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Global development

Grace McIlvain, Hillary Schwarb, Neal J Cohen, Eva H Telzer, Curtis L Johnson
Viscoelastic mechanical properties of the in vivo human brain, measured noninvasively with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), have recently been shown to be affected by aging and neurological disease, as well as relate to performance on cognitive tasks in adults. The demonstrated sensitivity of brain mechanical properties to neural tissue integrity make them an attractive target for examining the developing brain; however, to date, MRE studies on children are lacking. In this work, we characterized global and regional brain stiffness and damping ratio in a sample of 40 adolescents aged 12-14 years, including the lobes of the cerebrum and subcortical gray matter structures...
June 10, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Edward Archer, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill
The debate on the relative contributions of presumptive etiologic factors in the development of obesity is becoming increasingly speculative, insular, and partisan. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the sheer volume of unfounded conjecture threatens to obscure well-established evidence. We posit that the failure to distinguish between causal factors and mere statistical associations engendered the proliferation of misleading and demonstrably false research programs and failed public health initiatives...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Maria Pujantell, Sandra Franco, Iván Galván-Femenía, Roger Badia, Marc Castellví, Edurne Garcia-Vidal, Bonaventura Clotet, Rafael de Cid, Cristina Tural, Miguel A Martínez, Eva Riveira-Muñoz, José A Esté, Ester Ballana
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent infectious pathogen. As many as 80% of people infected with HCV do not control the virus and develop a chronic infection. Response to interferon (IFN) therapy is widely variable in chronic HCV infected patients, suggesting that HCV has evolved mechanisms to suppress and evade innate immunity responsible for its control and elimination. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a relevant factor in the regulation of the innate immune response. The loss of ADAR1 RNA-editing activity and the resulting loss of inosine bases in RNA are critical in producing aberrant RLR-mediated innate immune response, mediated by RNA sensors MDA5 and RIG-I...
June 12, 2018: Antiviral Research
Raquel Valdes Angues, Austen Suits, Valerie S Palmer, Caesar Okot, Robert A Okot, Concy Atonywalo, Suzanne K Gazda, David L Kitara, Moka Lantum, Spencer S Peter
BACKGROUND: Disease surveillance in rural regions of many countries is poor, such that prolonged delays (months) may intervene between appearance of disease and its recognition by public health authorities. For infectious disorders, delayed recognition and intervention enables uncontrolled disease spread. We tested the feasibility in northern Uganda of developing real-time, village-based health surveillance of an epidemic of Nodding syndrome (NS) using software-programmed smartphones operated by minimally trained lay mHealth reporters...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ting Yang, Long Yu, Qi Jin, Liqun Wu, Bin He
Dispersion of ventricular repolarization due to abnormal activation contributes to the susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. However, the global pattern of repolarization is difficult to assess clinically. Activation recovery interval (ARI) has been used to understand the properties of ventricular repolarization. In this study, we developed an ARI imaging technique to noninvasively reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) ARI maps in 10 premature ventricular contraction (PVC) patients and evaluated the results with the endocardial ARI maps recorded by a clinical navigation system (CARTO)...
2018: PloS One
Anne E Otwell, Stephen J Callister, Robert W Sherwood, Sheng Zhang, Abby R Goldman, Richard D Smith, Ruth E Richardson
We established Fe(III)-reducing co-cultures of two species of metal-reducing bacteria, the Gram-positive Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 and the Gram-negative Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Co-cultures were given pyruvate, a substrate that D. reducens can ferment and use as electron donor for Fe(III) reduction. G. sulfurreducens relied upon products of pyruvate oxidation by D. reducens (acetate, hydrogen) for use as electron donor in the co-culture. Co-cultures reduced Fe(III) to Fe(II) robustly, and Fe(II) was consistently detected earlier in co-cultures than pure cultures...
