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Leila Hussein Abdullahi, Inge Smit, Mark E Engel, David A Watkins, Liesl Joanna Zühlke
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality globally due to weak health systems in many countries. RHD can be effectively prevented and managed; however, RHD-related interventions have not been widely adopted in countries with severe human resource constraints. Task sharing is a recognised approach to personnel shortages that could prove effective for RHD and has, anecdotally, been attempted in a few settings. We propose a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol to assess models that use non-physician workers to expand access to, and quality of, RHD-related healthcare...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Bruno R Nascimento, Craig Sable, Maria Carmo P Nunes, Adriana C Diamantino, Kaciane K B Oliveira, Cassio M Oliveira, Zilda Maria A Meira, Sandra Regina T Castilho, Júlia P A Santos, Letícia Maria M Rabelo, Karlla C A Lauriano, Gabriel A L Carmo, Allison Tompsett, Antonio Luiz P Ribeiro, Andrea Z Beaton
BACKGROUND: Considering the limited accuracy of clinical examination for early diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD), echocardiography has emerged as an important epidemiological tool. The ideal setting for screening is yet to be defined. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of latent RHD in schoolchildren (aged 5-18 years) and to compare effectiveness of screening between public schools, private schools, and primary care centers in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PROVAR (Rheumatic Valve Disease Screening Program) study uses nonexperts and portable and handheld devices for RHD echocardiographic screening, with remote interpretation by telemedicine, according to the 2012 World Heart Federation criteria...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Scott Dougherty, Andrea Beaton, Bruno R Nascimento, Liesl J Zühlke, Maziar Khorsandi, Nigel Wilson
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) has long receded as a significant threat to public health in high-income countries. In low-resource settings, however, the specter of RHD remains unabated, as exemplified by recent data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study. There are many complex reasons for this ongoing global disparity, including inadequate data on disease burden, challenges in effective advocacy, ongoing poverty and inequality, and weak health systems, most of which predominantly affect developing nations...
January 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Lisa H Telford, Leila H Abdullahi, Eleanor A Ochodo, Liesl J Zühlke, Mark E Engel
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a preventable and treatable chronic condition which persists in many developing countries largely affecting impoverished populations. Handheld echocardiography presents an opportunity to address the need for more cost-effective methods of diagnosing RHD in developing countries, where the disease continues to carry high rates of morbidity and mortality. Preliminary studies have demonstrated moderate sensitivity as well as high specificity and diagnostic odds for detecting RHD in asymptomatic patients...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
D Silvério, A M Lopes, J Melo-Ferreira, M J Magalhães, P Monterroso, A Serronha, E Maio, P C Alves, P J Esteves, J Abrantes
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a viral disease that affects the European rabbit. RHD was detected in 1984 in China and rapidly disseminated worldwide causing a severe decline in wild rabbit populations. The aetiological agent, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), is an RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, genus Lagovirus. Pathogenic (G1-G6 or variants GI.1a-GI.1d) and non-pathogenic strains (GI.4) have been characterized. In 2010, a new variant of RHDV, RHDV2/RHDVb/GI.2, was detected in France...
February 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
P Z Szymanski, M Badri, B M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on acute heart failure (AHF) and its treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure (HF), adherence to HF treatment guidelines, and mortality of patients with AHF presenting to Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: This sub-study of The Sub-Saharan Africa Survey of Heart Failure (THESUS-HF) was a prospective and observational survey that focused on the enrolment and follow-up of additional patients with AHF presenting to GSH and entered into the existing registry after publication of the primary THESUS-HF article in 2012...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Emmy Okello, Chris T Longenecker, Amy Scheel, Twalib Aliku, Joselyn Rwebembera, Grace Mirembe, Craig Sable, Peter Lwabi, Andrea Beaton
Objectives: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major driver of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings. Registry-based care for RHD has been advocated as a powerful tool to improve clinical care and track quality metrics. Data collected through an RHD registry may also reveal epidemiological and geospatial trends, as well as insight into care utilisation. Uganda established a central RHD registry at the country's only tertiary cardiac centre in 2010. In 2014 RHD care and registry enrolment expanded to the Western region and in 2015 to the North...
