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Immunological tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716080/pretreatment-antigen-specific-immunity-and-regulation-association-with-subsequent-immune-response-to-anti-tumor-dna-vaccination
#1
Laura E Johnson, Brian M Olson, Douglas G McNeel
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies have demonstrated clinical benefit for many types of cancers, however many patients do not respond, and treatment-related adverse effects can be severe. Hence many efforts are underway to identify treatment predictive biomarkers. We have reported the results of two phase I trials using a DNA vaccine encoding prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. In both trials, persistent PAP-specific Th1 immunity developed in some patients, and this was associated with favorable changes in serum PSA kinetics...
July 18, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713035/intracerebral-gene-therapy-in-children-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-iiib-syndrome-an-uncontrolled-phase-1-2-clinical-trial
#2
Marc Tardieu, Michel Zérah, Marie-Lise Gougeon, Jérome Ausseil, Stéphanie de Bournonville, Béatrice Husson, Dimitrios Zafeiriou, Giancarlo Parenti, Philippe Bourget, Béatrice Poirier, Valérie Furlan, Cécile Artaud, Thomas Baugnon, Thomas Roujeau, Ronald G Crystal, Christian Meyer, Kumaran Deiva, Jean-Michel Heard
BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB syndrome (also known as Sanfilippo type B syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease resulting in progressive deterioration of cognitive acquisition after age 2-4 years. No treatment is available for the neurological manifestations of the disease. We sought to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel intracerebral gene therapy. METHODS: Local regulatory authorities in France allowed inclusion of up to four children in this phase 1/2 study...
July 13, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709944/latex-proteins-from-calotropis-procera-toxicity-and-immunological-tolerance-revisited
#3
Camila F Bezerra, Érika F Mota, Ana Claudia M Silva, Adriana R Tomé, Maria Z R Silva, Daniel de Brito, Camila T M N Porfírio, Ariclécio C Oliveira, José V Lima-Filho, Márcio V Ramos
Many thousands of plants are disseminated worldwide in traditional and folk medicines based on the belief that their leaves, roots, seeds, bark or secretions, when adequately handled, can treat, alleviate or ameliorate numerous disease symptoms. Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) is a popular medicinal plant and the claims of this shrub's phytomedicinal properties have been scientifically validated. In this study, further prospects towards the in vivo toxicity and oral immunological tolerance of phytomodulatory proteins isolated from the latex of C...
July 11, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708979/why-human-anti-gal%C3%AE-1-4gal%C3%AE-1-4glc-natural-antibodies-do-not-recognize-the-trisaccharide-on-erythrocyte-membrane-molecular-dynamics-and-immunochemical-investigation
#4
Pavel Volynsky, Roman Efremov, Ilya Mikhalev, Kira Dobrochaeva, Alexander Tuzikov, Elena Korchagina, Polina Obukhova, Evgenia Rapoport, Nicolai Bovin
BACKGROUND: Human blood contains a big variety of natural antibodies, circulating throughout life at constant concentration. Previously, we have found natural antibodies capable of binding to trisaccharide Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc (P(k)) practically in all humans. Intriguingly, the same trisaccharide is a key fragment of glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) - normal component of erythrocyte and endothelial cell membrane, i.e. the antibodies and their cognate antigen coexist without any immunological reaction...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704651/synergy-between-the-host-immune-system-and-bacteriophage-is-essential-for-successful-phage-therapy-against-an-acute-respiratory-pathogen
#5
Dwayne R Roach, Chung Yin Leung, Marine Henry, Eric Morello, Devika Singh, James P Di Santo, Joshua S Weitz, Laurent Debarbieux
The rise of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacteria has spurred renewed interest in the use of bacteriophages in therapy. However, mechanisms contributing to phage-mediated bacterial clearance in an animal host remain unclear. We investigated the effects of host immunity on the efficacy of phage therapy for acute pneumonia caused by MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a mouse model. Comparing efficacies of phage-curative and prophylactic treatments in healthy immunocompetent, MyD88-deficient, lymphocyte-deficient, and neutrophil-depleted murine hosts revealed that neutrophil-phage synergy is essential for the resolution of pneumonia...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699799/immunization-of-balb-c-mice-with-pigeon-igy-induces-the-production-of-anti-igg-autoantibodies
#6
Ivan Sammir Aranda-Uribe, Enrique Ortega, Erasmo Martínez-Cordero
The breakdown of immunological tolerance due to the activation of autoreactive B and T cells triggers physiopathological processes. An example of such conditions is the production of IgG autoantibodies specific for the Fc portion of IgG (anti-Fcγ IgG). Previous reports have shown that patients with pigeon-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis exhibit an increase in the serum levels of anti-Fcγ IgG. There is no in vivo model for the study of this condition and the immunological mechanisms of tolerance breakdown associated with sensitization by pigeon antigens are still unknown...
