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Physiopathology type 2 diabetes

Lucio Della Guardia, Michael Alex Thomas, Hellas Cena
Recent epidemiological findings suggest that high levels of dietary acid load can affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Consumption of high protein diets results in the over-production of metabolic acids which has been associated with the development of chronic metabolic disturbances. Mild metabolic acidosis has been shown to impair peripheral insulin action and several epidemiological findings suggest that metabolic acid load markers are associated with insulin resistance and impaired glycemic control through an interference intracellular insulin signaling pathways and translocation...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
Carmen Fotino, Diego Dal Ben, Elena Adinolfi
BACKGROUND: Purinergic signaling accounts for a complex network of receptors and extracellular enzymes responsible for the generation, recognition and degradation of extracellular ATP and adenosine. The main actors of this system include P2X, P2Y and Adenosine Receptors, ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 and Adenosine Deaminase. The purinergic network recently emerged as a central player in several physiopathological conditions particularly those linked to immune system regulation including type 1 and type 2 diabetes...
February 26, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Asieh Alikhah, Majid Pahlevan Kakhki, Amirhossain Ahmadi, Reyhaneh Dehghanzad, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Mehrdad Behmanesh
AIMS: Coronary artery disease (CAD) can be classified as an inflammatory disease, which affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Elevated levels of many inflammatory molecules were found in the serum of patients with CAD. STAT3 molecule as a transcription factor plays an important role in the cytokines expression. Here, we examined the expression levels of STAT3 and its important regulatory genes lnc-DC and SOCS1, in patients with CAD and T2DM. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 37 CAD+ and 36 CAD- patients...
March 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Nathalie Rouiller, François R Jornayvaz
An endocrine disease can be associated with glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus, and the latter can falsely be considered as type 2 diabetes. Glycemic imbalance can be a direct or indirect consequence of excessive hormone production. Endocrine diseases such as acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma can increase glucose production and cause insulin resistance. Hyperthyroidism, hyperaldosteronism, glucagonoma and somatostatinoma lead to hyperglycemia by other physiopathological mechanisms detailed in this article...
May 31, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
Luciano Pirola, José Candido Ferraz
In obesity, persistent low-grade inflammation is considered as a major contributor towards the progression to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes while in lean subjects the immune environment is non-inflammatory. Massive adipose tissue (AT) infiltration by pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and several T cell subsets as obesity develops leads to the accumulation - both in the AT and systemically - of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α, IL-17 and IL-6 which are strongly associated with the progression of the obese phenotype towards the metabolic syndrome...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Claudia R L Cardoso, Gil F Salles
Increased aortic stiffness has been recognized as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in some clinical conditions, such as in patients with arterial hypertension and end-stage renal disease, in population-based samples and, more recently, in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes have higher aortic stiffness than non-diabetic individuals, and increased aortic stiffness has been correlated to the presence of micro- and macrovascular chronic diabetic complications. We aimed to review the current knowledge on the relationships between aortic stiffness and diabetic complications, their possible underlying physiopathological mechanisms, and their potential applications to clinical type 2 diabetes management...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Juan Rosas-Guzman, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-Garcia
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin- America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Jingyan Han, Robert M Weisbrod, Di Shao, Yosuke Watanabe, Xiaoyan Yin, Markus M Bachschmid, Francesca Seta, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger, Reiko Matsui, Mengwei Zang, Naomi M Hamburg, Richard A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is implicated in increased vascular permeability associated with metabolic disorders, but the underlying redox mechanism is poorly defined. S-glutathionylation, a stable adduct of glutathione with protein sulfhydryl, is a reversible oxidative modification of protein and is emerging as an important redox signaling paradigm in cardiovascular physiopathology. The present study determines the role of protein S-glutathionylation in metabolic stress-induced endothelial cell permeability...
October 2016: Redox Biology
Yuhuan Meng, Yujia Guan, Wenlu Zhang, Yu-E Wu, Huanhuan Jia, Yu Zhang, Xiuqing Zhang, Hongli Du, Xiaoning Wang
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is an animal model of non-obese type 2 diabetes (T2D). The GK rat was generated through the introduction of various genetic mutations from continuous inbreeding; these rats develop diabetes spontaneously. The mutated genes in GK rats may play key roles in the regulation of diabetes. The hypothalamus plays a central role in systematic energy homeostasis. Here, the hypothalamic transcriptomes in GK and Wistar rats at 4, 8 and 12 weeks were investigated by RNA-seq, and multiple variants and gene expression profiles were obtained...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Geisa Maria Campos de Macedo, Samanta Nunes, Tania Barreto
Skin disorders, usually neglected and frequently underdiagnosed among diabetic patients, are common complications and encounter a broad spectrum of disorders in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)-e.g. cutaneous infection, dry skin, pruritus. Skin disorders are highly associated with increased risk of important outcomes, such as skin lesions, ulcerations and diabetic foot, which can lead to major complications and revolve around multifactorial factors besides hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end products...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Imane Hammoum, Sihem Mbarek, Ahmed Dellaa, Elisabeth Dubus, Basma Baccouche, Rached Azaiz, Ridha Charfeddine, Serge Picaud, Rafika Ben Chaouacha-Chekir
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type 2 diabetes and the leading cause of blindness in adults of working age. The aim of this work was to study the repercussions of high fat diet (HFD) induced diabetes on the retina of Meriones shawi ( Two groups of six each was studied. Group I was a normal control, fed with standard laboratory granules. In Group II, rodents received a HFD of enriched laboratory granules, for a period of 3 months. Body weight and plasma glucose were determined in the two groups...
