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Immunological tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775752/the-genetics-and-molecular-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-in-populations-of-different-ancestry
#1
REVIEW
George N Goulielmos, Maria I Zervou, Vassilis M Vazgiourakis, Yogita Ghodke-Puranik, Alexandros Garyfallos, Timothy B Niewold
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 152700) is a highly heterogeneous disorder, characterized by differences in autoantibody profile, serum cytokines, and a multi-system involvement commonly affecting the skin, renal, musculoskeletal, and hematopoetic systems clinical manifestations involving. Disease features range from mild manifestations, such as rash or arthritis, to life-threatening end-organ manifestations, such as glomerulonephritis or thrombosis, and it is difficult to predict which manifestations will affect a given patient...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773311/-corneal-endothelial-cell-therapy-a-review
#2
REVIEW
V Kocaba, O Damour, C Auxenfans, C Burillon
In France, endothelial dysfunction represents approximately one half of the indications for corneal transplants performed each year. However, the use of endothelial keratoplasty is limited by the technical difficulty of the procedure, a shortage of available grafts, and the potential for graft failure or rejection. These limitations are driving researchers to develop new, less invasive, and more effective therapies. Corneal endothelial cell therapy is being explored as a potential therapeutic measure, to avoid the uncertainty associated with grafting...
May 14, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772544/antigen-specific-therapy-of-graves%C3%A2-disease-and-orbitopathy-by-induction-of-tolerance
#3
Martin Ungerer, Julia Fabbender, Hans-Peter Holthoff
Graves´ disease is an autoimmune disorder, which is characterized by stimulatory antibodies targeting the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), resulting in hyperthyroidism and multiple organ damage. The disease can be modelled in mice using adenoviral immunizations with the extracellular A subunit of the TSHR, which induces a long-term stable disease state. TSHR binding cAMP-stimulatory antibodies, thyroid enlargement, elevated serum thyroxin levels, tachycardia, cardiac hypertrophy and orbitopathy are observed in these Ad-TSHR-immunized mice...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772494/effects-of-ceftriaxone-induced-intestinal-dysbacteriosis-on-regulatory-t-cells-validated-by-anaphylactic-mice
#4
Xia Luo, Zengfeng Pan, Shuang Luo, Qi Liu, Shaowei Huang, Guanghua Yang, Feifei Nong, Yajun Fu, Xiangliang Deng, Lian Zhou
Both probiotics and pathogens in the human gut express pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and die with the release of endotoxin and bacterial DNA, which can stimulate our immune system and cause immune reaction. However, it's interesting and fascinating to address why the normal intestinal flora will not generate immunological rejection like the pathogen does. By investigating the changes in cells and molecules relevant to immune tolerance in mice with ceftriaxone-induced dysbacteriosis, our study discovered that both the Evenness indexes and Shannon Wiener index of intestinal flora showed a decrease in dysbacteriosis mice...
May 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766256/monogenic-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-insights-in-pathophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Ezgi Deniz Batu
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease with different genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis. Monogenic SLE could help us understand the main phases of immune dysregulation in SLE. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on monogenic SLE with the implications of the respective genes on disease pathogenesis. A comprehensive literature search on monogenic SLE was conducted utilizing the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE/PubMed databases...
May 15, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765386/design-of-a-type-1-diabetes-vaccine-candidate-using-edible-plants-expressing-a-major-autoantigen
#6
Edoardo Bertini, Matilde Merlin, Elisa Gecchele, Andrea Puggia, Annalisa Brozzetti, Mauro Commisso, Alberto Falorni, Vittorio Bini, Victor Klymyuk, Mario Pezzotti, Linda Avesani
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease involving the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. It is often diagnosed by the detection of autoantibodies, typically those recognizing insulin itself or the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65). Oral insulin can be used to induce systemic immunological tolerance and thus prevent or delay the onset of T1D, suggesting that combination treatments with other autoantigens such as GAD65 could be even more successful. GAD65 has induced oral tolerance and prevented T1D in preclinical studies but it is difficult to produce in sufficient quantities for clinical testing...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760711/selective-modulation-of-tnf-tnfrs-signaling-insights-for-multiple-sclerosis-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Valentina Pegoretti, Wia Baron, Jon D Laman, Ulrich L M Eisel
Autoimmunity develops when self-tolerance mechanisms are failing to protect healthy tissue. A sustained reaction to self is generated, which includes the generation of effector cells and molecules that destroy tissues. A way to restore this intrinsic tolerance is through immune modulation that aims at refurbishing this immunologically naïve or unresponsive state, thereby decreasing the aberrant immune reaction taking place. One major cytokine has been shown to play a pivotal role in several autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS): tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) modulates the induction and maintenance of an inflammatory process and it comes in two variants, soluble TNF (solTNF) and transmembrane bound TNF (tmTNF)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760704/exploring-the-immunomodulatory-moonlighting-activities-of-acute-phase-proteins-for-tolerogenic-dendritic-cell-generation
