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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742952/na%C3%A3-ve-simplicity-the-overlooked-piece-of-the-complexity-simplicity-paradigm
#1
Franklin W Schwartz, Ganming Liu, Pradeep Aggarwal, Cynthia M Schwartz
Concepts of simplicity and complexity in modeling have been explored in papers, editorials, and talks. The concept is not well understood because there are at least two flavors of simplicity. Modelers envision simplicity (i.e., elegant simplicity) as the sought-after goal in modeling, but naïve simplicity, which is the focus of this paper, is commonly unrecognized and dangerous. The problem is that naïve or simple ideas are often mistaken for settled science and come with the prospect of being more wrong than right...
July 25, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742097/mrtadfinder-a-network-modularity-based-approach-to-identify-topologically-associating-domains-in-multiple-resolutions
#2
Koon-Kiu Yan, Shaoke Lou, Mark Gerstein
Genome-wide proximity ligation based assays such as Hi-C have revealed that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structural units called topologically associating domains (TADs). From a visual examination of the chromosomal contact map, however, it is clear that the organization of the domains is not simple or obvious. Instead, TADs exhibit various length scales and, in many cases, a nested arrangement. Here, by exploiting the resemblance between TADs in a chromosomal contact map and densely connected modules in a network, we formulate TAD identification as a network optimization problem and propose an algorithm, MrTADFinder, to identify TADs from intra-chromosomal contact maps...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739560/ontology-based-approach-to-social-data-sentiment-analysis-detection-of-adolescent-depression-signals
#3
Hyesil Jung, Hyeoun-Ae Park, Tae-Min Song
BACKGROUND: Social networking services (SNSs) contain abundant information about the feelings, thoughts, interests, and patterns of behavior of adolescents that can be obtained by analyzing SNS postings. An ontology that expresses the shared concepts and their relationships in a specific field could be used as a semantic framework for social media data analytics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to refine an adolescent depression ontology and terminology as a framework for analyzing social media data and to evaluate description logics between classes and the applicability of this ontology to sentiment analysis...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738832/systematic-mapping-review-of-the-factors-influencing-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-in-ethnic-minority-groups-in-europe-a-dedipac-study
#4
REVIEW
Lars Jørun Langøien, Laura Terragni, Gro Rugseth, Mary Nicolaou, Michelle Holdsworth, Karien Stronks, Nanna Lien, Gun Roos
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with health and wellbeing. Studies indicate that ethnic minority groups are both less active and more sedentary than the majority population and that factors influencing these behaviours may differ. Mapping the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe can help to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, research gaps and guide future research...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737272/dynamic-coupling-between-fmri-local-connectivity-and-interictal-eeg-in-focal-epilepsy-a-wavelet-analysis-approach
#5
Amir Omidvarnia, Mangor Pedersen, David N Vaughan, Jennifer M Walz, David F Abbott, Andrew Zalesky, Graeme D Jackson
Simultaneous scalp EEG-fMRI recording is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique for combining electrophysiological and hemodynamic aspects of brain function. Despite the time-varying nature of both measurements, their relationship is usually considered as time-invariant. The aim of this study was to detect direct associations between scalp-recorded EEG and regional changes of hemodynamic brain connectivity in focal epilepsy through a time-frequency paradigm. To do so, we developed a voxel-wise framework that analyses wavelet coherence between dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS, calculated from fMRI) and band amplitude fluctuation (BAF) of a target EEG electrode with dominant interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs)...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733851/autism-and-equine-assisted-interventions-a-systematic-mapping-review
#6
B Caitlin McDaniel Peters, Wendy Wood
This systematic mapping review mapped current knowledge of equine-assisted interventions for people with autism to help guide future practice and research. Thirty-three studies including children and adolescents with autism, 3 of which confirmed diagnoses, were reviewed. Five types of equine-assisted activities were identified across 25 studies, with reported improvements in behavior, social interaction, and communication. Four types of equine-assisted therapies were identified across 8 studies, with reported improvements in motor control and self-care...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733024/ecohealth-research-in-africa-where-from-where-to
#7
EDITORIAL
Robert Bergquist, Norbert W Brattig, Moses J Chimbari, Jakob Zinsstag, Jürg Utzinger
Epidemiological mapping and risk profiling build on the idea that diseases are tied to social-ecological systems that govern the distribution and abundance of transmissible pathogens, vectors and hosts. This is the heart of the emerging field of ecohealth, which examines how biological, cultural, demographic, economic, physical, political and social environments change can affect the health and wellbeing of humans, animals and ecosystems and the services they provide. This paper is an overview of a special issue of Acta Tropica, whose 15 publications reflect a geographically and epidemiologically diverse landscape of ecohealth in Africa...
