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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475061/a-fungal-metabolite-zearalenone-as-a-cftr-inhibitor-and-potential-therapy-of-secretory-diarrheas
#1
Paradorn Muangnil, Saravut Satitsri, Kwanruthai Tadpetch, Patchreenart Saparpakorn, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Supa Hannongbua, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Chatchai Muanprasat
Overstimulation of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion plays an important role in the pathogenesis of secretory diarrheas, which remain an important global health problem. This study aimed to identify inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion from a library of fungus-derived compounds and to evaluate their pharmacological properties and anti-diarrheal utility. We identified zearalenone, 7'-dehydrozearalenone and 8'-hydroxyzearalenone isolated from the seagrass-derived fungus Fusarium sp. PSU-ES123 as inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells...
February 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475030/screening-for-protein-adducts-of-naphthalene-and-chrysene-in-plasma-of-exposed-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua
#2
Karianne S Enerstvedt, Magne O Sydnes, Eivind Larssen, Daniela M Pampanin
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well known contaminants, ubiquitously present in the habitat and spawning areas for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The Atlantic cod is a key species and a globally important food source, thus continuous monitoring of PAHs is considered highly valuable to ensure ecosystem sustainability and human food safety. PAH adducts to plasma proteins are applied as sensitive biomarkers of PAH exposure in humans and other species, thus the presence of PAH protein adducts in Atlantic cod plasma was investigated to identify PAH protein adduct biomarker candidates of exposure to PAHs...
February 16, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474813/a-multiplexed-rt-lamp-assay-for-detection-of-group-m-hiv-1-in-plasma-or-whole-blood
#3
Kelly A Curtis, Daphne Morrison, Donna L Rudolph, Anupama Shankar, Laura S P Bloomfield, William M Switzer, S Michele Owen
Isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), exhibit characteristics that are suitable for the development of a rapid, low-cost NAT that can be used at the POC. For demonstration of utility for global use, studies are needed to validate the performance of RT-LAMP for the detection of divergent subtypes. In this study, we designed and evaluated multiplexed HIV-1 integrase RT-LAMP primers to detect subtypes within group M, along with an RNase P positive internal processing and amplification control...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474797/maternal-health-in-india-a-survey-of-birth-attendant-competency-through-completeness-of-prescribed-care-during-perinatal-visits-in-12-randomly-chosen-districts-of-uttar-pradesh-india
#4
Adiya Jaffari, Stephen Alexander Benjamin Troxel
We assessed the completeness of care provided during perinatal visits at public institutions in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. Self-reported data from 53 interviews with birth attendants throughout 12 districts in UP showed that 52% of the items from a procedural checklist were covered during visits. Routine visits were found to be incomplete, provider training related to pharmaceuticals and counseling were suggested to be low, and the monitoring of vitals to be infrequent and inconsistent. We suggest further grassroots research be conducted in developing nations so that strategic and precise reform can be made to lower global maternal mortality...
February 23, 2018: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474484/transgenerational-effects-of-prenatal-restricted-diet-on-gene-expression-and-histone-modifications-in-the-rat
#5
Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Izabela Szczerbal, Anna M Malinowska, Agata Chmurzynska
Dietary triggers acting on a developing fetus can affect the functioning of the body in later life; this can be observed on various levels, including epigenetic modifications and gene expression. Early-life programmed changes may be transmitted to successive generations. In this study, the impact of prenatal restricted diet was studied in four generations of rats. We hypothesized that this diet can induce changes in the expression of major genes involved in two epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation and histone modifications...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474454/the-impact-of-poverty-reduction-and-development-interventions-on-non-communicable-diseases-and-their-behavioural-risk-factors-in-low-and-lower-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#6
Jessie Pullar, Luke Allen, Nick Townsend, Julianne Williams, Charlie Foster, Nia Roberts, Mike Rayner, Bente Mikkelsen, Francesco Branca, Kremlin Wickramasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) disproportionately affect low- and lower-middle income countries (LLMICs) where 80% of global NCD related deaths occur. LLMICs are the primary focus of interventions to address development and poverty indicators. We aimed to synthesise the evidence of these interventions' impact on the four primary NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and cancer) and their common behavioural risk factors (unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474429/early-eocene-deep-sea-benthic-foraminiferal-faunas-recovery-from-the-paleocene-eocene-thermal-maximum-extinction-in-a-greenhouse-world
#7
Gabriela J Arreguín-Rodríguez, Ellen Thomas, Simon D'haenens, Robert P Speijer, Laia Alegret
The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474383/a-cross-country-analysis-of-climate-shocks-and-smallholder-food-insecurity
