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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095007/personality-and-behavior-prediction-and-consistency-across-cultures-a-multimethod-study-of-blacks-and-whites-in-south-africa
#1
Velichko H Fetvadjiev, Deon Meiring, Fons J R van de Vijver, J Alewyn Nel, Lusanda Sekaja, Sumaya Laher
The cross-cultural universality of behavior's consistency and predictability from personality, assumed in trait models though challenged in cultural psychological models, has usually been operationalized in terms of beliefs and perceptions, and assessed using single-instance self-reports. In a multimethod study of actual behavior across a range of situations, we examined predictability and consistency in participants from the more collectivistic Black ethnic group and the more individualistic White group in South Africa...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093556/the-dialectic-of-hebb-and-homeostasis
#2
REVIEW
Gina G Turrigiano
It has become widely accepted that homeostatic and Hebbian plasticity mechanisms work hand in glove to refine neural circuit function. Nonetheless, our understanding of how these fundamentally distinct forms of plasticity compliment (and under some circumstances interfere with) each other remains rudimentary. Here, I describe some of the recent progress of the field, as well as some of the deep puzzles that remain. These include unravelling the spatial and temporal scales of different homeostatic and Hebbian mechanisms, determining which aspects of network function are under homeostatic control, and understanding when and how homeostatic and Hebbian mechanisms must be segregated within neural circuits to prevent interference...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072923/language-the-diabetes-restricted-code-dialect-and-what-it-means-for-people-with-diabetes-and-clinicians
#3
Trisha Dunning, Jane Speight, Craig Bennett
Purpose The purpose of the paper is to explore the notion of a diabetes language restricted code or "dialect" and its effect on people with diabetes. Language is a complex phenomenon comprising verbal and nonverbal components used to communicate in human interactions. Methods Information was collected from a literature review, during clinical consultations, and from an email survey. Results Language and the way clinicians use language affect motivation, behaviors, and outcomes of people with diabetes. Language is influenced by culture, experience, and familiarity with words and their use and is idiosyncratic...
January 1, 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068498/adapting-dialectical-behavior-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-dissociative-identity-disorder
#4
Brad Foote, Kim Van Orden
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), created by Marsha Linehan, has been shown to be an effective therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and for suicidal and self-harming behavior. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with BPD, and which like BPD features a high degree of suicidality. The DID treatment literature emphasizes the importance of a staged approach, beginning with the creation of a safe therapeutic frame prior to addressing traumatic material; DBT is also a staged treatment, in which behavioral and safety issues are addressed in Stage 1, and trauma work reserved for Stage 2...
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058670/theorizing-with-out-mediators
#5
Wolff-Michael Roth, Alfredo Jornet
Mediation is one of the most often cited concepts in current cultural-historical theory literature, in which cultural actions and artifacts are often characterized as mediators standing between situational stimuli and behavioral responses. Most often presented as a means to overcome Cartesian dualism between subject and object, and between individual and society, some scholars have nonetheless raised criticism suggesting that such mediators are problematic for a dialectical psychology that takes a unit analysis (monist) approach...
January 5, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054349/-we-hardly-ever-talk-about-it-emotional-responsive-attunement-in-couples-after-a-child-s-death
#6
An Hooghe, Paul C Rosenblatt, Peter Rober
Within Western cultural traditions, the idea that parents should talk about the death of their child with each other is deeply rooted. However, across bereaved parent couples there are wide variations in communication about their grief with each other. In this study, we explored the experiences of bereaved couples related to the process of talking and not talking. We used a thematic coding approach to analyze 20 interviews with 26 bereaved parents (11 interviewed as couples, four as individuals). Four main meanings emerged out of our analysis: not talking because of the inadequacy and pointlessness of words in grief, not talking as a way to regulate emotions in daily life, not talking as an expression of a personal, intimate process, and not talking because the partner has the same loss but a different grief process...
January 5, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042187/variation-in-the-strength-of-lexical-encoding-across-dialects
#7
Cynthia G Clopper, Terrin N Tamati, Janet B Pierrehumbert
Lexical processing is slower and less accurate for unfamiliar dialects than familiar dialects. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that dialect differences in lexical processing reflect differences in lexical encoding strength across dialects. Lexical encoding (i.e., updating the cognitive lexical representation to reflect the current token) was distinguished from lexical recognition (i.e., mapping the incoming acoustic signal to the target lexical category) in a series of lexical processing tasks with Midland and Northern American English...