2018: Heart Asia
Fan-Xin Kong, Guang-Dong Sun, Zhi-Pei Liu
In order to study the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an aged and highly contaminated soil, four bioremediation strategies (indigenous microorganisms, microbial bioaugmentation with a PAH-degrading and bioemulsifier-producing strain, Rhodococcus ruber Em1, plant bioaugmentation with Orychophragmus violaceus and their combination) were compared and the enhanced degradation mechanism was investigated in soil mesocosms. Degradation rates over a period of 175 days showed that Em1 combined with Orychophragmus violaceus promoted a significant enhancement of PAHs degradation...
January 30, 2018: Chemosphere
Silvia Dei, Marcella Coronnello, Gianluca Bartolucci, Dina Manetti, Maria Novella Romanelli, Chatchanok Udomtanakunchai, Milena Salerno, Elisabetta Teodori
A series of 1,4-substituted arylalkyl piperazine derivatives were synthesized and studied with the aim to obtain potent P-gp-dependent multidrug-resistant (MDR) reversers. The new compounds were designed on the basis of the structures of our previous arylamine ester derivatives endowed with high P-gp-dependent multidrug resistance reversing activity. All new compounds were active in the pirarubicin uptake assay on the doxorubicin-resistant erythroleukemia K562 cells (K562/DOX). In particular, compounds bearing methoxy aromatic moieties showed fairly high reversal activities...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Pedro Saramago, Huiqin Yang, Alexis Llewellyn, Stephen Palmer, Mark Simmonds, Susan Griffin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of high-throughput, non-invasive prenatal testing (HT-NIPT) for fetal RhD genotype to guide antenatal prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin compared to routine antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis (RAADP). DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness decision-analytic modelling. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: A simulated population of 100,000 RhD negative women not known to be sensitised to the RhD antigen...
February 7, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Oliver D Montagnat, Graham R Webster, Jurgen Bullita, Cornelia Landersdorfer, Rosemary Wyber, Meru Sheel, Jonathan R Carapetis, Ben J Boyd
The current prophylactic treatment to prevent rheumatic heart disease requires four-weekly intramuscular injection of a suspension of the poorly soluble benzathine salt form of penicillin G (BPG) often for more than 10 years. In seeking to reduce the frequency of administration to improve adherence, biodegradable polymer matrices have been investigated. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based in situ forming precursor systems containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent and PLGA-based monolithic implants for surgical implantation containing BPG were developed...
February 5, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Seung Jun Choi, Hoon Seok Kim, Jaewoong Lee, Young-Sun Song, Jihyang Lim
We report a case of a patient with high titer anti-H antibody showing broad thermal amplitude and variable reactivities against group A red cells. A 62-year-old Korean female was diagnosed with diffuse large B cell lymphoma involving multiple organs. Her ABO/RhD type was A+ and her genotype was ABO*A.01.01/ABO*O.01.02. Antibody screening test (AST) and antibody identification test (IDT) were strongly positive for all reagent cells. Anti-human globulin (AHG) test revealed an antibody titer of 1:256 for 37 °C phase and trace positivity for poly- and mono-specific C3d...