#8
Meredith T Niles, Jonathan D Salerno
Future climate changes will affect smallholder farmers in the developing world, posing threats to household food security. Nevertheless, there remains limited comparable evidence across multiple countries and regions regarding the global extent of climate shocks affecting smallholder food security. We examine data from 5,299 household surveys across 15 countries in Latin America, Africa and South Asia to assess the extent of climate shocks and their association with food insecurity, as well as what strategies may help buffer against climate shocks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474375/dominance-of-p-glycoprotein-12-in-phenotypic-resistance-conversion-against-ivermectin-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Luiza Almeida Figueiredo, Thais Fuscaldi Rebouças, Sebastião Rodrigo Ferreira, Gabriela Flavia Rodrigues-Luiz, Rodrigo Cambraia Miranda, Ricardo Nascimento Araujo, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara
While diseases caused by nematodes remains a considerable drawback for the livestock, agriculture and public health, anthelmintics drug resistance has been observed over the past years and is a major concern for parasite control. Ivermectin, initially considered as a highly potent drug, currently presents a reduced anti-helminthic efficacy, which is influenced by expression of several ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC), among them the P-glycoproteins (Pgps). Here we present some evidences of Pgps dominance during Ivermectin resistance/susceptibility using Pgps double silencing in C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474268/twenty-five-years-of-lamivudine-current-and-future-use-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection
#10
Romina Quercia, Carlo-Federico Perno, Justin Koteff, Katy Moore, Cynthia McCoig, Marty St Clair, Daniel Kuritzkes
Innovation in medicine is a dynamic, complex, and continuous process that cannot be isolated to a single moment in time. Anniversaries offer opportunities to commemorate crucial discoveries of modern medicine, such as penicillin (1928), polio vaccination (inactivated, 1955; oral, 1961), the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (1967), monoclonal antibodies (1975), and the first HIV antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, 1987). The advent of antiretroviral drugs has had a profound effect on the progress of the epidemiology of HIV infection, transforming a terminal, irreversible disease that caused a global health crisis into a treatable but chronic disease...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474174/the-economic-costs-of-cardiovascular-disease-diabetes-mellitus-and-associated-complications-in-south-asia-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Ian F Walker, Fredrike Garbe, Judy Wright, Ian Newell, Naveen Athiraman, Nida Khan, Helen Elsey
BACKGROUND: More than 80% of global deaths caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) occur in developing countries. The burden of noncommunicable disease in South Asia is increasing rapidly. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the costs of CVD and the costs of DM to individuals and society in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. METHODS: We systematically searched six health and economic databases for studies identifying costs related to CVD or DM and their respective complications...
July 3, 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474132/who-s-the-target-mother-or-baby
#12
Alisa Kachikis, Linda O Eckert, Janet Englund
Maternal immunization for prevention of morbidity and mortality of pregnant women and their neonates due to infectious diseases is ongoing worldwide. The complexity of vaccine research and development in this population is challenging. Not only do vaccines for pregnant women require evidence of immunogenicity, potency, stability, and limited reactogenicity, they must also provide efficacy in decreasing morbidity for the pregnant woman, her fetus, and the neonate, demonstrate safety or lack of evidence of harm, and offer benefit or potential benefit of vaccination during pregnancy...
February 23, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473888/melatonin-mediated-development-of-ovine-cumulus-cells-perhaps-by-regulation-of-dna-methylation
#13
Yi Fang, Shoulong Deng, Jinlong Zhang, Haijun Liu, Yihai Li, Xiaosheng Zhang, Yixun Liu
Cumulus cells of pre-pubertal domestic animals are dysfunctional, perhaps due to age-specific epigenetic events. This study was designed to determine effects of melatonin treatment of donors on methylation modification of pre-pubertal cumulus cells. Cumulus cells from germinal vesicle stage cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from eighteen lambs which were randomly divided into control group (C) and melatonin group given an 18 mg melatonin implant subcutaneous (M). Compared to the C group, the M group had higher concentrations of melatonin in plasma and follicular fluid ( p < 0...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473883/emerging-nanomedicine-therapies-to-counter-the-rise-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
REVIEW
Alan Hibbitts, Cian O'Leary
In a recent report, the World Health Organisation (WHO) classified antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest threats to global health, food security, and development. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains at the core of this threat, with persistent and resilient strains detectable in up to 90% of S. aureus infections. Unfortunately, there is a lack of novel antibiotics reaching the clinic to address the significant morbidity and mortality that MRSA is responsible for. Recently, nanomedicine strategies have emerged as a promising therapy to combat the rise of MRSA...
