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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324752/tet-protein-function-during-drosophila-development
#1
Fei Wang, Svetlana Minakhina, Hiep Tran, Neha Changela, Joseph Kramer, Ruth Steward
The TET (Ten-eleven translocation) 1, 2 and 3 proteins have been shown to function as DNA hydroxymethylases in vertebrates and their requirements have been documented extensively. Recently, the Tet proteins have been shown to also hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine in RNA. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmrC) is enriched in messenger RNA but the function of this modification has yet to be elucidated. Because Cytosine methylation in DNA is barely detectable in Drosophila, it serves as an ideal model to study the biological function of 5hmrC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283886/clock-mediates-liver-senescence-by-controlling-er-stress
#2
Gongsheng Yuan, Bingxuan Hua, Tingting Cai, Lirong Xu, Ermin Li, Yiqing Huang, Ning Sun, Zuoqin Yan, Chao Lu, Ruizhe Qian
Accumulated evidence indicates that circadian genes regulate cell damage and senescence in most mammals. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate longevity in many organisms. However, the specific mechanisms of the relationship between the circadian clock and the two stress processes in organisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that Clock-mediated Pdia3 expression is required to sustain reactive oxidative reagents and ER stress. First, ER stress and ROS are strongly activated in the liver tissue of Clock∆19 mutant mice, which exhibit a significant aging phenotype...
December 22, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278283/delirium-pathophysiology-an-updated-hypothesis-of-the-etiology-of-acute-brain-failure
#3
José R Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome encountered by clinicians dealing with older adults and the medically ill and is best characterized by 5 core domains: cognitive deficits, attentional deficits, circadian rhythm dysregulation, emotional dysregulation, and alteration in psychomotor functioning. DESIGN: An extensive literature review and consolidation of published data into a novel interpretation of known pathophysiological causes of delirium...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277395/circadian-regulation-of-metabolism-and-healthspan-in-drosophila
#4
REVIEW
Jadwiga M Giebultowicz
Circadian clocks generate daily rhythms in gene expression, cellular functions, physiological processes and behavior. The core clock mechanism consists of transcriptional-translational negative feedback loops that turn over with an endogenous circa 24h period. Classical genetic experiments in the fly Drosophila melanogaster played an essential role in identification of clock genes that turned out to be largely conserved between flies and mammals. Like in mammals, circadian clocks in flies generate transcriptional rhythms in a variety of metabolic pathways related to feeding and detoxification...
December 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274752/chronic-paroxetine-treatment-prevents-disruption-of-methamphetamine-sensitive-circadian-oscillator-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#5
Koliane Ouk, Juliet Aungier, Marc Cuesta, A Jennifer Morton
Circadian abnormalities seen in Huntington's disease (HD) patients are recapitulated in several HD transgenic mouse models. In mice, alongside the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), two other oscillators may influence circadian behaviour. These are the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) and the methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator (MASCO). SCN- and MASCO- (but not FEO-) driven rhythms are progressively disrupted in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. MASCO-driven rhythms are induced by chronic treatment with low dose of methamphetamine and characterised by an increase in period length to greater than 24 h...
December 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273324/temporal-expression-of-c-fos-and-genes-coding-for-neuropeptides-and-enzymes-of-amino-acid-and-amine-neurotransmitter-biosynthesis-in-retina-pineal-and-hypothalamus-of-a-migratory-songbird-evidence-for-circadian-rhythm-dependent-seasonal-responses
#6
Ila Mishra, Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
This study investigated whether, in photoperiodic songbirds, the circadian pacemaker system (CPS) connects to the seasonal photoperiodic responses, by changes at transcriptional level in the level and 24-h rhythm of its constituent neurotransmitters. We used blackheaded buntings (Emberiza melanocephala), which exhibits distinct seasonal states in captivity under appropriate photoperiods and hence served as a useful model system. Under short days, buntings remain in the photosensitive state (winter phenotype: non-migratory, non-breeding)...
December 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259298/the-after-hours-circadian-mutant-has-reduced-phenotypic-plasticity-in-behaviors-at-multiple-timescales-and-in-sleep-homeostasis
#7
Silvia Maggi, Edoardo Balzani, Glenda Lassi, Celina Garcia-Garcia, Andrea Plano, Stefano Espinoza, Liudmila Mus, Federico Tinarelli, Patrick M Nolan, Raul R Gainetdinov, Fuat Balci, Thierry Nieus, Valter Tucci
Circadian clock is known to adapt to environmental changes and can significantly influence cognitive and physiological functions. In this work, we report specific behavioral, cognitive, and sleep homeostatic defects in the after hours (Afh) circadian mouse mutant, which is characterized by lengthened circadian period. We found that the circadian timing irregularities in Afh mice resulted in higher interval timing uncertainty and suboptimal decisions due to incapability of processing probabilities. Our phenotypic observations further suggested that Afh mutants failed to exhibit the necessary phenotypic plasticity for adapting to temporal changes at multiple time scales (seconds-to-minutes to circadian)...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248294/phenotyping-of-per3-variants-reveals-widespread-effects-on-circadian-preference-sleep-regulation-and-health
#8
REVIEW
Simon N Archer, Christina Schmidt, Gilles Vandewalle, Derk-Jan Dijk
Period3 (Per3) is one of the most robustly rhythmic genes in humans and animals. It plays a significant role in temporal organisation in peripheral tissues. The effects of PER3 variants on many phenotypes have been investigated in targeted and genome-wide studies. PER3 variants, especially the human variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), associate with diurnal preference, mental disorders, non-visual responses to light, brain and cognitive responses to sleep loss/circadian misalignment. Introducing the VNTR into mice alters responses to sleep loss and expression of sleep homeostasis-related genes...
