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Physiopathology type 2 diabetes

Jingyan Han, Robert M Weisbrod, Di Shao, Yosuke Watanabe, Xiaoyan Yin, Markus M Bachschmid, Francesca Seta, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger, Reiko Matsui, Mengwei Zang, Naomi M Hamburg, Richard A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is implicated in increased vascular permeability associated with metabolic disorders, but the underlying redox mechanism is poorly defined. S-glutathionylation, a stable adduct of glutathione with protein sulfhydryl, is a reversible oxidative modification of protein and is emerging as an important redox signaling paradigm in cardiovascular physiopathology. The present study determines the role of protein S-glutathionylation in metabolic stress-induced endothelial cell permeability...
September 11, 2016: Redox Biology
Yuhuan Meng, Yujia Guan, Wenlu Zhang, Yu-E Wu, Huanhuan Jia, Yu Zhang, Xiuqing Zhang, Hongli Du, Xiaoning Wang
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is an animal model of non-obese type 2 diabetes (T2D). The GK rat was generated through the introduction of various genetic mutations from continuous inbreeding; these rats develop diabetes spontaneously. The mutated genes in GK rats may play key roles in the regulation of diabetes. The hypothalamus plays a central role in systematic energy homeostasis. Here, the hypothalamic transcriptomes in GK and Wistar rats at 4, 8 and 12 weeks were investigated by RNA-seq, and multiple variants and gene expression profiles were obtained...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Geisa Maria Campos de Macedo, Samanta Nunes, Tania Barreto
Skin disorders, usually neglected and frequently underdiagnosed among diabetic patients, are common complications and encounter a broad spectrum of disorders in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)-e.g. cutaneous infection, dry skin, pruritus. Skin disorders are highly associated with increased risk of important outcomes, such as skin lesions, ulcerations and diabetic foot, which can lead to major complications and revolve around multifactorial factors besides hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end products...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Imane Hammoum, Sihem Mbarek, Ahmed Dellaa, Elisabeth Dubus, Basma Baccouche, Rached Azaiz, Ridha Charfeddine, Serge Picaud, Rafika Ben Chaouacha-Chekir
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type 2 diabetes and the leading cause of blindness in adults of working age. The aim of this work was to study the repercussions of high fat diet (HFD) induced diabetes on the retina of Meriones shawi ( Two groups of six each was studied. Group I was a normal control, fed with standard laboratory granules. In Group II, rodents received a HFD of enriched laboratory granules, for a period of 3 months. Body weight and plasma glucose were determined in the two groups...
June 2, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Cristiane A Villela-Nogueira, Nathalie C Leite, Claudia R L Cardoso, Gil F Salles
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. Liver inflammation and fibrosis related to NAFLD contribute to disease progression and increasing liver-related mortality and morbidity. Increasing data suggest that NAFLD may be linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease independent of other established cardiovascular risk factors. Central arterial stiffness has been recognized as a measure of cumulative cardiovascular risk marker load, and the measure of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) is regarded as the gold standard assessment of aortic stiffness...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques, José Carlos Pareja, Maria da Saúde de Oliveira, Fernanda Satake Novaes, Marcelo Miranda Oliveira Lima, Élinton A Chaim, Francesca Piccinini, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli, Bruno Geloneze
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the long-term outcomes of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) surgery on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity (IS), and beta cell function using complementary oral and intravenous dynamic tests. METHODS: A total of 57 women were divided into three groups: 19 lean, 18 obese (both groups with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)), and 20 obese with type 2 diabetes who underwent BPD and were reassessed 12 months after the procedure. OGTTs and hyperglycemic clamps (HG) were performed...
April 18, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Sylvain Mayeur, Schohraya Spahis, Yves Pouliot, Emile Levy
SIGNIFICANCE: Lactoferrin (Lf) is a nonheme iron-binding glycoprotein strongly expressed in human and bovine milk and it plays many functions during infancy such as iron homeostasis and defense against microorganisms. In humans, Lf is mainly expressed in mucosal epithelial and immune cells. Growing evidence suggests multiple physiological roles for Lf after weaning. RECENT ADVANCES: The aim of this review is to highlight the recent advances concerning multifunctional Lf activities...
