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Concept mapping

Ines Dourado, Luís Augusto V da Silva, Laio Magno, Maycon Lopes, Caio Cerqueira, Adriana Prates, Sandra Brignol, Sarah MacCarthy
Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Martina F Callaghan, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Nikolaus Weiskopf
Quantitative MRI (qMRI) provides standardized measures of specific physical parameters that are sensitive to the underlying tissue microstructure and are a first step towards achieving maps of biologically relevant metrics through in vivo histology using MRI. Recently proposed models have described the interdependence of qMRI parameters. Combining such models with the concept of image synthesis points towards a novel approach to synthetic qMRI, in which maps of fundamentally different physical properties are constructed through the use of biophysical models...
October 18, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Cecilia C S Yeung, H Joachim Deeg, Colin Pritchard, David Wu, Min Fang
Jumping translocations (JT) have been identified in numerous malignancies, including leukemia, but infrequently in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The responsible genetic region has been mapped to the JTB gene at 1q21, but breakpoints involving other chromosomal loci, such as 3q and 11q, have been described as well. We have characterized the pathological and mutational landscape, and the clinical course of 6 new MDS patients with jumping mutations using chromosome genomic array testing (CGAT) and target gene panel next generation sequencing...
September 2016: Cancer Genetics
Michael Hund, Dominic Böhm, Werner Sturm, Michael Sedlmair, Tobias Schreck, Torsten Ullrich, Daniel A Keim, Ljiljana Majnaric, Andreas Holzinger
Medical doctors and researchers in bio-medicine are increasingly confronted with complex patient data, posing new and difficult analysis challenges. These data are often comprising high-dimensional descriptions of patient conditions and measurements on the success of certain therapies. An important analysis question in such data is to compare and correlate patient conditions and therapy results along with combinations of dimensions. As the number of dimensions is often very large, one needs to map them to a smaller number of relevant dimensions to be more amenable for expert analysis...
March 21, 2016: Brain Informatics
O R Brouwer, H G van der Poel, R F Bevers, E J van Gennep, S Horenblas
This review aims to discuss the current state-of-the-art of sentinel node (SN) mapping in urological malignancies. The principles and methodological aspects of lymphatic mapping and SN biopsy in urological malignancies are reviewed. Literature search was restricted to English language. The references of the retrieved articles were examined to identify additional articles. The review also includes meta-analyses published in the past 5 years. SN biopsy for penile cancer is recommended by the European Association of Urology as the preferred staging tool for clinically node-negative patients with at least T1G2 tumours (level of evidence 2a, Grade B)...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Kenward King Ho Vong, Satoshi Maeda, Katsunori Tanaka
Alkyl esters, such as propargyl esters, typically lack the electron-withdrawing inductive effects needed to participate in nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions. Herein, we report an unusual observation where glycine propargyl ester derivatives displayed selective, base-independent reactivity towards linear alkylamines under mild, metal-free conditions. Through global reaction route mapping (GRRM) modeling calculations, it is predicted that these observations may be governed by factors related to hydrogen bonding and intermolecular interactions, rather than electron-withdrawing inductive effects...
October 12, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Liliana R Cisneros Castillo, Andrei-Dumitru Oancea, Christian Stüllein, Anne Régnier-Vigouroux
Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs) embedded in a matrix are re-emerging as a powerful alternative to monolayer-based cultures. The primary information gained from a three-dimensional model is the invasiveness of treatment-exposed MCTSs through the acquisition of light microscopy images. The amount and complexity of the acquired data and the bias arisen by their manual analysis are disadvantages calling for an automated, high-throughput analysis. We present a universal algorithm we developed with the scope of being robust enough to handle images of various qualities and various invasion profiles...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Doitsidou, Sophie Jarriault, Richard J Poole
The use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the way phenotypic traits are assigned to genes. In this review, we describe NGS-based methods for mapping a mutation and identifying its molecular identity, with an emphasis on applications in Caenorhabditis elegans In addition to an overview of the general principles and concepts, we discuss the main methods, provide practical and conceptual pointers, and guide the reader in the types of bioinformatics analyses that are required. Owing to the speed and the plummeting costs of NGS-based methods, mapping and cloning a mutation of interest has become straightforward, quick, and relatively easy...
October 2016: Genetics
N Schunck, L M Robledo
This article reviews how nuclear fission is described within nuclear density functional theory. A distinction should be made between spontaneous fission, where half-lives are the main observables and quantum tunnelling the essential concept, and induced fission, where the focus is on fragment properties and explicitly time-dependent approaches are often invoked. Overall, the cornerstone of the density functional theory approach to fission is the energy density functional formalism. The basic tenets of this method, including some well-known tools such as the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory, effective two-body nuclear potentials such as the Skyrme and Gogny force, finite-temperature extensions and beyond mean-field corrections, are presented succinctly...