January 3, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Yasunori Yamamoto, Toshiaki Sakisaka
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is shaped by a class of membrane proteins containing reticulon homology domain (RHD), the conserved hydrophobic domain encompassing two short hairpin transmembrane domains. RHD resides in the outer leaflet of the ER membrane, generating high-curvature ER membrane. While most of the membrane proteins destined to enter the secretory pathway are cotranslationally targeted and inserted into ER membrane, the molecular mechanism how the RHD-containing proteins are targeted and inserted into the ER membrane remains to be clarified...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michelle Sinclair, Clive Phillips
Research at veterinary schools is usually driven by post-graduate students, yet there has been little or no study of how these students are selected. We undertook a review of the challenges faced in enlisting research higher degree (RHD) students at a long-established veterinary school, the School of Veterinary Science at the University of Queensland. Our aim was to identify the best methods of developing a strategic recruitment program that would enhance veterinary research in the school. A total of 21 academic research supervisors completed a quantitative survey assessing the associated importance placed on a variety of selection criteria and the level of potential challenges presented in recruiting suitable RHD students...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Maud Champagne-Lavau, Natacha Cordonier, Anne Bellmann, Marion Fossard
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the degree of incongruity between contextual information and a target sentence influences the extent to which irony is understood in individuals with right-frontal-hemisphere damage (RHD). A psycholinguistic paradigm was used, allowing us to assess whether impairment in irony understanding is likely to be due to insensitivity (i.e. difficulty in capturing or detecting relevant contextual information) to relevant contextual information or to difficulties in integrating contextual information...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Lee A Meier, Jennifer L Auger, Brianna J Engelson, Hannah M Cowan, Elise R Breed, Mayra I Gonzalez-Torres, Joshua D Boyer, Mayank Verma, Aubyn Marath, Bryce A Binstadt
Background -Valvular heart disease (VHD) is common and affects the mitral valve (MV) most frequently. Despite the prevalence of mitral valve disease (MVD), the cellular and molecular pathways that initiate and perpetuate it are not well understood. Methods -K/B.g7 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice spontaneously develop systemic autoantibody-associated autoimmunity, leading to fully-penetrant fibro-inflammatory MVD and arthritis. We used multiparameter flow cytometry, intracellular cytokine staining, and immunofluorescent staining to characterize the cells in inflamed K/B...
January 31, 2018: Circulation
Christoffer Dellgren, Mark H Yazer, Ulrik Sprogøe
Background: Comparing the ABO and RhD group of a recipient's current pre-transfusion sample against their historical group is an important means of detecting wrong blood in tube (WBIT) errors. This study investigated the utility of using the donor ABO and RhD group as the historical check for recipients. Methods: A single database stores serological information on blood donors, pregnant women, and patients throughout southern Denmark. A donor ABO and RhD group can be the historical blood group should that donor later require a transfusion...
November 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Bo Fu, Ting Xu, Zhongli Cui, Ho Leung Ng, Kai Wang, Ji Li, Qing X Li
Burning of agricultural biomass generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, of which the catabolism is primarily initiated by a ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (RHD). This study explores catalytic site accessibility and its role in preferential catabolism of some PAHs over others. The genes flnA1f, flnA2f, flnA3 and flnA4, encoding the oxygenase α and β subunits, ferredoxin, and ferredoxin reductase, respectively, of the RHD enzyme complex (FlnA) were cloned from Sphingobium sp...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Erhan Teker, A Basak Akadam-Teker, Oguz Ozturk, Allison Pinar Eronat, Kivanc Yalin, S Ebru Golcuk, Zehra Bugra
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in modulating almost all phases of the immune response and may be responsible for the increased valvular fibrosis and calcification in the pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism and the severity of valvular damage in the Turkish population. The IFN-γ genotypes were determined in 152 RHD patients and 151 healthy controls by ARMS-PCR...
January 13, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Vitor Mendonça Alves, Fernanda Bernadelli De Vito, Paulo Roberto Juliano Martins, Sheila Soares Silva, Lilian Castilho, Helio Moraes-Souza
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The frequency of red blood cell (RBC) antigens in Brazil varies due to differences in the ethnic groups in different regions; however, these studies have not been performed in Minas Gerais, where African admixture is more prevalent in comparison with other states. Due to these facts, this study aimed to determine the frequency of RBC genotypes on Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd systems in blood donors and multi-transfused patients from Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil...
December 16, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
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