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Lillian H Krantz, Shelley McMain, Janice R Kuo
The current research tested whether four dimensions of mindfulness - acceptance without judgment, observing, describing and acting with awareness - predicted frequency of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and mediate the relationship with NSSI outcomes during 20-weeks of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) skills training for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Eighty-four self-harming individuals with BPD were randomized to either DBT skills training or to a waitlist control group. A series of regressions revealed no relationship between dimensions of mindfulness and NSSI at baseline...
March 1, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Maureen Zalewski, Jennifer K Lewis, Christina Gamache Martin
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for an increasing number of mental disorders. Its increased application to a range of disorders has been prompted by the recognition that DBT targets emotion dysregulation, which is a transdiagnostic feature underlying several forms of psychopathology. More recently, DBT has been used to target additional clinically relevant domains that are outside diagnostically bound categories, such as improving parenting quality as a means of preventing psychopathology in children of parents with psychopathology...
March 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Tsung-Jen Lin, Huei-Chen Ko, Jo Yung-Wei Wu, Tian Po Oei, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chung-Hey Chen
OBJECTIVES: Effectiveness of the condensed Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group (DBTSTG) was compared to the Cognitive Therapy Group (CTG) in reducing depression and suicide reattempt, and modifying emotion regulation strategies among those with borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: Eighty-two depressed BPD college students with a suicidal history within the past six-months were randomly allocated to DBTSTG or CTG. RESULTS: Both groups had similar reductions in suicide reattempts and depression after the intervention and 6-month follow-ups...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Kimberly Garcia, Donna Dowling, Gretchen Mettler
INTRODUCTION: Guatemala's Maternal Mortality Rate is 65th highest in the world at 120 deaths per 100,000 births. Contributing to the problem is traditional birth attendants (TBAs) attend most births yet lack knowledge about obstetrical emergencies. Government trainings in existence since 1955 have not changed TBA knowledge. Government trainings are culturally insensitive because they are taught in Spanish with written material, even though most TBAs are illiterate and speak Mayan dialects...
February 17, 2018: Midwifery
Catarina Magalhães Dahl, Flávia Mitkiewicz de Souza, Giovanni Marcos Lovisi, Ezra Susser, Maria Tavares Cavalcanti
Narratives play a fundamental role in the recovery of persons with schizophrenia, mainly from the paradigmatic change engendered by the recovery movement. Rather than a methodological tool or a byproduct of recovery, narratives are integral components of this process. This article aims to analyze overcoming narratives, in the light of the corporeality paradigm, based on an emblematic case of a peer support worker. This is a qualitative study carried out in the context of a randomized clinical trial, and it is based on one in-depth interview and focus groups for the construction of the narrative...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Raffaella Calati, Philippe Courtet, Jorge Lopez-Castroman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since psychotherapies for suicide prevention are receiving increasing attention, our purpose was to evaluate the related literature [meta-analyses and reviews on their effect on suicidal outcomes (A), perspective reviews concerning specific socio-demographic and clinical features (B), original studies with particular interest (C)] published over the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS: (A) Across different diagnoses, particularly, efficacious psychotherapies were cognitive behavioral therapy-based ones and interventions directly addressing suicidal thoughts and behaviors during the treatment...
March 8, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Wendy M Pearce, Kieran Flanagan
PURPOSE: Concern exists about the cross-cultural appropriateness of existing language assessments for non-mainstream populations, including Indigenous children who may speak a non-standard dialect of the mainstream language. This study therefore aims to investigate the language skills of Indigenous Australian children in comparison with non-Indigenous children, with a view to exploring the cultural appropriateness of language sampling assessment methods. METHOD: The performance of 51 typically developing Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian children was compared on a standardised assessment and a spoken narrative protocol using language sample analysis measures...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Katherine D Walton, Darcy Mishkind, Misty R Riddle, Clifford J Tabin, Deborah L Gumucio
Efficient absorption of nutrients by the intestine is essential for life. In mammals and birds, convolution of the intestinal surface into finger-like projections called villi is an important adaptation that ensures the massive surface area for nutrient contact that is required to meet metabolic demands. Each villus projection serves as a functional absorptive unit: it is covered by a simple columnar epithelium that is derived from endoderm and contains a mesodermally derived core with supporting vasculature, lacteals, enteric nerves, smooth muscle, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and immune cells...
March 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Christina M Gant, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, S Heleen Binnenmars, Stephan J L Bakker, Gerjan Navis, Gozewijn D Laverman
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the handling of magnesium is disturbed. Magnesium deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the associations between (1) dietary magnesium intake; (2) 24 h urinary magnesium excretion; and (3) plasma magnesium concentration with prevalent CHD in T2D patients. This cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline data from the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente-1 (DIALECT-1, n = 450, age 63 ± 9 years, 57% men, and diabetes duration of 11 (7-18) years)...
