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Mark I McCormick, Sue-Ann Watson, Stephen D Simpson, Bridie J M Allan
Oceans of the future are predicted to be more acidic and noisier, particularly along the productive coastal fringe. This study examined the independent and combined effects of short-term exposure to elevated CO2 and boat noise on the predator-prey interactions of a pair of common coral reef fishes ( Pomacentrus wardi and its predator, Pseudochromis fuscus ). Successful capture of prey by predators was the same regardless of whether the pairs had been exposed to ambient control conditions, the addition of either playback of boat noise, elevated CO2 (925 µatm) or both stressors simultaneously...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Real Lebeau, Karim Serri, Maria Di Lorenzo, Claude Sauvé, Van Hoai Viet Le, Vicky Soulières, Malak El-Rayes, Maude Pagé, Chiméne Zaïani, Jérôme Garot, Frédéric Poulin
BACKGROUND: Simpson Biplane method and 3D by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), radionuclide angiography (RNA), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are the most accepted techniques for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) assessment. Wall motion score index (WMSI) by TTE is an accepted complement. However, the conversion from WMSI to LVEF is obtained through a regression equation which may limit its use. In this retrospective study, we aimed to validate a new method to derive LVEF from the wall motion score in 95 patients...
March 21, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Sajan C Raju, Sonja Lagström, Pekka Ellonen, Willem M de Vos, Johan G Eriksson, Elisabete Weiderpass, Trine B Rounge
Culture-independent molecular techniques and advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies make large-scale epidemiological studies on microbiota feasible. A challenge using NGS is to obtain high reproducibility and repeatability, which is mostly attained through robust amplification. We aimed to assess the reproducibility of saliva microbiota by comparing triplicate samples. The microbiota was produced with simplified in-house 16S amplicon assays taking advantage of large number of barcodes. The assays included primers with Truseq (TS-tailed) or Nextera (NX-tailed) adapters and either with dual index or dual index plus a 6-nt internal index...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
X J Wang, J H Feng, M H Zhang, X M Li, D D Ma, S S Chang
The intestinal microbiome has been shown to influence animal nutrient metabolism and immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of heat stress on the intestinal microbiome of broilers using pyrosequencing technologies. Ninety-six Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated to thermoneutral control (TC; 21 ± 1°C) and high ambient temperature (HT; 31 ± 1°C) groups (6 cages of 8 birds per group), respectively, and raised in 2 controlled climate chambers from 28 to 42 d old. Genomic DNA was extracted from ileal contents isolated from 6 male broiler chicks of each group at 42 d old, and then amplified based on the V3-4 hyper-variable region of 16S rRNA...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Mary Lavelle, Jennifer Abthorpe, Thomas Simpson, Gabriel Reedy, Fiona Little, Anita Banerjee
The majority of maternal deaths in the UK are due to pre-existing or new-onset medical conditions, known as 'indirect deaths'. The MBRRACE report identified serious gaps in clinicians' human factors skills, including communication, leadership and teamwork, which contributed to maternal death. In response, we developed the first multi-disciplinary simulation-based training programme designed to address Medical Emergencies in Obstetrics (MEmO). Employing a mixed methods design, this study evaluated the educational impact of this training programme on the healthcare staff (n = 140), including the medical doctors (n = 91) and the midwives (n = 49)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Matthew W Zackoff, Camille Graham, Denise Warrick, Kathleen Pulda, Craig Gosdin, Blair Simpson, Jessica Marischen, Paul Bunch, Michael Vossmeyer, Grant M Mussman
OBJECTIVES: During hospital admission, communication between primary care physicians (PCPs) and hospital medicine (HM) physicians provides an opportunity for collaboration. Two-way communication facilitates collaboration by allowing the receiver to ask and respond to questions. At our institution, most HM-to-PCP communication occurred by telephone call after discharge. Our specific aim was to increase the percentage of patients for whom a telephone conversation occurred between HM and PCPs during hospital admission from 40% to >80%...
