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Immunological tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337522/pre-symptomatic-autoimmunity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-when-does-the-disease-start
#1
REVIEW
Alexander Tracy, Christopher D Buckley, Karim Raza
It is well recognised that a state of autoimmunity, in which immunological tolerance is broken, precedes the development of symptoms in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For individuals who will later develop seropositive disease, this manifests as autoantibodies directed against proteins that have undergone specific post-translational modifications. There is evidence that the induction of this autoantibody response occurs at peripheral extra-articular mucosal sites, such as the periodontium and lung...
March 23, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335888/second-and-third-generation-drugs-for-immuno-oncology-treatment-the-more-the-better
#2
REVIEW
Wolfram C M Dempke, Klaus Fenchel, Peter Uciechowski, Stephen P Dale
Recent success in cancer immunotherapy (anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD1/PD-L1) has confirmed the hypothesis that the immune system can control many cancers across various histologies, in some cases producing durable responses in a way not seen with many small-molecule drugs. However, only less than 25% of all patients do respond to immuno-oncology drugs and several resistance mechanisms have been identified (e.g. T-cell exhaustion, overexpression of caspase-8 and β-catenin, PD-1/PD-L1 gene amplification, MHC-I/II mutations)...
March 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335692/liposomal-amphotericin-b-ambisome%C3%A2-at-beginning-of-its-third-decade-of-clinical-use
#3
Franco Aversa, Alessandro Busca, Anna Candoni, Simone Cesaro, Corrado Girmenia, Mario Luppi, Anna Maria Nosari, Livio Pagano, Luigina Romani, Giuseppe Rossi, Adriano Venditti, Andrea Novelli
Haematologists have been using liposomal amphotericin-B (L-AMB) since 1993 and despite the introduction of several novel antifungal agents over the past decade, their propensity to prescribe L-AMB remains unchanged. Although antifungal guidelines strongly recommend voriconazole as the drug of choice in the treatment of probable and proven invasive fungal disease (IFD), L-AMB is widely used in the real life because of its several advantages in terms of wide anti-mould spectrum, tolerability and efficacy. Furthermore, the concept that L-AMB is endowed with immune-modulating effects, which may have a role in fighting IFD, represent another reason for its use in patients who do not tolerate an excess of inflammation...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328655/vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-an-emerging-concept-for-burn-reconstruction
#4
Zhi Yang Ng, Alexandre G Lellouch, Tessa Drijkoningen, Irene A Chang, David H Sachs, Curtis L Cetrulo
Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has demonstrated utility in the reconstruction of extensive soft-tissue defects following severe burns. However, pre-VCA events such as multiple transfusions, previous transplantation and pregnancies, the use of skin allografts, and mechanical support devices may result in sensitization and ultimately exclude a burn patient, who may benefit most through VCA, from a hand or face transplant. The authors sought to identify the immunologic challenges involved. All reported VCA cases up to July 2016 were reviewed...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327619/il-36%C3%AE-signaling-controls-the-induced-regulatory-t-cell-th9-cell-balance-via-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-stat-transcription-factors
#5
A Harusato, H Abo, V L Ngo, S W Yi, K Mitsutake, S Osuka, J E Kohlmeier, J D Li, A T Gewirtz, A Nusrat, T L Denning
Regulatory and effector T helper (Th) cells are abundant at mucosal surfaces, especially in the intestine, where they control the critical balance between tolerance and inflammation. However, the key factors that reciprocally dictate differentiation along these specific lineages remain incompletely understood. Here we report that the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family member IL-36γ signals through IL-36 receptor, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, and nuclear factor-κBp50 in CD4(+) T cells to potently inhibit Foxp3-expressing induced regulatory T cell (Treg) development, while concomitantly promoting the differentiation of Th9 cells via a IL-2-STAT5- (signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 5) and IL-4-STAT6-dependent pathway...
March 22, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327618/the-transcriptional-repressor-hic1-regulates-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#6
K Burrows, F Antignano, M Bramhall, A Chenery, S Scheer, V Korinek, T M Underhill, C Zaph
The intestine is a unique immune environment that must respond to infectious organisms but remain tolerant to commensal microbes and food antigens. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate immune cell function in the intestine remain unclear. Here we identify the POK/ZBTB family transcription factor hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1, ZBTB29) as a central component of immunity and inflammation in the intestine. HIC1 is specifically expressed in immune cells in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) in the steady state and mice with a T-cell-specific deletion of HIC1 have reduced numbers of T cells in the LP...
March 22, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326980/gene-sequence-analyses-of-the-healthy-oral-microbiome-in-humans-and-companion-animals
#7
Eric M Davis
It has long been accepted that certain oral bacterial species are responsible for the development of periodontal disease. However, the focus of microbial and immunological research is shifting from studying the organisms associated with disease to examining the indigenous microbial inhabitants that are present in health. Microbiome refers to the aggregate genetic material of all microorganisms living in, or on, a defined habitat. Recent developments in gene sequence analysis have enabled detection and identification of bacteria from polymicrobial samples, including subgingival plaque...