June 15, 2018: Geobiology
Shruti Beriwal, Nikhil Padhiyar, Deven Bhatt, Prabhakar D Pandit, Afzal Ansari, Kumari Snehkant Lata, Zuber M Saiyed, Vibhisha Vaghasia, Priyanka Sharma, Shivarudrappa B Bhairappanavar, Subhash Soni, Jayashankar Das
Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal zoo-anthroponosis caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira belonging to the family of Leptospiraceae, with a worldwide distribution and effect, in terms of its burden and risk to human health. The 'LeptoDB' is a single window dedicated architecture (5 948 311 entries), modeled using heterogeneous data as a core resource for global Leptospira species. LeptoDB facilitates well-structured knowledge of genomics, proteomics and therapeutic aspects with more than 500 assemblies including 17 complete and 496 draft genomes encoding 1...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Gloria R Sue, Woodrow C Covington, James Chang
BACKGROUND: A paradigm shift is underway in the world of humanitarian global surgery to address the large unmet need for reconstructive surgical services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Here, we discuss the ReSurge Global Training Program (RGTP), a model for surgical training and capacity building in reconstructive surgery in the developing world. The program includes an online reconstructive surgery curriculum, visiting educator trips, expert reconstructive surgeon involvement, trainee competency tracking system, and identification of local outreach partners to provide safe reconstructive surgery to the neediest of patients in the developing world...
June 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Faith C Robertson, Jacob R Lepard, Rania A Mekary, Matthew C Davis, Ismaeel Yunusa, William B Gormley, Ronnie E Baticulon, Muhammad Raji Mahmud, Basant K Misra, Abbas Rattani, Michael C Dewan, Kee B Park
OBJECTIVE Central nervous system (CNS) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality and often require neurosurgical intervention for proper diagnosis and treatment. However, neither the international burden of CNS infection, nor the current capacity of the neurosurgical workforce to treat these diseases is well characterized. The objective of this study was to elucidate the global incidence of surgically relevant CNS infection, highlighting geographic areas for targeted improvement in neurosurgical capacity...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Amparo Fernández, Marta Ruiz-Bermejo, José L de la Fuente
The kinetics of the reaction of the synthesis of HCN polymers in aqueous medium at high temperatures have been analysed to ascertain a suitable model for this material, for which it was recently demonstrated that prebiotic chemistry may now be adapted in the development of a new generation of high performance coatings and adhesives with biomedical applications. These experimental conditions were chosen for the simplicity of the reagents, being particularly convenient in regard to potential industrial scale-up of coating technology, where these polymers have revealed an interesting field of application...
June 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
George R Jackson, Anna G Maione, Mitchell Klausner, Patrick J Hayden
Introduction: Knowledge of acute inhalation toxicity potential is important for establishing safe use of chemicals and consumer products. Inhalation toxicity testing and classification procedures currently accepted within worldwide government regulatory systems rely primarily on tests conducted in animals. The goal of the current work was to develop and prevalidate a nonanimal ( in vitro ) test for determining acute inhalation toxicity using the EpiAirway™ in vitro human airway model as a potential alternative for currently accepted animal tests...
June 1, 2018: Applied in Vitro Toxicology
Helen A Fletcher, Mitali Chatterjee, Andrea Cooper, Tracy Hussell, Paul M Kaye, Joann Prior, Rajko Reljic, Samantha Vermaak, Martin Vordermeier, Ann Williams, Helen McShane
For several complex intracellular pathogens, we have an urgent need for effective vaccines and yet there are common barriers to vaccine development. These diseases, including tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, leprosy and melioidosis, cause a huge burden of disease and disproportionately affect low and middle income countries. They are therefore often neglected due to the marginalisation of affected populations and the poor predicted commercial return on investment. Barriers to vaccine development include an incomplete understanding of protective immunity and translation from the bench into clinical vaccine trials...
2018: F1000Research
Jennifer B Dowd, Helen A Fletcher, Delia Boccia
A high burden of TB mortality persists despite the long-term availability of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, whose efficacy has been highly variable across populations. Innovative and alternative approaches to TB prevention are urgently needed while optimal biomedical tools continue to be developed. We call for new interdisciplinary collaborations to expand and integrate our understanding of how social determinants influence the biological processes that lead to TB disease, how this translates into differential BCG efficacy and, ultimately, how social protection interventions can play a role in reducing the global burden of TB...