#8
REVIEW
Inmaculada Serrano, Ana Luque, Josep M Aran
The acute phase response is generated by an overwhelming immune-inflammatory process against infection or tissue damage, and represents the initial response of the organism in an attempt to return to homeostasis. It is mediated by acute phase proteins (APPs), an assortment of highly conserved plasma reactants of seemingly different functions that, however, share a common protective role from injury. Recent studies have suggested a crosstalk between several APPs and the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) in the resolution of inflammation, to restore tissue integrity and function...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760532/apoptotic-cell-induced-ahr-activity-is-required-for-immunological-tolerance-and-suppression-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-mice-and-humans
#9
Rahul Shinde, Kebria Hezaveh, Marie Jo Halaby, Andreas Kloetgen, Ankur Chakravarthy, Tiago da Silva Medina, Reema Deol, Kieran P Manion, Yuriy Baglaenko, Maria Eldh, Sara Lamorte, Drew Wallace, Sathi Babu Chodisetti, Buvana Ravishankar, Haiyun Liu, Kapil Chaudhary, David H Munn, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Michael Madaio, Susanne Gabrielsson, Zahi Touma, Joan Wither, Daniel D De Carvalho, Tracy L McGaha
The transcription factor AhR modulates immunity at multiple levels. Here we report that phagocytes exposed to apoptotic cells exhibited rapid activation of AhR, which drove production of the cytokine IL-10. Activation of AhR was dependent on interactions between apoptotic-cell DNA and the pattern-recognition receptor TLR9 that was required for the prevention of immune responses to DNA and histones in vivo. Moreover, disease progression in mouse systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlated with strength of the AhR signal, and the disease course could be altered by modulation of AhR activity...
May 14, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757903/contemporary-strategies-and-barriers-to-transplantation-tolerance
#10
Brian Ezekian, Paul M Schroder, Kyle Freischlag, Janghoon Yoon, Jean Kwun, Stuart J Knechtle
The purpose of this review is to discuss immunologic tolerance as it applies to solid organ transplantation and to identify barriers that hinder the achievement of this long-term goal. First, the definition of tolerance and an introduction of mechanisms by which tolerance exists or can be achieved will be discussed. Next, a review of contemporary attempts at achieving transplant tolerance will be described. Finally, a discussion of the humoral barriers to transplantation tolerance and potential ways to overcome these barriers will be presented...
May 2, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752993/cancer-stem-cells-regulation-programs-immunological-properties-and-immunotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Dingxiao Zhang, Dean G Tang, Kiera Rycaj
It is becoming increasingly clear that virtually all types of human cancers harbor a small population of stem-like cancer cells (i.e., cancer stem cells, CSCs). These CSCs preexist in primary tumors, can self-renew and are more tolerant of standard treatments, such as antimitotic and molecularly targeted agents, most of which preferentially eliminate differentiated and proliferating cancer cells. CSCs are therefore postulated as the root of therapy resistance, relapse and metastasis. Aside from surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, immunotherapy is now established as the fourth pillar in the therapeutic armamentarium for patients with cancer, especially late-stage and advanced cancers...
May 9, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752757/subcutaneous-immunotherapy-suppresses-th2-inflammation-and-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-but-sublingual-immunotherapy-suppresses-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-grass-pollen-mouse-models-for-allergic-asthma
#12
Laura Hesse, Uilke Brouwer, Arjen H Petersen, Renée Gras, Lisette Bosman, Jens Brimnes, Joanne N G Oude Elberink, Antoon J M van Oosterhout, Martijn C Nawijn
BACKGROUND: Both subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SCIT and SLIT) have been shown to effectively suppress allergic manifestations upon allergen exposure, providing long term relief from symptoms in allergic disorders including allergic asthma. Clinical studies directly comparing SCIT and SLIT report a different kinetics and magnitude of immunological changes induced during treatment. Comparative studies into the mechanisms underlying immune suppression in SCIT and SLIT are lacking...
May 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751365/the-interplay-between-risk-and-preventive-factors-explains-why-some-children-develop-allergies-to-certain-foods-and-others-show-tolerance
#13
REVIEW
Sami Remes, Petri Kulmala
AIM: A number of studies have clarified the tolerance mechanisms and risk factors for food allergies. Our aim was to explore food allergy symptoms by target organs, together with the risk factors and how to prevent food allergies and induce tolerance. METHODS: We carried out a thorough review of studies on paediatric food allergies published in the last decade. RESULTS: Food allergy symptoms may affect the skin, nasal and oral mucosa, conjunctivae, gastrointestinal tract, or, in severe cases, the respiratory tract and cardiovascular organs...
