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direct interaction test

Meike Koester, René Gergs
Analyzing food webs is essential for a better understanding of ecosystems. For example, food web interactions can undergo severe changes caused by the invasion of non-indigenous species. However, an exact identification of field predator-prey interactions is difficult in many cases. These analyses are often based on a visual evaluation of gut content or the analysis of stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N and δ(13)C). Such methods require comprehensive knowledge about, respectively, morphologic diversity or isotopic signature from individual prey organisms, leading to obstacles in the exact identification of prey organisms...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Emily L Newman, Miho Terunuma, Tiffany Wang, Nishani Hewage, Matthew B Bicakci, Stephen J Moss, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
Alcohol is associated with nearly half of all violent crimes committed in the United States; yet, a potential neural basis for this type of pathological aggression remains elusive. Alcohol may act on NMDA receptors (NMDARs) within cortical circuits to impede processing and to promote aggression. Here, male mice were characterized as alcohol-heightened (AHAs) or alcohol non-heightened aggressors (ANAs) during resident-intruder confrontations after self-administering 1.0 g/kg alcohol (6% w/v) or water. Alcohol produced a pathological-like pattern of aggression in AHAs; these mice shifted their bites to more vulnerable locations on the body of a submissive animal, including the anterior back and ventrum after consuming alcohol...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Reka Viola, Helga Fekete, Ildiko Csoka
Background A key element for an effective and safe oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) is to have the relevant information delivered to patients in an easy-to-understand way and thus have them apply this knowledge in their own therapy. Objective To assess knowledge about OAT, reveal knowledge gaps and identify at-risk patients in terms of limited knowledge about their anticoagulant therapy. Setting Community pharmacies in Hungary. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study used a structured, validated, self-developed questionnaire to assess patients' knowledge about OAT...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Jérémie Mortier, Julien R C Prévost, Dominique Sydow, Sabine Teuchert, Christian Omieczynski, Marcel Bermudez, Raphaël Frédérick, Gerhard Wolber
Metalloenzyme arginase is a therapeutically relevant target associated with tumor growth. To fight cancer immunosuppression, arginase activity can be modulated by small chemical inhibitors binding to its catalytic center. To better understand molecular mechanisms of arginase inhibition, a careful computer-aided mechanistic structural investigation of this enzyme was conducted. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the microsecond range, key regions of the protein active site were identified and their flexibility was evaluated and compared...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mackenzie M Cremeans, J F Devlin
Distributions of flow across the groundwater-surface water interface should be expected to be as complex as the geologic deposits associated with stream or lake beds and their underlying aquifers. In these environments, the conventional Darcy-based method of characterizing flow systems (near streams) has significant limitations, including reliance on parameters with high uncertainties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity), the common use of drilled wells in the case of streambank investigations, and potentially lengthy measurement times for aquifer characterization and water level measurements...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Ruan F V Medrano, Aline Hunger, Samir Andrade Mendonça, José Alexandre M Barbuto, Bryan E Strauss
During the last decades, the pleiotropic antitumor functions exerted by type I interferons (IFNs) have become universally acknowledged, especially their role in mediating interactions between the tumor and the immune system. Indeed, type I IFNs are now appreciated as a critical component of dendritic cell (DC) driven T cell responses to cancer. Here we focus on IFN-α and IFN-β, and their antitumor effects, impact on immune responses and their use as therapeutic agents. IFN-α/β share many properties, including activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and induction of a variety of cellular phenotypes...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Anthony Dowell, Caroline Morris, Lindsay Macdonald, Maria Stubbe
BACKGROUND: Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis and is associated with considerable co-morbidity. It is usually managed in the primary care setting with a combination of lifestyle modification and pharmacological therapy. This study describes patterns of communication about gout observed in interactions between patients and primary care practitioners during routine consultations. METHODS: Secondary analysis of video-recordings of individual healthcare consultations between patients and a range of primary care practitioners (including general practitioners, practice nurses, podiatrists and dietitians) from an archived database...
