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direct interaction test

Pierre E Affaticati, Shao-Bo Dai, Panwajee Payongsri, Helen C Hailes, Kai Tittmann, Paul A Dalby
The S385Y/D469T/R520Q variant of E. coli transketolase was evolved previously with three successive smart libraries, each guided by different structural, bioinformatical or computational methods. Substrate-walking progressively shifted the target acceptor substrate from phosphorylated aldehydes, towards a non-phosphorylated polar aldehyde, a non-polar aliphatic aldehyde, and finally a non-polar aromatic aldehyde. Kinetic evaluations on three benzaldehyde derivatives, suggested that their active-site binding was differentially sensitive to the S385Y mutation...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wayne D Gray, John K Lindstedt
The framework of plateaus, dips, and leaps shines light on periods when individuals may be inventing new methods of skilled performance. We begin with a review of the role performance plateaus have played in (a) experimental psychology, (b) human-computer interaction, and (c) cognitive science. We then reanalyze two classic studies of individual performance to show plateaus and dips which resulted in performance leaps. For a third study, we show how the statistical methods of Changepoint Analysis plus a few simple heuristics may direct our focus to periods of performance change for individuals...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Science
Davod Pashoutan Sarvar, Karim Shamsasenjan, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue homeostasis through direct cell-to-cell interaction, as well as secretion of soluble factors. Exosomes are the sort of soluble biological mediators that obtained from MSCs cultured media in vitro. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-DEs) which produced under physiological or pathological conditions are central mediators of intercellular communications by conveying proteins, lipids, mRNAs, siRNA, ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs to the neighbor or distant cells. MSC-DEs have been tested in various disease models, and the results have revealed that their functions are similar to those of MSCs...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
S Charntikov, A M Falco, K Fink, L P Dwoskin, R A Bevins
Nicotine is the primary addictive component of tobacco products and its complex stimulus effects are readily discriminated by human and non-human animals. Previous research with rodents directly investigating the nature of the nicotine stimulus has been limited to males. The current study began to address this significant gap in the literature by training female and male rats to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg nicotine from saline in the discriminated goal-tracking task. In this task, access to sucrose was intermittently available on nicotine session...
October 17, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Caroline Honaiser Lescano, Ivan Pires de Oliveira, Tiago Zaminelli, Débora da Silva Baldivia, Luan Ramos da Silva, Mauro Napolitano, Camila Bitencourt Mendes Silvério, Nilton Lincopan, Eliana Janet Sanjinez-Argandoña
Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Brazilian Cerrado. Different parts of this plant are used in popular medicine for treatment of several diseases like fever, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of heat-stable enterotoxin type A (STa) by gallic acid present in the peel of C. adamantium fruit and assays to assess the antidiarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of peel extract using the T84 cell line model...
2016: PloS One
Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Alan G McElligott
Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9) was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min)...
2016: PeerJ
Clarissa J Whitmire, Daniel C Millard, Garrett B Stanley
Sensory stimulation drives complex interactions across neural circuits as information is encoded and then transmitted from one brain region to the next. In the highly interconnected thalamocortical circuit, these complex interactions elicit repeatable neural dynamics in response to temporal patterns of stimuli that provide insight into the circuit properties that generated them. Here, using a combination of in-vivo voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging of cortex, single unit recording in thalamus, and optogenetics to manipulate thalamic state in the rodent vibrissa pathway, we probed the thalamocortical circuit with simple temporal patterns of stimuli delivered either to the whiskers on the face (sensory stimulation) or to the thalamus directly via electrical or optogenetic inputs (artificial stimulation)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Nairán Ramírez-Esparza, Adrián García-Sierra, Patricia K Kuhl
This study tested the impact of child-directed language input on language development in Spanish-English bilingual infants (N = 25, 11- and 14-month-olds from the Seattle metropolitan area), across languages and independently for each language, controlling for socioeconomic status. Language input was characterized by social interaction variables, defined in terms of speech style ("parentese" vs. standard speech) and social context (one-on-one vs. group). Correlations between parentese one-on-one and productive vocabulary at 24 months (n = 18) were found across languages and in each language independently...
October 19, 2016: Child Development
Stephan Brauckmann, Katharina Effenberger-Neidnicht, Herbert de Groot, Michael Nagel, Christian Mayer, Jürgen Peters, Matthias Hartmann
While hemolysis in patients with sepsis is associated with increased mortality its mechanisms are unknown and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mediated effects, complement-mediated hemolysis, or direct cell membrane effects are all conceivable mechanisms. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that toxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as non-toxic RS-LPS evokes hemolysis (1) by direct membrane effects, and (2) independent of the complement system and TLR-4 activation. We found, that incubation with LPS resulted in a marked time and concentration dependent increase of free hemoglobin concentration and LDH activity in whole blood and washed red cells...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Markus Gerber, Katharina Endes, Christian Herrmann, Flora Colledge, Serge Brand, Lars Donath, Oliver Faude, Uwe Pühse, Henner Hanssen, Lukas Zahner
PURPOSE: A better understanding of how social and environmental contexts impact on childhood overweight/obesity is needed to develop more effective prevention strategies. Because the relationship between physical activity, stress and obesity measures has received limited attention, this study examined for the first time in first grade schoolchildren whether physical activity and fitness moderate the relationship between psychosocial stress and obesity-related measures. METHODS: 325 children (51% girls, Mage=7...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
François E Dufrasne, Catherine Lombard, Patrick Goubau, Jean Ruelle
BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to overcome BST-2 restriction. The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined...
