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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450942/multivariate-analysis-of-cytokine-profiles-in-pregnancy-complications
#1
Fawaz Azizieh, Kamaludin Dingle, Raj Raghupathy, Kjell Johnson, Jacob VanderPlas, Ali Ansari
PROBLEM: The immunoregulation to tolerate the semiallogeneic fetus during pregnancy includes a harmonious dynamic balance between anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several earlier studies reported significantly different levels and/or ratios of several cytokines in complicated pregnancy as compared to normal pregnancy. However, as cytokines operate in networks with potentially complex interactions, it is also interesting to compare groups with multi-cytokine data sets, with multivariate analysis...
March 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448790/benchmarking-several-van-der-waals-dispersion-approaches-for-the-description-of-intermolecular-interactions
#2
Julien Claudot, Won June Kim, Anant Dixit, Hyungjun Kim, Tim Gould, Dario Rocca, Sébastien Lebègue
Seven methods, including three van der Waals density functionals (vdW-DFs) and four different variants of the Tkatchenko-Scheffler (TS) methods, are tested on the A24, L7, and Taylor et al.'s "blind" test sets. It is found that for these systems, the vdW-DFs perform better that the TS methods. In particular, the vdW-DF-cx functional gives binding energies that are the closest to the reference values, while the many-body correction of TS does not always lead to an improvement in the description of molecular systems...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448434/three-body-correlations-and-conditional-forces-in-suspensions-of-active-hard-disks
#3
Andreas Härtel, David Richard, Thomas Speck
Self-propelled Brownian particles show rich out-of-equilibrium physics, for instance, the motility-induced phase separation (MIPS). While decades of studying the structure of liquids have established a deep understanding of passive systems, not much is known about correlations in active suspensions. In this work we derive an approximate analytic theory for three-body correlations and forces in systems of active Brownian disks starting from the many-body Smoluchowski equation. We use our theory to predict the conditional forces that act on a tagged particle and their dependence on the propulsion speed of self-propelled disks...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446551/targeting-murine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-kidney-injury-molecule-1-improves-their-therapeutic-efficacy-in-chronic-ischemic-kidney-injury
#4
Xiangyu Zou, Kai Jiang, Amrutesh S Puranik, Kyra L Jordan, Hui Tang, Xiangyang Zhu, Lilach O Lerman
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been experimentally used for kidney repair, but modest retention limits their efficacy. Cell-surface coating allows modulating MSC homing and interaction with target cells. We coated mouse adipose tissue-derived MSC with antibodies directed against kidney injury molecule-1 (ab-KIM1), which is upregulated in injured kidneys, and tested the hypothesis that this would enhance their therapeutic effects in ischemic kidney injury. Untreated MSC, ab-KIM1-coated MSC (KIM-MSC), or vehicle, were injected systemically into the carotid artery of 2-kidneys, 1-clip mice 2 weeks after surgery...
February 15, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445176/thermally-conductive-and-mechanically-robust-graphene-nanoplatelet-reinforced-uo-2-composite-nuclear-fuels
#5
Tiankai Yao, Guoqing Xin, Spencer Michael Scott, Bowen Gong, Jie Lian
Low thermal transport behavior along the radial direction of nuclear fuel pellets and pellet-cladding mechanical interaction significantly impact fuel performance and the safety of current nuclear energy systems. Here we report a new strategy of advanced fuel design in which highly thermally-conductive and mechanically-robust graphene nanoplatelets are incorporated into UO 2 fuel matrix to improve fuel thermal-mechanical properties. The 2D geometry of the graphene nanoplatelets enables a unique lamellar structure upon fuel consolidation by spark plasma sintering...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445042/working-dogs-transfer-different-tasks-in-reciprocal-cooperation
#6
Nastassja Gfrerer, Michael Taborsky
Direct reciprocity can establish stable cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is a common assumption of direct reciprocity models that agents exchange like with like, but this is not necessarily true for natural interactions. It is yet unclear whether animals apply direct reciprocity rules when successive altruistic help involves different tasks. Here, we tested whether working dogs transfer help from one to another cooperative task in an iterated prisoner's dilemma paradigm. In our experiment, individual dogs received help to obtain food from a conspecific, which involved a specific task...
February 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442133/follicle-stimulating-hormone-enhances-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-by-grk2-mediated-ampk-hyperphosphorylation-at-ser485-in-mice
#7
Xiaoyi Qi, Yanjing Guo, Yongfeng Song, Chunxiao Yu, Lifang Zhao, Li Fang, Dehuan Kong, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increased serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is correlated with fasting hyperglycaemia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Because excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major cause of fasting hyperglycaemia the present study investigated whether FSH increases hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice. METHODS: Ovariectomised mice supplemented with oestradiol (E2) to maintain normal levels of serum E2 (OVX+E2 mice) were injected with low or high doses of FSH...