March 20, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
Aamer Saeed, Mubeen Arif, Mauricio F Erben, Ulrich Flörke, Jim Simpson
Two closely related hybrid species containing both, thiazolyl and coumarin groups, were synthesized by using two different one-pot procedures from a common precursor. The reaction of α-bromoacetylcoumarin with thioacetamide in methanol furnished 3‑(2‑methylthiazol‑4‑yl)‑2H‑chromen‑2‑one (2), whereas refluxing α‑bromoacetylcoumarin with potassium thiocyanate in ethanol afforded 3‑(2‑ethoxythiazol‑4‑yl)‑2H‑chromen‑2‑one (3). Both derivatives were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction studies...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Nick X Bommer, Serena E Brownlie, Linda R Morrison, Marge L Chandler, James W Simpson
Three juvenile male Irish wolfhound littermates presented with marked polyuria and polydipsia. The four female siblings were apparently unaffected. Diagnostic testing revealed glucosuria with normoglycemia, generalized aminoaciduria, hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis consistent with Fanconi syndrome. Renal ultrasonographic and histologic findings are presented. Cases were managed with a supplementation regimen based on a treatment protocol for Fanconi syndrome in basenjis. These dogs did not have angular limb deformities as documented previously in juvenile canine siblings with Fanconi syndrome...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Robert G Ryan, Alastair Stacey, Kane M O'Donnell, Takeshi Ohshima, Brett Cameron Johnson, Lloyd C L Hollenberg, Paul Mulvaney, David Allan Simpson
Nanoscale quantum probes such as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond have demonstrated remarkable sensing capabilities over the past decade as control over the fabrication and manipulation of these systems has evolved. The bio-compatibility and rich surface chemistry of diamond has added to the utility of these probes, but as the size of these nanoscale systems is reduced, the surface chemistry of diamond begins to impact the quantum properties of the NV centre. In this work, we systematically study the effect of the diamond surface chemistry on the quantum coherence of the NV centre in nanodiamonds 50 nm in size...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chengxing Long, Yawei Liu, Lu He, Qinquan Tan, Zizhen Yu, Nenqun Xiao, Zhoujin Tan
The current study aimed at exploring the diversity of bacterial lactase genes in the intestinal mucosa of mice with dysbacterial diarrhea induced by antibiotics and to provide experimental basis for antibiotics-induced diarrhea. Mice model of dysbacterial diarrhea was established by gastric perfusion with mixture of cephradine capsules and gentamicin sulfate (23.33 mL kg-1  d-1 ), twice a day and continuously for 5 days. Intestinal mucosa from jejunum to ileum was collected, and bacterial metagenomic DNA was extracted for Miseq metagenome sequencing to carry out diversity analysis...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Yu Peng, Min Fan, Jingyi Song, Tiantian Cui, Rui Li
Fast and nondestructive approaches of measuring plant species diversity have been a subject of excessive scientific curiosity and disquiet to environmentalists and field ecologists worldwide. In this study, we measured the hyperspectral reflectances and plant species diversity indices at a fine scale (0.8 meter) in central Hunshandak Sandland of Inner Mongolia, China. The first-order derivative value (FD) at each waveband and 37 hyperspectral indices were used to assess plant species diversity. Results demonstrated that the stepwise linear regression of FD can accurately estimate the Simpson (R2  = 0...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
G F Dall, S-T J Tsang, P J Gwynne, S P MacKenzie, A H R W Simpson, S J Breusch, M P Gallagher
Objectives: To evaluate putative anti-staphylococcal biofilm antibiotic combinations used in the management of periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Methods: Using the dissolvable bead biofilm assay, the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was determined for the most commonly used antimicrobial agents and combination regimens against staphylococcal PJIs. The established fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was modified to create the fractional biofilm eradication concentration (FBEC) index to evaluate synergism or antagonism between antibiotics...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sheila Shaigany, Cory L Simpson, Robert G Micheletti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Xuzhi He, Jazmina L Cruz, Shannon Joseph, Nicola Pett, Hui Yi Chew, Zewen K Tuong, Satomi Okano, Gabrielle Kelly, Margaret Veitch, Fiona Simpson, James W Wells
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is selectively expressed on the surface of numerous tumours, such as non-small cell lung, ovarian, colorectal and head and neck carcinomas. EGFR has therefore become a target for cancer therapy. Cetuximab is a chimeric human/mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to EGFR, where it both inhibits signaling and induces cell death by antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Cetuximab has been approved for clinical use in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and colorectal cancer...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Barrett A Lee, Michael J R Martin, Stephen A Matthews, Chad R Farrell
Background: Few studies have examined long-term changes in ethnoracial diversity for US states despite the potential social, economic, and political ramifications of such changes at the state level. Objective: We describe shifts in diversity magnitude and structure from 1980 through 2015 to determine if states are following a universal upward path. Methods: Decennial census data for 1980-2010 and American Community Survey data for 2015 are used to compute entropy index ( E ) and Simpson index ( S ) measures of diversity magnitude based on five panethnic populations...
