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Prospective memory

Jan Bressler, Thomas H Mosley, Alan Penman, Rebecca F Gottesman, Beverly Gwen Windham, David S Knopman, Lisa M Wruck, Eric Boerwinkle
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by impairment in memory, behavioral changes, and gradual loss of autonomy. Since there is a long latent period prior to diagnosis, the aim of this study was to determine whether twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association analyses of AD are associated with cognitive change in 8,320 white and 2,039 African-American middle-aged adults enrolled in the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Vincent Planche, Aurélie Ruet, Pierrick Coupé, Delphine Lamargue-Hamel, Mathilde Deloire, Bruno Pereira, José V Manjon, Fanny Munsch, Nicola Moscufo, Dominik S Meier, Charles Rg Guttmann, Vincent Dousset, Bruno Brochet, Thomas Tourdias
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could reveal early hippocampal damage and clinically relevant correlates of memory impairment in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A total of 37 persons with CIS, 32 with MS and 36 controls prospectively included from 2011 to 2014 were tested for cognitive performances and scanned with 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess volumetric and DTI changes within the hippocampus, whole brain volume and T2-lesion load...
October 25, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Thomas G Burns, Natasha N Ludwig, Tiffany N Tajiri, Nick DeFilippis
The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance and behavioral symptoms in a sample of children diagnosed with partial epilepsy who were seizure controlled on AED monotherapy for one year. Ninety-eight seizure-controlled children on AED monotherapy were included in this study. Specific AEDs examined included topiramate, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine. Groups did not differ on age, region of focal epilepsy, or Full-Scale IQ. Direct measures included the WISC-IV and selected tests from the DKEFS (Verbal Fluency and Trail Making Test)...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Franklin P Tamborello, J Gregory Trafton
OBJECTIVE: A computational process model could explain how the dynamic interaction of human cognitive mechanisms produces each of multiple error types. BACKGROUND: With increasing capability and complexity of technological systems, the potential severity of consequences of human error is magnified. Interruption greatly increases people's error rates, as does the presence of other information to maintain in an active state. METHOD: The model executed as a software-instantiated Monte Carlo simulation...
October 24, 2016: Human Factors
Bjørn Hagen, Marit Valla, Guro Aune, Merethe Ravlo, Anne Britt Abusland, Elisabeth Araya, Marit Sundset, Solveig Tingulstad
OBJECTIVE: A sentinel lymph node (SLN) strategy may have particular value in endometrial cancer (EC) because a therapeutic effect of lymphadenectomy per se is unproven. The aim was to evaluate indocyanine green (ICG) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence mapping using a surgical algorithm. METHODS: From November 2012 through December 2015, women with apparently early stage EC underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy including ICG fluorescence SLN mapping following the Memorial Sloane Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) surgical algorithm...
October 21, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Jennie Johnstone, Robin Parsons, Fernando Botelho, Jamie Millar, Shelly McNeil, Tamas Fulop, Janet E McElhaney, Melissa K Andrew, Stephen D Walter, P J Devereaux, Mehrnoush Malek, Ryan R Brinkman, Jonathan Bramson, Mark Loeb
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether immune phenotypes associated with immunosenescence are predictive of frailty and mortality within 1-year in elderly nursing home residents. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of frailty; prospective cohort study of mortality. SETTING: Thirty-two nursing homes in four Canadian cities between September 2009 and October 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents aged 65 and older (N = 1,072, median age 86, 72% female)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Geoffrey Blondelle, Mathieu Hainselin, Yannick Gounden, Laurent Heurley, Hélène Voisin, Olga Megalakaki, Estelle Bressous, Véronique Quaglino
BACKGROUND: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18-30), 16 intermediate adults (40-55), and 25 older adults (65-80)...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
Marco Gelpi, Hans J Hartling, Kristina Thorsteinsson, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic primary HIV infection is associated with an adverse prognosis, and immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is recommended. However, little is known about immunological predictors of immune recovery. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that promotes CD4+ T cells homeostatic polyclonal proliferation and regulates Th17/regulatory T-cell balance, immunological functions known to be affected during primary HIV infection. The aim of this study was to describe immune recovery in primary and chronic HIV infection and possible impact of TSLP...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Elvira Boere, Astrid M Kamperman, Arianne E van 't Hoog, Walter W van den Broek, Tom K Birkenhäger
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered an effective treatment for major depression with melancholic features. However, neurocognitive side-effects such as anterograde amnesia still regularly occur. The present study aims to evaluate the severity and course of anterograde amnesia in severely depressed patients undergoing ECT. In a prospective naturalistic study, anterograde memory function was assessed among inpatients who underwent ECT (n = 11). Subjects met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder...