May 10, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Cécile Faure, Keyne Charlot, Stéphane Henri, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources, Olivier Hue, Sophie Antoine-Jonville
A high demand on thermoregulatory processes may challenge homoeostasis, particularly regarding glucose regulation. This has been understudied, although it might concern millions of humans. The objective of this project was to examine the isolated and combined effects of experimental short-term mild heat exposure and metabolic level on glucoregulation. Two experimental randomized crossover studies were conducted. Ten healthy young men participated in study A, which comprises four sessions in a fasting state at two metabolic levels [rest and exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (O2) for 40 min] in two environmental temperatures (warm: 31°C and control: 22°C)...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Elena Bălăşescu, Daniela Adriana Ion, Mirela Cioplea, Sabina Zurac
Diabetic Nephropathy. In 2014 (according to data published by the World Health Organization) 9% of the global population was affected by Diabetes which was considered to be directly responsible for 1.5 million deaths just two years prior (in 2012). From the entire number of patients suffering from diabetes, approximately a quarter of them develop renal affection. Diabetic nephropathy has similar physiopathology mechanisms and ultrastructural changes in cell injury characteristics in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes...
October 2015: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
I Perez-Diaz, G Sebastian-Barajas, Z G Hernandez-Flores, R Rivera-Moscoso, H K Osorio-Landa, A Flores-Rebollar
OBJECTIVES: Whether glycemic control contributes to a decreased number of fractures or favorably impacts bone density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)has not been well established. Vitamin D (25 (OH) D3) deficiency appears to be related to glycemic control in patients with T2DM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between 25 (OH) D3 levels, glycemic control, bone mineral density (BMD), and the development of osteoporotic fractures (OPF) in postmenopausal women with T2DM...
December 2015: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Adriana Carvalho-Santos, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Luciene Carvalho Cardoso-Weide, Joyce Nunes, Lia Rafaella Ballard Kuhnert, Analucia Rampazzo Xavier, Samuel Cunha, Michael Hahne, Déa Maria Serra Villa-Verde, Carla Eponina Carvalho-Pinto
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects over 382 million people worldwide. Type-1 Diabetes (T1D) is classified as an autoimmune disease that results from pancreatic β-cell destruction and insulin deficiency. Type-2 Diabetes (T2D) is characterized principally by insulin resistance in target tissues followed by decreased insulin production due to β-cell failure. It is challenging to identify immunological markers such as inflammatory molecules that are triggered in response to changes during the pathogenesis of diabetes...
2015: PloS One
Anna Planavila, Ibon Redondo-Angulo, Francesc Villarroya
The heart is not traditionally considered either a target or a site of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) production. However, recent findings indicate that FGF21 can act as a cardiomyokine; that is, it is produced by cardiac cells at significant levels and acts in an autocrine manner on the heart itself. The heart is sensitive to the effects of FGF21, both systemic and locally generated, owing to the expression in cardiomyocytes of β-Klotho, the key co-receptor known to confer specific responsiveness to FGF21 action...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marquiza Sablón-Carrazana, Isaac Fernández, Alberto Bencomo, Reyna Lara-Martínez, Suchitil Rivera-Marrero, Guadalupe Domínguez, Rafaela Pérez-Perera, Luis Felipe Jiménez-García, Nelly F Altamirano-Bustamante, Massiel Diaz-Delgado, Fernand Vedrenne, Lina Rivillas-Acevedo, Karina Pasten-Hidalgo, María de Lourdes Segura-Valdez, Sergio Islas-Andrade, Eulalia Garrido-Magaña, Alejandro Perera-Pintado, Anaís Prats-Capote, Chryslaine Rodríguez-Tanty, Myriam M Altamirano-Bustamante
The increasing prevalence of conformational diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer, poses a global challenge at many different levels. It has devastating effects on the sufferers as well as a tremendous economic impact on families and the health system. In this work, we apply a cross-functional approach that combines ideas, concepts and technologies from several disciplines in order to study, in silico and in vitro, the role of a novel chemical chaperones family (NCHCHF) in processes of protein aggregation in conformational diseases...