June 2016: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326908/sublingual-immunotherapy-tablets-as-a-disease-modifying-add-on-treatment-option-to-pharmacotherapy-for-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma
#8
Stephen Brunton, Harold S Nelson, David I Bernstein, Simon Lawton, Susan Lu, Hendrik Nolte
Allergic rhinitis (AR) with or without conjunctivitis (AR/C) is associated with a significant health and economic burden, and is often accompanied by asthma. Pharmacotherapies are the mainstay treatment options for AR and asthma, but guidelines also recommend allergy immunotherapy (AIT). Unlike pharmacotherapies, AIT has the ability to modify the underlying immunologic mechanisms of AR and asthma with the potential for long-term benefits after treatment is discontinued. Immunotherapy may also prevent progression of AR/C to asthma...
March 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321480/a-new-peptide-vaccine-ocv-501-in-vitro-pharmacology-and-phase-1-study-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Yukio Kobayashi, Toru Sakura, Shuichi Miyawaki, Kazuyuki Toga, Shinji Sogo, Yuji Heike
Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) is a promising target of new immunotherapies for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as for other cancers. OCV-501 is a helper peptide derived from the WT1 protein. OCV-501 induced OCV-501-specific Type 1 T-helper (Th1) responses dose-dependently and stimulated helper activity of the specific Th1 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. OCV-501 also enhanced the increase in WT1-killer peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. OCV-501 stimulated the OCV-501-specific Th1 clones in an HLA class-II restricted manner and formed a complex with HLA class-II protein...
March 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318808/t-cell-receptor-assessment-in-autoimmune-disease-requires-access-to-the-most-adjacent-immunologically-active-organ
#10
Bergithe E Oftedal, Brita Ardesjö Lundgren, David Hamm, Poh-Yi Gan, Stephen R Holdsworth, Christopher N Hahn, Andreas W Schreiber, Hamish S Scott
Next generation sequencing of T and B cell receptors is emerging as a valuable and effective method to diagnose and monitor hematopoietic malignancies. So far, this approach has not been fully explored in regard to autoimmune diseases. T cells develop in the thymus where they undergo positive and negative selection, and the autoimmune regulator (Aire) is central in the establishment of immunological tolerance. Loss of Aire leads to severe multiorgan autoimmune disease with infiltration of autoreactive T cells in affected organs...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315219/assessment-of-ige-reactivity-of-%C3%AE-casein-by-western-blotting-after-digestion-with-simulated-gastric-fluid
#11
Sara Benedé, Rosina López-Fandiño, Elena Molina
Cow's milk allergy is defined as an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to cow's milk proteins and it is usually, along with hen's egg allergy, the first food allergy identified in childhood.One of the main aspects to consider when evaluating the allergenic potential of food proteins is the effect of gastric digestion. It is known that allergens are usually able to survive the harsh acidic environment of the stomach, tolerate the presence of surfactants, and resist digestion by pepsin. They might also be digested into high molecular weight peptide fragments, which retain the same, or sometimes increased, IgE-binding...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314211/the-role-of-kupffer-cells-in-hepatic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Peizhi Li, Kun He, Jinzheng Li, Zuojin Liu, Jianping Gong
Kupffer cells (KCs) constitute 80-90% of the tissue macrophages present in the body. Essential to innate and adaptive immunity, KCs are responsible for the swift containment and clearance of exogenous particulates and immunoreactive materials which are perceived as foreign and harmful to the body. Similar to other macrophages, KCs also sense endogenous molecular signals that may result from perturbed homeostasis of the host. KCs have been implicated in host defense and the pathogenesis of various hepatic diseases, including endotoxin tolerance, liver transplantation, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302411/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-quadrivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-compared-with-two-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccines-containing-alternate-b-strains-in-adults-a-phase-3-randomized-noninferiority-study
#13
John T Treanor, Frank R Albano, Daphne C Sawlwin, Alison Graves Jones, Jolanta Airey, Neil Formica, Vince Matassa, Jane Leong
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most effective means of influenza prevention. Efficacy of trivalent vaccines may be enhanced by including both B strain lineages. This phase 3, double-blind study assessed the immunogenicity and safety/tolerability of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) versus the United States (US)-licensed 2014-2015 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-Yamagata [IIV3-YAM]; Afluria) and IIV3 containing the alternate Victoria B strain (IIV3-VIC) in adults ≥18years...
