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direct interaction test

Colin F Poole
Major obstacles to formulating a simple retention mechanism for reversed-phase liquid chromatography have a direct impact on the development of experimental methods for column characterization as they limit our capability to understand observed differences in retention at a system level. These problems arise from the heterogeneous composition of the stationary phase, the difficulty of providing a working definition for the phase ratio, and uncertainty as to whether the distribution mechanism for varied compounds is a partition, adsorption or mixed (combination) of these models...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Amanda C Kentner, Urma Khan, M MacRae, Scot E Dowd, Siyang Yan
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to infection during early development increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with symptoms such as a decreased desire to engage in social interactions. This disruption in social behavior can be modelled in animals by administering bacterial mimetics such as liposaccharide (LPS). However, when evaluating social interactions in the laboratory, attention is rarely directed on the reciprocal relationship as a whole, which is important as peers may drive social withdrawal...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Bernie D Shizgal
This paper considers two nonequilibrium model systems described by linear Fokker-Planck equations for the time-dependent velocity distribution functions that yield steady state Kappa distributions for specific system parameters. The first system describes the time evolution of a charged test particle in a constant temperature heat bath of a second charged particle. The time dependence of the distribution function of the test particle is given by a Fokker-Planck equation with drift and diffusion coefficients for Coulomb collisions as well as a diffusion coefficient for wave-particle interactions...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Yue Zhang, Lianhua Zhu, Ruijie Wang, Zhaoli Guo
Recently a discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) in a finite-volume formulation based on the Boltzmann model equation has been developed for gas flows in all flow regimes. The original DUGKS is designed for flows of single-species gases. In this work, we extend the DUGKS to flows of binary gas mixtures of Maxwell molecules based on the Andries-Aoki-Perthame kinetic model [P. Andries et al., J. Stat. Phys. 106, 993 (2002)JSTPBS0022-471510.1023/A:1014033703134. A particular feature of the method is that the flux at each cell interface is evaluated based on the characteristic solution of the kinetic equation itself; thus the numerical dissipation is low in comparison with that using direct reconstruction...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Peter Stilwell, Chris Lowe, Angus Buckling
Cooperation can be maintained if cooperative behaviours are preferentially directed towards other cooperative individuals. Tag-based cooperation (greenbeards) - where cooperation benefits individuals with the same tag as the actor - is one way to achieve this. Tag-based cooperation can be exploited by individuals who maintain the specific tag but don't cooperate, and selection to escape this exploitation can result in the evolution of tag diversity. We tested key predictions crucial for the evolution of cheat-mediated tag diversity using the production of iron-scavenging pyoverdine by the opportunistic pathogen, Pseduomonas aeruginosa as a model system...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
D S Peterson, K R Lohse, M Mancini
BACKGROUND: Protective stepping after a loss of balance is related to falls. Anticipatory postural responses (APAs) prior to protective stepping can impact step performance, may be larger in people with PD, and have been suggested to be related to freezing of gait (FOG). However, whether people with PD and FOG (PD + FOG) exhibit larger APAs than people with PD and no FOG (PD-FOG) is unknown. RESEARCH QUESTION: Determine the impact of freezing status on APAs prior to protective steps, thus providing a better understanding of the link between FOG and APAs...
June 5, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jacques van Lankveld, Nele Jacobs, Viviane Thewissen, Marieke Dewitte, Peter Verboon
The experience of emotional intimacy is assumed to play a particularly large role in maintaining sexual desire and partnered sexual activity in romantic relationships of longer duration. It is unclear whether the effect of intimacy on sexual contact between partners is direct or indirect, via its impact on sexual desire. Baumeister and Bratslavsky suggested that a certain increment in emotional intimacy causes a greater increment in sexual desire in men than in women. In the present study, we aimed to test the mediating role of sexual desire between perceived intimacy and sexual partner interaction and the gender effect as hypothesized by Baumeister and Bratslavsky...
May 2018: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
Noremylia Mohd Bakhori, Nor Azah Yusof, Jaafar Abdullah, Helmi Wasoh, Siti Suraiya Md Noor, Nurul Hanun Ahmad Raston, Faruq Mohammad
In the present study, a beneficial approach for the ultrasensitive and affordable naked eye detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by utilizing plasmonic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) via antibody-antigen interaction was studied. Here, the biocatalytic cycle of the intracellular enzymes links to the formation and successive growth of the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for ultrasensitive detection. The formation of different colored solutions by the plasmonic nanoparticles in the presence of enzyme labels links directly to the existence or non-existence of the TB analytes in the sample solutions...
June 14, 2018: Sensors
Estela J Jauregui, Debra Mitchell, Traci Topping, Cathryn A Hogarth, Michael D Griswold
Spermatogenesis in mammals is a very complex, highly organized process, regulated in part by testosterone and retinoic acid (RA). There is a significant amount known about how RA and testosterone signaling pathways independently regulate this process, but there is almost no information regarding whether these two signaling pathways directly interact and whether RA is critical for steroidogenic cell function. This study utilized a transgenic mouse line that expresses a dominant negative form of RA receptor α (RAR-DN) and the steroidogenic cell-specific Cre mouse line, Cyp17 iCre, to generate male mice with steroidogenic cells unable to perform RA signaling...