2015: PloS One
Min Kyoung Kang, Byeong Hun Kang, Jong Ho Kim
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was associated with the presence and morphology of coronary atherosclerotic plaques shown by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in asymptomatic subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 772 consecutive South Korean individuals who had undergone both dualsource 64-slice MDCT coronary angiography and hepatic ultrasonography during general routine health evaluations...
September 2015: Yonsei Medical Journal
Claudia R L Cardoso, Camila B M Moran, Fernanda S Marinho, Marcel T Ferreira, Gil F Salles
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a chronic microvascular complication that is strongly associated with poor glycaemic control and also with a worse prognosis. We aimed to evaluate the predictors of the development and progression of DPN in a cohort of high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a prospective study, 477 patients with type 2 diabetes were clinically assessed for the presence of DPN at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6...
September 2015: Diabetologia
Dodanim Talavera-Adame, Donald C Dafoe
Endothelial cells (ECs) are essential for pancreas differentiation, endocrine specification, and endocrine function. They are also involved in the physiopathology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. During embryogenesis, aortic ECs provide specific factors that maintain the expression of key genes for pancreas development such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1. Other unknown factors are also important for pancreatic endocrine specification and formation of insulin-producing beta cells. Endocrine precursors proliferate interspersed with ductal cells and exocrine precursors and, at some point of development, these endocrine precursors migrate to pancreatic mesenchyme and start forming the islets of Langerhans...
May 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Sun Shin Yi
Human life span has dramatically increased over several decades, and the quality of life has been considered to be equally important. However, diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by problems related to insulin secretion and recognition has become a serious health problem in recent years that threatens human health by causing decline in brain functions and finally leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise is recognized as an effective therapy for DM without medication administration. Exercise studies using experimental animals are a suitable option to overcome this drawback, and animal studies have improved continuously according to the needs of the experimenters...
May 15, 2015: World Journal of Diabetes
Anne K Schreiber, Carina Fm Nones, Renata C Reis, Juliana G Chichorro, Joice M Cunha
Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which affects over 90% of the diabetic patients. Although pain is one of the main symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, its pathophysiological mechanisms are not yet fully known. It is widely accepted that the toxic effects of hyperglycemia play an important role in the development of this complication, but several other hypotheses have been postulated. The management of diabetic neuropathic pain consists basically in excluding other causes of painful peripheral neuropathy, improving glycemic control as a prophylactic therapy and using medications to alleviate pain...
April 15, 2015: World Journal of Diabetes
Panpan Shi, Hanping Liu, Xiaoyuan Deng, Ying Jin, Qiannan Wang, Hao Liu, Maosheng Chen, Xue Han
Collagen is the key target of nonenzymatic glycation during physiopathological processes such as diabetes. The induced changes in the biochemical property of collagen by nonenzymatic glycation remain a major challenge to probe. This study investigated the use of confocal Raman microspectroscopy to labelfree monitor the nonenzymatic glycation of collagen scaffolds from type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice at different timepoints (0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks). The glycated collagen scaffolds were obtained through the decellularized dermal matrix method to remove the epidermis layer, subcutaneous tissue, and cells in the dermis and to retain the collagen fibrils...
February 2015: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Mario Barbagallo, Ligia J Dominguez
Epidemiological and biological evidences support a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Persons with diabetes have a higher incidence of cognitive decline and an increased risk of developing all types of dementia. Cognitive deficits in persons with diabetes mainly affect the areas of psychomotor efficiency, attention, learning and memory, mental flexibility and speed, and executive function. The strong epidemiological association has suggested the existence of a physiopathological link...
December 15, 2014: World Journal of Diabetes
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