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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#1
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229937/1-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-both-primary-motor-cortices-improves-unimanual-and-bimanual-dexterity
#2
Nils H Pixa, Fabian Steinberg, Michael Doppelmayr
While most research on brain stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targets unimanual motor tasks, little is known about its effects on bimanual motor performance. This study aims to investigate the effects of tDCS on unimanual as well as bimanual motor dexterity. We examined the effects of bihemispheric anodal high-definition tDCS (HD-atDCS) on both primary motor cortices (M1) applied concurrent with unimanual and bimanual motor training. We then measured the effects with the Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT) and compared them to a sham stimulation...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226817/effective-connectivity-matrix-for-neural-ensembles
#3
Qi She, Winnie K Y So, Rosa H M Chan, Qi She, Winnie K Y So, Rosa H M Chan, Rosa H M Chan, Qi She, Winnie K Y So
In this paper, we present an efficient framework to study the directional interactions within the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) biological neural network from spiketrain data. We used an efficient generalized linear model (GLM) with Laguerre basis functions to model a MIMO neural system, and developed an Effective Connectivity Matrix (ECM) to visualize excitatory and inhibitory connections within the neural network. A new causality representation was developed based on system dynamics. Statistical test was applied to identify the significance of the measured causality...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225790/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-enablers-on-hiv-testing-initiation-and-retention-in-antiretroviral-treatment-and-aids-related-mortality
#4
Ali Safarnejad, Jose-Antonio Izazola-Licea
BACKGROUND: An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. METHODS: Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222923/consumption-of-aquaculture-waste-affects-the-fatty-acid-metabolism-of-a-benthic-invertebrate
#5
Camille A White, Raymond J Bannister, Symon A Dworjanyn, Vivian Husa, Peter D Nichols, Tina Kutti, Tim Dempster
Trophic subsidies can drive widespread ecological change, thus knowledge of how keystone species respond to subsidies is important. Aquaculture of large carnivorous fish generates substantial waste as faeces and lost feed, providing a food source to mobile benthic invertebrates. We used a controlled feeding study combined with a field survey to better understand the interaction between salmon aquaculture and the sea urchin, Echinus acutus, a dominant mobile invertebrate in Norwegian fjords. We tested if diets affected urchin fatty acid composition by feeding them one of three diet treatments ("aquafeed", "composite" and "natural") for 10weeks...
February 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222873/influence-of-abutment-tooth-geometry-on-the-accuracy-of%C3%A2-conventional-and-digital-methods-of-obtaining-dental%C3%A2-impressions
#6
Jeison B Carbajal Mejía, Kazumichi Wakabayashi, Takashi Nakamura, Hirofumi Yatani
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Direct (intraoral) and indirect (desktop) digital scanning can record abutment tooth preparations despite their geometry. However, little peer-reviewed information is available regarding the influence of abutment tooth geometry on the accuracy of digital methods of obtaining dental impressions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of abutment tooth geometry on the accuracy of conventional and digital methods of obtaining dental impressions in terms of trueness and precision...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222818/store-directed-price-promotions-and-communications-strategies-improve-healthier-food-supply-and-demand-impact-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-baltimore-city-store-intervention-trial
#7
Nadine Budd, Jayne K Jeffries, Jessica Jones-Smith, Anna Kharmats, Ann Yelmokas McDermott, Joel Gittelsohn
OBJECTIVE: Small food store interventions show promise to increase healthy food access in under-resourced areas. However, none have tested the impact of price discounts on healthy food supply and demand. We tested the impact of store-directed price discounts and communications strategies, separately and combined, on the stocking, sales and prices of healthier foods and on storeowner psychosocial factors. DESIGN: Factorial design randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Twenty-four corner stores in low-income neighbourhoods of Baltimore City, MD, USA...
February 22, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220334/future-directions-in-personality-occupational-and-medical-selection-myths-misunderstandings-measurement-and-suggestions
#8
Eamonn Ferguson, Filip Lievens
This paper has two objectives: (1) presenting recent advances in personality theory whereby personality traits are conceptualized within a framework that focuses on the dynamic interactions of behaviour, biology, context, and states, and (2) discussing the implications of these developments for measurement and medical selection. We start by presenting evidence that traits are no longer regarded as stable deterministic predictors of behaviour. Instead, traits are found to change across generations, the life span, and in response to environmental contingencies...
February 20, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219035/conceptualizing-agency-folkpsychological-and-folkcommunicative-perspectives-on-plants
#9
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research addresses cultural variation in concepts of agency. Across two experiments, we investigate how Indigenous Ngöbe of Panama and US college students interpret and make inferences about nonhuman agency, focusing on plants as a critical test case. In Experiment 1, participants predicted goal-directed actions for plants and other nonhuman kinds and judged their capacities for intentional agency. Goal-directed action is pervasive among living kinds and as such we expected cultural agreement on these predictions...
February 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218639/genetic-variations-as-modifying-factors-to-dietary-zinc-requirements-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Kaitlin J Day, Melissa M Adamski, Aimee L Dordevic, Chiara Murgia
Due to reduced cost and accessibility, the use of genetic testing has appealed to health professionals for personalising nutrition advice. However, translation of the evidence linking polymorphisms, dietary requirements, and pathology risk proves to be challenging for nutrition and dietetic practitioners. Zinc status and polymorphisms of genes coding for zinc-transporters have been associated with chronic diseases. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature to assess whether recommendations for zinc intake could be made according to genotype...
