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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929129/an-automated-home-cage-system-to-assess-learning-and-performance-of-a-skilled-motor-task-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#1
Cameron L Woodard, Federico Bolaños, James D Boyd, Gergely Silasi, Timothy H Murphy, Lynn A Raymond
Behavioral testing is a critical step in assessing the validity of rodent models of neurodegenerative disease, as well as evaluating the efficacy of pharmacological interventions. In models of Huntington's disease (HD), a gradual progression of impairments is observed across ages, increasing the need for sensitive, high-throughput and longitudinal assessments. Recently, a number of automated systems have been developed to perform behavioral profiling of animals within their own home-cage, allowing for 24-h monitoring and minimizing experimenter interaction...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927226/female-clock%C3%AE-19-%C3%AE-19-mice-are-protected-from-the-development-of-age-dependent-cardiomyopathy
#2
Faisal J Alibhai, Cristine J Reitz, Willem T Peppler, Poulami Basu, Paul Sheppard, Elena Choleris, Marica Bakovic, Tami A Martino
Aims: Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and they are regulated by the molecular circadian mechanism. Previously, we showed that disruption of the circadian mechanism factor CLOCK in male Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice led to development of age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigate the role of biological sex in protecting against heart disease in aging female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Methods and results: Female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice are protected from the development of cardiomyopathy with age, as heart structure and function are similar to 18 months of age versus female WT mice...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916171/neurobehavioral-assessment-of-mice-following-repeated-oral-exposures-to-domoic-acid-during-prenatal-development
#3
Motohiro Shiotani, Toby B Cole, Sungwoo Hong, Julie Ju Young Park, William C Griffith, Thomas M Burbacher, Tomomi Workman, Lucio G Costa, Elaine M Faustman
Domoic acid (DA) is an algal toxin which has been associated with significant neurotoxicity in humans, non-human primates, rodents, and marine mammals. Developmental exposure to DA is believed to result in neurotoxicity that may persist into adulthood. DA is produced by harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia, raising concerns about the consumption of contaminated seafood. We evaluated oral exposures to DA during pregnancy in mice. Doses of 0 (vehicle), 1 or 3mg/kg/d of DA were administered by gavage to C57BL/6J mice on gestational days 10 to 17...
September 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#4
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900721/effects-of-per3-clock-gene-polymorphisms-on-aging-related-changes-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#5
Delphine Dewandre, Mercedes Atienza, Mayely P Sanchez-Espinosa, Jose L Cantero
Considerable evidence suggests that circadian rhythmicity is progressively disrupted in senescence. Among clock genes, Period3 (PER3) has been associated with circadian phenotypes, homeostatic regulation of sleep, and cognitive performance in young adults. However, the effects of PER3 genotype on aging-related changes in both cognitive function and cortical integrity remain largely unknown. To shed light into this issue, we have investigated differences in cognitive performance, patterns of cortical thickness, and cortical glucose consumption in normal elderly subjects homozygous carriers of the short (PER3(4/4), n = 32) and long repeat alleles (PER3(5/5), n = 32)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893254/skip-controls-flowering-time-via-the-alternative-splicing-of-sef-pre-mrna-in-arabidopsis
#6
Zhibo Cui, Aizi Tong, Yiqiong Huo, Zhiqiang Yan, Weiqi Yang, Xianli Yang, Xiao-Xue Wang
BACKGROUND: Similar to other eukaryotes, splicing is emerging as an important process affecting development and stress tolerance in plants. Ski-interacting protein (SKIP), a splicing factor, is essential for circadian clock function and abiotic stress tolerance; however, the mechanisms whereby it regulates flowering time are unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we found that SKIP is required for the splicing of serrated leaves and early flowering (SEF) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA), which encodes a component of the ATP-dependent SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR1-C)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878247/a-novel-role-of-the-soybean-clock-gene-lux-arrhythmo-in-male-reproductive-development
#7
Lim Chee Liew, Mohan B Singh, Prem L Bhalla
The evening complex of ELF4-ELF3-LUX proteins is an integral component of a plant circadian clock. LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX) is one of the key components of the evening complex, and that play a key role in circadian rhythms and flowering. Here, we report that diverged soybean LUX has the additional role in male reproductive development. We studied diurnal and circadian rhythms of soybean LUX (GmLUXa, GmLUXb, and GmLUXc) using qRT-PCR, and show its nuclear localisation by particle bombardment. Yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) studies indicate that both GmLUXb and GmLUXc form an evening complex with GmELF4b and GmELF3a, respectively...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860482/circadian-clock-model-supports-molecular-link-between-per3-and-human-anxiety
#8
Amanda R Liberman, Soo Bin Kwon, Ha T Vu, Allan Filipowicz, Ahmet Ay, Krista K Ingram
Generalized anxiety and major depression have become increasingly common in the United States, affecting 18.6 percent of the adult population. Mood disorders can be debilitating, and are often correlated with poor general health, life dissatisfaction, and the need for disability benefits due to inability to work. Recent evidence suggests that some mood disorders have a circadian component, and disruptions in circadian rhythms may even trigger the development of these disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of this interaction are not well understood...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855114/mitochondrial-epigenetic-crosstalk-in-environmental-toxicology
#9
Caren Weinhouse
Crosstalk between the nuclear epigenome and mitochondria, both in normal physiological function and in responses to environmental toxicant exposures, is a developing sub-field of interest in environmental and molecular toxicology. The majority (∼99%) of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome, so programmed communication among nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial compartments is essential for maintaining cellular health. In this review, we will focus on correlative and mechanistic evidence for direct impacts of each system on the other, discuss demonstrated or potential crosstalk in the context of chemical insult, and highlight biological research questions for future study...
