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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911598/type-3-deiodinase-role-on-central-thyroid-hormone-action-affects-the-leptin-melanocortin-system-and-circadian-activity
#1
Zhaofei Wu, M Elena Martinez, Donald L St Germain, Arturo Hernandez
The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the central regulation of energy balance is increasingly appreciated. Mice lacking the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which inactivates TH, have decreased circulating TH levels relative to control mice due to defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, we have shown that the TH status of the adult Dio3(-/-) brain is opposite that of the serum, exhibiting enhanced levels of TH action. Since the brain, specially the hypothalamus, harbors important circuitries that regulate metabolism, we aimed to examine the energy balance phenotype of Dio3(-/-) mice and determine whether it is associated with hypothalamic abnormalities...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898828/population-structure-in-the-model-grass-is-highly-correlated-with-flowering-differences-across-broad-geographic-areas
#2
Ludmila Tyler, Scott J Lee, Nelson D Young, Gregory A DeIulio, Elena Benavente, Michael Reagon, Jessica Sysopha, Riccardo M Baldini, Angelo Troìa, Samuel P Hazen, Ana L Caicedo
The small, annual grass (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L.) and barley ( L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893733/adarb1-catalyzes-circadian-a-to-i-editing-and-regulates-rna-rhythm
#3
Hideki Terajima, Hikari Yoshitane, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Shigeki Shimba, Shinya Kuroda, Wataru Iwasaki, Yoshitaka Fukada
It has been proposed that the CLOCK-ARNTL (BMAL1) complex drives circadian transcription of thousands of genes, including Per and Cry family genes that encode suppressors of CLOCK-ARNTL-dependent transcription. However, recent studies demonstrated that 70-80% of circadian-oscillating mRNAs have no obvious rhythms in their de novo transcription, indicating the potential importance of post-transcriptional regulation. Our CLOCK-ChIP-seq analysis identified rhythmic expression of adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1 (Adarb1, also known as Adar2), an adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA-editing enzyme...
November 28, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879349/ncam1-polysialylation-the-prion-protein-s-elusive-reason-for-being
#4
REVIEW
Mohadeseh Mehrabian, Herbert Hildebrandt, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms
Much confusion surrounds the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). It is, however, anticipated that knowledge of its function will shed light on its contribution to neurodegenerative diseases and suggest ways to interfere with the cellular toxicity central to them. Consequently, efforts to elucidate its function have been all but exhaustive. Building on earlier work that uncovered the evolutionary descent of the prion founder gene from an ancestral ZIP zinc transporter, we recently investigated a possible role of PrP(C) in a morphogenetic program referred to as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
December 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879317/correlated-evolution-between-ck1%C3%AE-and-the-serine-rich-motif-contributes-to-regulating-the-mammalian-circadian-clock
#5
Lijuan Xing, Yang An, Guangsen Shi, Jie Yan, Pancheng Xie, Zhipeng Qu, Zhihui Zhang, Zhiwei Liu, Dejing Pan, Ying Xu
Understanding the mechanism underlying the physiological divergence of species is a long-standing issue in evolutionary biology. The circadian clock is a highly conserved system existing in almost all organisms that regulates a wide range of physiological and behavioral events to adapt to the day-night cycle. Here, the interactions between hCK1δ/ϵ/DBT (Drosophila ortholog of CK1δ/ϵ) and serine rich (SR) motifs from hPER2 (ortholog of Drosophila per) were reconstructed in a Drosophila circadian system. The results indicated that in Drosophila, the SR mutant form hPER2S662G does not recapitulate the mouse or human mutant phenotype...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867498/bone-muscle-crosstalk-targets-muscle-regeneration-pathway-regulated-by-core-circadian-transcriptional-repressors-dec1-and-dec2
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Gorski, Jeffrey L Price
Deletion of proprotein convertase Mbtps1 in bone osteocytes leads to a significant postnatal increase in skeletal muscle size and contractile function, while causing only a 25% increase in stiffness in long bones. Concerns about leakiness in skeletal muscle were discounted since Cre recombinase expression does not account for our findings, and, Mbtps1 protein and mRNA is not deleted. Interestingly, the response of normal skeletal muscle to exercise and the regenerative response of skeletal muscle to the deletion of Mbtps1 in bone share some key regulatory features including a preference for slow twitch muscle fibers...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862517/clock-gene-polymorphism-migratory-behaviour-and-geographic-distribution-a-comparative-study-of-trans-saharan-migratory-birds
#7
Gaia Bazzi, Jacopo G Cecere, Manuela Caprioli, Emanuele Gatti, Luca Gianfranceschi, Stefano Podofillini, Cristina D Possenti, Roberto Ambrosini, Nicola Saino, Fernando Spina, Diego Rubolini
