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Immunological tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448002/measurement-of-t-cell-alloreactivity-using-imaging-flow-cytometry
#1
Stephen C Juvet, Sajad Moshkelgosha, Sharon Sanderson, Joanna Hester, Kathryn J Wood, Andrew Bushell
The measurement of immunological reactivity to donor antigens in transplant recipients is likely to be crucial for the successful reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppression. The mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), limiting dilution assays, and trans-vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay have all been applied to this question, but these methods have limited predictive ability and/or significant practical limitations that reduce their usefulness. Imaging flow cytometry is a technique that combines the multiparametric quantitative powers of flow cytometry with the imaging capabilities of fluorescent microscopy...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447409/factor-viii-inhibitors-advances-in-basic-and-translational-science
#2
REVIEW
J D Lai, D Lillicrap
In the treatment of hemophilia A, the 20%-30% risk of developing of anti-factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies, or inhibitors, is the dominant concern among healthcare providers. Immune tolerance induction remains the only effective method of eradicating inhibitors in approximately 75% of patients, but is accompanied by significant emotional and economical burden. While certain risk factors, such as the type of FVIII mutation, offer some insight, there remains no strategy to confidently predict the development of an inhibitor...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444181/allogeneic-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-infusions-for-aging-frailty
#3
Samuel Golpanian, Darcy L DiFede, Aisha Khan, Ivonne Hernandez Schulman, Ana Marie Landin, Bryon A Tompkins, Alan W Heldman, Roberto Miki, Bradley J Goldstein, Muzammil Mushtaq, Silvina Levis-Dusseau, John J Byrnes, Maureen Lowery, Makoto Natsumeda, Cindy Delgado, Russell Saltzman, Mayra Vidro-Casiano, Marietsy V Pujol, Moisaniel Da Fonseca, Anthony A Oliva, Geoff Green, Courtney Premer, Audrey Medina, Krystalenia Valasaki, Victoria Florea, Erica Anderson, Jill El-Khorazaty, Adam Mendizabal, Pascal J Goldschmidt-Clermont, Joshua M Hare
Background: Impaired endogenous stem cell repair capacity is hypothesized to be a biologic basis of frailty. Therapies that restore regenerative capacity may therefore be beneficial. This Phase 1 study evaluated the safety and potential efficacy of intravenous, allogeneic, human mesenchymal stem cell (allo-hMSC)-based therapy in patients with aging frailty. Methods: In this nonrandomized, dose-escalation study, patients received a single intravenous infusion of allo-hMSCs: 20-million (n = 5), 100-million (n = 5), or 200-million cells (n = 5)...
April 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443090/immunometabolic-regulations-mediated-by-coinhibitory-receptors-and-their-impact-on-t-cell-immune-responses
#4
REVIEW
Nikolaos Patsoukis, Jessica D Weaver, Laura Strauss, Christoph Herbel, Pankaj Seth, Vassiliki A Boussiotis
Host immunity provides wide spectrum protection that serves to eradicate pathogens and cancer cells, while maintaining self-tolerance and immunological homeostasis. Ligation of the T cell receptor (TCR) by antigen activates signaling pathways that coordinately induce aerobic glycolysis, mitochondrial activity, anabolic metabolism, and T effector cell differentiation. Activation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR triggers the switch to anabolic metabolism by inducing transcription factors such as Myc and HIF1, and the glucose transporter Glut1, which is pivotal for the increase of glucose uptake after T cell activation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439004/endocannabinoid-system-acts-as-a-regulator-of-immune-homeostasis-in-the-gut
#5
Nandini Acharya, Sasi Penukonda, Tatiana Shcheglova, Adam T Hagymasi, Sreyashi Basu, Pramod K Srivastava
Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) are small molecules biosynthesized from membrane glycerophospholipid. Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous intestinal cannabinoid that controls appetite and energy balance by engagement of the enteric nervous system through cannabinoid receptors. Here, we uncover a role for AEA and its receptor, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), in the regulation of immune tolerance in the gut and the pancreas. This work demonstrates a major immunological role for an endocannabinoid. The pungent molecule capsaicin (CP) has a similar effect as AEA; however, CP acts by engagement of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1, causing local production of AEA, which acts through CB2...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431763/immune-response-of-the-short-neck-clam-paphia-malabarica-to-salinity-stress-using-flow-cytometry
#6
Deodatta S Gajbhiye, Lidita Khandeparker
Paphia malabarica is a predominant and commercially important bivalve in India, persistently challenged by wavering salinity in a monsoon-influenced estuary. To examine the organism's immunological response under such a condition we challenged P. malabarica with different salinities (0, 5, 15, 25 and 35) for varied periods using a two-way experimental approach (in vitro and in vivo). This is the first study to report the response of P. malabarica hemocytes to salinity stress from a monsoon-influenced estuary on the southwest coast of India...