February 13, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440394/structure-function-analysis-of-manganese-exporter-proteins-across-bacteria
#8
Rilee Zeinert, Eli Martinez, Jennifer Schmitz, Katherine Senn, Bakhtawar Usman, Vivek Anantharaman, L Aravind, Lauren S Waters
Manganese is an essential trace nutrient for organisms, because of its role in cofactoring enzymes and providing protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many bacteria require manganese to form pathogenic or symbiotic interactions with eukaryotic host cells. However, excess manganese is toxic, requiring cells to have manganese export mechanisms. Bacteria are currently known to possess two widely-distributed classes of manganese export proteins, MntP and MntE, but other types of transporters likely exist...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438885/the-positive-effects-of-secreting-cytokines-il-17-and-ifn-%C3%AE-on-the-early-stage-differentiation-and-negative-effects-on-the-calcification-of-primary-osteoblasts-in-vitro
#9
Zhongxiu Wang, Jingyi Tan, Lihong Lei, Weilian Sun, Yanmin Wu, Peihui Ding, Lili Chen
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) are all pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by specific subsets of T-cells and are also considered crucial regulators in bone remodeling, but their effects on osteogenesis have not been carefully studied. So, this study aimed to investigate the effects of secreting cytokines IL-17 and IFN-γ on the osteogenesis of primary osteoblasts and to clarify the potential roles of the related Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in bone remodeling...
February 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435234/epizoochorous-dispersal-by-ungulates-depends-on-fur-grooming-and-social-interactions
#10
Océane Liehrmann, Flore Jégoux, Marie-Alice Guilbert, Francis Isselin-Nondedeu, Sonia Saïd, Yann Locatelli, Christophe Baltzinger
The transport phase of the animal-mediated plant dispersal process is critical to dispersal effectiveness as it determines the spatial distribution of the diaspores released and their chance for further recruitment. Assessing this specific phase of the dispersal process generally requires combining diaspore retention times with the associated distances covered. Here, we specifically tested the effect of grooming behavior, interindividual contacts and ungulate fur on diaspore retention times and associated dispersal distances for the hooked diaspores of Xanthium strumarium L...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435148/peptide-inhibition-of-the-setd6-methyltransferase-catalytic-activity
#11
Michal Feldman, Dan Levy
A large body of evidence accumulating in the past few years indicates the physiological significance of non-histone proteins lysine methylation, catalyzed by protein lysine methyl transferases (PKMTs). Dysregulation of these enzymes was shown to contribute to the development and progression of numerous diseases. SETD6 lysine methylatransferase was recently shown to participate in essential cellular processes, such as the NFkB pathway, oxidative stress and also the Wnt signaling cascade. In order to test the effect of blocking SETD6 catalytic activity, we used the peptide inhibition method, which is considered highly specific and can potentially target almost any protein...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434616/pollen-from-the-deep-sea-a-breakthrough-in-the-mystery-of-the-ice-ages
#12
REVIEW
María F Sánchez Goñi, Stéphanie Desprat, William J Fletcher, César Morales-Molino, Filipa Naughton, Dulce Oliveira, Dunia H Urrego, Coralie Zorzi
Pollen from deep-sea sedimentary sequences provides an integrated regional reconstruction of vegetation and climate (temperature, precipitation, and seasonality) on the adjacent continent. More importantly, the direct correlation of pollen, marine and ice indicators allows comparison of the atmospheric climatic changes that have affected the continent with the response of the Earth's other reservoirs, i.e., the oceans and cryosphere, without any chronological uncertainty. The study of long continuous pollen records from the European margin has revealed a changing and complex interplay between European climate, North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), ice growth and decay, and high- and low-latitude forcing at orbital and millennial timescales...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433339/deconstructing-trait-anxiety-a-network-perspective
#13
Alexandre Heeren, Emily E Bernstein, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: For decades, the dominant paradigm in trait anxiety research has regarded the construct as signifying the underlying cause of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that supposedly reflect its presence. Recently, a network theory of personality has appeared. According to this perspective, trait anxiety is a formative construct emerging from interactions among its constitutive features (e.g., thought, feelings, behaviors); it is not a latent cause of these features...
February 13, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430878/placental-implantation-over-prior-cesarean-scar-causes-activation-of-fetal-regulatory-t-cells
#14
Tina A Nguyen, Daniel A Kahn, Andrea I Loewendorf
INTRODUCTION: Maternal-fetal chimerism is miniscule, a testament to the integrity of the uteroplacental interface. The soundness of this border region is potentially altered through cesarean delivery of prior babies with uncertain consequences for the following pregnancies. METHODS: Using multicolor flow cytometry and quantitative PCR of non-inherited maternal antigens we performed a retrospective case control pilot study and formulated the null hypothesis that placental implantation over a prior uterine scar does not result in the presence of memory Treg (CD45RO+) in the fetus...