July 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732500/linking-clinical-quality-indicators-to-research-evidence-a-case-study-in-asthma-management-for-children
#8
Miew Keen Choong, Guy Tsafnat, Peter Hibbert, William B Runciman, Enrico Coiera
BACKGROUND: Clinical quality indicators are used to monitor the performance of healthcare services and should wherever possible be based on research evidence. Little is known however about the extent to which indicators in common use are based on research. The objective of this study is to measure the extent to which clinical quality indicators used in asthma management in children with outcome measurements can be linked to results in randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) reports...
July 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726884/lithium-dendrite-growth-mechanisms-in-polymer-electrolytes-and-prevention-strategies
#9
Pallab Barai, Kenneth Higa, Venkat Srinivasan
Future lithium-ion batteries must use lithium metal anodes to fulfill the demands of high energy density applications with the potential to enable affordable electric cars with 350-mile range. However, dendrite growth during charging prevents the commercialization of this technology. It has been demonstrated that the presence of a compressive mechanical stress field around a dendritic protrusion prevents growth. Several techniques based on this concept, such as protective layers, externally applied pressure and solid electrolytes have been investigated by other researchers...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721738/counting-bodies-on-future-engagements-with-science-studies-in-medical-anthropology
#10
Emily Yates-Doerr
Thirty years ago, Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Margaret Lock outlined a strategy for 'future work in medical anthropology' that focused on three bodies. Their article - a zeitgeist for the field - sought to intervene into the Cartesian dualisms characterizing ethnomedical anthropology at the time. Taking a descriptive and diagnostic approach, they defined 'the mindful body' as a domain of future anthropological inquiry and mapped three analytic concepts that could be used to study it: the individual/phenomenological body, the social body, and the body politic...
July 19, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721539/-computational-neuroanatomy-and-microstructure-imaging-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
REVIEW
S Mohammadi, N Weiskopf
BACKGROUND: Current computational neuroanatomy focuses on morphological measurements of the brain using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. In comparison quantitative MRI (qMRI) typically provides a better tissue contrast and also greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity with respect to the microstructural characteristics of tissue. OBJECTIVE: Current methodological developments in qMRI are presented, which go beyond morphology because this provides standardized measurements of the microstructure of the brain...
July 18, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720921/a-team-based-assignment-to-integrate-basic-science-and-pharmacotherapeutic-principles-for-anticancer-agents
#12
Sonali Kurup, Paiboon Jungsuwadee, Prashant Sakharkar
Objective. To implement and evaluate an active-learning, team-based assignment centered on anticancer agents for the integration of basic science and pharmacotherapeutic principles. Methods. Student teams were assigned a specific anticancer agent and were expected to answer a series of questions on the written section of the assignment, followed by a presentation to the class. Each assignment was assessed using a grading rubric that was mapped to the 2013 CAPE educational outcomes. Student perceptions of the assignment were assessed using a short survey...
June 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718888/assessing-lung-function-using-contrast-enhanced-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-potential-applications-in-radiation-therapy
#13
Andréanne Lapointe, Houda Bahig, Danis Blais, Hugo Bouchard, Édith Filion, Jean-François Carrier, Stéphane Bedwani
PURPOSE: There is an increasing interest in the evaluation of lung function from physiological images in radiation therapy treatment planning to reduce the extent of post-radiation toxicities. The purpose of this work is to retrieve reliable functional information from contrast-enhanced dualenergy computed tomography (DECT) for new applications in radiation therapy. The functional information obtained by DECT is also compared with other methods using single energy CT (SECT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with CT...
July 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711519/perspectives-on-bioeconomy
#14
EDITORIAL
Alfredo Aguilar, Roland Wohlgemuth, Tomasz Twardowski
The insight provided by the authors of this special issue on bioeconomy give a reassuring sign of optimism, vitality and strong will to make bioeconomy a success story. Key to these advances will be inventing and shaping our future and the cooperation of people who will create new scientific and technological discoveries, developments and their implementation into industrial practice. The vibrant global megatrend bioeconomy is developing along various dimensions depending on natural and social conditions, economic development and political objectives...
