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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231672/-analysis-on-cancer-deaths-and-cause-eliminated-life-expectancy-among-residents-of-tianjin-2015
#1
Z L Xu, H Zhang, D Z Wang, G D Song, C F Shen, S Zhang, Y Zhang, G H Jiang
Objective: To explore the causes of cancer deaths and cause-eliminated-life-expectancy among residents of Tianjin. Methods: Data from the death registry system of Tianjin residents in 2015 were collected and cancers were grouped according to the classification of Global Burden of Disease. Specific cancer crude death rate and cause eliminated life expectancy (CELE) were calculated. Results: In 2015, 17 641 Tianjin residents died of cancer, with the crude death rate as 171.79 per 100 thousand and the standardized rate according to the Chinese population in 2000 as 86...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231514/the-social-and-economic-impact-of-biofortification-through-genetic-modification
#2
REVIEW
Hans De Steur, Matty Demont, Xavier Gellynck, Alexander J Stein
Genetic modification (GM) has been advocated as an alternative or complement to micronutrient interventions such as supplementation, fortification or dietary diversification. While proof-of-concept of various GM biofortified crops looks promising, the decision tree of policy makers is much more complex, and requires insight on their socio-economic impacts: Will it actually work? Is it financially sound? Will people accept it? Can it be implemented in a globalized world? This review shows that GM biofortification could effectively reduce the burden of micronutrient deficiencies, in an economically viable way, and is generally well received by target beneficiaries, despite some resistance and uncertainty...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231253/community-analysis-of-pigment-patterns-from-37-microalgae-strains-reveals-new-carotenoids-and-porphyrins-characteristic-of-distinct-strains-and-taxonomic-groups
#3
Benoît Serive, Elodie Nicolau, Jean-Baptiste Bérard, Raymond Kaas, Virginie Pasquet, Laurent Picot, Jean-Paul Cadoret
Phytoplankton, with an estimated 30 000 to 1 000 000 species clustered in 12 phyla, presents a high taxonomic and ecophysiological diversity, reflected by the complex distribution of pigments among the different algal classes. High performance liquid chromatography is the gold standard method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton pigments in seawater and culture samples, but only a few pigments can be used as robust chemotaxonomic markers. A major challenge is thus to identify new ones, characteristic of a strain, species, class or taxon that cannot be currently identified on the basis of its pigment signature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231181/the-determinants-of-organic-vegetable-purchasing-in-jabodetabek-region-indonesia
#4
Alim Setiawan Slamet, Akira Nakayasu, Hu Bai
Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data...
December 7, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231087/reducing-postharvest-losses-during-storage-of-grain-crops-to-strengthen-food-security-in-developing-countries
#5
REVIEW
Deepak Kumar, Prasanta Kalita
While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, reduce pressure on natural resources, eliminate hunger and improve farmers' livelihoods. Cereal grains are the basis of staple food in most of the developing nations, and account for the maximum postharvest losses on a calorific basis among all agricultural commodities...
January 15, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231068/recent-advances-on-iron-oxide-magnetic-nanoparticles-as-sorbents-of-organic-pollutants-in-water-and-wastewater-treatment
#6
Angela M Gutierrez, Thomas D Dziubla, J Zach Hilt
The constant growth in population worldwide over the past decades continues to put forward the need to provide access to safe, clean water to meet human needs. There is a need for cost-effective technologies for water and wastewater treatment that can meet the global demands and the rigorous water quality standards and at the same maximizing pollutant efficiency removal. Current remediation technologies have failed in keeping up with these factors without becoming cost-prohibitive. Most recently, nanotechnology has been sought as the best alternative to increase access to water supplies by remediating those already contaminated and offering ways to access unconventional sources...
