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Prospective memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637052/subtle-eye-movement-metrics-reveal-task-relevant-representations-prior-to-visual-search
#1
Anouk M van Loon, Katya Olmos-Solis, Christian N L Olivers
Visual search is thought to be guided by an active visual working memory (VWM) representation of the task-relevant features, referred to as the search template. In three experiments using a probe technique, we investigated which eye movement metrics reveal which search template is activated prior to the search, and distinguish it from future relevant or no longer relevant VWM content. Participants memorized a target color for a subsequent search task, while being instructed to keep central fixation. Before the search display appeared, we briefly presented two task-irrelevant colored probe stimuli to the left and right from fixation, one of which could match the current target template...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634446/are-distal-and-proximal-visual-cues-equally-important-during-spatial-learning-in-mice-a-pilot-study-of-overshadowing-in-the-spatial-domain
#2
Marie Hébert, Jan Bulla, Denis Vivien, Véronique Agin
Animals use distal and proximal visual cues to accurately navigate in their environment, with the possibility of the occurrence of associative mechanisms such as cue competition as previously reported in honey-bees, rats, birds and humans. In this pilot study, we investigated one of the most common forms of cue competition, namely the overshadowing effect, between visual landmarks during spatial learning in mice. To this end, C57BL/6J × Sv129 mice were given a two-trial place recognition task in a T-maze, based on a novelty free-choice exploration paradigm previously developed to study spatial memory in rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632246/declines-noted-in-cognitive-processes-and-association-with-achievement-among-children-with-leukemia
#3
Kathleen C Insel, Marilyn J Hockenberry, Lynette L Harris, Kari M Koerner, Zhenqiang Lu, Kristin B Adkins, Olga A Taylor, Patricia M Gundy, Ida M Moore
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To assess change in specific cognitive processes during treatment with chemotherapy only among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). 
. DESIGN: A prospective, repeated measures design.
. SETTING: Pediatric oncology treatment centers at Banner-University Medical Center Tucson/Banner Children's-Diamond Medical Center (University of Arizona) and Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology centers (Baylor College of Medicine) in Houston...
July 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629965/%C3%A2-cortical-atrophy-is-associated-with-accelerated-cognitive-decline-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-subsyndromal-depression
#4
Mitzi M Gonzales, Philip S Insel, Craig Nelson, Duygu Tosun, Niklas Mattsson, Susanne G Mueller, Simona Sacuiu, David Bickford, Michael W Weiner, R Scott Mackin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cognitive decline and cortical atrophy in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and chronic subsyndromal symptoms of depression (SSD) over a 4-year period. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Multicenter, clinic-based. PARTICIPANTS: Within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to identify individuals with MCI and stable endorsement (SSD group N = 32) or no endorsement (non-SSD group N = 69) of depressive symptoms across time points...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625494/acute-stress-shifts-the-balance-between-controlled-and-automatic-processes-in-prospective-memory
#5
Marcus Möschl, Moritz Walser, Franziska Plessow, Thomas Goschke, Rico Fischer
In everyday life we frequently rely on our abilities to postpone intentions until later occasions (prospective memory; PM) and to deactivate completed intentions even in stressful situations. Yet, little is known about the effects of acute stress on these abilities. In the present work we investigated the impact of acute stress on PM functioning under high task demands. 1) Different from previous studies, in which intention deactivation required mostly low processing demands, we used salient focal PM cues to induce high processing demands during intention-deactivation phases...
June 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625014/comparison-in-executive-function-in-chinese-preterm-and-full-term-infants-at-eight-months
#6
Yao Feng, Hong Zhou, Yan Zhang, Anthony Perkins, Yan Wang, Jing Sun
Executive function (EF) is increasingly recognized as being responsible for adverse developmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. Several perinatal factors may lead to poor EF development in infancy, and the deficits in EF can be identified in infants as young as eight months. A prospective cohort study was designed to study the EF in Chinese preterm infants and examine the relationship between EF in preterm infants and maternal factors during perinatal period. A total of 88 preterm infants and 88 full-term infants were followed from birth to eight months (corrected age)...