October 18, 2017: BMC Family Practice
Joshua M Carlson, Jacob Aday
Humans are social beings that often interact in multi-individual environments. As such, we are frequently confronted with nonverbal social signals, including eye-gaze direction, from multiple individuals. Yet, the factors that allow for the prioritisation of certain gaze cues over others are poorly understood. Using a modified conflicting gaze paradigm, we tested the hypothesis that fearful gaze would be favoured amongst competing gaze cues. We further hypothesised that this effect is related to the increased sclera exposure, which is characteristic of fearful expressions...
October 19, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Nan Shen, Miriam Keppeler, Barbara Stiaszny, Holger Hain, Filippo Maglia, Madhavi Srinivasan
α-Fe2O3 nanomaterials with an elongated nanorod morphology exhibiting superior electrochemical performance were obtained through hydrothermal synthesis assisted by diamine derivatives as shape-controlling agents (SCAs) for application as anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The physicochemical characteristics were investigated via XRD and FESEM, revealing well-crystallized α-Fe2O3 with adjustable nanorod lengths between 240 and 400 nm and aspect ratios in the range from 2.6 to 5.7. The electrochemical performance was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Egil Dröge, Scott Creel, Matthew S Becker, Jassiel M'soka
Both short-term and long-term variation in predation risk can affect the behaviour of prey, thus affecting growth, reproduction, survival and population dynamics. Inferences about the strength of such 'risk effects' in the wild have been limited by a lack of studies that relate antipredator responses to the magnitude of direct predation, measure responses of prey to risk from complete predator guilds, and quantify risk in more than one way. Here, we quantify behavioural responses of a complete ungulate prey guild to long-term and short-term variation in risks from all of the large predators in Liuwa Plain National Park, with known patterns of direct predation...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Xin-Zheng Huang, Yu-Tao Xiao, Tobias G Köllner, Wei-Xia Jing, Jun-Feng Kou, Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Feng Liu, Shao-Hua Gu, Jun-Xiang Wu, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Herbivore-induced terpenes have been reported to function as ecological signals in plant-insect interactions. Here we showed that insect-induced cotton volatile blends contained 16 terpenoid compounds with a relatively high level of linalool. The high diversity of terpene production is derived from a large terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. The TPS gene family of Gossypium hirsutum and G. raimondii consist of 46 and 41 members, respectively. Twelve TPS genes (GhTPS4-15) could be isolated and protein expression in E...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Joycyely M A S Freitas, André M Netto, Marcus M Corrêa, Bruno T L Xavier, Fernando X DE Assis
Vinasse is a byproduct of the process of distillation of sugarcane juice for the manufacture of sugar and alcohol. Because it is rich in nutrients, mainly potassium (K), is used as fertilizer and applied via fertigation, without concerning for the fate of this compound in the soil. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the interactions of the potassium ion (K+), applied via vinasse in a soil representative of the sugarcane zone of the State of Pernambuco using adsorption isotherms. The methodology was based on physical, chemical and soil mineralogical characterization, as well as equilibrium batch tests, where the experimental curves were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Yasmina Hamdous, Imène Chebbi, Chalani Mandawala, Raphael Le Fèvre, François Guyot, Olivier Seksek, Edouard Alphandéry
BACKGROUND: Biologics magnetics nanoparticles, magnetosomes, attract attention because of their magnetic characteristics and potential applications. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize novel magnetosomes, which were extracted from magnetotactic bacteria, purified to produce apyrogen magnetosome minerals, and then coated with Chitosan, Neridronate, or Polyethyleneimine. It yielded stable magnetosomes designated as M-Chi, M-Neri, and M-PEI, respectively. Nanoparticle biocompatibility was evaluated on mouse fibroblast cells (3T3), mouse glioblastoma cells (GL-261) and rat glioblastoma cells (RG-2)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Y X Rachel Wang, Ke Liu, Elizabeth Theusch, Jerome I Rotter, Marisa W Medina, Michael S Waterman, Haiyan Huang
Motivation: Capturing association patterns in gene expression levels under different conditions or time points is important for inferring gene regulatory interactions. In practice, temporal changes in gene expression may result in complex association patterns that require more sophisticated detection methods than simple correlation measures. For instance, the effect of regulation may lead to time-lagged associations and interactions local to a subset of samples. Furthermore, expression profiles of interest may not be aligned or directly comparable (e...