February 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217716/electromagnetic-confinement-via-spin-orbit-interaction-in-anisotropic-dielectrics
#11
Alessandro Alberucci, Chandroth P Jisha, Lorenzo Marrucci, Gaetano Assanto
We investigate electromagnetic propagation in uniaxial dielectrics with a transversely varying orientation of the optic axis, the latter staying orthogonal everywhere in the propagation direction. In such a geometry, the field experiences no refractive index gradients, yet it acquires a transversely modulated Pancharatnam-Berry phase, that is, a geometric phase originating from a spin-orbit interaction. We show that the periodic evolution of the geometric phase versus propagation gives rise to a longitudinally invariant effective potential...
December 21, 2016: ACS Photonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216769/the-insanity-defense-related-issues
#12
REVIEW
T V Asokan
For the past 150 years, there is no change in the understanding and knowledge other than autonomy and capacity to choose the right and wrong for criminal liability. The alternative concept that human behavior is the result of an interaction between biological and environmental factors other than free choice failed to impress the criminal justice system because of a direct threat to a society's deep seated need to blame someone than themselves for criminal harms that occur. The insanity defense has a long history, and is evolved after many tests that have been tried and tested...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213523/identification-of-regions-in-the-spt5-subunit-of-dsif-that-are-involved-in-promoter-proximal-pausing
#13
Yijun Qiu, David S Gilmour
DRB-sensitivity inducing factor (DSIF(2), or Spt4/5) is a conserved transcription elongation factor that both inhibits and stimulates transcription elongation in metazoans. In Drosophila and vertebrates, DSIF together with negative elongation factor (NELF) associates with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) during early elongation and causes Pol II to pause in the promoter proximal region of genes. The mechanism of how DSIF establishes pausing is not known. We constructed Spt5 mutant forms of DSIF and tested their capacity to restore promoter proximal pausing to DSIF-depleted Drosophila nuclear extracts...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213216/graphene-quantum-dots-decorated-with-maleimide-and-zinc-tetramaleimido-phthalocyanine-application-in-the-design-of-off-on-fluorescence-sensors-for-biothiols
#14
Ojodomo J Achadu, Tebello Nyokong
The fabrication of maleimide-derivatized graphene quantum dots (M-GQDs) and zinc phthalocyanine (2) as novel sensor probes for the selective detection of biothiols (cysteine, homocysteine or glutathione) through the rapid and specific Michael addition reaction between biothiols and the maleimide-derivatized probes is presented in this study. GQDs directly functionalized with maleimide units (M-GQDs) were synthesized and deployed for biothiols recognition following the principle of Michael addition. M-GQDs probe was found to be highly sensitive and selective towards biothiols detection in the nanomolar range in aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213114/hierarchical-control-of-procedural-and-declarative-category-learning-systems
#15
Benjamin O Turner, Matthew J Crossley, F Gregory Ashby
Substantial evidence suggests that human category learning is governed by the interaction of multiple qualitatively distinct neural systems. In this view, procedural memory is used to learn stimulus-response associations, and declarative memory is used to apply explicit rules and test hypotheses about category membership. However, much less is known about the interaction between these systems: how is control passed between systems as they interact to influence motor resources? Here, we used fMRI to elucidate the neural correlates of switching between procedural and declarative categorization systems...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#16
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211942/antifungal-activity-change-of-streptomyces-rimosus-my02-mediated-by-confront-culture-with-other-microorganism
#17
Jicheng Yu, Qiu Liu, Chao Chen, Xiaohui Qi
Streptomyces rimosus can produce antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics, which have important applications in medicine and agriculture. Seventy-nine microbial strains were employed to assay interaction between S. rimosus MY02 and different fungi, actinomyces, and bacteria when confront cultured on solid media. The results showed that the presence of a microorganism might affect the activity of another one. When S. rimosus MY02 confront cultured with other microorganisms, the inductive effect might be positive or negative...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205651/metal-support-interaction-on-cobalt-based-ft-catalysts-a-dft-study-of-model-inverse-catalysts
#18
Tracey van Heerden, Eric van Steen
It is challenging to isolate the effect of metal-support interactions on catalyst reaction performance. In order to overcome this problem, inverse catalysts can be prepared in the laboratory and characterized and tested at relevant conditions. Inverse catalysts are catalysts where the precursor to the catalytically active phase is bonded to a support-like ligand. We can then view the metal-support interaction as a ligand interaction with the support acting as a supra-molecular ligand. Importantly, laboratory studies have shown that these ligands are still present after reduction of the catalyst...
February 16, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204942/molecular-modeling-in-the-age-of-clinical-genomics-the-enterprise-of-the-next-generation
#19
Jeremy W Prokop, Jozef Lazar, Gabrielle Crapitto, D Casey Smith, Elizabeth A Worthey, Howard J Jacob
Protein modeling and molecular dynamics hold a unique toolset to aide in the characterization of clinical variants that may result in disease. Not only do these techniques offer the ability to study under characterized proteins, but they do this with the speed that is needed for time-sensitive clinical cases. In this paper we retrospectively study a clinical variant in the XIAP protein, C203Y, while addressing additional variants seen in patients with similar gastrointestinal phenotypes as the C203Y mutation...
March 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203350/separate-and-simultaneous-adjustment-of-light-qualities-in-a-real-scene
#20
Ling Xia, Sylvia C Pont, Ingrid Heynderick
Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers able to interactively adjust the light properties on a "probe object" to its surrounding real scene? Image ambiguities can result in perceptual interactions between light properties. Such interactions formed a major problem for the "readability" of the illumination direction and diffuseness on a matte smooth spherical probe...
January 2017: I-Perception
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