June 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623677/incidence-of-cognitively-defined-late-onset-alzheimer-s-dementia-subgroups-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Paul K Crane, Emily Trittschuh, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Andrew J Saykin, R Elizabeth Sanders, Eric B Larson, Susan M McCurry, Wayne McCormick, James D Bowen, Thomas Grabowski, Mackenzie Moore, Julianna Bauman, Alden L Gross, C Dirk Keene, Thomas E Bird, Laura E Gibbons, Jesse Mez
INTRODUCTION: There may be biologically relevant heterogeneity within typical late-onset Alzheimer's dementia. METHODS: We analyzed cognitive data from people with incident late-onset Alzheimer's dementia from a prospective cohort study. We determined individual averages across memory, visuospatial functioning, language, and executive functioning. We identified domains with substantial impairments relative to that average. We compared demographic, neuropathology, and genetic findings across groups defined by relative impairments...
June 14, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622557/the-executive-profile-of-children-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes-and-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Ellen M Lima, Patricia Rzezak, Catarina A Guimarães, Maria A Montenegro, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
RATIONALE: Benign Epilepsy of Childhood with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represent two distinct models of focal epilepsy of childhood. In both, there is evidence of executive dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to identify particular deficits in the executive function that would distinguish children with BECTS from children with TLE. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 19 consecutive children and adolescents with TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (57...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621334/telomere-length-and-bipolar-disorder
#9
Timothy R Powell, Danai Dima, Sophia Frangou, Gerome Breen
Variation in telomere length is heritable and is currently considered a promising biomarker of susceptibility for neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly because of its association with memory function and hippocampal morphology. Here, we investigate telomere length in connection to familial risk and disease expression in bipolar disorder (BD). We used quantitative polymerase chain reactions and a telomere-sequence to single-copy-gene-sequence ratio method to determine telomere length in genomic DNA extracted from buccal smears from 63 patients with BD, 74 first-degree relatives (49 relatives had no lifetime psychopathology and 25 had a non-BD mood disorder) and 80 unrelated healthy individuals...
June 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620925/validity-of-the-national-center-for-geriatrics-and-gerontology-functional-assessment-tool-and-mini-mental-state-examination-for-detecting-the-incidence-of-dementia-in-older-japanese-adults
#10
Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Hyuntae Park, Takehiko Doi, Sangyoon Lee
AIM: Numerous neuropsychological tests are implemented in the clinical setting. However, a readily available cognitive test is required to detect the risk of dementia in the community setting. METHODS: A total of 4151 persons aged ≥65 years participated in the present prospective cohort study. We assessed cognitive performance using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool. The National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool includes tests of story and word list memory, attention and executive function, processing speed, and visuospatial skill to screen for cognitive impairment...
June 16, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617940/quality-of-life-in-childhood-epilepsy-in-pediatric-patients-enrolled-in-a-prospective-open-label-clinical-study-with-cannabidiol
#11
Evan C Rosenberg, Jay Louik, Erin Conway, Orrin Devinsky, Daniel Friedman
Recent clinical trials indicate that cannabidiol (CBD) may reduce seizure frequency in pediatric patients with certain forms of treatment-resistant epilepsy. Many of these patients experience significant impairments in quality of life (QOL) in physical, mental, and social dimensions of health. In this study, we measured the caregiver-reported Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) in a subset of patients enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical study of CBD. Results from caregivers of 48 patients indicated an 8...
June 15, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614379/microbiome-restoration-diet-improves-digestion-cognition-and-physical-and-emotional-wellbeing
#12
Kate Lawrence, Jeannette Hyde
Manipulating gut bacteria in the microbiome, through the use of probiotics and prebiotics, has been found to have an influence on both physical and emotional wellbeing. This study uses a dietary manipulation 'The Gut Makeover' designed to elicit positive changes to the gut bacteria within the microbiome. 21 healthy participants undertook 'The Gut Makeover' for a four week period. Weight and various aspects of health were assessed pre and post intervention using the Functional Medicine Medical Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614354/maternal-prenatal-anxiety-and-child-comt-genotype-predict-working-memory-and-symptoms-of-adhd
#13
Kieran J O'Donnell, Vivette Glover, Jari Lahti, Marius Lahti, Rachel D Edgar, Katri Räikkönen, Thomas G O'Connor
Maternal prenatal anxiety is an important risk factor for altered child neurodevelopment but there is uncertainty concerning the biological mechanisms involved and sources of individual differences in children's responses. We sought to determine the role of functional genetic variation in COMT, which encodes catechol-O-methyltransferase, in the association between maternal prenatal anxiety and child symptoms of ADHD and working memory. We used the prospectively-designed ALSPAC cohort (n = 6,969) for our primary data analyses followed by replication analyses in the PREDO cohort (n = 425)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611614/functional-and-structural-network-recovery-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-1-year-longitudinal-study