February 23, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230655/lessons-learned-from-human-hiv-vaccine-trials
#7
Justin Pollara, David Easterhoff, Genevieve G Fouda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses is likely essential for development of a globally effective HIV vaccine. Unfortunately, human vaccine trials conducted to date have failed to elicit broad plasma neutralization of primary virus isolates. Despite this limitation, in-depth analysis of the vaccine-induced memory B-cell repertoire can provide valuable insights into the presence and function of subdominant B-cell responses, and identify initiation of antibody lineages that may be on a path towards development of neutralization breadth...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#8
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230160/global-view-of-cognate-kinase-activation-by-the-human-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex
#9
Elena L Guevara, Luying Yang, Barbara Birkaya, Jieyu Zhou, Natalia S Nemeria, Mulchand S Patel, Frank Jordan
The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) comprises four multidomain components, E1, E3, E2 and an E3-binding protein (E3BP), the latter two forming the core as E2·E3BP sub-complex. Pyruvate flux through PDC is regulated via phosphorylation (inactivation) at E1 by four PDC kinases (PDKs), and reactivation by two PDC phosphatases. Up-regulation of PDK isoform gene expression is reported in several forms of cancer, while PDKs may be further activated by PDC by binding to the E2·E3BP core. Hence, the PDK: E2·E3BP interaction provides new therapeutic targets...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230079/organic-pollution-of-rivers-combined-threats-of-urbanization-livestock-farming-and-global-climate-change
#10
Yingrong Wen, Gerrit Schoups, Nick van de Giesen
Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229950/development-of-a-model-to-simulate-groundwater-inundation-induced-by-sea-level-rise-and-high-tides-in-honolulu-hawaii
#11
Shellie Habel, Charles H Fletcher, Kolja Rotzoll, Aly I El-Kadi
Many of the world's largest cities face risk of sea-level rise (SLR) induced flooding owing to their limited elevations and proximities to the coastline. Within this century, global mean sea level is expected to reach magnitudes that will exceed the ground elevation of some built infrastructure. The concurrent rise of coastal groundwater will produce additional sources of inundation resulting from narrowing and loss of the vertical unsaturated subsurface space. This has implications for the dense network of buried and low-lying infrastructure that exists across urban coastal zones...
February 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229924/outcomes-in-adults-and-children-with-end-stage-kidney-disease-requiring-dialysis-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#12
Gloria Ashuntantang, Charlotte Osafo, Wasiu A Olowu, Fatiu Arogundade, Abdou Niang, John Porter, Saraladevi Naicker, Valerie A Luyckx
BACKGROUND: The burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown but is probably high. Access to dialysis for ESKD is limited by insufficient infrastructure and catastrophic out-of-pocket costs. Most patients remain undiagnosed, untreated, and die. We did a systematic literature review to assess outcomes of patients who reach dialysis and the quality of dialysis received. METHODS: We searched PubMed, African Journals Online, WHO Global Health Library, and Web of Science for articles in English or French from sub-Saharan Africa reporting dialysis outcomes in patients with ESKD published between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 22, 2015...
February 17, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229472/human-capital-gaps-in-vaccine-development-an-issue-for-global-vaccine-development-and-global-health
#13
Andrea Cawein, Emilio Emini, Michael Watson, Joanna Dailey, John Donnelly, Dina Tresnan, Tom Evans, Stanley Plotkin, William Gruber
Despite the success of vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, many infectious diseases, both newly emerging and well known, lack vaccines. The global capability for beginning-to-end vaccine development has become limited, primarily owing to a scarcity of human capital necessary to guide the development of novel vaccines from the laboratory to the marketplace. Here, we identify and discuss the gaps in human capital necessary for robust vaccine development and make recommendations to begin to address these deficiencies...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229309/nusinersen-first-global-approval
#14
Sheridan M Hoy
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness resulting from motor neuron degeneration in the spinal cord and brainstem. It is most commonly caused by insufficient levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein (which is critical for motor neuron maintenance) secondary to deletions or mutations in the SMN1 gene. Nusinersen (SPINRAZA™) is a modified antisense oligonucleotide that binds to a specific sequence in the intron, downstream of exon 7 on the pre-messenger ribonucleic acid (pre-mRNA) of the SMN2 gene...