November 6, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233658/between-and-within-laboratory-reliability-of-mouse-behaviour-recorded-in-home-cage-and-open-field
#9
Lianne Robinson, Barry Spruijt, Gernot Riedel
BACKGROUND: Reproducibility of behavioural findings between laboratories is difficult due to behaviour being sensitive to environmental factors and interactions with genetics. The objective of this study was to investigate reproducibility of behavioural data between laboratories using the PhenoTyper home cage observation system and within laboratory reproducibility using different lighting regimes. NEW METHOD: The ambulatory activity of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice was tested in PhenoTypers in two laboratories under near identical housing and testing conditions (Exp...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229410/pre-weaning-maternal-separation-increases-eating-later-in-life-in-male-and-female-offspring-but-increases-brainstem-dopamine-receptor-1a-and-2a-only-in-males
#10
Julliet Araújo de Souza, Matilde Cesiana da Silva, Rhowena Jane Barbosa de Matos, Larissa Cavalcanti do Amaral Almeida, Luana Cruz Beltrão, Felipe Leitão de Souza, Raul Manhães de Castro, Sandra Lopes de Souza
Maternal separation stress (MS) is a model of early life stress performed by the separation between dam and pups in the first days of life. This model has been associated with eating behavior and dopaminergic system abnormal phenotypes. This study aims to investigate whether maternal separation in the light or dark phase of the circadian cycle promotes phenotypic adjustments in the eating behavior and the dopamine system in both males and females. Lactating Wistar rats were separated from their litters from postnatal day 1 (PND 1) to PND 14 for 6 h in the light or dark phase of the circadian cycle...
December 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228639/role-of-melatonin-combined-with-exercise-as-a-switch-like-regulator-for-circadian-behavior-in-advanced-osteoarthritic-knee
#11
Yunkyung Hong, Hyunsoo Kim, Seunghoon Lee, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Here, we show the role of melatonin combined with or without exercise as a determinant of multicellular behavior in osteoarthritis. We address the relationship between the molecular components governing local circadian clock and changes in the osteoarthritic musculoskeletal axis. Melatonin was injected subcutaneously in animals with advanced knee osteoarthritis (OA) for 4 weeks. Concurrently, moderate treadmill exercise was applied for 30 min/day. Morphometric, histological, and gene/protein-level analyses were performed in the cartilage, synovium, bone, and gastrocnemius muscle...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224246/circadian-peak-dopaminergic-activity-response-at-the-biological-clock-pacemaker-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-area-mediates-the-metabolic-responsiveness-to-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Shuqin Luo, Yahong Zhang, Michael Ezrokhi, Yang Li, Tsung-Huang Tsai, Anthony H Cincotta
Among vertebrate species of the major vertebrate classes in the wild, a seasonal rhythm of whole body fuel metabolism, oscillating from lean to obese condition, is a common biological phenomenon. This annual cycle is driven in part by annual changes in the circadian dopaminergic signaling at the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), with diminution of circadian peak dopaminergic activity at the SCN facilitating development of the seasonal obese insulin resistant condition. The present study investigated whether such an ancient circadian dopamine-SCN activity system for expression of the seasonal obese, insulin resistant phenotype may be operative in animals made obese, insulin resistant by high fat feeding and if so whether reinstatement of the circadian dopaminergic peak at the SCN would be sufficient to reverse the adverse metabolic impact of the high fat diet without alteration of caloric intake...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217834/gender-specific-alteration-of-energy-balance-and-circadian-locomotor-activity-in-the-crtc1-knockout-mouse-model-of-depression
#13
Clara Rossetti, Daniel Sciarra, Jean-Marie Petit, Chin B Eap, Olivier Halfon, Pierre J Magistretti, Benjamin Boutrel, Jean-René Cardinaux
Obesity and depression are major public health concerns, and there is increasing evidence that they share etiological mechanisms. CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) participates in neurobiological pathways involved in both mood and energy balance regulation. Crtc1 -/- mice rapidly develop a depressive-like and obese phenotype in early adulthood, and are therefore a relevant animal model to explore possible common mechanisms underlying mood disorders and obesity. Here, the obese phenotype of male and female Crtc1 -/- mice was further characterized by investigating CRTC1's role in the homeostatic and hedonic regulation of food intake, as well as its influence on daily locomotor activity...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216180/the-ink4a-arf-locus-operates-as-a-regulator-of-the-circadian-clock-modulating-ras-activity
#14
Rukeia El-Athman, Nikolai N Genov, Jeannine Mazuch, Kaiyang Zhang, Yong Yu, Luise Fuhr, Mónica Abreu, Yin Li, Thomas Wallach, Achim Kramer, Clemens A Schmitt, Angela Relógio