August 27, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840789/ultradian-rhythmicity-in-sleep-wakefulness-is-related-to-color-in-nestling-barn-owls
#10
Madeleine F Scriba, Isabelle Henry, Alexei L Vyssotski, Jakob C Mueller, Niels C Rattenborg, Alexandre Roulin
The possession of a rhythm is usually described as an important adaptation to regular changing environmental conditions such as the light-dark cycle. However, recent studies have suggested plasticity in the expression of a rhythm depending on life history and environmental factors. Barn owl ( Tyto alba) nestlings show variations in behavior and physiology in relation to the size of black feather spots, a trait associated with many behavioral and physiological phenotypes including the circadian expression of corticosterone and the regulation of body mass...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816086/inducible-knockout-of-mouse-zfhx3-emphasizes-its-key-role-in-setting-the-pace-and-amplitude-of-the-adult-circadian-clock
#11
Ashleigh G Wilcox, Lucie Vizor, Michael J Parsons, Gareth Banks, Patrick M Nolan
The transcription factor zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) plays a key role in coupling intracellular transcriptional-translational oscillations with intercellular synchrony in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). However, like many key players in central nervous system function, ZFHX3 serves an important role in neurulation and neuronal terminal differentiation while retaining discrete additional functions in the adult SCN. Recently, using a dominant missense mutation in mouse Zfhx3, we established that this gene can modify circadian period and sleep in adult animals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801530/rhythmic-behavior-is-controlled-by-the-srm160-splicing-factor-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Esteban J Beckwith, Carlos E Hernando, Sofía Polcowñuk, Agustina P Bertolin, Estefania Mancini, M Fernanda Ceriani, Marcelo J Yanovsky
Circadian clocks organize the metabolism, physiology, and behavior of organisms throughout the day-night cycle by controlling daily rhythms in gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. While many transcription factors underlying circadian oscillations are known, the splicing factors that modulate these rhythms remain largely unexplored. A genome-wide assessment of the alterations of gene expression in a null mutant of the alternative splicing regulator SR-related matrix protein of 160 kD (SRm160) revealed the extent to which alternative splicing impacts on behavior-related genes...