2018: F1000Research
Jeffrey T Olimpo, Ryan S Pevey, Thomas M McCabe
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide an avenue for student participation in authentic scientific opportunities. Within the context of such coursework, students are often expected to collect, analyze, and evaluate data obtained from their own investigations. Yet, limited research has been conducted that examines mechanisms for supporting students in these endeavors. In this article, we discuss the development and evaluation of an interactive statistics workshop that was expressly designed to provide students with an open platform for graduate teaching assistant (GTA)-mentored data processing, statistical testing, and synthesis of their own research findings...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Francesco Zonta, Damiano Buratto, Giulia Crispino, Andrea Carrer, Francesca Bruno, Guang Yang, Fabio Mammano, Sergio Pantano
Connexin channels play numerous essential roles in virtually every organ by mediating solute exchange between adjacent cells, or between cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. Our understanding of the structure-function relationship of connexin channels relies on X-ray crystallographic data for human connexin 26 (hCx26) intercellular gap junction channels. Comparison of experimental data and molecular dynamics simulations suggests that the published structures represent neither fully-open nor closed configurations...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Maurice M'bangombe, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Bruce Reeder, Storn Kabuluzi, Kelias Msyamboza, Humphreys Masuku, Bagrey Ngwira, Philippe Cavailler, Francesco Grandesso, Adriana Palomares, Namseon Beck, Allison Shaffer, Emily MacDonald, Mesfin Senbete, Justin Lessler, Sean M Moore, Andrew S Azman
Problem: With limited global supplies of oral cholera vaccine, countries need to identify priority areas for vaccination while longer-term solutions, such as water and sanitation infrastructure, are being developed. Approach: In 2017, Malawi integrated oral cholera vaccine into its national cholera control plan. The process started with a desk review and analysis of previous surveillance and risk factor data. At a consultative meeting, researchers, national health and water officials and representatives from nongovernmental and international organizations reviewed the data and local epidemiological knowledge to determine priority districts for oral cholera vaccination...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Valerie A Luyckx, Marcello Tonelli, John W Stanifer
Kidney disease has been described as the most neglected chronic disease. Reliable estimates of the global burden of kidney disease require more population-based studies, but specific risks occur across the socioeconomic spectrum from poverty to affluence, from malnutrition to obesity, in agrarian to post-industrial settings, and along the life course from newborns to older people. A range of communicable and noncommunicable diseases result in renal complications and many people who have kidney disease lack access to care...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Giorgia Sulis, Adjima Combary, Haileyesus Getahun, Saidou Gnanou, Pier Francesco Giorgetti, Arnaud Konseimbo, Susanna Capone, Yohhei Hamada, Annabel Baddeley, Alberto Matteelli
Objective: To develop and test a simple system for recording and reporting the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection and to compare the effects of passive and active tracing of child contacts on indicators of such infection. Methods: We revised Burkina Faso's latent tuberculosis infection register and quarterly tuberculosis reporting form. Subsequently, coverage of the routine screening of contacts, who were younger than five years, for active tuberculosis and the corresponding percentages of such contacts who, if eligible, initiated preventive therapy were measured, nationwide, between 1 April 2016 and 31 March 2017...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Lukas Roth, Melissa Adler, Tanvi Jain, Daniel Bempong
Objective: To raise awareness about the importance of public pharmaceutical standards, identify if and, if so, where current pharmacopeias are falling short in the development of new and complete monographs and foster collaboration among the various pharmacopeias, to prioritize, develop and make available standards for those key medicines for which no complete monographs exist. Methods: In August 2017, we mined eight pharmacopeias to identify which of the 669 medicines in the 20th edition of the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines were covered by complete or incomplete monographs...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Xuezheng Sun, Yue Shan, Quefeng Li, Lynn Chollet-Hinton, Erin L Kirk, Gretchen L Gierach, Melissa A Troester
Several studies have sought to identify novel transcriptional biomarkers in normal breast or breast microenvironment to predict tumor risk and prognosis. However, systematic efforts to evaluate intra-individual variability of gene expression within normal breast have not been reported. This study analyzed the microarray gene expression data of 288 samples from 170 women in the Normal Breast Study (NBS), wherein multiple histologically normal breast samples were collected from different block regions and different sections at a given region...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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