November 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
Isaac Zilinsky, Detlev Erdmann, Oren Weissman, Niels Hammer, Mircea-Constantin Sora, Thilo L Schenck, Sebastian Cotofana
The anatomical basis for auricular flaps used in multiple aesthetic and reconstructive procedures is currently based on a random distribution of the underlying arterial network. However, recent findings reveal a systematic pattern as opposed to the present concepts. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the arterial vascular pattern of the auricle in order to provide reliable data about the vascular map required for surgical interventions. Sixteen human auricles from eight body donors (five females/three males, 84...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Ziho Kang, Saptarshi Mandal, Jerry Crutchfield, Angel Millan, Sarah N McClung
Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1) participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2) visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1) developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs) in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2) introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT) that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3) finding a near optimal AGT value...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Hicham Badri, Hussein Yahia, Driss Aboutajdine
Current state-of-the-art denoising methods such as non-local low-rank approaches have shown to give impressive results. They are however mainly tuned to work with uniform Gaussian noise corruption and known variance, which is far from the real noise scenario. In fact, noise level estimation is already a challenging problem and denoising methods are quite sensitive to this parameter. Moreover, these methods are based on shrinkage models that are too simple to reflect reality, which results in over-smoothing of important structures such as small-scale text and textures...
September 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Elisabeth Coyne, Karin B Dieperink
BACKGROUND: The nurses' ability to provide supportive care to the patient and the family is influenced by their family assessment skills, which provide them with understanding of the family needs and strengths. When a patient is diagnosed with cancer, it is the family who provides the long-term support for the patient, and nurses need to understand the family needs in order to provide holistic care. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to understand the factors that influence nurses' family assessment practices in adult oncology setting in Denmark and Australia...
October 10, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Karin Page-Cutrara, Melanie Turk
BACKGROUND: Prebriefing is the introductory phase of the simulation process, however, little nursing education research is available on this aspect of simulation. Reflection theory and concept mapping informed a model-based structured prebriefing activity to prepare students for meaningful simulation learning. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the intervention of structured prebriefing for its effect on nursing students' competency performance, clinical judgment and their perceived prebriefing experience...
September 24, 2016: Nurse Education Today
Marcel T H Oei, Frederick J A Meijer, Willem-Jan van der Woude, Ewoud J Smit, Bram van Ginneken, Mathias Prokop, Rashindra Manniesing
OBJECTIVES: We present a novel One-Step-Stroke protocol for wide-detector CT scanners that interleaves cerebral CTP with volumetric neck CTA (vCTA). We evaluate whether the resulting time gap in CTP affects the accuracy of CTP values. METHODS: Cerebral CTP maps were retrospectively obtained from 20 patients with suspicion of acute ischemic stroke and served as the reference standard. To simulate a 4 s gap for interleaving CTP with vCTA, we eliminated one acquisition at various time points of CTP starting from the bolus-arrival-time(BAT)...
October 7, 2016: European Radiology
Petr Smýkal, Rajeev K Varshney, Vikas K Singh, Clarice J Coyne, Claire Domoney, Eduard Kejnovský, Thomas Warkentin
This work discusses several selected topics of plant genetics and breeding in relation to the 150th anniversary of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. In 2015, we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the presentation of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. While Darwin's theory of evolution was based on differential survival and differential reproductive success, Mendel's theory of heredity relies on equality and stability throughout all stages of the life cycle. Darwin's concepts were continuous variation and "soft" heredity; Mendel espoused discontinuous variation and "hard" heredity...
October 7, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hiroya Takeuchi, Osamu Goto, Naohisa Yahagi, Yuko Kitagawa
Recent meta-analyses and a prospective multicenter trial of sentinel node (SN) mapping in early gastric cancer have demonstrated acceptable SN detection rates and accuracy of determination of lymph node status. SN mapping may play a key role in obtaining individual metastatic information. It also allows modification of surgical procedures, including function-preserving gastrectomy in patients with early gastric cancer. A dual-tracer method that uses radioactive colloids and blue dye is currently considered the most reliable method for the stable detection of SNs in patients with early gastric cancer...
October 6, 2016: Gastric Cancer
Dohyeong Kim, Chang Kil Lee, Dong Yeon Seo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Marco Scianna, Luca Munaron
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a heterogeneous disease, which is based on an intricate network of processes at different spatiotemporal scales, from the genome to the tissue level. Hence the necessity for the biomedical and pharmaceutical research to work in a multiscale fashion. In this respect, a significant help derives from the collaboration with theoretical sciences. Indeed, mathematical models can provide insights into tumor-related processes and support clinical oncologists in the design of treatment regime, dosage, schedule and toxicity...
October 3, 2016: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Daniel Croll, Bruce A McDonald
Local adaptation plays a key role in the evolutionary trajectory of host-pathogen interactions. However, the genetic architecture of local adaptation in host-pathogen systems is poorly understood. Fungal plant pathogens in agricultural ecosystems provide highly tractable models to quantify phenotypes and map traits to corresponding genomic loci. The outcome of crop-pathogen interactions is thought to be governed largely by gene-for-gene interactions. However, recent studies showed that virulence can be governed by quantitative trait loci and that many abiotic factors contribute to the outcome of the interaction...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Ecology
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