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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634518/role-of-albumin-in-cirrhosis-from-a-hospitalist-s-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Saqib Walayat, Daniel Martin, Jaymon Patel, Umair Ahmed, Muhammad N Asghar, Aparna U Pai, Sonu Dhillon
Albumin, a negatively charged globular protein encoded on chromosome 4, is one of the most abundant proteins in the plasma and accounts for approximately 75% of plasma oncotic pressure. The role of albumin in the management of various disease states has shown to be beneficial historically. Low serum albumin is a predictor of mortality and poor outcomes. In cirrhotics undergoing paracentesis, albumin infusion prevents rapid re-accumulation of ascitic fluid while simultaneously decreasing the risk of post-paracentesis related circulatory dysfunction...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634345/sirtuin-3-deficiency-does-not-alter-host-defenses-against-bacterial-and-fungal-infections
#2
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Jérôme Lugrin, Hans Acha-Orbea, Didier Le Roy, Johan Auwerx, Thierry Roger
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is the main mitochondrial deacetylase. SIRT3 regulates cell metabolism and redox homeostasis, and protects from aging and age-associated pathologies. SIRT3 may drive both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive effects. SIRT3 deficiency has been reported to promote chronic inflammation-related disorders, but whether SIRT3 impacts on innate immune responses and host defenses against infections remains essentially unknown. This aspect is of primary importance considering the great interest in developing SIRT3-targeted therapies...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632510/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-lungs-in-murine-polymicrobial-sepsis-with-hydrogen-gas-treatment
#3
Yingxue Bian, Chao Qin, Yuchang Xin, Yang Yu, Hongguang Chen, Guolin Wang, Keliang Xie, Yonghao Yu
Sepsis-associated acute lung injury (ALI), which carries a high morbidity and mortality in patients, has no effective therapeutic strategies to date. Our group have already reported that hydrogen gas (H2) exerts a protective effect against sepsis in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying H2 treatment are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of H2 on lung injuries in septic mice through the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. Male ICR mice used in this study were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation...
June 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625762/fungal-peritonitis-by-thermoascus-crustaceus-in-a-peritoneal-dialysis-patient-from-chile
#4
Eduardo Alvarez, Alvaro Castillo, Isabel Iturrieta
BACKGROUND: Fungal peritonitis is a relatively uncommon infection in peritoneal dialysis patients. However, it can be associated with significant morbimortality. In recent reports, Candida species and other filamentous fungi have been reported as being aetiological agents. Thermoascus species are ubiquitous, thermophilic fungi, with an anamorph in the Paecilomyces genus. Here we present the first report of fungal peritonitis by Thermoascus crustaceus from Chile. CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 83-year-old female patient, with a history of cholecystectomy, hernia repair, severe arterial hypertension, hip and knee osteoarthritis and several episodes of peritoneal dialysis with a cloudy exudate...
June 15, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622509/antibacterial-nucleoside-analog-inhibitor-of-bacterial-rna-polymerase
#5
Sonia I Maffioli, Yu Zhang, David Degen, Thomas Carzaniga, Giancarlo Del Gatto, Stefania Serina, Paolo Monciardini, Carlo Mazzetti, Paola Guglierame, Gianpaolo Candiani, Alina Iulia Chiriac, Giuseppe Facchetti, Petra Kaltofen, Hans-Georg Sahl, Gianni Dehò, Stefano Donadio, Richard H Ebright
Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens pose an urgent public-health crisis. Here, we report the discovery, from microbial-extract screening, of a nucleoside-analog inhibitor that inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) and exhibits antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens: pseudouridimycin (PUM). PUM is a natural product comprising a formamidinylated, N-hydroxylated Gly-Gln dipeptide conjugated to 6'-amino-pseudouridine. PUM potently and selectively inhibits bacterial RNAP in vitro, inhibits bacterial growth in culture, and clears infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes peritonitis...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622363/acyloxyacyl-hydrolase-promotes-the-resolution-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury
#6
Benkun Zou, Wei Jiang, Han Han, Jing Li, Weiying Mao, Zihui Tang, Qian Yang, Guojun Qian, Jing Qian, Wenjiao Zeng, Jie Gu, Tianqing Chu, Ning Zhu, Wenhong Zhang, Dapeng Yan, Rui He, Yiwei Chu, Mingfang Lu
Pulmonary infection is the most common risk factor for acute lung injury (ALI). Innate immune responses induced by Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMP) molecules are essential for lung defense but can lead to tissue injury. Little is known about how MAMP molecules are degraded in the lung or how MAMP degradation/inactivation helps prevent or ameliorate the harmful inflammation that produces ALI. Acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH) is a host lipase that inactivates Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, or LPS)...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619135/in-vitro-adherence-and-invasion-of-primary-chicken-oviduct-epithelial-cells-by-gallibacterium-anatis
#7
Xiu-Ping Zhang, Cai-Jing Lu, Yong-Tao Li, Xia Yang, Xin-Wei Wang, Hong-Tao Chang, Hong-Ying Liu, Lu Chen, Jun Zhao, Chuan-Qing Wang, Yung-Fu Chang
Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) has been suggested to have a causal role in salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying chickens, leading to decreased egg production and increased mortality worldwide. Adherence and invasion of epithelial cells are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of G. anatis infection. The purpose of this article was to study adherence and invasion of G. anatis using two G. anatis strains of different virulence (Yu-PDS-RZ-1-SLG strain, highly virulent and F149(T) strain, non-virulent) via infection of the primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (PCOECs)...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614081/spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-a-rare-but-severe-complication-of-liver-cirrhosis
#8
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Sandra Lopes, Graça Ribeiro, Pedro Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the most common infectious complication in cirrhosis. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is rare and remains unknown. In this work, spontaneous fungal peritonitis as well as risk factors and prognosis are characterized. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of 253 consecutive admissions by peritonitis in cirrhotic patients was carried out between 2006 and 2015. Comparison of patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis (cases) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with positive microbiologic ascitic fluid culture (controls) was performed...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611262/relative-adrenal-insufficiency-is-associated-with-the-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-stable-decompensated-cirrhosis
#9
Evangelos Cholongitas, Ioannis Goulis, Eirini Pagkalidou, Anna Haidich, Apostolos Karagiannis, Theodora Nakouti, Chrysoula Pipili, Theodora Oikonomou, Spyros Gerou, Evangelos Akriviadis
BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of relative adrenal insufficiency (AI) on patients with stable decompensated cirrhosis (DeCi) has not been yet elucidated. AIM: Explore the association between AI and outcome [death or liver transplantation (LT)] in patients with DeCi. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with DeCi presenting no active complication have been included. Clinical and laboratory data, including serum levels of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were recorded in each participant...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610918/cd155-blockade-improves-survival-in-experimental-sepsis-by-reversing-dendritic-cell-dysfunction
#10
Yan Meng, Zhenzhen Zhao, Wenzhong Zhu, Tao Yang, Xiaoming Deng, Rui Bao
Immunosuppression is involved in septic processes, and results in an inability to eradicate the primary infection as well as a propensity to acquire secondary infections. In the present study, we found that the expression of CD155 on dendritic cells (DCs) and TIGIT on T cells were strikingly increased in septic mice. Furthermore, anti-CD155 antibody treatment could improve survival rate in mouse sepsis models through deceasing bacterial burden in both blood and peritoneal lavage fluid. Meanwhile, CD155 blockade efficiently increased the expression of TNF-a, IL-6 and decreased the level of IL-10 in blood and peritoneal lavage fluid of septic mice...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606995/synergistic-antibacterial-effect-of-silver-and-ebselen-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#11
Lili Zou, Jun Lu, Jun Wang, Xiaoyuan Ren, Lanlan Zhang, Yu Gao, Martin E Rottenberg, Arne Holmgren
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria account for a majority of fatal infections, and development of new antibiotic principles and drugs is therefore of outstanding importance. Here, we report that five most clinically difficult-to-treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria are highly sensitive to a synergistic combination of silver and ebselen. In contrast, silver has no synergistic toxicity with ebselen on mammalian cells. The silver and ebselen combination causes a rapid depletion of glutathione and inhibition of the thioredoxin system in bacteria...
June 12, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601541/long-term-peritoneal-dialysis-may-result-in-vascular-changes-within-the-peritoneal-cavity-leading-to-reduced-efficacy-of-intravenous-antibiotics-in-treatment-of-bacterial-peritonitis
#12
Hassan Bin Attique, Snehal Naik, Attiya Haroon, Ruchir Trivedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597507/percutaneous-ultrasound-guided-cholecystocentesis-complications-and-association-of-ultrasonographic-findings-with-bile-culture-results
#13
F Schiborra, J F McConnell, T W Maddox
OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively evaluate cases presented for percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis for associated complications, identify risk factors associated with complications and to assess ultrasonographic findings and relate these to bacterial culture results. METHODS: Data on 300 patients presented for percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis were retrospectively collected and ultrasonographic images were assessed for defined structural changes...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597106/relative-ascites-polymorphonuclear-cell-count-indicates-bacterascites-and-risk-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#14
Philipp Lutz, Felix Goeser, Dominik J Kaczmarek, Stefan Schlabe, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Jacob Nattermann, Achim Hoerauf, Christian P Strassburg, Ulrich Spengler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Absolute polymorphonuclear (PMN) counts in ascites define spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), a severe form of bacterial infection in liver cirrhosis. Bacterascites, another form of ascites infection, can progress to SBP or may resolve spontaneously but is not reflected by absolute PMN counts. We investigated whether the relative ascites PMN count (the absolute PMN count divided by the absolute leukocyte count) provides additional information to detect bacterascites or predict SBP...