March 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296255/breg-dependent-islet-transplant-tolerance-is-also-nk-cell-dependent
#14
Christian Schuetz, Kang Mi Lee, Ryan Scott, Lisa Kojima, Laura Washburn, Liye Liu, Wei-Hui Liu, Haley Tector, Ji Lei, Heidi Yeh, James Kim, James F Markmann
Immunologic tolerance to solid organ and islet cell grafts has been achieved in various rodent models using antibodies directed at CD45RB and Tim-1. We have shown that this form of tolerance depends on regulatory B-cells. To elucidate further the mechanism by which Bregs induce tolerance we investigated the requirement of NK and NKT cells in this model. To do so, hyperglycemic B6, μMT, Beige or CD1d(-/-) mice received Balb/c islet grafts and treatment with the tolerance inducing regimen consisting of anti-CD45RB and anti -TIM1...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295241/indirect-effects-of-immunological-tolerance-to-a-regular-dietary-protein-reduce-cutaneous-scar-formation
#15
Thiago Anselmo Cantaruti, Raquel Alves Costa, Kênia Soares de Souza, Nelson Monteiro Vaz, Cláudia Rocha Carvalho
Oral tolerance refers to the specific inhibition of immune responsiveness to T-cell dependent antigens contacted by the oral route before parenteral immunization. Oral tolerance to one protein does not inhibit immune responses to other unrelated proteins, but parenteral injection of tolerated antigens plus adjuvant into tolerant, but not normal mice inhibits immune responses to antigens injected concomitantly or soon thereafter. The inhibitory effect triggered by parenteral injection of tolerated proteins is known as bystander suppression or indirect effects of oral tolerance...
March 12, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294590/successful-omalizumab-treatment-in-hiv-positive-patient-with-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-a-case-report
#16
E Iemoli, F Niero, L Borgonovo, M V Cossu, S Piconi
We described a case of a 56 year old homosexual HIV positive man who presented a history of CSU since one year (2012). All the allergologic, immunologic and microbiologic tests to evaluate the pathogenesis of wheals resulted negative. Therefore in June 2015 we decided to start therapy with Omalizumab while the patient kept on effective antiretroviral therapy with 310 cells/mm3 TCD4 counts and undetectable HIV viremia. After two monthly subcutaneuous injection of 150 mg of Omalizumab the patient had no more urticarial symptoms...
March 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291241/efficacy-and-safety-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-mixed-cryoglobulinemia
#17
Joel S Emery, Magdalena Kuczynski, Danie La, Saeed Almarzooqi, Matthew Kowgier, Hemant Shah, David Wong, Harry L A Janssen, Jordan J Feld
OBJECTIVES: Mixed cryoglobulinemia is strongly associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and ranges from being asymptomatic to causing life-threatening vasculitis. In those with symptoms, treatment with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) reduces mortality. However, few data are available on the safety and efficacy of antiviral therapy with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in the treatment of HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. METHODS: Patients treated for HCV-related cryoglobulinemia with DAA±pegIFN were retrospectively evaluated at a tertiary care center...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289723/setting-the-target-for-pemphigus-vulgaris-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Christoph T Ellebrecht, Aimee S Payne
Despite the rising incidence of autoimmunity, therapeutic options for patients with autoimmune disease still rely on decades-old immunosuppressive strategies that risk severe and potentially fatal complications. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches for autoimmune diseases are greatly needed in order to minimize treatment-related toxicity. Such strategies would ideally target only the autoreactive immune components to preserve beneficial immunity. Here, we review how several decades of basic, translational, and clinical research on the immunology of pemphigus vulgaris (PV), an autoantibody-mediated skin disease, have enabled the development of targeted immunotherapeutic strategies...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286106/regulatory-immune-cells-and-functions-in-autoimmunity-and-transplantation-immunology
#19
REVIEW
Gabor Papp, Peter Boros, Britt Nakken, Peter Szodoray, Margit Zeher
In physiological circumstances, various tolerogenic mechanisms support the protection of self-structures during immune responses. However, quantitative and/or qualitative changes in regulatory immune cells and mediators can evoke auto-reactive immune responses, and upon susceptible genetic background, along with the presence of other concomitant etiological factors, autoimmune disease may develop. In transplant immunology, tolerogenic mechanisms are also critical, since the balance between of alloantigen-reactive effector cells and the regulatory immune cells will ultimately determine whether a graft is accepted or rejected...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284854/effects-of-graded-dietary-levels-of-soy-protein-concentrate-supplemented-with-methionine-and-phosphate-on-the-immune-and-antioxidant-responses-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#20
Fotini Kokou, Elena Sarropoulou, Efthimia Cotou, Maroudio Kentouri, Maria Alexis, George Rigos
The effects of a dietary soy protein concentrate (SPC) as a fish meal (FM) substitute, on selected innate immune responses, the oxidative status, hepatic and intestinal morphology of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, were evaluated after a three-month feeding trial. Isonitrogenous (45% crude protein) and isoenergetic (23 kJ/g gross energy) diets with 20% (SPC20), 40% (SPC40) and 60% (SPC60) of SPC inclusion, supplemented with methionine and phosphate, were evaluated against a diet containing FM as the sole protein source...
March 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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