February 22, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229229/management-of-unstable-distal-third-clavicle-fractures-clinical-and-radiological-outcomes-of-the-arthroscopy-assisted-conoid-ligament-reconstruction-and-fracture-cerclage-with-sutures
#15
Luis Natera Cisneros, Juan Sarasquete Reiriz
INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment is indicated for the management of Neer type IIB fractures of the distal third of the clavicle. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes, in cases of unstable distal third clavicle fractures managed by means of an arthroscopy-assisted conoid ligament reconstruction and fracture cerclage with sutures. METHODS: Nine patients with unstable distal third clavicle fractures (Neer type IIB) managed arthroscopically by means of a conoid ligament reconstruction and fracture cerclage with sutures, between 2008 and 2012, were included...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229148/uniform-and-janus-like-nanoparticles-in-contact-with-vesicles-energy-landscapes-and-curvature-induced-forces
#16
Jaime Agudo-Canalejo, Reinhard Lipowsky
Biological membranes and lipid vesicles often display complex shapes with non-uniform membrane curvature. When adhesive nanoparticles with chemically uniform surfaces come into contact with such membranes, they exhibit four different engulfment regimes as recently shown by a systematic stability analysis. Depending on the local curvature of the membrane, the particles either remain free, become partially or completely engulfed by the membrane, or display bistability between free and completely engulfed states...
February 23, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229096/a-study-of-global-health-elective-outcomes-a-pediatric-residency-experience
#17
Christiana M Russ, Tony Tran, Melanie Silverman, Judith Palfrey
Background and Objectives: To identify the effects of global health electives over a decade in a pediatric residency program. Methods: This was an anonymous email survey of the Boston Combined Residency alumni funded for global health electives from 2002 to 2011. A test for trend in binomial proportions and logistic regression were used to document associations between elective and participant characteristics and the effects of the electives. Qualitative data were also analyzed. Results: Of the 104 alumni with available email addresses, 69 (66%) responded, describing 94 electives...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228863/medulloblastoma-and-ependymoma-cells-display-increased-levels-of-5-carboxylcytosine-and-elevated-tet1-expression
#18
Ashley Ramsawhook, Lara Lewis, Beth Coyle, Alexey Ruzov
BACKGROUND: Alteration of DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) patterns represents one of the causes of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Tet proteins can oxidise 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Although the roles of these oxidised forms of 5mC (oxi-mCs) in cancer pathogenesis are still largely unknown, there are indications that they may be involved in the mechanisms of malignant transformation. Thus, reduction of 5hmC content represents an epigenetic hallmark of human tumours, and according to our recent report, 5caC is enriched in a proportion of breast cancers and gliomas...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228750/evolutionary-roots-and-diversification-of-the-genus-aeromonas
#19
Ariadna Sanglas, Vicenta Albarral, Maribel Farfán, J G Lorén, M C Fusté
Despite the importance of diversification rates in the study of prokaryote evolution, they have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of microorganism taxa. The investigation of evolutionary patterns in prokaryotes constitutes a challenge due to a very scarce fossil record, limited morphological differentiation and frequently complex taxonomic relationships, which make even species recognition difficult. Although the speciation models and speciation rates in eukaryotes have traditionally been established by analyzing the fossil record data, this is frequently incomplete, and not always available...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228492/neisseria-gonorrhoeae-sequence-typing-for-antimicrobial-resistance-ng-star-a-novel-antimicrobial-resistance-multilocus-typing-scheme-for-tracking-the-global-dissemination-of-n-gonorrhoeae-strains
#20
W Demczuk, S Sidhu, M Unemo, D M Whiley, V G Allen, J R Dillon, M Cole, C Seah, E Trembizki, D L Trees, E N Kersh, A J Abrams, H J C de Vries, A P van Dam, I Medina, A Bharat, M R Mulvey, G Van Domselaar, I Martin
A curated web-based user-friendly sequence typing tool based on antimicrobial resistance determinants in Neisseria gonorrhoeae was developed and is publicly accessible at https://ngstar.canada.ca The N. gonorrhoeae Sequence Typing for Antimicrobial Resistance (NG-STAR) molecular typing scheme uses the DNA sequences of 7 genes (penA, mtrR, porB, ponA, gyrA, parC, 23S rRNA) associated with resistance to β-lactam antimicrobials, macrolides, or fluoroquinolones. NG-STAR uses the entire penA sequence combining the historical nomenclature for penA types I-XXXVIII with novel nucleotide sequence designations; the full mtrR sequence and a portion of its promoter region; portions of ponA, porB, gyrA and parC; and 23S rRNA sequences...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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