March 5, 2018: Nutrients
Maria V Navarro-Haro, Melanie S Harned, Kathryn E Korslund, Anthony DuBose, Tianying Chen, André Ivanoff, Marsha M Linehan
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder. The DBT Intensive Training™ is widely used to train community clinicians to deliver DBT, but little is known about its effectiveness. This study prospectively evaluated predictors of adoption and reach of DBT among 52 community teams (212 clinicians) after DBT Intensive Training™. Pre-post training questionnaires were completed by trainees and a follow-up survey by team leaders approximately 8 months later...
March 5, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Laura M Anderson, Thomas P Chacko
Binge eating disorder, food addiction, and dysregulated overeating are common among people with severe obesity and prevalent among bariatric surgery populations. These problematic eating habits share commonalities with other addictions. Effective, holistic self-management is needed to promote long-term weight loss and psychosocial adjustment among patients who are severely obese who undergo surgery, especially those with clinically remarkable levels of binge eating, food addiction, or dysregulated overeating...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Chelsey R Wilks, Anita Lungu, Sin Yee Ang, Brandon Matsumiya, Qingqing Yin, Marsha M Linehan
BACKGROUND: Given that alcohol misuse elevates risk of suicide death among ideators, the paucity of treatment outcome research for individuals presenting with both suicide ideation and problem drinking is particularly troubling. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills training, which effectively targets behaviors associated with emotion dysregulation including addictive and suicidal behaviors, provides a fitting model amenable to computerization. As stigma and scarcity stand as potential barriers to treatment, online dissemination platforms provide means for efficient treatment delivery that can augment the utility of suitable interventions...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Erik I Svensson
Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES)...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
Caroline Wilson, Catherine Cook
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop insight into the experiences of mothers whose school-aged children were born extremely prematurely. BACKGROUND: Extreme prematurity, where infants are born at 28 weeks or earlier, has significant initial maternal impact in terms of distress, uncertainty and disruption to maternal identity. However, little is known about the experiences of these mothers beyond their child's infancy. DESIGN: A qualitative study was undertaken using thematic analysis, drawing on a cluster of social constructionist theories that have been applied to studies investigating mothers' early pre-term or childhood disability experiences...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Hai-Yan Wang, Liang-Duo Jiang, Qing Ma, Dong Xu, Shi-Huan Tang, Zeng-Gang Luo
In the clinical practice, Professor Jiang Liangduo, a national senior Chinese medicine doctor, has created the theory of "sanjiao meridian stasis" from the theory of meridian dialectics and from the overall state. In this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine clinical characteristics of sanjiao meridian stasis theory which is often used by Professor Jiang Liangduo in the treatment of out-patient syndrome differentiation, were first studied and summarized to investigate its inherent regularity...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Irina A Mironenko
In this paper I comment on the "Individual personality is best understood as process, not structure: A Confucian-inspired perspective" article by Peter Giordano (Culture & Psychology, 23(4), 502-518 (2017)), which addresses the question of how to comprehend a personality which is continuously changing and varying with changes in social contexts and situations. The issue which Giordano turns up I believe to be of great importance and topicality in the quickly changing globalizing contemporary world...
February 27, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Daniel Flynn, Mary Kells, Mary Joyce, Catalina Suarez, Conall Gillespie
BACKGROUND: In the Republic of Ireland, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a feature of approximately 11-20% of clinical presentations to outpatient clinics within mental health services. These estimates are similar to other countries including the UK and USA. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is an intervention with a growing body of evidence that demonstrates its efficacy in treating individuals diagnosed with BPD. While a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of DBT, there is limited research which evaluates the effectiveness of this model when applied to real world settings...
February 26, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Pedro N Oliveira, Shireen L Rizvi
Telephone coaching is a treatment mode in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) that is designed to help clients generalize skills, prevent suicidal behaviors, and repair therapeutic ruptures. To date, phone coaching has received scant empirical investigation. The aims of this study were to (1) describe patterns in frequency of telephone calls and text messaging in DBT and (2) investigate whether demographic factors, baseline severity, suicidal behaviors, and therapeutic alliance are associated with phone and text frequency...
February 22, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Sherphard Chidarikire, Merylin Cross, Isabelle Skinner, Michelle Cleary
For people living with schizophrenia, their experience is personal and culturally bound. Focused ethnography enables researchers to understand people's experiences in-context, a prerequisite to providing person-centered care. Data are gathered through observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews with cultural informants. Regardless of the culture, ethnographic research involves resolving issues of language, communication, and meaning. This article discusses the challenges faced by a bilingual, primary mental health nurse researcher when investigating the experiences of people living with schizophrenia in Zimbabwe...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Megan K Ramaiya, Caitlin McLean, Upasana Regmi, Devika Fiorillo, Clive J Robins, Brandon A Kohrt
BACKGROUND: Suicide in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) accounts for 75% of the world's burden of suicide mortality and is the leading single cause of death among Nepali reproductive age women. To advance treatment for suicidal behaviors in LMICs, a single-case experimental design (SCED) was conducted of a culturally adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills intervention for Nepali populations (DBT-N). METHOD: Ten Nepali women with histories of suicidality participated in the 10-session intervention...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
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