June 13, 2018: Development
Arumugam Balamurugan, Hwee L Ng, Otto O Yang
Although a high level of promiscuity for heterologous epitopes is believed to exist for cellular immunity, limited data explore this issue for Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Here we found an unexpected degree of heterologous cross-reactivity against HIV-1 epitopes in addition to the targeted index epitope. Most CTL clones screened cross-reacted against other known HIV-1 epitopes of the same major histocompatibility type I (MHC-I) restriction, up to 40% of tested non-index epitopes in some cases...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Chuliang Song, Serguei Saavedra
The timing of the first and last seasonal appearance of a species in a community typically follows a pattern that is governed by temporal factors. While it has been shown that changes in the environment are linked to phenological changes, the direction of this link appears elusive and context-dependent. Thus, finding consistent predictors of phenological events is of central importance for a better assessment of expected changes in the temporal dynamics of ecological communities. Here we introduce a measure of structural stability derived from species interaction networks as an estimator of the expected range of environmental conditions compatible with the existence of a community...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Stefano Casagranda, Suzanne Touzeau, Delphine Ropers, Jean-Luc Gouzé
BACKGROUND: Understanding the dynamical behaviour of biological systems is challenged by their large number of components and interactions. While efforts have been made in this direction to reduce model complexity, they often prove insufficient to grasp which and when model processes play a crucial role. Answering these questions is fundamental to unravel the functioning of living organisms. RESULTS: We design a method for dealing with model complexity, based on the analysis of dynamical models by means of Principal Process Analysis...
June 14, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Jennifer I Lai, Deeptak Verma, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Margaret E Ackerman
Structure-based approaches to antigen design utilize insights from antibody (Ab):antigen interactions and a refined understanding of protective Ab responses to engineer novel antigens presenting epitopes with conformations relevant to eliciting or discovering protective humoral responses. For human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), one model of protection is provided by broadly neutralizing Abs (bnAbs) against epitopes present in the closed prefusion trimeric conformation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, such as the variable loops 1-2 (V1V2) apex...
June 12, 2018: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
C Ledesma, C Rosario, J Gracia-Mora, G Tapia, L Gutiérrez, H Sumano
The interaction of 3 water sanitizers (sodium hypochlorite, iodine-polyvinylpyrrolidone, and citrate) utilized in poultry production on antibacterial activity and bioavailability of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMX) were studied. Sanitizers were mixed with AMX in prepared water, the resulting substances were regarded as amoxicillin-sanitizer products (ASP). First, the in vitro antibacterial activity of each ASP was compared to that of AMX. Then, pharmacokinetics (PK) of ASP and AMX diluted in prepared water, were carried out in broiler-chickens...
April 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Ingoo Lee, Hojung Nam
BACKGROUND: Identification of drug-target interactions acts as a key role in drug discovery. However, identifying drug-target interactions via in-vitro, in-vivo experiments are very laborious, time-consuming. Thus, predicting drug-target interactions by using computational approaches is a good alternative. In recent studies, many feature-based and similarity-based machine learning approaches have shown promising results in drug-target interaction predictions. A previous study showed that accounting connectivity information of drug-drug and protein-protein interactions increase performances of prediction by the concept of 'guilt-by-association'...
June 13, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Maolong Wang, Xiao Sun, Yuling Yang, Wenjie Jiao
BACKGROUND: The antisense of the OIP5-AS1 gene is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that is reported to be upregulated and promotes cell proliferation in multiple human cancers; however, its function in lung cancer is unknown. We investigated the regulatory function and underlying mechanisms of OIP5-AS1 in lung cancer. METHODS: OIP5-AS1 and microRNA (miR)-378a-3p expression were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR, and proliferation-related protein expression was measured by Western blotting...
June 13, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Daniel J Goble, Harsimran S Baweja
AIM: Postural sway measured using force plate technology is a known risk factor for falls in older adults, but is currently underutilized due to the high cost and lack of portability issues associated with most force plate systems. The Balance Tracking System (BTrackS) is a new force plate that alleviates these barriers and has potential for widespread use. The present study provides important normative data for the BTrackS Balance Test of postural sway that improves its translational value to the field of gerontology...
June 13, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Brandon T McDaniel, Jenny S Radesky
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heavy parent digital technology use has been associated with suboptimal parent-child interactions and internalizing/externalizing child behavior, but directionality of associations is unclear. This study aims to investigate longitudinal bidirectional associations between parent technology use and child behavior, and understand whether this is mediated by parenting stress. METHODS: Participants included 183 couples with a young child (age 0-5 years, mean = 3...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Research
Sneha P, Elaheh Ahmad Ebrahimi, Sara Ahmed Ghazala, Thirumal Kumar D, Siva R, George Priya Doss C, Hatem Zayed
Galactosemia type 2 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the deficiency of galactokinase (GALK) enzyme due to missense mutations in GALK1 gene, which is associated with various manifestations such as hyper galactosemia and formation of cataracts. GALK enzyme catalyzes the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent phosphorylation of α-d-galactose to galactose-1-phosphate. We searched 4 different literature databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, and Science Direct) and 3 gene-variant databases (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Human Gene Mutation Database, and UniProt) to collect all the reported missense mutations associated with GALK deficiency...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Tamara I Potter, Aaron C Greenville, Christopher R Dickman
Interspecific competition may occur when resources are limited, and is often most intense between animals in the same ecological guild. Intraguild predation (IGP) is a distinctive form of interference competition, where a dominant predator selectively kills subordinate rivals to gain increased access to resources. However, before IGP can be identified, organisms must be confirmed as members of the same guild and occur together in space and time. The lesser hairy-footed dunnart ( Sminthopsis youngsoni , Dasyuridae) is a generalist marsupial insectivore in arid Australia, but consumes wolf spiders ( Lycosa spp...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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