September 2016: Journal of Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040748/how-the-strengths-of-lisp-family-languages-facilitate-building-complex-and-flexible-bioinformatics-applications
#8
Bohdan B Khomtchouk, Edmund Weitz, Peter D Karp, Claes Wahlestedt
We present a rationale for expanding the presence of the Lisp family of programming languages in bioinformatics and computational biology research. Put simply, Lisp-family languages enable programmers to more quickly write programs that run faster than in other languages. Languages such as Common Lisp, Scheme and Clojure facilitate the creation of powerful and flexible software that is required for complex and rapidly evolving domains like biology. We will point out several important key features that distinguish languages of the Lisp family from other programming languages, and we will explain how these features can aid researchers in becoming more productive and creating better code...
December 31, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028662/self-addressed-questions-and-filled-pauses-a-cross-linguistic-investigation
#9
Ye Tian, Takehiko Maruyama, Jonathan Ginzburg
There is an ongoing debate whether phenomena of disfluency (such as filled pauses) are produced communicatively. Clark and Fox Tree (Cognition 84(1):73-111, 2002) propose that filled pauses are words, and that different forms signal different lengths of delay. This paper evaluates this Filler-As-Words hypothesis by analyzing the distribution of self-addressed-questions or SAQs (such as "what's the word") in relation to filled pauses. We found that SAQs address different problems in different languages (most frequently about memory-retrieval in English and Chinese, and about appropriateness in Japanese)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008833/-microbiotes-and-metagenomics
#10
Jean Weissenbach, Abdelghani Sghir
Major technical advances were introduced in the study of microflora and microbial communities in the nineties. These are essentially analytical approaches conducted as frequently by brute force. What conclusions can be drawn from these analyses twenty years later? In terms of microbial compositions, monitoring and diagnosis, the results are impressive. But what do all these microorganisms do? What are the factors behind their associations and their maintenance? Gene inventories are approaching completion; they allow us to deepen some physiological processes but do not say much more...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008804/alveolar-and-velarized-laterals-in-albanian-and-in-the-viennese-dialect
#11
Sylvia Moosmüller, Carolin Schmid, Christian H Kasess
A comparison of alveolar and velarized lateral realizations in two language varieties, Albanian and the Viennese dialect, has been performed. Albanian distinguishes the two laterals phonemically, whereas in the Viennese dialect, the velarized lateral was introduced by language contact with Czech immigrants. A categorical distinction between the two lateral phonemes is fully maintained in Albanian. Results are not as straightforward in the Viennese dialect. Most prominently, female speakers, if at all, realize the velarized lateral in word-final position, thus indicating the application of a phonetically motivated process...
December 2016: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998332/-electroshock-therapy-in-the-third-reich
#12
Lara Rzesnitzek, Sascha Lang
The history of 'electroshock therapy' (now known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)) in Europe in the Third Reich is still a neglected chapter in medical history. Since Thomas Szasz's 'From the Slaughterhouse to the Madhouse', prejudices have hindered a thorough historical analysis of the introduction and early application of electroshock therapy during the period of National Socialism and the Second World War. Contrary to the assumption of a 'dialectics of healing and killing', the introduction of electroshock therapy in the German Reich and occupied territories was neither especially swift nor radical...
January 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982405/analysis-of-suffering-at-work-in-family-health-support-centers
#13
Débora Dupas Gonçalves do Nascimento, Maria Amélia de Campos Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: Analyzing the work process in the Family Health Support Center. METHOD: An exploratory, descriptive case study using a qualitative approach. Focus groups were conducted with 20 workers of a Family Health Support Center, and the empirical material was subjected to content analysis technique and analyzed in light of Work Psychodynamics. RESULTS: The category of suffering is presented herein as arising from the dialectical contradiction between actual work and prescribed work, from resistance to the Family Health Support Center's proposal and a lack of understanding of their role; due to an immediatist and curative culture of the users and the Family Health Strategy; of the profile, overload and identification with work...
September 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975102/atherosclerosis-revisited-from-a-clinical-perspective-still-an-inflammatory-disease
#14
Donato Santovito, Christian Weber
Compelling experimental results have substantiated the immune-driven inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis. Most of the scientific advances over the past decades have been achieved by relying on transgenic animal models that have been employed with increasing levels of sophistication. However, recent failures in translating various anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies for use in humans might raise some skepticism with regards to an inflammatory causality underlying human atherosclerosis. By applying a dialectical approach, this Perspective aims to challenge and deduce the nature of atherosclerosis by reviewing results exclusively derived from human studies and recent clinical trials, as "things may not always be, what they appear"...