May 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749672/transgenic-mice-that-accept-luciferase-or-gfp-expressing-syngeneic-tumor-cells-at-high-efficiencies
#14
Naoki Aoyama, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Hitoshi Miyachi, Masahiro Sonoshita, Masaru Okabe, Makoto Mark Taketo
Jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and firefly luciferase can serve as versatile tracking markers for identification and quantification of transplanted cancer cells in vivo. However, immune reactions against these markers can hamper the formation of syngraft tumors and metastasis that follows. Here, we report two transgenic (Tg) mouse lines that express nonfunctional mutant marker proteins, namely modified firefly luciferase (Luc2) or enhanced GFP (EGFP). These mice, named as Tg-mLuc2 and Tg-mEGFP, turned out to be immunologically tolerant to the respective tracking markers and thus efficiently accepted syngeneic cancer cells expressing the active forms of the markers...
May 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741731/expression-of-grim-19-in-unexplained-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion-and-possible-pathogenesis
#15
Yang Yang, Laiyang Cheng, Xiaohui Deng, Hongling Yu, Lan Chao
STUDY QUESTION: Is aberrant expression of gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19) associated with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA)? SUMMARY ANSWER: GRIM-19 deficiency may regulate regulatory T cell/ T helper 17 cell (Treg/Th17) balance partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis in URSA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Immunological disorders may cause impaired maternal immune tolerance to the fetus and result in fetal rejection...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738575/adoptive-transfer-of-dendritic-cells-expressing-cd11c-reduces-the-immunological-response-associated-with-experimental-colitis-in-balb-c-mice
#16
Lisiery N Paiatto, Fernanda G D Silva, Áureo T Yamada, Wirla M S C Tamashiro, Patricia U Simioni
INTRODUCTION: In addition to conventional therapies, several new strategies have been proposed for modulating autoimmune diseases, including the adoptive transfer of immunological cells. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be one of the most promising treatments for autoimmune disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of adoptive transfer of DCs obtained from both naïve and ovalbumin (OVA)-tolerant mice on the severity of TNBS induced colitis and analyze the eventual protective mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737455/current-and-future-use-of-chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-in-infectious-immune-neoplastic-and-neurological-diseases-a-mini-review
#17
REVIEW
Domenico Plantone, Tatiana Koudriavtseva
The process of finding new therapeutic indications for currently used drugs, defined as 'repurposing', is receiving growing attention. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, with an original indication to prevent or cure malaria, have been successfully used to treat several infectious (HIV, Q fever, Whipple's disease, fungal infections), rheumatological (systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome), and other immunological diseases. Indeed, they have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, anti-infective, antithrombotic, and metabolic effects...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735482/cd71-erythroid-suppressor-cells-promote-fetomaternal-tolerance-through-arginase-2-and-pdl-1
#18
Cole Delyea, Najmeh Bozorgmehr, Petya Koleva, Garett Dunsmore, Shima Shahbaz, Vivian Huang, Shokrollah Elahi
Survival of the allogeneic pregnancy depends on the maintenance of immune tolerance to paternal alloantigens at the fetomaternal interface. Multiple localized mechanisms contribute to the fetal evasion from the mother's immune rejection as the fetus is exposed to a wide range of stimulatory substances such as maternal alloantigens, microbes and amniotic fluids. In this article, we demonstrate that CD71+ erythroid cells are expanded at the fetomaternal interface and in the periphery during pregnancy in both humans and mice...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729842/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-inhibit-activation-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-production-of-naive-cd4-t-cells-from-women-with-unexplained-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion
#19
Hossein Motedayyen, Abbas Rezaei, Amir-Hassan Zarnani, Nader Tajik
Unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) has been assumed to be caused by a defect in maternal immunological tolerance to the fetus. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) have stem cell-like features and the ability to modulate the innate and adoptive immune responses. This study aimed to investigate whether hAECs have immunomodulatory effects on naive CD4+ T cells from URSA patients. hAECs were obtained from 15 healthy pregnant women and phenotypic profile of hAECs was determined by flow cytometry...
May 2, 2018: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728568/egr2-independent-klf1-mediated-induction-of-pd-l1-in-cd4-t-cells
#20
Shuzo Teruya, Tomohisa Okamura, Toshihiko Komai, Mariko Inoue, Yukiko Iwasaki, Shuji Sumitomo, Hirofumi Shoda, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Keishi Fujio
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-mediated induction of immune tolerance has been vigorously investigated in autoimmunity and anti-tumor immunity. However, details of the mechanism by which PD-L1 is induced in CD4+ T cells are unknown. Here, we revealed the potential function of Klf1 and Egr2-mediated induction of PD-L1 in CD4+ T cells. We focused on the molecules specifically expressed in CD4+ CD25- LAG3+ regulatory T cells (LAG3+ Tregs) highly express of PD-L1 and transcription factor Egr2. Although ectopic expression of Egr2 induced PD-L1, a deficiency of Egr2 did not affect its expression, indicating the involvement of another PD-L1 induction mechanism...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
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