January 2017: Acta Histochemica
Cristiane A Villela-Nogueira, Nathalie C Leite, Claudia R L Cardoso, Gil F Salles
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. Liver inflammation and fibrosis related to NAFLD contribute to disease progression and increasing liver-related mortality and morbidity. Increasing data suggest that NAFLD may be linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease independent of other established cardiovascular risk factors. Central arterial stiffness has been recognized as a measure of cumulative cardiovascular risk marker load, and the measure of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) is regarded as the gold standard assessment of aortic stiffness...
April 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques, José Carlos Pareja, Maria da Saúde de Oliveira, Fernanda Satake Novaes, Marcelo Miranda Oliveira Lima, Élinton A Chaim, Francesca Piccinini, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli, Bruno Geloneze
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the long-term outcomes of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) surgery on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity (IS), and beta cell function using complementary oral and intravenous dynamic tests. METHODS: A total of 57 women were divided into three groups: 19 lean, 18 obese (both groups with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)), and 20 obese with type 2 diabetes who underwent BPD and were reassessed 12 months after the procedure. OGTTs and hyperglycemic clamps (HG) were performed...
November 2016: Obesity Surgery
Sylvain Mayeur, Schohraya Spahis, Yves Pouliot, Emile Levy
SIGNIFICANCE: Lactoferrin (Lf) is a nonheme iron-binding glycoprotein strongly expressed in human and bovine milk and it plays many functions during infancy such as iron homeostasis and defense against microorganisms. In humans, Lf is mainly expressed in mucosal epithelial and immune cells. Growing evidence suggests multiple physiological roles for Lf after weaning. RECENT ADVANCES: The aim of this review is to highlight the recent advances concerning multifunctional Lf activities...
May 10, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Cécile Faure, Keyne Charlot, Stéphane Henri, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources, Olivier Hue, Sophie Antoine-Jonville
A high demand on thermoregulatory processes may challenge homoeostasis, particularly regarding glucose regulation. This has been understudied, although it might concern millions of humans. The objective of this project was to examine the isolated and combined effects of experimental short-term mild heat exposure and metabolic level on glucoregulation. Two experimental randomized crossover studies were conducted. Ten healthy young men participated in study A, which comprises four sessions in a fasting state at two metabolic levels [rest and exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (O2) for 40 min] in two environmental temperatures (warm: 31°C and control: 22°C)...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Elena Bălăşescu, Daniela Adriana Ion, Mirela Cioplea, Sabina Zurac
Diabetic Nephropathy. In 2014 (according to data published by the World Health Organization) 9% of the global population was affected by Diabetes which was considered to be directly responsible for 1.5 million deaths just two years prior (in 2012). From the entire number of patients suffering from diabetes, approximately a quarter of them develop renal affection. Diabetic nephropathy has similar physiopathology mechanisms and ultrastructural changes in cell injury characteristics in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes...
October 2015: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
I Perez-Diaz, G Sebastian-Barajas, Z G Hernandez-Flores, R Rivera-Moscoso, H K Osorio-Landa, A Flores-Rebollar
OBJECTIVES: Whether glycemic control contributes to a decreased number of fractures or favorably impacts bone density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)has not been well established. Vitamin D (25 (OH) D3) deficiency appears to be related to glycemic control in patients with T2DM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between 25 (OH) D3 levels, glycemic control, bone mineral density (BMD), and the development of osteoporotic fractures (OPF) in postmenopausal women with T2DM...
December 2015: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Adriana Carvalho-Santos, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Luciene Carvalho Cardoso-Weide, Joyce Nunes, Lia Rafaella Ballard Kuhnert, Analucia Rampazzo Xavier, Samuel Cunha, Michael Hahne, Déa Maria Serra Villa-Verde, Carla Eponina Carvalho-Pinto
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects over 382 million people worldwide. Type-1 Diabetes (T1D) is classified as an autoimmune disease that results from pancreatic β-cell destruction and insulin deficiency. Type-2 Diabetes (T2D) is characterized principally by insulin resistance in target tissues followed by decreased insulin production due to β-cell failure. It is challenging to identify immunological markers such as inflammatory molecules that are triggered in response to changes during the pathogenesis of diabetes...
2015: PloS One
Anna Planavila, Ibon Redondo-Angulo, Francesc Villarroya
The heart is not traditionally considered either a target or a site of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) production. However, recent findings indicate that FGF21 can act as a cardiomyokine; that is, it is produced by cardiac cells at significant levels and acts in an autocrine manner on the heart itself. The heart is sensitive to the effects of FGF21, both systemic and locally generated, owing to the expression in cardiomyocytes of β-Klotho, the key co-receptor known to confer specific responsiveness to FGF21 action...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marquiza Sablón-Carrazana, Isaac Fernández, Alberto Bencomo, Reyna Lara-Martínez, Suchitil Rivera-Marrero, Guadalupe Domínguez, Rafaela Pérez-Perera, Luis Felipe Jiménez-García, Nelly F Altamirano-Bustamante, Massiel Diaz-Delgado, Fernand Vedrenne, Lina Rivillas-Acevedo, Karina Pasten-Hidalgo, María de Lourdes Segura-Valdez, Sergio Islas-Andrade, Eulalia Garrido-Magaña, Alejandro Perera-Pintado, Anaís Prats-Capote, Chryslaine Rodríguez-Tanty, Myriam M Altamirano-Bustamante
The increasing prevalence of conformational diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer, poses a global challenge at many different levels. It has devastating effects on the sufferers as well as a tremendous economic impact on families and the health system. In this work, we apply a cross-functional approach that combines ideas, concepts and technologies from several disciplines in order to study, in silico and in vitro, the role of a novel chemical chaperones family (NCHCHF) in processes of protein aggregation in conformational diseases...
2015: PloS One
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