October 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
Jean-Claude Farré, Krypton Carolino, Oleh V Stasyk, Olena G Stasyk, Zlatan Hodzic, Gaurav Agrawal, Andreas Till, Marco Proietto, James Cregg, Andriy A Sibirny, Suresh Subramani
Peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic to peroxisomes by two mechanisms: direct insertion from the cytosol into the peroxisomal membrane and indirect trafficking to peroxisomes via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In mammals and yeast, several PMPs traffic via the ER in a Pex3- and Pex19-dependent manner. In Komagataella phaffii (formerly called Pichia pastoris) specifically, the indirect traffic of Pex2, but not of Pex11 or Pex17, depends on Pex3, but all PMPs tested for indirect trafficking require Pex19...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
Miroslav Lísa, Eva Cífková, Maria Khalikova, Magdaléna Ovčačíková, Michal Holčapek
Lipidomic analysis of biological samples in a clinical research represents challenging task for analytical methods given by the large number of samples and their extreme complexity. In this work, we compare direct infusion (DI) and chromatography - mass spectrometry (MS) lipidomic approaches represented by three analytical methods in terms of comprehensiveness, sample throughput, and validation results for the lipidomic analysis of biological samples represented by tumor tissue, surrounding normal tissue, plasma, and erythrocytes of kidney cancer patients...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Wei Li, Yuanyuan Cao, Jinling Xu, Ying Wang, Weijie Li, Qian Wang, Ziwei Hu, Yaping Hao, Li Hu, Yawen Sun, Guanglin Xu, Guizhen Ao
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy resistance remains a major challenge in cancer treatment. COX-2 (cyclooxygenase 2) is involved in drug resistance and poor prognosis of many neoplastic diseases or cancers. However, investigations identifying new modulators of COX-2 pathway and searching for new chemicals targeting these valid resistant biomarkers are still greatly needed. METHODS: HCT15, HCT-116, HT-29, COLO205, FHC, IMCE, SW480 cell lines were used to detect the expression of YAP and COX-2...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Stefan Abrahamczyk, Sissi Lozada-Gobilard, Markus Ackermann, Eberhard Fischer, Vera Krieger, Almut Redling, Maximilian Weigend
Pollination syndromes and their predictive power regarding actual plant-animal interactions have been controversially discussed in the past. We investigate pollination syndromes in Balsaminaceae, utilizing quantitative respectively categorical data sets of flower morphometry, signal and reward traits for 86 species to test for the effect of different types of data on the test patterns retrieved. Cluster Analyses of the floral traits are used in combination with independent pollinator observations. Based on quantitative data we retrieve seven clusters, six of them corresponding to plausible pollination syndromes and one additional, well-supported cluster comprising highly divergent floral architectures...
2017: PloS One
Pavlína Pokorná, Miroslav Krepl, Holger Kruse, Jiri Sponer
The HutP protein from B. subtilis regulates histidine metabolism by interacting with an antiterminator mRNA hairpin in response to the binding of L-histidine and Mg(2+). We studied the functional ligand-bound HutP hexamer complexed with two mRNAs using all-atom micro-second-scale explicit-solvent MD simulations performed with the Amber force fields. The experimentally observed protein-RNA interface exhibited good structural stability in the simulations with the exception of some fluctuations in an unusual adenine-threonine interaction involving two closely-spaced H-bonds...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Charlotte Jeanneau, Patrick Laurent, Charlotte Rombouts, Thomas Giraud, Imad About
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies reported dentin bridge formation after pulp capping with tricalcium silicates. By contrast, pulp capping with resins leads to pulp toxicity and inflammation. Hybrid materials made up of tricalcium silicates and resins have also been developed to be used in direct pulp capping. This work was designed to study the consequences of adding resins to tricalcium silicates by investigating TheraCal (BISCO, Lançon De Provence, France) and Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France) interactions with the dental pulp...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
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