December 15, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974025/the-relationship-between-hiv-and-aids-and-water-scarcity-in-nyamakate-resettlements-land-north-central-zimbabwe
#15
Alexio Mbereko, Dianne Scott, Moses John Chimbari
HIV and AIDS and water variability have been studied separately, yet, they impact on rural households simultaneously in an interactive manner. The study provide narratives on various realities from a study in the Nyamakate community that illustrates the dialectical relationship between HIV and AIDS and water scarcity. A qualitative research methodology was employed, and the following data collection tools were used: semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant observations. The study showed that in the Nyamakate area, HIV- and AIDS-affected households utilise more water if there is a bedridden patient...
December 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959459/f%C3%A3-ljsamhet-och-t%C3%A3-lamod-kr%C3%A3-vs-f%C3%A3-r-att-m%C3%A3-ta-dessa-patienter-i-alla-behandlingsmodeller-betonas-vikten-av-en-aktiv-n%C3%A3-rvarande-relationsinriktad-terapeut
#16
Göran Rydén, Kent-Inge Perseius
Compliance and patience is needed when meeting patients with personality disorder To encounter patients with personality disorders in health care settings is often challenging. Most treatment studies published have included only patients with borderline personality disorder. Of evaluated psychological treatments in borderline personality disorder, dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) has the strongest research support, followed by mentalization based therapy (MBT). Pharmacological treatment in personality disorders should focus on time-limited crisis intervention and treatment of comorbidity...
December 6, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926354/the-experience-of-women-carriers-of-brca-mutations-following-risk-reducing-surgery-a-cultural-perspective
#17
Michal Mahat-Shamir, Chaya Possick
In this qualitative study, we examine the experience of 13 Jewish Israeli women carriers of BRCA mutations following risk-reducing surgery. Thematic analysis of in-depth, semi-structured interview texts yielded three themes: (a) dialectic of vulnerability and control, (b) presentation of self as a "normal" woman, and (c) genetic chain of negative life events and guilt. Aspects of Israeli culture impacting participants' experiences are: personal and collective responsibility, the shift toward consumerism, and pro-natal ideology...
December 7, 2016: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918168/the-effect-of-therapist-use-of-validation-strategies-on-change-in-client-emotion-in-individual-dbt-treatment-sessions
#18
Amanda Carson-Wong, Christopher D Hughes, Shireen L Rizvi
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a treatment for borderline personality disorder, a disorder for which emotion dysregulation is central. Within DBT, there are 6 explicitly defined validation strategies that range hierarchically from validation level (VL) 1 to VL 6. To date, there have been no studies on the frequency of use of VLs in actual DBT sessions. The aim of the current study was to explore DBT therapists' use of VLs and examine the relationship between VLs and change in a client emotion during therapy sessions...
December 5, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914420/does-orthographic-training-on-a-phonemic-contrast-absent-in-the-listener-s-dialect-influence-word-recognition
#19
Sophie Dufour, Noël Nguyen, Chotiga Pattamadilok, Ulrich Hans Frauenfelder
This study examined whether the ability of southern French speakers to discriminate between standard French word forms such as /pike/ and /pikε/ can be improved by a training procedure in which participants were exposed to the orthographic representations of words forming /e/-/ε/ minimal pairs. The results of the training procedure showed that southern French speakers were able to perceive the /e/-/ε/ contrast in word final position when they associated words containing these vowels with their correct spelled form...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908070/physical-constraints-of-cultural-evolution-of-dialects-in-killer-whales
#20
Olga A Filatova, Filipa I P Samarra, Lance G Barrett-Lennard, Patrick J O Miller, John K B Ford, Harald Yurk, Craig O Matkin, Erich Hoyt
Odontocete sounds are produced by two pairs of phonic lips situated in soft nares below the blowhole; the right pair is larger and is more likely to produce clicks, while the left pair is more likely to produce whistles. This has important implications for the cultural evolution of delphinid sounds: the greater the physical constraints, the greater the probability of random convergence. In this paper the authors examine the call structure of eight killer whale populations to identify structural constraints and to determine if they are consistent among all populations...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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