February 12, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430738/neonatal-adoptive-transfer-of-lymphocytes-rescues-social-behavior-during-adolescence-in-immune-deficient-mice
#15
Sarah M Clark, Chloe N Vaughn, Jennifer A Soroka, Xin Li, Leonardo H Tonelli
Accumulating evidence has shown that lymphocytes modulate behavior and cognition by direct interactions with the central nervous system. Studies have shown that reconstitution by adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from wild type into immune deficient mice restores a number of neurobehavioral deficits observed in these models. Moreover, it has been shown that these effects are mostly mediated by T lymphocytes. Studies of adoptive transfer thus far have employed adult mice, but whether lymphocytes may also modulate behavior during development remains unknown...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430595/the-c19s-substitution-enhances-the-stability-of-hepcidin-while-conserving-its-biological-activity
#16
Edina Pandur, Zsuzsanna Fekete, Kitti Tamási, László Grama, Edit Varga, Katalin Sipos
Hepcidin, the key hormone of iron homeostasis is responsible for lowering the serum iron level through its interaction with iron exporter ferroportin. Thus, hepcidin agonists provide a promising opportunity in the treatment of iron disorders caused by lacking or decreased hepcidin expression. We investigated the importance of each of the eight highly conserved cysteines for the biological activity of hepcidin. Eight cysteine mutants were created with site directed mutagenesis. The binding ability of these hepcidin mutants to the hepcidin receptor ferroportin was determined using bacterial two-hybrid system and WRL68 human hepatic cells...
February 12, 2018: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429396/using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-improve-verbal-working-memory-a-detailed-review-of-the-methodology
#17
Roanne Hurley, Liana Machado
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive electrical brain stimulation technique that has been used extensively over prefrontal cortex in an effort to enhance verbal working memory (WM). However, inconsistent and contradictory outcomes from similar stimulation protocols have created a strong need to examine methodologies in greater detail. This review undertook an in-depth look at both positive and negative prefrontal tDCS-WM findings in adult populations to shed light on methodological parameters that may be driving the inconsistent outcomes in the literature...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427425/dissociation-between-iron-and-heme-biosynthesis-is-largely-accountable-for-respiration-defects-of-shewanella-oneidensis-fur-mutants
#18
Huihui Fu, Lulu Liu, Ziyang Dong, Shupan Guo, Haichun Gao
Iron, a major protein cofactor, is essential for most organisms but can be toxic simultaneously. Iron homeostasis thus has to be effectively maintained under a range of iron regimes. This may be particularly true with Shewanella oneidensis, a representative of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) capable of respiring a variety of chemicals as electron acceptors (EAs), including iron ores. Although iron respiration and its regulation have been extensively studied in this bacterium, how iron homeostasis is maintained remains largely unknown...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426960/two-microcephaly-associated-novel-missense-mutations-in-cask-specifically-disrupt-the-cask-neurexin-interaction
#19
Leslie E W LaConte, Vrushali Chavan, Abdallah F Elias, Cynthia Hudson, Corbin Schwanke, Katie Styren, Jonathan Shoof, Fernando Kok, Sarika Srivastava, Konark Mukherjee
Deletion and truncation mutations in the X-linked gene CASK are associated with severe intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly and pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia in girls (MICPCH). The molecular origin of CASK-linked MICPCH is presumed to be due to disruption of the CASK-Tbr-1 interaction. This hypothesis, however, has not been directly tested. Missense variants in CASK are typically asymptomatic in girls. We report three severely affected girls with heterozygous CASK missense mutations (M519T (2), G659D (1)) who exhibit ID, microcephaly, and hindbrain hypoplasia...
February 9, 2018: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426646/effect-of-3-bioceramic-materials-on-stem-cells-of-the-apical-papilla-proliferation-and-differentiation-using-a-dentin-disk-model
#20
Amber A Miller, Koyo Takimoto, James Wealleans, Anibal Diogenes
INTRODUCTION: There is a complex interaction between biomaterials placed as a coronal barrier with stem cells and dentin in regenerative procedures. In this study, the effect of Biodentine (BD; Septodont, Saint-Maurdes-Fossés, France), Endosequence BC Root Repair Material-Putty (ES; Brasseler, Savannah, GA), Endosequence BC Root Repair Material-Putty Fast set (ES-fast, Brasseler), and ProRoot (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson City, TN) mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on the viability and differentiation of stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) was evaluated using an ex vivo dentin disk model...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
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