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Shelley F McMain, Skye Fitzpatrick, Tali Boritz, Ryan Barnhart, Paul Links, David L Streiner
This study examined suicide and self-harm trajectories in 180 individuals with BPD receiving dialectical behavior therapy or general psychiatric management in a randomized controlled trial. Suicide and self-harm behaviors were assessed at baseline, every four months throughout treatment, and every 6 months over 2 years of follow-up. Latent class growth mixture modeling identified suicide and self-harm trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined baseline patient characteristics. Three latent subgroups were identified...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Patrick Luyten
Sidney Blatt's seminal contributions in the domain of personality development, psychopathology, and health rank among the best researched and most empirically supported theories in psychoanalysis. Blatt is known primarily for his two-polarities model of personality development, which he viewed as evolving through a dialectical, synergistic interaction between two fundamental processes across the lifespan: the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand, and of self-definition on the other. In this model, psychopathology is viewed as an attempt to find a balance, however distorted, between relatedness and self-definition...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Lena Rosenberg, Anders Kottorp, Karin Johansson
This study explored how boundaries in relationship to community and identity were created and negotiated among lesbian, gay, bisexual and queer (LGBQ) people, within the framework of picturing LGBQ specific elderly housing as a housing alternative in older age, by applying focus group methodology. 'An island as a sparkling sanctuary' was identified as a metaphor for how symbolic resources defining the LGBQ community can be manifested in LGBQ specific qualities of elderly housing. The boundary work underlying this manifestation included elaborations on the dilemma between exclusiveness and normality...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
Florent Petitprez, Yann A Vano, Etienne Becht, Nicolas A Giraldo, Aurélien de Reyniès, Catherine Sautès-Fridman, Wolf H Fridman
Tumors are highly heterogeneous tissues where malignant cells are surrounded by and interact with a complex tumor microenvironment (TME), notably composed of a wide variety of immune cells, as well as vessels and fibroblasts. As the dialectical influence between tumor cells and their TME is known to be clinically crucial, we need tools that allow us to study the cellular composition of the microenvironment. In this focused research review, we report MCP-counter, a methodology based on transcriptomic markers that assesses the proportion of several immune and stromal cell populations in the TME from transcriptomic data, and we highlight how it can provide a way to decipher the complex mechanisms at play in tumors...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Zhenguang G Cai, Rebecca A Gilbert, Matthew H Davis, M Gareth Gaskell, Lauren Farrar, Sarah Adler, Jennifer M Rodd
Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect...
September 4, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
Maria M Arredondo, Susan A Gelman
Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States (U.S. Census, 2014), yet this term comprises individuals from multiple ethnicities who speak distinct varieties of Spanish. We investigated whether Spanish-English bilingual children (N = 140, ages 4-17) use Spanish varieties in their social judgments. The findings revealed that children distinguished varieties of Spanish but did not use Spanish dialects to make third-person friendship judgments until 10-12 years; this effect became stronger in adolescence...
August 30, 2017: Child Development
Shaunak Sastry, Mohan J Dutta
This brief essay is a commentary on how critical health communication theory can contribute to an understanding of the cultural dynamics of infectious disease pandemics. In particular, we focus on a specific trajectory of health communication theorizing-the culture-centered approach-and its heuristic and pragmatic utility in enhancing knowledge about public health crises like infectious disease outbreaks. In the backdrop of the mobilizations against the 2014 Ebola virus disease epidemic in the 3 West African nations of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, indigenous cultural practices were construed as pathogenic and local agency of affected communities disregarded, even as the global risks of the epidemic were highlighted...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
Emily T Cripe
In this article, I explore my experience living with my father's cancer diagnosis and treatment, as well as how it has affected our family. I discuss how this 12-year journey of living with cancer as a chronic illness has impacted my experience and how living with the anticipation of loss has shaped me. I reflect on the dialectical tension faced by families dealing with chronic cancer and the implications for how health communication scholars explore the impact of cancer on family members.
August 18, 2017: Health Communication
Dawei Pan
The recent surge in medical disputes requires that more attention be paid to the voices of laypeople. This article explores the argumentative nature of the public discourse of the reported "malpractice mobs" that strive to convince members of the public (in the place of health or legal experts) that they have been victims of medical errors and injustice. This case-based qualitative empirical study uses a pragma-dialectical approach to suggest a prototypical pattern of such public appeals that contains a basic argumentative pattern and various types of extensions...
August 18, 2017: Health Communication
Y Huang, J Wang
The etymology of the terms in Hui hui yao fang (Huihui Formularies) is complicated. Their origin might be Arabian, Persian, or Sanskrit, or even the northern dialects of Han language during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. There are obvious mistakes or indefinite decipherments and interpretations of the terms in Song Xian's Investigated Annotations of Huihui Formularies. There are also missing annotations for those transliterated terms. To tackle such defects, 12 such terms are deciphered and annotated here.