July 12, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710442/spontaneous-emulsification-as-a-function-of-material-exchange
#15
Stephen Spooner, Zushu Li, Seetharaman Sridhar
Direct visualization at 1873 K of 0% to 8% molten FeAl droplets suspended in a SiO2 enriched oxide medium was carried out to image the evolution of droplet morphology during reaction between Al and SiO2. Phenomena such as perturbation growth, necking and budding of offspring droplets from a bulk body are observed. The observations are used to discuss and inform a new approach to the nature of interfacial tension and the impact this has on concepts used to define interfacial tension for a two phase system with material exchange across the interface...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708751/use-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-for-comforting-patients-in-palliative-care-a-scoping-review
#16
Adriana Coelho, Vítor Parola, Daniela Cardoso, Miguel Escobar Bravo, João Apóstolo
BACKGROUND: Palliative care aims to provide the maximum possible comfort to people with advanced and incurable diseases. The use of non-pharmacological interventions to promote comfort in palliative care settings has been increasing.However, information on implemented and evaluated interventions, their characteristics, contexts of application, and population is scattered in the literature, hampering the formulation of accurate questions on the effectiveness of those interventions and, consequently, the development of a systematic review...
July 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701587/prostate-cancer-diagnosis-using-epigenetic-biomarkers-3d-high-content-imaging-and-probabilistic-cell-by-cell-classifiers
#17
Darko Stefanovski, George Tang, Kolja Wawrowsky, Raymond C Boston, Nils Lambrecht, Jian Tajbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) management can benefit from novel concepts/biomarkers for reducing the current 20-30% chance of false-negative diagnosis with standard histopathology of biopsied tissue. METHOD: We explored the potential of selected epigenetic markers in combination with validated histopathological markers, 3D high-content imaging, cell-by-cell analysis, and probabilistic classification in generating novel detailed maps of biomarker heterogeneity in patient tissues, and PCa diagnosis...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696560/overview-of-admixture-mapping
#18
Daniel Shriner
Admixture mapping is a powerful method of gene mapping for diseases or traits that show differential risk by ancestry. Admixture mapping has been applied most often to Americans who trace ancestry to various combinations of Native Americans, Europeans, and West Africans. Recent developments in admixture mapping include improvements in methods and the reference data needed to make inferences about ancestry, as well as extensions of the mapping approach in the framework of linear mixed models. In this unit, the key concepts of admixture mapping are outlined...
July 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695612/a-revised-model-for-coping-with-advanced-cancer-mapping-concepts-from-a-longitudinal-qualitative-study-of-patients-and-carers-coping-with-advanced-cancer-onto-folkman-and-greer-s-theoretical-model-of-appraisal-and-coping
#19
Diane Roberts, Lynn Calman, Paul Large, Lynda Appleton, Gunn Grande, Mari Lloyd-Williams, Catherine Walshe
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the Folkman and Greer theoretical model of appraisal and coping reflects the processes used by people living with advanced cancer. METHODS: Interview data from a longitudinal qualitative study with people with advanced (stage 3 or 4) cancer (n=26) were mapped onto the concepts of the Folkman and Greer theoretical model. Qualitative interviews conducted in home settings, 4-12 weeks apart (n=45) examined coping strategies, why people thought they were effective, and in what circumstances...
July 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695377/ventricular-dyssynchrony-assessment-using-ultra-high-frequency-ecg-technique
#20
Pavel Jurak, Josef Halamek, Jaroslav Meluzin, Filip Plesinger, Tereza Postranecka, Jolana Lipoldova, Miroslav Novak, Vlastimil Vondra, Ivo Viscor, Ladislav Soukup, Petr Klimes, Petr Vesely, Josef Sumbera, Karel Zeman, Roshini S Asirvatham, Jason Tri, Samuel J Asirvatham, Pavel Leinveber
PURPOSE: The aim of this proof-of-concept study is to introduce new high-dynamic ECG technique with potential to detect temporal-spatial distribution of ventricular electrical depolarization and to assess the level of ventricular dyssynchrony. METHODS: 5-kHz 12-lead ECG data was collected. The amplitude envelopes of the QRS were computed in an ultra-high frequency band of 500-1000 Hz and were averaged (UHFQRS). UHFQRS V lead maps were compiled, and numerical descriptor identifying ventricular dyssynchrony (UHFDYS) was detected...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
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