February 23, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473866/molecular-modeling-study-for-the-design-of-novel-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-agonists-using-3d-qsar-and-molecular-docking
#15
Yaning Jian, Yuyu He, Jingjing Yang, Wei Han, Xifeng Zhai, Ye Zhao, Yang Li
Type 2 diabetes is becoming a global pandemic disease. As an important target for the generation and development of diabetes mellitus, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been widely studied. PPARγ agonists have been designed as potential anti-diabetic agents. The advanced development of PPARγ agonists represents a valuable research tool for diabetes therapy. To explore the structural requirements of PPARγ agonists, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and molecular docking studies were performed on a series of N -benzylbenzamide derivatives employing comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), and surflex-dock techniques...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473695/nanomaterial-exposure-toxicity-and-impact-on-human-health
#16
REVIEW
Antonio Pietroiusti, Helene Stockmann-Juvala, Francesca Lucaroni, Kai Savolainen
The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) has grown after the turn of the 21st century. Also, the production of ENM has globally grown, and exposure of workers especially via the lungs to ENM has increased. This review tackles with effects of ENM on workers' health because occupational environment is the main source of exposure to ENM. Assessment of exposure to ENM is demanding, and today there are no occupational exposure level (OEL) for ENM. This is partly due to challenges of such measurements, and in part to the unknown causality between ENM metrics and effects...
February 23, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473495/virtual-screening-in-hepatitis-b-virus-drug-discovery-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#17
Mohcine Elmessaoudi-Idrissi, Arnaud Blondel, Anass Kettani, Marc P Windisch, Soumaya Benjelloun, Sayeh Ezzikouri
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major global health burden. Interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues are currently the standard-of-care for chronic HBV infection. However, these antiviral agents have limited efficacy and do not result in a sustained virological response in the majority of infected patients. Virtual Screening (VS) strategies have now a strong impact on drug discovery, the strength of this research field has been corroborated by recent contributions in the development of novel drug candidates which are in clinical trials or which are already available in the clinics...
February 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473486/striving-for-the-best-wonca-global-standards-for-continuing-professional-development-for-family-doctors
#18
Victor Ng, Allyn Walsh, Nandani de Silva, Eleni Politi, Heather Grusauskas
While all physicians must continue to learn new knowledge through their careers, their post-training continuing professional development (CPD) has received less attention. Problems include lack of support for physicians, frequent deviations from best practices such as mandatory participation, focus on community need, and clear conflicts of interest amongst providers. Additionally, specialists from other disciplines catering to different patient populations often provide CPD for family doctors. The Working Party on Education of the World Organisation of Family Doctors (WONCA) sought to develop global standards in CPD for family doctors...
February 23, 2018: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473405/-introduction-reproductive-health-remains-a-major-global-health-issue-people-with-disabilities-face-additional-discrimination-and-barriers-to-access-which-need-to-be-better-understood-to-contribute-to-future-interventions-we-examined-the-intersections-between
#19
Muriel Mac-Seing, Christina Zarowsky
INTRODUCTION: Reproductive health remains a major global health issue. People with disabilities face additional discrimination and barriers to access which need to be better understood. To contribute to future interventions, we examined the intersections between gender and disability related to reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa in the qualitative literature. METHODS: We conducted a meta-synthesis, using a taxonomic analysis. An inductive and iterative approach was adopted to allow exploration of new and emergent semantic variations in themes...
January 30, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473208/the-perpetual-state-of-emergency-that-sacrifices-protected-areas-in-a-changing-climate
#20
Dirac Twidwell, Carissa L Wonkka, Christine H Bielski, Craig R Allen, David G Angeler, Jacob Drozda, Ahjond S Garmestani, Julia Johnson, Larkin A Powell, Caleb P Roberts
A modern challenge for conservation biology is to assess the consequences of policies that adhere to assumptions of stationarity (e.g. historic norms) in an era of global environmental change. Such policies may result in unexpected and surprising levels of mitigation given future climate change trajectories, especially as agriculture looks to protected areas to buffer against production losses during periods of environmental extremes. Here, we conduct a scenario impact assessment to determine the potential impact of climate change scenarios on the rates at which lands enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands are authorized for emergency biomass removal...
February 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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