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Yigal Cohen, Yariv Ben-Naim, Lidan Falach, Evgenia Rubin
Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It has originated in Uganda in the 1930's and recently spread to Europe, Middle East, Americas and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible to its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may occur in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4h...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
Irini Pateraki, Johan Andersen-Ranberg, Niels Bjerg Jensen, Sileshi Gizachew Wubshet, Allison Maree Heskes, Victor Forman, Björn Hallström, Britta Hamberger, Mohammed Saddik Motawia, Carl Erik Olsen, Dan Staerk, Jørgen Hansen, Birger Lindberg Møller, Björn Hamberger
Forskolin is a unique structurally complex labdane-type diterpenoid used in the treatment of glaucoma and heart failure based on its activity as a cyclic AMP booster. Commercial production of forskolin relies exclusively on extraction from its only known natural source, the plant Coleus forskohlii, in which forskolin accumulates in the root cork. Here, we report the discovery of five cytochrome P450s and two acetyltransferases which catalyze a cascade of reactions converting the forskolin precursor 13R-manoyl oxide into forskolin and a diverse array of additional labdane-type diterpenoids...
March 14, 2017: ELife
Narangerel Altangerel, Gombojav O Ariunbold, Connor Gorman, Masfer H Alkahtani, Eli J Borrego, Dwight Bohlmeyer, Philip Hemmer, Michael V Kolomiets, Joshua S Yuan, Marlan O Scully
Development of a phenotyping platform capable of noninvasive biochemical sensing could offer researchers, breeders, and producers a tool for precise response detection. In particular, the ability to measure plant stress in vivo responses is becoming increasingly important. In this work, a Raman spectroscopic technique is developed for high-throughput stress phenotyping of plants. We show the early (within 48 h) in vivo detection of plant stress responses. Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) plants were subjected to four common abiotic stress conditions individually: high soil salinity, drought, chilling exposure, and light saturation...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dadasaheb D Wadikar, Prakash E Patki
The herb Coleus aromaticus belonging to Lamiaceae family and Coleus genus is known by numerous names in different parts of the world and several language specific vernacular names. The herb has been extensively studied as well as reported in several fields of science. The multiple potential of the herb includes allelopathic potential, antibacterial property, antimicrobial activity, insecticidal property; free radical scavenging and radio-protective components from herb extracts and most recently the appetizing potential of the herb have been reported...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Luigi Sapio, Monica Gallo, Michela Illiano, Emilio Chiosi, Daniele Naviglio, Annamaria Spina, Silvio Naviglio
Cancer is a major public health problem and the second leading cause of mortality around the world. Although continuous advances in the science of oncology and cancer research are now leading to improved outcomes for many cancer patients, novel cancer treatment options are strongly demanded. Naturally occurring compounds from a variety of vegetables, fruits, and medicinal plants have been shown to exhibit various anticancer properties in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies and represent an attractive research area for the development of new therapeutic strategies to fight cancer...
May 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Praveen Awasthi, Vidushi Mahajan, Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal, Nitika Kapoor, Shafaq Rasool, Yashbir S Bedi, Sumit G Gandhi
Flavonoids are an important class of secondary metabolites that play various roles in plants such as mediating defense, floral pigmentation and plant-microbe interaction. Flavonoids are also known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) is an important medicinal herb with a diverse metabolic profile, including production of a flavonoid, genkwanin. However, components of the flavonoid pathway have not yet been studied in this plant. Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyses the first committed step of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Praveen Awasthi, Ajai Prakash Gupta, Yashbir S Bedi, Ram A Vishwakarma, Sumit G Gandhi
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s) are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B) and flavonoid 3' monooxygenase (CYP706C) are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Saraschandra Naraginti, P Lakshmi Kumari, Raunak Kumar Das, A Sivakumar, Sagar Hindurao Patil, Vaibhav Vilas Andhalkar
Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats...
May 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Shivaprasad Hebbani Nagarajappa, Subrata Pandit, Manohar Divanji, Bhanumathy Mariyanna, Pavan Kumar, Ashok Godavarthi
Coleus forskohlii Briq. has been used traditionally for the treatment of several ailments since antiquity in Ayurveda. In the present study, an approach has been made to evaluate the effect of C. forskohlii and its major constituents on cytochrome P450 (CYP3A, CYP2B, and CYP2C) mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes. To gain better understanding of the herb-drug interaction potential of the chemical constituents present in C. forskohlii, the extract was subjected to column chromatography followed by standardization with respect to forskolin, 1-deoxyforskolin, and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)...
January 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Sidney J Stohs, Vladimir Badmaev
Obesity and overweight are major health issues. Exercise and calorie intake control are recognized as the primary mechanisms for addressing excess body weight. Naturally occurring thermogenic plant constituents offer adjunct means for assisting in weight management. The controlling mechanisms for thermogenesis offer many intervention points. Thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non-stimulatory or a combination thereof...