#14
Patrizia Dall'Acqua, Sönke Johannes, Ladislav Mica, Hans-Peter Simmen, Richard Glaab, Javier Fandino, Markus Schwendinger, Christoph Meier, Erika J Ulbrich, Andreas Müller, Hansruedi Baetschmann, Lutz Jäncke, Jürgen Hänggi
Brain connectivity after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has not been investigated longitudinally with respect to both functional and structural networks together within the same patients, crucial to capture the multifaceted neuropathology of the injury and to comprehensively monitor the course of recovery and compensatory reorganizations at macro-level. We performed a prospective study with 49 mTBI patients at an average of 5 days and 1 year post-injury and 49 healthy controls. Neuropsychological assessments as well as resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were obtained...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600931/prospective-memory-deficits-in-patients-with-depression-a-meta-analysis
#15
Fu-Chun Zhou, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Wei Zheng, Qinge Zhang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Juan Zhang, Yu-Tao Xiang
BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM) can be impaired in patients with psychiatric disorders including depression. This meta-analysis systematically examined PM in patients with depression. METHODS: The meta-analysis was conducted according to the guidelines from Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Case-control studies on PM in patients with depression were included. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random effect models...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600714/the-importance-of-age-related-differences-in-prospective-memory-evidence-from-diffusion-model-analyses
#16
B Hunter Ball, Andrew J Aschenbrenner
Event-based prospective memory (PM) refers to relying on environmental cues to trigger retrieval of a deferred action plan from long-term memory. Considerable research has demonstrated PM declines with increased age. Despite efforts to better characterize the attentional processes that underlie these decrements, the majority of research has relied on measures of central tendency to inform theoretical accounts of PM that may not entirely capture the underlying dynamics involved in allocating attention to intention-relevant information...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600628/the-interplay-of-intention-maintenance-and-cue-monitoring-in-younger-and-older-adults-prospective-memory
#17
Nicola Ballhausen, Katharina M Schnitzspahn, Sebastian S Horn, Matthias Kliegel
The retention phase of a prospective memory (PM) task poses different challenges, including demands to store or maintain an intended action and to realize the right moment for action execution. The interplay of these processes in younger and older adults has not been explored so far. In this study, the authors examined the impact of maintenance load and task focality on PM in 84 younger and in 83 older adults. Results indicated that PM performance and ongoing task response times were strongly affected by maintenance load and age...
June 9, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599713/working-memory-over-a-six-year-period-in-young-binge-drinkers
#18
C Carbia, F Cadaveira, E López-Caneda, F Caamaño-Isorna, S Rodríguez Holguín, M Corral
Adolescence and early adulthood are periods of particular vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Young people with alcohol-use disorders display deficits in working memory (WM). This function is supported by the prefrontal cortex, a late-maturing brain region. However, little is known about the progression of cognitive dysfunctions associated with a binge-drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption among non-clinical adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and WM in university students...
June 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596484/chemotherapy-induced-changes-of-cerebral-activity-in-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebral-white-matter-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#19
Caiqin Mo, Hailong Lin, Fangmeng Fu, Lin Lin, Jie Zhang, Meng Huang, Chuan Wang, Yunjing Xue, Qing Duan, Weiwen Lin, Xiangjin Chen
While chemotherapy related cognitive disorder has been described in many studies, but we still lack relatively reliable and objective diagnostic tools, and there are few similar studies in Asian patients. We recruited Asian breast cancer patients to perform a cohort study to uncover chemotherapy related cognitive disorder by using resting-state functioning magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with neuropsychologic assessments. This is the first prospective study which combines RS-fMRI and DTI to detect chemotherapy related cognitive disorder...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595352/neuropsychology-outcomes-following-trephine-epilepsy-surgery-the-inferior-temporal-gyrus-approach-for-amygdalohippocampectomy-in-medically-refractory-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Mike R Schoenberg, William E Clifton, Ryan W Sever, Fernando L Vale
BACKGROUND: Surgery is indicated in cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy(MTLE) that are refractory to medical management. The inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) approach provides access to the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) structures with minimal tissue disruption. Reported neuropsychology outcomes following this approach are limited. OBJECTIVE: To report neuropsychological outcomes using an ITG approach to amygdalohippocampectomy (AH) in patients with medically refractory MTLE based on a prospective design...
June 8, 2017: Neurosurgery
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