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japanese dialect

Jae-Heung Cho, Jae Young Jung
This study aims to address questions regarding the translation of 'gout' into 'tongfeng ()' in East Asia. To this end, the formation process of the origins, 'gout' from Western medicine and 'tongfeng' from Oriental medicine, and the translational process were investigated through the relevant records and literature dating from the 16th century on. Symptoms associated with gout were originally mentioned in ancient Egypt and various terminologies were used to refer to gout, such as podagra, cheiragra and gonogra...
August 2015: Ŭi Sahak
Kanae Amino, Takashi Osanai
Recently, the articulation rate has been attracting attention in forensic speech investigation as an acoustic feature that varies across speakers, dialects, and languages. The present study investigates how cross-language differences in the articulation rate are transferred into Japanese as a second language. Participants were speakers of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Thai. They were recorded while they read a passage in their native language and in Japanese. Local and global articulation rates were calculated based on the number of syllables as well as the number of morae for Japanese speech...
April 2015: Forensic Science International
Igor Grossmann, Mayumi Karasawa, Chiemi Kan, Shinobu Kitayama
Past research suggests that older adults place a greater priority on goals of maintaining positive experiences and distancing from negative experiences. We hypothesized that these aging-related differences in emotional experiences are more pronounced in Western cultures that encourage linear approaches to well-being compared with Eastern cultures that encourage more dialectic approaches to well-being. We compared reports of positive and negative emotional experiences from random samples of Americans (a culture characterized by focus on positive and distancing from negative experiences) and Japanese (a culture characterized by its endorsement of dialectical experiences)...
August 2014: Emotion
Yutaka Sato, Akira Utsugi, Naoto Yamane, Masatoshi Koizumi, Reiko Mazuka
Language experience can alter perceptual abilities and the neural specialization for phonological contrasts. Here we investigated whether dialectal differences in the lexical use of pitch information lead to differences in functional lateralization for pitch processing. We measured cortical hemodynamic responses to pitch pattern changes in native speakers of Standard (Tokyo) Japanese, which has a lexical pitch accent system, and native speakers of 'accentless' dialects, which do not have any lexical tonal phenomena...
December 2013: Brain and Language
Takumi Watanabe, Kaori Karasawa
This article examines the effects of language use on explicit and implicit attitudes. We employed the matched-guise technique to measure participants' impressions of standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect speakers. Implicit attitudes were assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The Osaka-dialect speaker was evaluated as warmer than the standard-Japanese speaker, suggesting that explicit attitudes toward the Osaka dialect have changed positively. On the other hand, the results for the impression of intelligence were consistent with the previous literature that the standard-Japanese speaker was seen as more intelligent than the Osaka-dialect speaker...
April 2013: Shinrigaku Kenkyu: the Japanese Journal of Psychology
Sean Lee, Toshikazu Hasegawa
Languages, like genes, evolve by a process of descent with modification. This striking similarity between biological and linguistic evolution allows us to apply phylogenetic methods to explore how languages, as well as the people who speak them, are related to one another through evolutionary history. Language phylogenies constructed with lexical data have so far revealed population expansions of Austronesian, Indo-European and Bantu speakers. However, how robustly a phylogenetic approach can chart the history of language evolution and what language phylogenies reveal about human prehistory must be investigated more thoroughly on a global scale...
December 22, 2011: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Yuri Miyamoto, Carol D Ryff
Previous cross-cultural studies have repeatedly demonstrated that East Asians are more likely to show a dialectical emotional style than Americans, but do not distinguish between specific types of dialectical emotional styles. Using an age diverse sample, we found that compared to Americans, Japanese are more likely to experience both positive and negative emotions moderately frequently (i.e., moderate dialectical), but are no more likely to experience them frequently (i.e., high dialectical). Thus, dialectical emotions prevalent in East Asia may be characterised by a "middle way" rather than by emotional extremes...
January 2011: Cognition & Emotion
Kazuomi Inoue
OBJECTIVE: To review the recent development of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: The recent literature on TRD was selected regarding the use of CBT, with both "classical" and "new generation" CBT being included. The Japanese algorithm for the treatment of TRD was revised to propose CBT as a first-step treatment option. RESULTS: The efficacy of "classical" CBT for TRD varied across clinical trials: in one study CBT was comparable to pharmacotherapy when used in either augmentation or switch strategies; in another study, the combination of CBT and a switch to another antidepressant led to a more favorable clinical response than medication switch alone; and, in a third study, the concomitant administration of an atypical antipsychotic to CBT was found to be useful...
2010: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
Matthew N Dailey, Carrie Joyce, Michael J Lyons, Miyuki Kamachi, Hanae Ishi, Jiro Gyoba, Garrison W Cottrell
Facial expressions are crucial to human social communication, but the extent to which they are innate and universal versus learned and culture dependent is a subject of debate. Two studies explored the effect of culture and learning on facial expression understanding. In Experiment 1, Japanese and U.S. participants interpreted facial expressions of emotion. Each group was better than the other at classifying facial expressions posed by members of the same culture. In Experiment 2, this reciprocal in-group advantage was reproduced by a neurocomputational model trained in either a Japanese cultural context or an American cultural context...
December 2010: Emotion
Yuri Miyamoto, Yukiko Uchida, Phoebe C Ellsworth
Previous cross-cultural comparisons of correlations between positive and negative emotions found that East Asians are more likely than Americans to feel dialectical emotions. However, not much is known about the co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in a given situation. When asked to describe situations in which they felt mixed emotions, Japanese and American respondents listed mostly similar situations. By presenting these situations to another group of respondents, we found that Japanese reported more mixed emotions than Americans in the predominantly pleasant situations, whereas there were no cultural differences in mixed emotions in the predominantly unpleasant situations or the mixed situations...