July 12, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698284/breaching-peripheral-tolerance-promotes-the-production-of-hiv-1-neutralizing-antibodies
#7
Kristin M S Schroeder, Amanda Agazio, Pamela J Strauch, Sean T Jones, Scott B Thompson, Michael S Harper, Roberta Pelanda, Mario L Santiago, Raul M Torres
A subset of characterized HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are polyreactive with additional specificities for self-antigens and it has been proposed immunological tolerance may present a barrier to their participation in protective humoral immunity. We address this hypothesis by immunizing autoimmune-prone mice with HIV-1 Envelope (Env) and characterizing the primary antibody response for HIV-1 neutralization. We find autoimmune mice generate neutralizing antibody responses to tier 2 HIV-1 strains with alum treatment alone in the absence of Env...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696300/acetylcholine-producing-nk-cells-attenuate-cns-inflammation-via-modulation-of-infiltrating-monocytes-macrophages
#8
Wei Jiang, Daojing Li, Ranran Han, Chao Zhang, Wei-Na Jin, Kristofer Wood, Qiang Liu, Fu-Dong Shi, Junwei Hao
The nonneural cholinergic system of immune cells is pivotal for the maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Here we demonstrate the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and cholinergic enzymes in murine natural killer (NK) cells. The capacity for acetylcholine synthesis by NK cells increased markedly under inflammatory conditions such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in which ChAT expression escalated along with the maturation of NK cells. ChAT(+) and ChAT(-) NK cells displayed distinctive features in terms of cytotoxicity and chemokine/cytokine production...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685970/invariant-natural-killer-cells-change-after-an-oral-allergy-desensitization-protocol-for-cow-s-milk
#9
Antonella Cianferoni, Rushani Saltzman, Francesca Saretta, Simona Barni, Emily Dudek, Mary Kelleher, Jonathan M Spergel
BACKGROUND: Cow milk (CM) allergy (CMA) affects up to 3% of the pediatric population and recent data suggest that only about 50% will outgrow by age 8. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a type of immune-modulating treatment that is able to induce desensitization to food allergens, to increase tolerance threshold, to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis, and to improve the patient's quality of life. The examination of the immunological changes observed during the establishment of food allergy (FA) desensitization in FA patients is a window into the pathogenesis of food allergy and food tolerance development...