June 9, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589100/microrna-21-limits-uptake-of-listeria-monocytogenes-by-macrophages-to-reduce-the-intracellular-niche-and-control-infection
#15
Daniel G W Johnston, Jay Kearney, Zbigniew Zasłona, Michelle A Williams, Luke A J O'Neill, Sinéad C Corr
MiRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MiRNA expression is a crucial part of host responses to bacterial infection, however there is limited knowledge of their impact on the outcome of infections. We investigated the influence of miR-21 on macrophage responses during infection with Listeria monocytogenes, which establishes an intracellular niche within macrophages. MiR-21 is induced following infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) with Listeria. MiR-21(-/-) macrophages display an increased bacterial burden with Listeria at 30 min and 2 h post-infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584525/gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-and-their-clinical-implications-in-cirrhosis
#16
REVIEW
Eleni Theocharidou, Ameet Dhar, David Patch
Gastrointestinal motility is impaired in a substantial proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis-related autonomic neuropathy, increased nitric oxide production, and gut hormonal changes have been implicated. Oesophageal dysmotility has been associated with increased frequency of abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux. Impaired gastric emptying and accommodation may result in early satiety and may have an impact on the nutritional status of these patients. Small intestinal dysmotility might be implicated in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579346/combined-spontaneous-bacterial-empyema-and-peritonitis-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites-and-hepatic-hydrothorax
#17
Anwar Mohamed, Mohammed Atef, Ayman Alsebaey, Mahmoud Musa Elhabshy, Mohsen Salama
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Spontaneous bacterial empyema (SBEM) is an underestimated condition in patients with ascites and hepatic hydrothorax with a high mortality. This study aimed to find whether spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a prerequisite for SBEM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 3000 HCV-related cirrhotic patients with ascites and hydrothorax were screened for the presence of SBP (ascitic fluid neutrophils >250/mm(3)) and SBEM (positive pleural fluid culture and neutrophils >250/mm(3) or negative pleural fluid culture and neutrophils >500/mm(3) with no evidence of pneumonia/parapneumonic effusion on chest radiograph or CT)...
June 1, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575883/effects-of-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-on-intestinal-flora-in-peritoneal-fibrosis
#18
Muammer Bilici, Ibrahim Ilker Oz, Sevil Uygun Ilikhan, Ali Borazan
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) on intestinal flora in peritoneal fibrosis. METHODS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as the control group, which received 0.9% saline (3 mL/d) intraperitoneally; the chlorhexidine gluconate (CH) group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally, and the ESA group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally and epoetin beta (3 doses of 20 IU/kg/wk) subcutaneously...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551914/-notes-assisted-endolumenal-rectal-resection-and-specimen-extraction-without-rectal-stump-opening-our-experience-with-this-novel-technique-in-a-porcine-model
#19
Anton Kvasha, Eyal Rosenthal, Muhammad Khalifa, Igor Waksman
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic surgery has long been used for colon and rectal resection, and the laparoscopic-assisted approach has prevailed in surgical practice. While this technique includes the fashioning of an intra-corporeal anastomosis, it still requires an abdominal incision for specimen extraction. Elimination of the abdominal incision and its potential complications has been the motivation for the development of natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) techniques. Many of these techniques make use of an open rectal stump, which poses as a potential for intra-abdominal contamination...
May 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550391/gut-liver-axis-cirrhosis-and-portal-hypertension-the-chicken-and-the-egg
#20
Juan P Arab, Rosa M Martin-Mateos, Vijay H Shah
The term gut-liver axis is used to highlight the close anatomical and functional relationship between the intestine and the liver. The intestine has a highly specialized epithelial membrane which regulates transport across the mucosa. Due to dysbiosis, impairment of the intestinal barrier and altered immunity status, bacterial products can reach the liver through the portal vein, where they are recognized by specific receptors, activate the immune system and lead to a proinflammatory response. Gut microbiota and bacterial translocation play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and its complications, such as portal hypertension, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatic encephalopaty...
May 26, 2017: Hepatology International
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