April 11, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428832/a-meta-analysis-testing-eusocial-co-option-theories-in-termite-gut-physiology-and-symbiosis
#7
Michael E Scharf, Yunpeng Cai, Yijun Sun, Ruchira Sen, Rhitoban Raychoudhury, Drion G Boucias
The termite gut accomplishes key physiologic functions that underlie termite symbiosis and sociality. However, potential candidate functions of the host-symbiont holobiome have not yet been explored across seemingly divergent processes such as digestion, immunity, caste differentiation, and xenobiotic tolerance. This study took a meta-analysis approach for concurrently studying host and symbiont gut metatranscriptome responses of the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, which has ancestral characteristics and hosts a diverse mix of eukaryotic and bacterial symbionts...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423337/homeostatic-immunity-and-the-microbiota
#8
REVIEW
Yasmine Belkaid, Oliver J Harrison
The microbiota plays a fundamental role in the induction, education, and function of the host immune system. In return, the host immune system has evolved multiple means by which to maintain its symbiotic relationship with the microbiota. The maintenance of this dialogue allows the induction of protective responses to pathogens and the utilization of regulatory pathways involved in the sustained tolerance to innocuous antigens. The ability of microbes to set the immunological tone of tissues, both locally and systemically, requires tonic sensing of microbes and complex feedback loops between innate and adaptive components of the immune system...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422588/alterations-in-redox-homeostasis-during-recovery-from-unexplained-underperformance-syndrome-in-an-elite-international-rower
#9
Nathan A Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore, Charles R Pedlar
PURPOSE: This case study of an international rower examines a diagnosis of Unexplained Under Performance Syndrome (UUPS or Overtraining Syndrome) describing a full recovery and return to elite competition the same year. METHODS: On diagnosis and 4 and 14 months post-diagnosis, detailed assessments including physiological, nutritional, and biomarkers were made. RESULTS: Clinical examination and laboratory results for haematology, biochemistry, thyroid function, immunology, vitamins and minerals were unremarkable and did not explain the presentation and diagnosis...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414589/progesterone-decreases-in-vitro-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-expression-in-dendritic-and-cd4-cells-from-maternal-fetal-interface-of-rats
#10
Pedro Kastein Faria da Cunha Bianchi, Rafael Magdanelo Leandro, Aline Nayara Poscai, Tulio Yoshinaga, Patrícia Orlandini Gonçalez, José Roberto Kfoury Junior
PROBLEM: Several mechanisms contribute to the tolerogenic state observed during pregnancy, such as the activity of the enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO). This initializes the catabolism of tryptophan, inducing T cells to apoptosis due to its deprivation and by the action of its catabolites in the placental microenvironment. Progesterone plays an important part on immunological tolerance mechanisms during pregnancy; however, there is no evidence it is related to IDO activity. Thus, this study aimed to investigate progesterone influence on the maternal-fetal interface of pregnant Wistar rats, by identifying IDO positive cells by immunophenotyping and flow cytometry under exogenous progesterone supplementation...
April 17, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402253/immunoregulatory-role-of-b-lymphocytes-in-alloresponse-to-kidney-transplant
#11
Tomasz Baran, Maria Boratyńska
B cells are a group of diverse phenotype and function subsets, which can both stimulate and inhibit the immune response to an allograft. They participate in the rejection process by influencing differentiation, proliferation and effector functions of T lymphocytes. B cells injure the graft via the ADCC (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity) reaction and humoral rejection through plasmocyte production of donor-specific antibodies. A converse, suppressive mode of B cells can attribute to the development of tolerance and protect the graft from rejection...
April 12, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401932/inflammasomes-and-intestinal-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
N Zmora, M Levy, M Pevsner-Fischer, E Elinav
The inflammasome is a cytosolic multi-protein innate immune rheostat, sensing a variety of endogenous and environmental stimuli, and regulating homeostasis or damage control. In the gastrointestinal tract, inflammasomes orchestrate immune tolerance to microbial and potentially food-related signals or drive the initiation of inflammatory responses to invading pathogens. When inadequately regulated, intestinal inflammasome activation leads to a perpetuated inflammatory response leading to immune pathology and tissue damage...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397379/b-fahf-2-plus-oral-immunotherapy-oit-is-safer-and-more-effective-than-oit-alone-in-a-murine-model-of-concurrent-peanut-tree-nut-allergy
#13
Kamal D Srivastava, Ying Song, Nan Yang, Changda Liu, Ilan E Goldberg, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn, Hugh A Sampson, Xiu-Min Li
BACKGROUND: Concurrent sensitization to peanut (PN) and tree nuts (TN), the most dangerous food allergies, is common. Current oral immunotherapy (OIT) is not fully satisfactory. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the herbal formula B-FAHF-2 (BF2) ameliorates PN/TN OIT adverse reactions and enhances persistence of a tolerant state. METHODS: Concurrently sensitized peanut, walnut (WN) and cashew (CSH) allergic mice received 1 day PN/WN/CSH rush OIT plus 3 weeks of maintenance dosing, with or without 3-weeks prior and 3-weeks BF2 co-treatment...