May 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Vidya Vilas, Daizy Philip, Joseph Mathew
Our quest for a green, non-toxic and environmentally benign synthetic design for the fabrication of metal nanoparticles has led to the use of essential oil present in plant parts as the bioreductant. In this report, silver particles at nanoscale have been synthesized using essential oil present in the leaves of Coleus aromaticus at physiological pH and at 373 K. UV-vis spectra of the colloid display strong plasmon bands centred around 396-411 nm, characteristic of silver nanoparticles. Comparative studies of the FTIR spectra of essential oil and silver nanoparticles reveal the involvement of terpenes and their phenolic derivatives in reduction and subsequent stabilization...
April 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Nitin Chopra, Lon Hays
There have been very limited reports of the euphoria experienced under the influence of Coleus blumei--part of a large genus with similarities to various mints and herbs, naturally found in abundance and popular in home gardens. There have been reports of similar properties to Salvia divinorum, which contains the psychoactive neocleordane diterpene salvinorin-A. We present a case of a man in his twenties, with no significant known personal or family psychiatric history, presenting to an emergency room with a psychotic episode after the ingestion of C...
January 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli, Karishma Chester, Sayeed Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: Current trend of commercialization of herbal medicines draw a huge need of maintaining their quality. The declaration of quality, safety and efficacy of medicinal plants as well as poly-herbal formulations has become an important issue. Hence, qualitative and quantitative analysis of herbal drugs and formulations viz., fingerprint profiles and quantification of the various markers become key factors of quality control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present investigation is a detailed report for quality control of well-known herb Coleus forskohlii Briq, which includes physicochemical parameter determination, safety evaluation, microscropical evaluation, and chromatographic fingerprinting as well...
October 2015: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Swabha Takshak, S B Agrawal
The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)...
April 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hayley L Loftus, Katie J Astell, Michael L Mathai, Xiao Q Su
Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15) or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants were advised to follow a hypocaloric diet throughout the study...
November 2015: Nutrients
Gajula Raju, A Ram Reddy
Diterpenoid forskolin was isolated from Coleus forskolii. The electronic absorption and emission studies of forskolin were investigated in various solvents with an aim to improve its detection limits. The two chromophores present in the diterpenoid are not conjugated leading to the poor absorption and emission of UV light. The absorption and fluorescence spectra were solvent specific. In the presence of a monodentate ligand, triethylamine the detection of forskolin is improved by 3.63 times in ethanol with the fluorescence method and 3...
February 5, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Swabha Takshak, S B Agrawal
Supplementary ultraviolet-B (ambient+3.6  kJ m(-2) day(-1)) induced changes on morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics (specifically the defence strategies: UV-B protective compounds and antioxidants) of Coleus forskohlii were investigated under field conditions at 30, 60, and 90 days after transplantation. Levels of secondary metabolites increased under s-UV-B stress; flavonoids and phenolics (primary UV-B screening agents) were recorded to be higher in leaves which are directly exposed to s-UV-B...
December 2015: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Qinlong Zhu, Shunzhao Sui, Xinghua Lei, Zhongfang Yang, Kun Lu, Guangde Liu, Yao-Guang Liu, Mingyang Li
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) play an important role in plant disease defense and have beneficial effects on human health. We isolated and characterized a novel R2R3 MYB-type PA-regulator SsMYB3 from a well-known ornamental plant, coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides), to study the molecular regulation of PAs and to engineer PAs biosynthesis. The expression level of SsMYB3 was correlated with condensed tannins contents in various coleus tissues and was induced by wounding and light. A complementation test in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant showed that SsMYB3 could restore the PA-deficient seed coat phenotype and activated expression of the PA-specific gene ANR and two related genes, DFR and ANS...
2015: PloS One
Qinlong Zhu, Xianrong Xie, Haoxiang Lin, Shunzhao Sui, Rongxin Shen, Zhongfang Yang, Kun Lu, Mingyang Li, Yao-Guang Liu
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first enzyme involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway and plays important roles in the secondary metabolisms, development and defense of plants. To study the molecular function of PAL in anthocyanin synthesis of Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd), a Coleus PAL gene designated as SsPAL1 was cloned and characterized using a degenerate oligonucleotide primer PCR and RACE method. The full-length SsPAL1 was 2450 bp in size and consisted of one intron and two exons encoding a polypeptide of 711 amino acids...
September 16, 2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jingjie Jiang, Huiping Bi, Yibin Zhuang, Shaowei Liu, Tao Liu, Yanhe Ma
OBJECTIVES: To achieve high production of rosmarinic acid and derivatives in Escherichia coli which are important phenolic acids found in plants, and display diverse biological activities. RESULTS: The synthesis of rosmarinic acid was achieved by feeding caffeic acid and constructing an artificial pathway for 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. Genes encoding the following enzymes: rosmarinic acid synthase from Coleus blumei, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana, 4-hydroxyphenyllactate 3-hydroxylase from E...
January 2016: Biotechnology Letters
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