The mammalian circadian clock and the cell cycle are two major biological oscillators whose coupling influences cell fate decisions. In the present study, we use a model-driven experimental approach to investigate the interplay between clock and cell cycle components and the dysregulatory effects of RAS on this coupled system. In particular, we focus on the Ink4a/Arf locus as one of the bridging clock-cell cycle elements. Upon perturbations by the rat sarcoma viral oncogene (RAS), differential effects on the circadian phenotype were observed in wild-type and Ink4a/Arf knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which could be reproduced by our modelling simulations and correlated with opposing cell cycle fate decisions...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215920/effects-of-genetic-variants-of-st8sia2-and-ncam1-genes-on-seasonal-mood-changes-and-circadian-preference-in-the-general-population
#15
So Yung Yang, Ji Hyun Baek, Youngah Cho, Eun-Young Cho, Yujin Choi, Yongkang Kim, Taesung Park, Kyung Sue Hong
ST8SIA2 and NCAM1 are functionally related genes forming polysialic acid (PSA) - neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) complex in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the regulating site of circadian biological rhythm. In this study, the relationship of ST8SIA2 and NCAM1 with circadian and seasonal rhythms of human behavior was explored. Subjects were 261 healthy Korean adults who were free of any history of clinically significant psychiatric symptoms. The phenotypes were circadian preference and seasonal change of mood and behavior (seasonality) measured by the Composite Scale of Morningness and the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184510/neuronal-and-glial-clocks-underlying-structural-remodeling-of-pacemaker-neurons-in-drosophila
#16
Anastasia Herrero, José M Duhart, Maria F Ceriani
A number of years ago we reported that ventral Lateral Neurons (LNvs), which are essential in the control of rest-activity cycles in Drosophila, undergo circadian remodeling of their axonal projections. This structural plasticity gives rise to changes in the degree of connectivity, which could provide a means of transmitting time of day information. Thus far, work from different laboratories has shown that circadian remodeling of adult projections relies on activity-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In terms of clock- dependent mechanisms, several neuronal types undergoing circadian remodeling hinted to a differential effect of clock genes; while per mutants exhibited poorly developed axonal terminals giving rise to low complexity arbors, tim mutants displayed a characteristic hyper branching phenotype, suggesting these genes could be playing additional roles to those ascribed to core clock function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183263/inverse-european-latitudinal-cline-at-the-timeless-locus-of-drosophila-melanogaster-reveals-selection-on-a-clock-gene-population-genetics-of-ls-tim
#17
Valeria Zonato, Stefano Vanin, Rodolfo Costa, Eran Tauber, Charalambos P Kyriacou
The spread of adaptive genetic variants in populations is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory but with relatively few biologically well-understood examples. Previous work on the ls-tim variant of timeless, which encodes the light-sensitive circadian regulator in Drosophila melanogaster, suggests that it may have originated in southeastern Italy. Flies characterized by the new allele show photoperiod-related phenotypes likely to be adaptive in seasonal environments. ls-tim may be spreading from its point of origin in Italy by directional selection, but there are alternative explanations for its observed clinal geographical distribution, including balancing selection and demography...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183256/experimental-and-mathematical-analyses-relating-circadian-period-and-phase-of-entrainment-in-neurospora-crassa
#18
Kwangwon Lee, Prithvi Shiva Kumar, Sean McQuade, Joshua Y Lee, Sohyun Park, Zheming An, Benedetto Piccoli
Circadian rhythms are observed in most organisms on earth and are known to play a major role in successful adaptation to the 24-h cycling environment. Circadian phenotypes are characterized by a free-running period that is observed in constant conditions and an entrained phase that is observed in cyclic conditions. Thus, the relationship between the free-running period and phase of entrainment is of interest. A popular simple rule has been that the entrained phase is the expression of the period in a cycling environment (i...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177007/a-simplified-microwave-based-motion-detector-for-home-cage-activity-monitoring-in-mice
#19
Andreas Genewsky, Daniel E Heinz, Paul M Kaplick, Kasyoka Kilonzo, Carsten T Wotjak
Background: Locomotor activity of rodents is an important readout to assess well-being and physical health, and is pivotal for behavioral phenotyping. Measuring homecage-activity with standard and cost-effective optical methods in mice has become difficult, as modern housing conditions (e.g. individually ventilated cages, cage enrichment) do not allow constant, unobstructed, visual access. Resolving this issue either makes greater investments necessary, especially if several experiments will be run in parallel, or is at the animals' expense...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163089/the-bachd-rat-model-of-huntington-disease-shows-specific-deficits-in-a-test-battery-of-motor-function
#20
Giuseppe Manfré, Erik K H Clemensson, Elisavet I Kyriakou, Laura E Clemensson, Johanneke E van der Harst, Judith R Homberg, Huu Phuc Nguyen
Rationale: Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype. Objective: The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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