May 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Jessica R Berry, Janna B Oetting
Purpose: We compared copula and auxiliary verb BE use by African American English-speaking children with and without a creole heritage, using Gullah/Geechee as the creole criterion, to determine if differences exist, the nature of the differences, and the impact of the differences on interpretations of ability. Method: Data came from 38 children, aged 5 to 6 years (19 with Gullah/Geechee and 19 without Gullah/Geechee heritage). All were developing language typically, with groups matched on gender, maternal education, and, when possible, test scores...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Asuteka Nagao, Mitsuhiro Ohara, Kenjyo Miyauchi, Shin-Ichi Yokobori, Akihiko Yamagishi, Kimitsuna Watanabe, Tsutomu Suzuki
The genetic code is not frozen but still evolving, which can result in the acquisition of 'dialectal' codons that deviate from the universal genetic code. RNA modifications in the anticodon region of tRNAs play a critical role in establishing such non-universal genetic codes. In echinoderm mitochondria, the AAA codon specifies asparagine instead of lysine. By analyzing mitochondrial (mt-) tRNA(Lys) isolated from the sea urchin (Mesocentrotus nudus), we discovered a novel modified nucleoside, hydroxy-N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ht(6)A), 3' adjacent to the anticodon (position 37)...
September 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Robert Allen Fox, Ewa Jacewicz
Vowel space area (VSA) calculated on the basis of corner vowels has emerged as a metric for the study of regional variation, speech intelligibility and speech development. This paper gives an evaluation of the basic assumptions underlying both the concept of the vowel space and the utility of the VSA in making cross-dialectal and sound change comparisons. Using cross-generational data from 135 female speakers representing three distinct dialects of American English, the first step was to establish that the vowel quadrilateral fails as a metric in the context of dialect variation...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Margaret E L Renwick, Rachel M Olsen
The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Clara Rodríguez, Daniel Recasens
The paper evaluates the efficiency of six computation methods in distinguishing lingual coarticulatory resistance among consonants and vowels using ultrasound data. This research goal is tested on a corpus of symmetrical vowel-consonant-vowel sequences composed of 10 consonants and five vowels produced by five Catalan speakers. Results show that, while the coarticulatory resistance hierarchies obtained by all methods conform largely to the predictions of the degree of articulatory constraint model of coarticulation, some (i...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jeff Mielke, Christopher Carignan, Erik R Thomas
Most dialects of North American English exhibit /æ/-raising in some phonological contexts. Both the conditioning environments and the temporal dynamics of the raising vary from region to region. To explore the articulatory basis of /æ/-raising across North American English dialects, acoustic and articulatory data were collected from a regionally diverse group of 24 English speakers from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. A method for examining the temporal dynamics of speech directly from ultrasound video using EigenTongues decomposition [Hueber, Aversano, Chollet, Denby, Dreyfus, Oussar, Roussel, and Stone (2007)...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Arwen Blackwood Ximenes, Jason A Shaw, Christopher Carignan
In studies of dialect variation, the articulatory nature of vowels is sometimes inferred from formant values using the following heuristic: F1 is inversely correlated with tongue height and F2 is inversely correlated with tongue backness. This study compared vowel formants and corresponding lingual articulation in two dialects of English, standard North American English, and Australian English. Five speakers of North American English and four speakers of Australian English were recorded producing multiple repetitions of ten monophthongs embedded in the /sVd/ context...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Paul De Decker, Sara Mackenzie
This paper investigates patterning of /l/ in Newfoundland English. Using acoustic and ultrasound methods, the reported displacement of the traditional Irish pattern of word-final light /l/ is assessed. Acoustic results show darker /l/'s in word-final position in both phrases and compounds. Although the standard allophonic pattern is widespread in Newfoundland English, dialectal variation arising from early settlement patterns continues to influence speech patterns with less distinction between initial and final /l/ in Irish-settled areas...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Martijn Wieling, Mark Tiede
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively contrast the articulatory settings of two Dutch dialects. Tongue movement data during speech were collected on site at two high schools (34 speakers) in the Netherlands using a portable electromagnetic articulography device. Comparing the tongue positions during pauses in speech between the two groups revealed a clear difference in the articulatory settings, with significantly more frontal tongue positions for the speakers from Ubbergen in the Southeast of the Netherlands compared to those from Ter Apel in the North of the Netherlands...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Cynthia G Clopper
Documenting and analyzing dialect variation is traditionally the domain of dialectology and sociolinguistics. However, modern approaches to acoustic analysis of dialect variation have their roots in Peterson and Barney's [(1952). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 24, 175-184] foundational work on the acoustic analysis of vowels that was published in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (JASA) over 6 decades ago. Although Peterson and Barney (1952) were not primarily concerned with dialect variation, their methods laid the groundwork for the acoustic methods that are still used by scholars today to analyze vowel variation within and across languages...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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