Migratory behaviour is controlled by endogenous circannual rhythms that are synchronized by external cues, such as photoperiod. Investigations on the genetic basis of circannual rhythmicity in vertebrates have highlighted that variation at candidate 'circadian clock' genes may play a major role in regulating photoperiodic responses and timing of life cycle events, such as reproduction and migration. In this comparative study of 23 trans-Saharan migratory bird species, we investigated the relationships between species-level genetic variation at two candidate genes, Clock and Adcyap1, and species' traits related to migration and geographic distribution, including timing of spring migration across the Mediterranean Sea, migration distance and breeding latitude...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859628/longitudinal-snp-set-association-analysis-of-quantitative-phenotypes
#8
Zhong Wang, Ke Xu, Xinyu Zhang, Xiaowei Wu, Zuoheng Wang
Many genetic epidemiological studies collect repeated measurements over time. This design not only provides a more accurate assessment of disease condition, but allows us to explore the genetic influence on disease development and progression. Thus, it is of great interest to study the longitudinal contribution of genes to disease susceptibility. Most association testing methods for longitudinal phenotypes are developed for single variant, and may have limited power to detect association, especially for variants with low minor allele frequency...
November 9, 2016: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855737/genetic-basis-of-chronotype-in-humans-insights-from-three-landmark-gwas
#9
David A Kalmbach, Logan D Schneider, Joseph Cheung, Sarah J Bertrand, Thiruchelvam Kariharan, Allan I Pack, Philip R Gehrman
Chronotype, or diurnal preference, refers to behavioral manifestations of the endogenous circadian system that governs preferred timing of sleep and wake. As variations in circadian timing and system perturbations are linked to disease development, the fundamental biology of chronotype has received attention for its role in the regulation and dysregulation of sleep and related medical and psychiatric illnesses. Twin and family studies have shown that chronotype is a heritable trait, thus directing attention toward its genetic basis...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853566/zebrafish-response-to-a-robotic-replica-in-three-dimensions
#10
Tommaso Ruberto, Violet Mwaffo, Sukhgewanpreet Singh, Daniele Neri, Maurizio Porfiri
As zebrafish emerge as a species of choice for the investigation of biological processes, a number of experimental protocols are being developed to study their social behaviour. While live stimuli may elicit varying response in focal subjects owing to idiosyncrasies, tiredness and circadian rhythms, video stimuli suffer from the absence of physical input and rely only on two-dimensional projections. Robotics has been recently proposed as an alternative approach to generate physical, customizable, effective and consistent stimuli for behavioural phenotyping...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845713/novel-approaches-to-investigate-one-carbon-metabolism-and-related-b-vitamins-in-blood-pressure
#11
REVIEW
Amy McMahon, Helene McNulty, Catherine F Hughes, J J Strain, Mary Ward
Hypertension, a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, is the world's leading cause of preventable, premature death. A common polymorphism (677C→T) in the gene encoding the folate metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with increased blood pressure, and there is accumulating evidence demonstrating that this phenotype can be modulated, specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, by the B-vitamin riboflavin, an essential co-factor for MTHFR. The underlying mechanism that links this polymorphism, and the related gene-nutrient interaction, with hypertension is currently unknown...
November 11, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826225/single-cell-transcriptional-analysis-reveals-novel-neuronal-phenotypes-and-interaction-networks-involved-in-the-central-circadian-clock
#12
James Park, Haisun Zhu, Sean O'Sullivan, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, David R Weaver, James S Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli
Single-cell heterogeneity confounds efforts to understand how a population of cells organizes into cellular networks that underlie tissue-level function. This complexity is prominent in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Here, individual neurons exhibit a remarkable amount of asynchronous behavior and transcriptional heterogeneity. However, SCN neurons are able to generate precisely coordinated synaptic and molecular outputs that synchronize the body to a common circadian cycle by organizing into cellular networks...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821487/circadian-clock-gene-bmal1-inhibits-tumorigenesis-and-increases-paclitaxel-sensitivity-in-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Qingming Tang, Bo Cheng, Mengru Xie, Yatao Chen, Jiajia Zhao, Xin Zhou, Lili Chen
Circadian clock genes regulate cancer development and chemotherapy susceptibility. Accordingly, chronotherapy based on circadian phenotypes might be applied to improve therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we investigated whether the circadian clock gene Bmal1 inhibited tumor development and increased paclitaxel sensitivity in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Bmal1 expression was downregulated and its rhythmic pattern of expression was affected in TSCC samples and cell lines. Ectopic Bmal1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of TSCC...
