solidification techniques on its solid state properties...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988158/outcomes-of-oxygen-saturation-targeting-during-delivery-room-stabilisation-of-preterm-infants
#17
Ju Lee Oei, Neil N Finer, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Ian M Wright, Yacov Rabi, William Tarnow-Mordi, Wade Rich, Vishal Kapadia, Denise Rook, John P Smyth, Kei Lui, Maximo Vento
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between SpO2 at 5 min and preterm infant outcomes. DESIGN: Data from 768 infants <32 weeks gestation from 8 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of lower (≤0.3) versus higher (≥0.6) initial inspiratory fractions of oxygen (FiO2) for resuscitation, were examined. SETTING: Individual patient analysis of 8 RCTs INTERVENTIONS: Lower (≤0.3) versus higher (≥0.6) oxygen resuscitation strategies targeted to specific predefined SpO2 before 10 min of age...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986856/spin-lattice-relaxation-epr-po2-images-may-direct-the-location-of-radiation-tumor-boosts-to-enhance-tumor-cure
#18
Boris Epel, Martyna Krzykawska-Serda, Victor Tormyshev, Matthew C Maggio, Eugene D Barth, Charles A Pelizzari, Howard J Halpern
Radiation treatment success and high tumor oxygenation and success have been known to be highly correlated. This suggests that radiation therapy guided by images of tumor regions with low oxygenation, oxygen-guided radiation therapy (OGRT) may be a promising enhancement of cancer radiation treatment. Before applying the technique to human subjects, OGRT needs to be tested in animals, most easily in rodents. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging provides quantitative maps of tissue and tumor oxygen in rodents with 1 mm spatial resolution and 1 torr pO2 resolution at low oxygen levels...
October 6, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985606/preparation-of-artificial-red-cell-and-its-application-on-alleviation-of-tumor-hypoxia
#19
Jiaxin Qu, Xiaomeng Guo, Wei Li, Wanqing Hou, Hanbo Zhang, Lihua Luo, Chunqi Zhu, Jie Yang, Xiaoyi Yin, Yuan Tao, Yongzhong Du, Yan Lou, Dawei Chen, Jian You
Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers were developed as an alternative for blood transfusion. However, the research progress for their further clinic applications was slow in recent several years. Hypoxia is found in most solid tumors, which is responsible for the tumor formation, increased metastasis, drug resistance during therapeutic process as well as poor patient survival. In this work, novel hemoglobin (Hb) loaded nanoliposomes, as artificial red cells for oxygen delivery, were optimized by screening various types of phospholipids and analyzing different mole ratio of phospholipid to cholesterol...
September 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981145/rapid-versus-slow-ascending-vasodilatation-intercellular-conduction-versus-flow-mediated-signalling-with-tetanic-versus-rhythmic-muscle-contractions
#20
Shenghua Y Sinkler, Steven S Segal
In response to exercise, vasodilatation initiated within the microcirculation of skeletal muscle ascends the resistance network into upstream feed arteries (FAs) located external to the tissue. Ascending vasodilatation (AVD) is essential to reducing FA resistance that otherwise restricts blood flow into the microcirculation. We tested the hypothesis that signalling events underlying AVD vary with the intensity and duration of muscle contraction. In the gluteus maximus muscle of anaesthetized male C57BL/6 mice (age, 3-4 months), brief tetanic contraction (100 Hz, 500 ms) evoked rapid onset vasodilatation (ROV) in FAs that peaked within 4 s...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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