August 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794907/rai1-overexpression-promotes-altered-circadian-gene-expression-and-dyssomnia-in-potocki-lupski-syndrome
#13
Sureni V Mullegama, Joseph T Alaimo, Michael D Fountain, Brooke Burns, Amanda Hebert Balog, Li Chen, Sarah H Elsea
Retinoic acid induced 1 ( RAI1 ) encodes a dosage-sensitive gene that when haploinsufficient results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and when overexpressed results in Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS). Phenotypic and molecular evidence illustrates that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 disrupts circadian rhythm through the dysregulation of the master circadian regulator, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput ( CLOCK) , and other core circadian components, contributing to prominent sleep disturbances in SMS. However, the phenotypic and molecular characterization of sleep features in PTLS has not been elucidated...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792639/circadian-rhythms-vary-over-the-growing-season-and-correlate-with-fitness-components
#14
Matthew J Rubin, Marcus T Brock, Amanda M Davis, Zachary M German, Mary Knapp, Stephen M Welch, Stacey L Harmer, Julin N Maloof, Seth J Davis, Cynthia Weinig
Circadian clocks have evolved independently in all three domains of life, suggesting that internal mechanisms of time-keeping are adaptive in contemporary populations. However, the performance consequences of either discrete or quantitative clock variation have rarely been tested in field settings. Clock sensitivity of diverse segregating lines to the environment remains uncharacterized as do the statistical genetic parameters that determine evolutionary potential. In field studies with Arabidopsis thaliana, we found that major perturbations to circadian cycle length (referred to as clock period) via mutation reduce both survival and fecundity...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790150/phosphorylation-of-histone-h2a-at-serine-95-a-plant-specific-mark-involved-in-flowering-time-regulation-and-h2a-z-deposition
#15
Yanhua Su, Shiliang Wang, Fei Zhang, Han Zheng, Yana Liu, Tongtong Huang, Yong Ding
Phosphorylation of histone H3 affects transcription, chromatin condensation, and chromosome segregation. However, the role of phosphorylation of histone H2A remains unclear. Here, we found that Arabidopsis thaliana MUT9P-LIKE-KINASE (MLK4) phosphorylates histone H2A on serine 95, a plant-specific modification in the histone core domain. Mutations in MLK4 caused late flowering under long-day conditions but no notable phenotype under short days. MLK4 interacts with CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), which allows MLK4 to bind to the GIGANTEA (GI) promoter...
August 8, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777177/chronic-insomnia-disorder
#16
Alon Y Avidan, David N Neubauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologists, along with all health care providers, commonly encounter patients with insomnia, which is a condition that impacts patients' underlying neurologic conditions in a bidirectional manner. While chronic insomnia is one of the most common sleep disturbances, only a small proportion of individuals with this condition discuss their sleep problems with their providers. When insomnia is described, it is more often in relationship to another medical problem, as opposed to an independent condition...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777176/circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders
#17
Milena Pavlova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The endogenous circadian rhythms are one of the cardinal processes that control sleep. They are self-sustaining biological rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours that may be entrained by external zeitgebers (German for time givers), such as light, exercise, and meal times. This article discusses the physiology of the circadian rhythms, their relationship to neurologic disease, and the presentation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763478/individual-differences-in-circadian-locomotor-parameters-correlate-with-anxiety-and-depression-like-behavior
#18
Jeffrey Anyan, Michael Verwey, Shimon Amir
Disrupted circadian rhythms are a core feature of mood and anxiety disorders. Circadian rhythms are coordinated by a light-entrainable master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Animal models of mood and anxiety disorders often exhibit blunted rhythms in locomotor activity and clock gene expression. Interestingly, the changes in circadian rhythms correlate with mood-related behaviours. Although animal models of depression and anxiety exhibit aberrant circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, it is possible that the methodology being used to induce the behavioral phenotype (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761043/diurnal-preference-mood-and-the-response-to-morning-light-in-relation-to-polymorphisms-in-the-human-clock-gene-per3
#19
M Turco, A Biscontin, M Corrias, L Caccin, M Bano, F Chiaromanni, M Salamanca, D Mattei, C Salvoro, G Mazzotta, C De Pittà, B Middleton, D J Skene, S Montagnese, R Costa
PER3 gene polymorphisms have been associated with differences in human sleep-wake phenotypes, and sensitivity to light. The aims of this study were to assess: i) the frequency of allelic variants at two PER3 polymorphic sites (rs57875989 length polymorphism: PER3 (4), PER3 (5); rs228697 SNP: PER3 (C), PER3 (G)) in relation to sleep-wake timing; ii) the effect of morning light on behavioural/circadian variables in PER3 (4) /PER3 (4) and PER3 (5) /PER3 (5) homozygotes. 786 Caucasian subjects living in Northern Italy donated buccal DNA and completed diurnal preference, sleep quality/timing and sleepiness/mood questionnaires...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746872/aberrant-proteostasis-of-bmal1%C3%A2-underlies-circadian-abnormalities-in-a-paradigmatic-mtor-opathy
#20
Jonathan O Lipton, Lara M Boyle, Elizabeth D Yuan, Kevin J Hochstrasser, Fortunate F Chifamba, Ashwin Nathan, Peter T Tsai, Fred Davis, Mustafa Sahin
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, whose products form a critical inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Loss of TSC1/2 gene function renders an mTOR-overactivated state. Clinically, TSC manifests with epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism, and sleep dysfunction. Here, we report that mouse models of TSC have abnormal circadian rhythms. We show that mTOR regulates the proteostasis of the core clock protein BMAL1, affecting its translation, degradation, and subcellular localization...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
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