November 7, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797990/cohort-profile-the-baependi-heart-study-a-family-based-highly-admixed-cohort-study-in-a-rural-brazilian-town
#14
Kieren J Egan, Malcolm von Schantz, André B Negrão, Hadassa C Santos, Andréa R V R Horimoto, Nubia E Duarte, Guilherme C Gonçalves, Júlia M P Soler, Mariza de Andrade, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Homero Vallada, Tâmara P Taporoski, Mario Pedrazzoli, Ana P Azambuja, Camila M de Oliveira, Rafael O Alvim, José E Krieger, Alexandre C Pereira
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major challenge to global health. The same epidemiological transition scenario is replayed as countries develop, but with variations based on environment, culture and ethnic mixture. The Baependi Heart Study was set up in 2005 to develop a longitudinal family-based cohort study that reflects on some of the genetic and lifestyle-related peculiarities of the Brazilian populations, in order to evaluate genetic and environmental influences on CVD risk factor traits...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784754/an-rnai-screen-to-identify-protein-phosphatases-that-function-within-the-drosophila-circadian-clock
#15
Parul Agrawal, Paul E Hardin
Circadian clocks in eukaryotes keep time via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. A well-characterized example of such a transcriptional feedback loop is in Drosophila, where CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) complexes activate transcription of period (per) and timeless (tim) genes, rising levels of PER-TIM complexes feedback to repress CLK-CYC activity, and degradation of PER and TIM permits the next cycle of CLK-CYC transcription. The timing of CLK-CYC activation and PER-TIM repression is regulated post-translationally, in part through rhythmic phosphorylation of CLK, PER and TIM...
October 26, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770026/micro-environmental-gene-expression-plasticity-among-individual-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Yanzhu Lin, Zhen-Xia Chen, Brian Oliver, Susan T Harbison
Differences in phenotype among genetically identical individuals exposed to the same environmental condition are often noted in genetic studies. Despite this commonplace observation, little is known about the causes of this variability, which has been termed microenvironmental plasticity. One possibility is that stochastic or technical sources of variance produce these differences. A second possibility is that this variation has a genetic component. We have explored gene expression robustness in the transcriptomes of 730 individual Drosophila melanogaster of 16 fixed genotypes, 9 of which are infected with Wolbachia Three replicates of flies were grown controlling for food, day/night cycles, humidity, temperature, sex, mating status, social exposure, and circadian timing of RNA extraction...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761341/identification-and-temporal-expression-of-putative-circadian-clock-transcripts-in-the-amphipod-crustacean-talitrus-saltator
#17
Joseph F O'Grady, Laura S Hoelters, Martin T Swain, David C Wilcockson
BACKGROUND: Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744087/individual-recognition-of-social-rank-and-social-memory-performance-depends-on-a-functional-circadian-system
#18
L Müller, D Weinert
In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729432/analysis-of-a-lin-42-period-null-allele-implicates-all-three-isoforms-in-regulation-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-molting-and-developmental-timing
#19
Theresa L B Edelman, Katherine A McCulloch, Angela Barr, Christian Frøkjær-Jensen, Erik M Jorgensen, Ann E Rougvie
The Caenorhabditis elegans heterochronic gene pathway regulates the relative timing of events during post-embryonic development. lin-42, the worm homolog of the circadian clock gene period, is a critical element of this pathway. lin-42 function has been defined by a set of hypomorphic alleles that cause precocious phenotypes, in which later developmental events, such as the terminal differentiation of hypodermal cells, occur too early. A subset of alleles also reveals a significant role for lin-42 in molting; larval stages are lengthened and ecdysis often fails in these mutant animals...
October 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721804/phosphorylation-regulating-the-ratio-of-intracellular-cry1-protein-determines-the-circadian-period
#20
Na Liu, Eric Erquan Zhang
The core circadian oscillator in mammals is composed of transcription/translation feedback loop, in which cryptochrome (CRY) proteins play critical roles as repressors of their own gene expression. Although post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation of CRY1, are crucial for circadian rhythm, little is known about how phosphorylated CRY1 contributes to the molecular clockwork. To address this, we created a series of CRY1 mutants with single amino acid substitutions at potential phosphorylation sites and performed a cell-based, phenotype-rescuing screen to identify mutants with aberrant rhythmicity in CRY-deficient cells...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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