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bacterial peritonitis

Marta Hernández Conde, Elba Llop Herrera, Juan de la Revilla Negro, Fernando Pons Renedo, Natalia Fernández Puga, José Luis Martínez Porras, María Trapero Marugan, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Víctor Sánchez Turrión, José Luis Calleja Panero
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients that have undergone liver transplantation (LT) is 9.7% (SD 4.5). The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence, assess the factors that are associated with PVT and clarify their association with prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and LT. AIMS AND METHODS: From 2005 to 2014, laboratory, radiological and surgical data were collected from patients with LC in our center who had undergone LT for the first time...
October 19, 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Anatoliy Kubyshkin, Denis Chegodar, Andrew Katsev, Armen Petrosyan, Yuri Krivorutchenko, Olga Postnikova
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of nanosilver particles in solution stabilized in a matrix of sodium alginate on the growth and development of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter cloacae, the antibiotic-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans, and the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1. METHODS: Isolates of pathogenic bacteria obtained from bronchoalveolar and peritoneal lavage samples from Wistar rats with experimental pneumonia and peritonitis were tested for their susceptibility to silver nanoparticles in solution with an alginate stabilizer...
2016: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal
Maurizio Koch
Microbes are mostly important for the digestion of food, the absorption of some micronutrients, and the production of vitamins. The microbiota stimulates lymphoid structures in the gastrointestinal mucosa and decrease pathogens by competing for nutrients and space. Bacterial translocation is defined as the escape of gut bacteria and their products through the intestinal mucosa to the outside of the intestine as portovenous or systemic circulation. This is induced by a leaky gut barrier. There is evidence for a role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Omar D Borjas-Almaguer, Carlos A Cortez-Hernández, Emmanuel I González-Moreno, Francisco J Bosques-Padilla, José A González-González, Aldo A Garza, Juan A Martínez-Segura, Diego García-Compean, Juan V Alejandre-Loya, Jesús García-García, Guillermo Delgado-García, Héctor J Maldonado-Garza
:  Background & Aims. It is unclear whether portal vein thrombosis (PVT) unrelated to malignancy is associated with reduced survival or it is an epiphenomenon of advanced cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to assess clinical outcome in cirrhotic patients with PVT not associated with malignancy and determine its prevalence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective search in one center from June 2011 to December 2014. RESULTS: 169 patients, 55 women and 114 men, median age 54 (19-90) years...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Sang Soo Lee, Hyun Ju Min, Ja Yun Choi, Hyun Chin Cho, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Min Lee, Hong Jun Kim, Chang Yoon Ha, Hyun Jin Kim, Tae Hyo Kim, Jin Hyun Kim, Ok-Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: Although elevated levels of lactoferrin provide a biomarker for inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer, the clinical significance of these elevated levels in ascitic fluid of patients with ascites caused by liver cirrhosis is limited. The aims of our study were to investigate the usefulness of ascitic fluid lactoferrin levels for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and to evaluate the association between lactoferrin levels and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 13, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Sirisha Kodem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Anjali Verma, Arati Lalchandani, Richa Giri, Saurabh Agarwal, B P Priyadarshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mamatha Bhat, Bianca M Arendt, Venkat Bhat, Eberhard L Renner, Atul Humar, Johane P Allard
The intestinal microbiome (IM) is altered in patients with cirrhosis, and emerging literature suggests that this impacts on the development of complications. The PubMed database was searched from January 2000 to May 2015 for studies and review articles on the composition, pathophysiologic effects and therapeutic modulation of the IM in cirrhosis. The following combination of relevant text words and MeSH terms were used, namely intestinal microbiome, microbiota, or dysbiosis, and cirrhosis, encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, variceal bleeding, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil, Muhammad Salman Ghazni, Jackson Tan, Nazish Naseer, Muhammad Ashhad Ullah Khalil
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) was first described in 1960. It may occur as a complication of gonadotropin hormone therapy during assisted pregnancy or for primary infertility. A 26-year-old female patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome and primary infertility was treated to conceive. She received intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) along with follicle-stimulating hormone in an outside private clinic. She presented to the emergency department with abdominal and chest pain, loose stool, vomiting, shortness of breath and decreasing urine output...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Sahar M Kheir, Shamsoun Khamis Kafi, Patrik Ryden, Haitham Elbir, Mohammed A Soliman, Shima Ali, Ramy Abulikailik, Khadega Ahamed, Hasan Abu-Aisha
The culture negative peritonitis in Sudan 2010 was 46% exceeding 20% of the recommended ISPD (International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis) guidelines. This study reports an update after applying the standard ISPD protocol. The routine method was replaced by ISPD protocol. The culture negative rate using the ISPD guidelines dropped from 46% in the year 2010, to 39% in the year 2011, to 5% in the 2012 and to zero percent in the year 2013. Bacterial and fungal species represent (86.76%) and (13.23%) of infection and most isolates showed low resistance rate to antibiotics...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Carl-Fredrik Johnzon, Karin Artursson, Robert Söderlund, Bengt Guss, Elin Rönnberg, Gunnar Pejler
Mastitis is a serious medical condition of dairy cattle. Here, we evaluated whether the degree of virulence of mastitis pathogens in a mouse model can be linked to the inflammatory response that they provoke. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (strain 556 and 392) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (676 and 127), and laboratory control strains [8325-4 (S. aureus) and MG1655 (E. coli)], were injected i.p. into mice, followed by the assessment of clinical scores and inflammatory parameters. As judged by clinical scoring, E...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Chien-Lin Pan, Ming-Hong Chen, Fu-I Tung, Tse-Ying Liu
: Many non-antibiotic strategies, such as photocatalysis and photodynamic therapy, have been proposed to inhibit and/or kill bacteria. However, these approaches still have drawbacks such as insufficient bacterial specificity and the limited penetration depth of ultraviolet and near-infrared light. To overcome these limitations, we developed a bacteria-specific anti-bacterial technique via using low-dose X-ray. Graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs, a multifunctional vehicle) conjugated with vancomycin (Van, a bacteria-targeting ligand) were assembled with Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, a photo/radiation sensitizer) to yield a novel Van-GQDs/PpIX complex that specifically attached to Escherichia coli and efficiently generated intracellular reactive oxygen species following X-ray activation...