July 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684695/secretory-leukoprotease-inhibitor-slpi-expression-is-required-for-educating-murine-dendritic-cells-inflammatory-response-following-quercetin-exposure
#10
Stefania De Santis, Vanessa Galleggiante, Letizia Scandiffio, Marina Liso, Eduardo Sommella, Anastasia Sobolewski, Vito Spilotro, Aldo Pinto, Pietro Campiglia, Grazia Serino, Angelo Santino, Maria Notarnicola, Marcello Chieppa
Dendritic cells' (DCs) ability to present antigens and initiate the adaptive immune response confers them a pivotal role in immunological defense against hostile infection and, at the same time, immunological tolerance towards harmless components of the microbiota. Food products can modulate the inflammatory status of intestinal DCs. Among nutritionally-derived products, we investigated the ability of quercetin to suppress inflammatory cytokines secretion, antigen presentation, and DCs migration towards the draining lymph nodes...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682499/high-dose-dexamethasone-or-all-trans-retinoic-acid-restores-the-balance-of-macrophage-toward-m2-in-immune-thrombocytopenia
#11
Q Feng, M Xu, Y Y Yu, Y Hou, X Mi, Y X Sun, S Ma, X Y Zuo, L L Shao, M Hou, X H Zhang, J Peng
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder. Deficiency of immune-tolerance in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and cross-communication between APCs and T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of ITP. Macrophages can polarize into pro-inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes in response to different environmental stimuli, and possess diverse immunological functions OBJECTIVES: To investigate the imbalance of M1/M2 in ITP and whether high-dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) could restore this imbalance METHODS: Numbers of M1 and M2 in the spleens of ITP patients and patients with traumatic spleen rupture were analyzed by immunofluorescence...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679643/endogenous-heat-shock-protein-induction-with-or-without-radiofrequency-ablation-or-cryoablation-in-patients-with-stage-iv-melanoma
#12
Evidio Domingo-Musibay, James M Heun, Wendy K Nevala, Matthew Callstrom, Thomas Atwell, Evanthia Galanis, Lori A Erickson, Svetomir N Markovic
LESSONS LEARNED: Percutaneous thermal ablation combined with in situ granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor cytokine therapy was technically feasible and well tolerated.No significant clinical or immunologic responses were seen. BACKGROUND: Melanoma tumor-derived heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and HSP-peptide complexes can elicit protective antitumor responses. The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) chemokine can also promote uptake and processing by professional antigen presenting cells (APCs)...
July 5, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677237/superiority-of-a-vitamin-b12-barrier-cream-compared-with-standard-glycerol-petrolatum-based-emollient-cream-in-the-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis-a-randomized-left-to-right-comparative-trial
#13
S P Nistico, E Del Duca, F Tamburi, E Pignataro, N De Carvalho, F Farnetani, G Pellacani
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a result of complex genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and immunological interactions with an overlapping epidermal barrier defect. The study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of topical Vitamin B12-barrier cream (MB12) compared with standard glycerol-petrolatum-based emollient cream (GPC) used three times a day for mild AD. The study was conducted as a on one hemi-body randomized, controlled, single-blind, intra-patient left-to-right comparative trial by patients with clinical diagnosis of mild AD measured with total SCORAD index over 4 months...
July 4, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676527/the-id-genotype-of-mdm2-40-bp-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-was-associated-with-lower-risk-of-sle
#14
Saeedeh Salimi, Mahnaz Rezaei, Abbas Mohammadpour-Gharehbagh, Mojtaba Sajadian, Mahnaz Sandoughi
BACKGROUND: In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), loss of immunological tolerance to self-nuclear antigens and abnormal activation of self-reactive T and B cells lead to self-antibodies and immune complex production. The autoreactive lymphocytes are removed by the apoptotic process in healthy individuals; however, apoptosis disruption could cause accumulation of apoptotic bodies and nuclear debris. Therefore, apoptosis plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases...