December 2017: Demographic Research
J O Frimpong, E S K Ofori, S Yeboah, D Marri, B K Offei, F Apaatah, J O Sintim, E Ofori-Ayeh, M Osae
This study evaluated three herbicides active ingredients: Paraquat, Glyphosate and 2,4-D Amine in commercial formulations as Frankoquat, Roundup and Agriherb respectively under field conditions to determine their influence on soil dwelling macrobes and the physical state of soil. Herbicides were serially diluted to three treatment concentrations for each plus three controls. Herbicide concentrations were applied to the demarcated field on three consecutive occasions in splits. Macrobes extraction from soil was done under a stereo microscope at 20 × magnification...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jeffry A Simpson, W Steven Rholes
In this article, we discuss theory and research on how people who have different adult romantic attachment orientations fare across one of life's often happiest, but also most chronically stressful, events-the transition to parenthood. We first discuss central principles of attachment theory and then review empirical research revealing how two types of attachment insecurity-anxiety and avoidance-tend to prospectively predict unique patterns of relational and personal outcomes across this often challenging life event...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Dan Zhu, Yong Ma, Sujuan Ding, Hongmei Jiang, Jun Fang
This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and intestinal bacteria community in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. Twenty mice were randomly assigned to two treatments: mice with colitis induced by 5% DSS (DSS group) and mice with colitis induced by 5% DSS that also received melatonin treatment (MEL group). The DSS group showed significantly less antioxidant capability than the MEL group, but the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of diversity index (Shannon and Simpson), bacterial culture abundance (Chao1 and ACE), and coverage (Good's coverage estimator)...
2018: BioMed Research International
John Mattila, Mike Clark, Shengjiang Liu, John Pieracci, Thomas Gervais, Eileen Wilson, Olga Galperina, Xinfang Li, David Roush, Konstantin Zoeller, Helene Brough, Christelle Simpson-Platre
Ref: Retrospective Evaluation of Low-pH Viral Inactivation and Viral Filtration Data from a Multiple Company Collaboration John Mattila, Mike Clark, Shengjiang Liu, et al. PDA J Pharm Sci and Tech 2016, 70 293-299
Access the most recent version at doi:10.5731/pdajpst.2016.006478 Due to a mathematical error we would like to submit an erratum for figure 6 p298.
March 15, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
David J Tester, Leonie C H Wong, Pritha Chanana, Amie Jaye, Jared M Evans, David R FitzPatrick, Margaret J Evans, Peter Fleming, Iona Jeffrey, Marta C Cohen, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen, Michael A Simpson, Elijah R Behr, Michael J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of postneonatal mortality. Genetic heart diseases (GHDs) underlie some cases of SIDS. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the spectrum and prevalence of GHD-associated mutations as a potential monogenic basis for SIDS. METHODS: A cohort of 419 unrelated SIDS cases (257 male; average age 2.7 ± 1.9 months) underwent whole exome sequencing and a targeted analysis of 90 GHD-susceptibility genes...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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