October 3, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Danai Agiasotelli, Alexandra Alexopoulou, Larisa Vasilieva, Emilia Hadziyannis, Dimitris Goukos, George L Daikos, Spyros P Dourakis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein (LBP) is an acute-phase-protein produced by hepatocytes. Changes in LBP are associated with the dynamics of bacterial translocation and intestinal permeability in decompensated cirrhosis (DC). We assessed serum and ascitic-fluid (AF) LBP and examined their association with mortality in patients with DC. METHODS: Eighty-eight consecutive patients (73.9% males) underwent thorough diagnostic investigations for infection...
October 6, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Pradeep R Atla, Muhammad Y Sheikh, Firdose Gill, Rabindra Kundu, Jayanta Choudhury
BACKGROUND: Hospital re-admissions in decompensated cirrhosis are associated with worse patient outcomes. Hispanics have a disproportionately high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting re-admission rates among Hispanics with HCV-related cirrhosis. METHODS: A total of 292 consecutive HCV-related cirrhosis admissions (Hispanics 189, non-Hispanics 103) from January 2009 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; 132 were cirrhosis-related re-admissions...
October 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Nitin Rangrao Gaikwad, Sudhir Jagdishprasad Gupta, Amol Rajendra Samarth, Tushar Hiralal Sankalecha
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the utility of handgrip dynamometry (HGD) in predicting short term mortality and complications in alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: Patients with alcoholic liver disease were included and nutritional assessment was done using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), HGD and other conventional parameters. Mortality rates and complications were compared to nutritional status. RESULTS: 80 patients were included in the study...
October 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Chikkamenahalli Lakshminarayana Lakshmikanth, Shancy Petsel Jacob, Avinash Kundadka Kudva, Calivarathan Latchoumycandane, Puttaraju Srikanta Murthy Yashaswini, Mosale Seetharam Sumanth, Cassiano F Goncalves-de-Albuquerque, Adriana R Silva, Sridevi Annapurna Singh, Hugo C Castro-Faria-Neto, Sandeep Kumble Prabhu, Thomas M McIntyre, Gopal Kedihithlu Marathe
The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes sepsis, but bacterial peptides also promote inflammation leading to sepsis. We found, intraperitoneal administration of live or heat inactivated E. coli JE5505 lacking the abundant outer membrane protein, Braun lipoprotein (BLP), was less toxic than E. coli DH5α possessing BLP in Swiss albino mice. Injection of BLP free of LPS purified from E. coli DH5α induced massive infiltration of leukocytes in lungs and liver. BLP activated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) ex vivo to adhere to denatured collagen in serum and polymyxin B independent fashion, a property distinct from LPS...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sandra Lemesch, Werner Ribitsch, Gernot Schilcher, Walter Spindelböck, Hildegard Hafner-Gießauf, Gunther Marsche, Lisa Pasterk, Doris Payerl, Bianca Schmerböck, Monika Tawdrous, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Philipp Stiegler, Gerd Kager, Seth Hallström, Karl Oettl, Katharina Eberhard, Angela Horvath, Bettina Leber, Vanessa Stadlbauer
Bacterial infection and sepsis are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A vicious cycle of increased gut permeability, endotoxemia, inadequate activation of the innate immune system and resulting innate immune dysfunction is hypothesized. We assessed endotoxemia, neutrophil function and its relation to oxidative stress, inflammation and gut permeability in patients with CKD grade 3-5 without renal replacement therapy (CKD group, n = 57), patients with CKD stage 5 undergoing haemodialysis (HD, n = 32) or peritoneal dialysis (PD, n = 28) and patients after kidney transplantation (KT, n = 67) in a cross-sectional observational study...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Evangelos Blevrakis, Dimitrios Anyfantakis, Emmanouil Blevrakis, Ioannis Vlachakis
INTRODUCTION: Acute pneumococcal peritonitis represents an unusual entity characterized by infection in the abdominal cavity despite the absence of an obvious causative source. Patients with portal hypertension such as cirrhotics and those with nefrotic syndrome are more frequently encountered in the every day practice. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 14 years old female was referred to our department by his general practitioner with a 24h history of right lower abdominal pain and fever...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Seongman Bae, Taeeun Kim, Min-Chul Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sung-Han Kim, Heungsup Sung, Young-Suk Lim, Sang-Oh Lee, Mi-Na Kim, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sang-Ho Choi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Manuel Kussmann, Linda Schuster, Sarah Wrenger, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
♦ Background: Peritonitis is a major problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The influence of diverse PD fluids on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the impact of different PD fluids on the activity of cefepime, ciprofloxacin, ertapenem, meropenem, and tobramycin against Escherichia coli. ♦ Methods: Time-kill curves in 4 different PD fluids (Dianeal PDG4, Extraneal, Nutrineal PD4 and Physioneal 40, all Baxter Healthcare Corp...
September 28, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
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