June 2010: Emotion
Julie Spencer-Rodgers, Helen C Boucher, Sumi C Mori, Lei Wang, Kaiping Peng
Naïve dialecticism refers to a set of East Asian lay beliefs characterized by tolerance for contradiction, the expectation of change, and cognitive holism. In five studies, the authors examined the cognitive mechanisms that give rise to global self-concept inconsistency among dialectical cultures. Contradictory self-knowledge was more readily available (Study 1) and simultaneously accessible (Study 2) among East Asians (Japanese and Chinese) than among Euro-Americans. East Asians also exhibited greater change and holism in the spontaneous self-concept (Study 1) and inconsistency in their implicit self-beliefs (Study 3)...
January 2009: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Katsuaki Mishima, Asuka Sugii, Tomohiro Yamada, Hideto Imura, Toshio Sugahara
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine whether there are dialectal and gender-related differences in nasalance scores for normal Japanese speakers. MATERIALS: Sixty-eight volunteers consisting of 31 males (age 23.8+/-2.0) and 37 females (age 23.2+/-2.5) were included in this study. They had no diseases affecting speech, and lived in the same region until high school from birth. According to geography, they were divided into four regional groups: Chugoku region, Kinki region, Shikoku region, and other regions...
January 2008: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Heather M Young, Wayne M McCormick, Peter P Vitaliano
This study used grounded theory to explore how long-term care services are perceived and what factors influence family caregiving and long-term care service utilization choices among Japanese Americans. Family and generational perspectives elucidated a dialectic between forces of integration into the broader culture, and reconnection with the culture of origin within the context of powerful ethnically based historical and generational experiences. This study describes the evolution of the values underlying service delivery and family expectations and demonstrates the dynamic relationships among cultural expectations, historical context, and service evolution for a group of members involved in the caregiving experience...
December 2002: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
Masako Fujimoto, Emi Murano, Seiji Niimi, Shigeru Kiritani
In Japanese, high vowels /i/ and /u/ are often devoiced when they are preceded and followed by voiceless consonants. The phenomenon is called vowel devoicing. The frequency of its occurrence is high in dialects of eastern Japan including standard (Tokyo) Japanese and low in dialects of western Japan including Osaka dialect. It has been claimed that consonants, but not vowels, are pronounced more carefully in eastern dialects compared to western dialects, which results in higher frequency of vowel devoicing...
May 2002: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
T Tachimura, C Mori, S I Hirata, T Wada
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to examine nasalance score variation for normal adult Japanese speakers of Mid-West dialect and the gender difference in average mean nasalance score. DESIGN: Nasalance scores were obtained using a nasometer model 6200. The sample stimulus "Kitsutsuki passage," constructed of four sentences containing no Japanese nasal sounds, was used three times by each subject. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred normal adult speakers (50 women and 50 men) of Japanese served as subjects...
September 2000: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
E Endo, N Nitta, M Inayoshi, R Saito, K Takemura, H Minegishi, S Kubo, M Kondo
Pattern recognition as a caring partnership in families with cancer The purpose of this study was to address the process of a caring partnership by elaborating pattern recognition as nursing intervention with families with cancer. It is based on Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness within the unitary-transformative paradigm and is an extension of a previous study of Japanese women with ovarian cancer. A hermeneutic, dialectic method was used to engage 10 Japanese families in which the wife-mothers were hospitalized because of cancer diagnosis...
September 2000: Journal of Advanced Nursing
S Imaizumi, K Fuwa, H Hosoi
High vowels between voiceless consonants are often devoiced in many languages, as well as in many dialects of Japanese. This phenomenon can be hypothesized to be a consequence of the adaptive organization of the laryngeal gestures to various conditions, including dialectal requirements. If this theory is correct, it may be possible to predict developmental changes in vowel devoicing based on the developmental improvement in the dialect-specific organization of the laryngeal gestures. To test this expectation, the developmental properties of vowel devoicing were investigated for 72 children of 4 and 5 years of age, and 37 adults in two dialects of Japanese...
August 1999: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
T Ishii
The pattern of movements of the articulatory organs, particularly the tongue and lips, in the production of Japanese geminate was analyzed using an X-ray microbeam system. Special attention was paid to clarify the difference in the pattern of movements in geminate production from that in simple and long vowel production. The subject was a Japanese male who spoke the Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Goldpellets were attached to the uppersurface of the tongue body and dorsum, lowerlip and lower Jaw using dental adhesive...
May 1999: Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
R R Sokal, B A Thomson
We studied spatial patterns for 24 allele frequencies representing 15 systems (blood antigens, enzymes, serum proteins, color blindness, and cerumen) in Japan. The total number of samples over all systems and localities is 1125. We investigated patterns of genetic variation graphically as interpolated allele frequency surfaces, as one-dimensional and directional correlograms, and by testing for the direction of maximal genetic autocorrelation. We examined the allele frequency surfaces by various techniques of spatial autocorrelation analysis and found 13 allele frequency surfaces from 9 genetic systems exhibiting significant spatial patterns...
February 1998: Human Biology
C S Muir
Substantial differences in the level and patterns of cancer have long been known to exist. Thus, breast cancer mortality in England & Wales in 1908-1912 was ten times higher than in Japan. Today the risk differential is six-fold. The major geographical differences in cancer risk throughout the world are mentioned and the significance of study of changes in cancer risk in migrant populations is emphasised. Thus, while cancer of the large bowel is still relatively uncommon in Japan, the incidence in US Japanese is currently higher than in both US Whites and Blacks...
September 1996: British Journal of Cancer. Supplement
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