July 4, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673007/cytokine-induced-killer-cell-therapy-for-modulating-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Baodan Yu, Junli Wang, Chen He, Wei Wang, Jianli Tang, Runhui Zheng, Chengzhi Zhou, Huanhuan Zhang, Zhiping Fu, Qiasheng Li, Jun Xu
Previous studies have reported that regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are physiologically engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, have a critical role in the regulation of the antitumor immune response. Targeting Tregs has the potential to augment cancer vaccine approaches. The current study therefore aimed to evaluate the role of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell infusion in modulating Tregs in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 15 patients with advanced NSCLC were treated by an infusion of CIK cells derived from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665947/a-score-test-for-comparing-cross-sectional-survival-data-with-a-fraction-of-non-susceptible-patients-and-its-application-in-clinical-immunology
#16
Sarah Flora Jonas, Cyprien Mbogning, Signe Hässler, Philippe Broët
OBJECTIVES: In cross-sectional studies of time-to-event data collected by patient examinations at a single random point in time, a fraction of them will not experience the event regardless of the length of the follow-up time. This is the case in clinical immunology studies that include a mixed population, with both immune-reactive and immune-tolerant (or non-susceptible) patients. In these cases, classical tests of current status data may perform poorly. New methods for testing these data are needed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660988/clinical-and-immunological-changes-in-patients-with-active-moderate-to-severe-graves%C3%AC-orbitopathy-treated-with-very-low-dose-rituximab
#17
David Karasek, Lubica Cibickova, Marta Karhanova, Jana Kalitova, Jan Schovanek, Zdenek Frysak
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoids represent the therapy of choice for active and moderate-to-severe Graves̕ orbitopathy (GO). In some patients, rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the cluster of differentiation (CD) 20 receptor of B-lymphocytes, can serve as a second-line or an alternative treatment. The effect of very low-doseof rituximabon the clinical activity of GO and corresponding clinical or laboratory changes is reported. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Changes of Clinical Activity Score (CAS) for GO, proptosis, levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, and depletion of CD19+ and CD20+ B-lymphocytes were determined in ten patients (two men and eight women) with active moderate-to-severe GO treated with a single 100-mg dose of rituximab...
June 29, 2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660010/liver-immunology-and-herbal-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Yasemin H Balaban, Ceylan Aka, Ufuk Koca-Caliskan
Beyond the metabolic functions, the liver recently has been defined as an organ of immune system (IS), which have central regulatory role for innate and adaptive immunity. The liver keeps a delicate balance between hepatic screening of pathogenic antigens and immune tolerance to self-antigens. Herbal treatments with immunological effects have potential to alter this hepatic immune balance towards either therapeutic side or diseases side by inducing liver injury via hepatotoxicity or initiation of autoimmune diseases...
June 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659913/lactobacillus-johnsonii-n6-2-modulates-the-host-immune-responses-a-double-blind-randomized-trial-in-healthy-adults
#19
Guillermo E Marcial, Amanda L Ford, Michael J Haller, Salvador A Gezan, Natalie A Harrison, Dan Cai, Julie L Meyer, Daniel J Perry, Mark A Atkinson, Clive H Wasserfall, Timothy Garrett, Claudio F Gonzalez, Todd M Brusko, Wendy J Dahl, Graciela L Lorca
Lactobacillus johnsonii N6.2 mitigates the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in biobreeding diabetes-prone rats, in part, through changes in kynurenine:tryptophan (K:T) ratios. The goal of this pilot study was to determine the safety, tolerance, and general immunological response of L. johnsonii N6.2 in healthy subjects. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial in 42 healthy individuals with no known risk factors for T1D was undertaken to evaluate subject responses to the consumption of L. johnsonii N6.2. Participants received 1 capsule/day containing 10(8) colony-forming units of L...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658271/regulatory-t-cell-frequencies-and-phenotypes-following-anti-viral-vaccination
#20
A Charlotte M T de Wolf, Susan van Aalst, Irene S Ludwig, Caroline L Bodinham, David J Lewis, Ruurd van der Zee, Willem van Eden, Femke Broere
Regulatory T cells (Treg) function in the prevention of excessive inflammation and maintenance of immunological homeostasis. However, these cells may also interfere with resolution of infections or with immune reactions following vaccination. Effects of Treg on vaccine responses are nowadays investigated, but the impact of vaccination on Treg homeostasis is still largely unknown. This may be a relevant safety aspect, since loss of tolerance through reduced Treg may trigger autoimmunity. In exploratory clinical trials, healthy adults were vaccinated with an influenza subunit vaccine plus or minus the adjuvant MF59®, an adjuvanted hepatitis B subunit vaccine or a live attenuated yellow fever vaccine...
2017: PloS One
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