2016: PloS One
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Vicky Lehmann, Mariët Hagedoorn, Cynthia A Gerhardt, Madelaine C Keim, Lory Guthrie, Robbert Sanderman, Marrit A Tuinman
PURPOSE: Childhood cancer is stressful for the entire family. Preoccupation and anxiety surrounding the child's illness may result in parents of children with cancer being overprotective or less emotionally responsive toward their children. Such parenting in response to a negative life event like childhood cancer may cause survivors to be more insecurely attached than healthy peers, which could have downstream effects on survivors' romantic relationships later in life. Therefore, we examined survivors' perspectives on parent behaviors, adult attachment, and marital status among adult survivors of childhood cancer relative to controls...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Janna M Gottwald, Sheila Achermann, Carin Marciszko, Marcus Lindskog, Gustaf Gredebäck
The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasks-involving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibition-and a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants' performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks...
October 7, 2016: Psychological Science
Kathleen A Puntillo, Adeline Max, Marine Chaize, Gerald Chanques, Elie Azoulay
OBJECTIVE: To assess patients' recollections of in-ICU procedural pain and its impact on post-ICU burden. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study of patients who underwent ICU procedures. SETTING: Thirty-four ICUs in France and Belgium. PATIENTS: Two hundred thirty-six patients who had undergone ICU procedures. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were interviewed 3-16 months after hospitalization about: 1) recall of procedural pain intensity and pain distress (on 0-10 numeric rating scale); 2) current pain; that is, having pain in the past week that was not present before hospitalization; and 3) presence of traumatic stress (Impact of Events Scale)...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Marina Ávila-Villanueva, Ana Rebollo-Vázquez, José M Ruiz-Sánchez de León, Meritxell Valentí, Miguel Medina, Miguel A Fernández-Blázquez
Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Xiao-Ying Liu, Tao Shi, Wei-Na Yin, Zhen-Yu Ren, Yu-Lei Deng, Sheng-Di Chen
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is one of the major consequences of epilepsy and has been shown to reduce quality of life. Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) were associated with poorer cognitive performance in children, and the aim of this study was to determine whether there was a similar association in adults. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 167 seizure-free adult patients underwent EEG recording and extensive cognitive evaluations. Global cognition was evaluated using Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while sub-dimensions of cognition were evaluated using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Trial Making Test (TMT)-A and -B, and the 5 constitutive subscales of ACE-R...
September 30, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Mary Ellen McCann, Jurgen de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous preclinical studies have shown that general anesthetics adversely influence on the development of young brains. These adverse effects are dose-dependent occurring in specific stages of brain development. Histologic examinations show increased apoptosis, pathological neurogenesis and dendritic formation after exposure of infant animals to virtually all general anesthetics at a clinically effective dose which are associated with memory and behavioral changes at adulthood...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
Vigneswaran Veeramuthu, Vairavan Narayanan, Norlisah Ramli, Aditya Hernowo, Vicknes Waran, Mark W Bondi, Lisa Delano-Wood, Dharmendra Ganesan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of persistent neuropsychological impairment in patients with complicated versus uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: 61 patients with mTBI (GCS 13 to 15) were prospectively recruited, categorized according to baseline CT findings, and underwent neuropsychological assessment at initial admission (n=61) as well as at 6 month follow-up (n=30). A paired t-test, Cohen's d effect size calculation, and repeated measure ANOVA were used to establish the differences between the groups in terms of their neuropsychological performance...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Stephanie Cosentino, Carolyn Zhu, Elodie Bertrand, Janet Metcalfe, Sarah Janicki, Sarah Cines
Disordered awareness of memory loss (i.e., anosognosia) is a frequent and clinically relevant symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The metacognitive errors which characterize anosognosia in AD, however, have not been fully articulated. The current study examined metamemory performance as a function of clinically defined awareness groups using different task conditions to examine the extent to which specific metacognitive deficits (i.e., detecting, integrating, or being explicitly aware of errors) contribute to anosognosia in AD (n = 49)...
August 13, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Marie-Hélène Pilon, Stéphane Poulin, Marie-Pierre Fortin, Michèle Houde, Louis Verret, Rémi W Bouchard, Robert Laforce
Few studies have explored the rate of cognitive decline and caregiver burden within the context of a specialized memory clinic. When this was done, the focus was largely on functional decline related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our goal was to compare the longitudinal decline of AD patients to those with Vascular Dementia (VaD) on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We further explored the differential impact on caregiver burden. We retrospectively studied 237 charts from patients seen at our Memory Clinic between 2006 and 2012...
March 11, 2016: Neurology (ECronicon)
David C Cappadocia, Simona Monaco, Ying Chen, Gunnar Blohm, J Douglas Crawford
The cortical mechanisms for reach have been studied extensively, but directionally selective mechanisms for visuospatial target memory, movement planning, and movement execution have not been clearly differentiated in the human. We used an event-related fMRI design with a visuospatial memory delay, followed by a pro-/anti-reach instruction, a planning delay, and finally a "go" instruction for movement. This sequence yielded temporally separable preparatory responses that expanded from modest parieto-frontal activation for visual target memory to broad occipital-parietal-frontal activation during planning and execution...
October 15, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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