October 14, 2016: Viruses
Ning Xia, Xin Wang, Lin Liu
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been regarded as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pregnancy and some cancers. Because the currently used methods (e.g., disposable Point of Care Testing (POCT) device) for hCG detection require the use of many less stable antibodies, simple and cost-effective methods for the sensitive and selective detection of hCG have always been desired. In this work, we have developed a graphene oxide (GO)-based fluorescent platform for the detection of hCG using a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled hCG-specific binding peptide aptamer (denoted as FITC-PPLRINRHILTR) as the probe, which can be manufactured cheaply and consistently...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Chun Chang, Qingqi Zeng, Ying Ji, Xinying Sun, Yuhui Shi, Yanlin Wang, Chengcheng Han, Xiuqin Wen
OBJECTIVE: To exam whether health literacy mediated the association between intervention and blood pressure control and to better understand the relationship between health literacy and health outcome for hypertensive. DESIGN AND METHOD: A before-after designed one-year community-based intervention program including patient education and patient-centered goal support were conducted in a primary care setting. A face-to-face interview were completed among 468 hypertensives before intervention and 406 after intervention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Deepesh Pandey, Daijiro Tori, Yohei Nomura, Dan Berkowitz, Lewis Romer
OBJECTIVE: Kruppel Like Factor 15 (KLF15) has recently been shown to be critical for activation of proinflammatory processes in vascular smooth muscle and atherogenesis. Although KLF15 is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelium there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the role of KLF15 in the regulation of vascular endothelial function. Here we tested the hypothesis that KLF15 is a critical regulator of Arg2 transcription in hypoxia exposed human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) and that it plays critical role in pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PHTN)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Stephen Harrap, Katrina Scurrah, Angela Lamantia, Justine Ellis
OBJECTIVE: Genes encoding key elements of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) cascade have been previously but inconsistently associated with blood pressure. Sex-dependency might be important here and functional genetic polymorphisms might exhibit epistatic effects. DESIGN AND METHOD: We assessed variation in the genes encoding renin (REN), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Alexey L Chernobrovkin, Roman A Zubarev
While the focus of attempts to classify cell death programs has finally shifted in 2010s from microscopy-based morphological characteristics to biochemical assays, more recent discoveries have put the underlying assumptions of many such assays under severe stress, mostly because of the limited specificity of the assays. On the other hand, proteomics can quantitatively measure the abundances of thousands of proteins in a single experiment. Thus proteomics could develop a modern alternative to both semiquantitative morphology assessment as well as single-molecule biochemical assays...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Tauheed A Farooqui, Marguerite A Renouf, Steven J Kenway
Urban areas will need to pursue new water servicing options to ensure local supply security. Decisions about how best to employ them are not straightforward due to multiple considerations and the potential for problem shifting among them. We hypothesise that urban water metabolism evaluation based a water mass balance can help address this, and explore the utility of this perspective and the new insights it provides about water servicing options. Using a water mass balance evaluation framework, which considers direct urban water flows (both 'natural' hydrological and 'anthropogenic' flows), as well as water-related energy, we evaluated how the use of alternative water sources (stormwater/rainwater harvesting, wastewater/greywater recycling) at different scales influences the 'local water metabolism' of a case study urban development...
October 6, 2016: Water Research
Pablo Pena Gandara E Silva, Caio Rodrigues Nobre, Pryscila Resaffe, Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira, Felipe Gusmão
Microplastic debris is a pervasive type of contaminant in marine ecosystems, being considered a major threat to marine biota. One of the problems of microplastics is that they can adsorb contaminants in extremely high concentrations. When released from the particle, these contaminants have the potential to cause toxic effects in the biota. So far, reports of toxic effects are mostly linked with the direct exposure of organisms through ingestion of contaminated microplastics. There is little information on the toxicity of leachates from microplastics to marine organisms...
October 8, 2016: Water Research
Zachery R Reichert, Maha Hussain
The development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) signals the terminal disease phase. The preceding hormone-dependent disease setting is effectively managed with androgen deprivation therapy. This foundation of treatment has a high rate of biochemical and clinical response and meaningful clinical benefit but is finite in duration as most cancers will progress to castration resistance. Historically, treatment for mCRPC entailed androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors (nilutamide, flutamide, bicalutamide), nonspecific steroidal biosynthesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, itraconazole), steroids (prednisone, diethylstilbesterol, dexamethasone), or palliative chemotherapy (mitoxantrone, estramustine), but none of these strategies impacted survival...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Liqin Wang, Miao Xu, Noel Southall, Wei Zheng, Shuishu Wang
Tuberculosis (TB) still kills over 1.5 million people per year despite available anti-TB drugs. The emergence of drug-resistant TB poses a major threat to public health and prompts for an urgent need for new and more effective drugs. The long duration needed to treat TB by the current TB drugs, which target the essential cellular activities, inevitably leads to the emergence of drug-resistance. PhoP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), an essential virulence factor, is a novel target for drug development. Guided by the crystal structure of the PhoP-DNA complex, we designed and developed a robust high-throughput screening assay for identification of PhoP inhibitors that disrupt the PhoP-DNA binding...
October 10, 2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
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