April 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396662/the-role-of-dendritic-cell-maturation-in-the-induction-of-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus
#14
REVIEW
Jacques C Mbongue, Hector A Nieves, Timothy W Torrez, William H R Langridge
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the dominant class of antigen-presenting cells in humans and are largely responsible for the initiation and guidance of innate and adaptive immune responses involved in maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) phagocytize pathogens and toxic proteins and in endosomal vesicles degrade them into small fragments for presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II receptor molecules to naïve cognate T cells (Th0). In addition to their role in stimulation of immunity, DCs are involved in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance toward self-antigens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395110/murine-models-of-transplantation-tolerance-through-mixed-chimerism-advances-and-roadblocks
#15
REVIEW
Benedikt Mahr, Thomas Wekerle
Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ failure but chronic immunosuppression is taking its toll in terms of morbidity and poor efficacy in preventing late graft loss. Therefore a drug-free state would be desirable where the recipient permanently accepts a donor organ while remaining otherwise fully immunologically competent. Mouse studies unveiled mixed chimerism as an effective approach to deliberately induce such donor-specific tolerance and laid the foundation for a series of clinical pilot trials...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394950/generation-and-characterization-of-an-antagonistic-monoclonal-antibody-against-an-extracellular-domain-of-mouse-dp2-crth2-gpr44-receptors-for-prostaglandin-d2
#16
Nanae Nagata, Hiroko Iwanari, Hidetoshi Kumagai, Osamu Kusano-Arai, Yuichi Ikeda, Kosuke Aritake, Takao Hamakubo, Yoshihiro Urade
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a lipid mediator involved in sleep regulation and inflammation. PGD2 interacts with 2 types of G protein-coupled receptors, DP1 and DP2/CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells)/GPR44 to show a variety of biological effects. DP1 activation leads to Gs-mediated elevation of the intracellular cAMP level, whereas activation of DP2 decreases this level via the Gi pathway; and it also induces G protein-independent, arrestin-mediated cellular responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391953/-efficacy-of-the-treatment-and-secondary-antifungal-prophylaxis-in-aids-related-histoplasmosis-experience-at-the-francisco-j-mu%C3%A3-iz-infectious-diseases-hospital-in-buenos-aires
#17
Ricardo Negroni, Fernando Messina, Alicia Arechavala, Gabriela Santiso, Mario Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Classic histoplasmosis is a systemic endemic mycosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. A significant reduction in the morbidity and mortality of AIDS-related histoplasmosis has been observed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and secondary antifungal prophylaxis. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of prognosis and treatment response of HIV-positive patients with histoplasmosis in the Francisco J...
April 5, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390925/proteomic-analysis-of-human-plasma-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#18
Sara Pinna, Sara Pasella, Marta Deiana, Angela Baralla, Andrea Mannu, Antonio Giovanni Emilio Masala, Piera Veronica Pileri, Nicola Deiana, Fabrizio Scognamillo, Carlo Pala, Angelo Zinellu, Ciriaco Carru, Luca Deiana
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations and incompletely understood pathogenesis. This autoimmune disease is characterized by alterations in both the innate and adaptive immune system that lead to the loss of immunologic tolerance. In autoimmune diseases particularly in SLE, early diagnosis, flare or remission phases can be difficult to identify. Proteomics can help to find new therapeutic targets and it also could help to better understand the cellular mechanisms...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380494/accelerated-up-dosing-of-subcutaneous-immunotherapy-with-a-registered-allergoid-birch-pollen-preparation
#19
Krzysztof Buczyłko, Jan F van der Werf, Diderik Boot, Ronald van Ree
BACKGROUND: Early pollen flight and new allergens prolonging the pollen season means that the time for up-dosing of allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) outside the pollen season becomes shorter. Hence, for patients who wish or need to be up-dosed faster, an accelerated induction regimen would provide a useful treatment option. METHODS: An accelerated up-dosing regimen (0.1-0.3-0.5 mL at weekly intervals) was compared to conventional up-dosing (0...
April 6, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379115/granulomatous-reaction-to-belotero-balance-a-case-study
#20
Jessica Gandy, Dina Bierman, Christopher Zachary
OBJECTIVE: The most commonly used dermal fillers are hyaluronic acids (HAs), and in general, are well tolerated with mild to moderate risk of adverse events. The most frequently reported side effects are injection site erythema and bruising. We present the first case of a patient who developed a severe granulomatous foreign body reaction to the HA filler, Belotero Balance. In our review of the literature, a granulomatous reaction has never before been reported as a side effect of this particular HA filler (1)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
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