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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642338/cellular-distribution-and-function-of-ion-channels-involved-in-transport-processes-in-rat-tracheal-epithelium
#1
Anne Hahn, Johannes Faulhaber, Lalita Srisawang, Andreas Stortz, Johanna J Salomon, Marcus A Mall, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca(2+) or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca(2+)- dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl(-) secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, the epithelial Na(+) channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641182/unraveling-the-complexities-of-the-velocity-dependency-of-e-coli-retention-and-release-parameters-in-saturated-porous-media
#2
Salini Sasidharan, Scott A Bradford, Saeed Torkzaban, Xueyan Ye, Joanne Vanderzalm, Xinqiang Du, Declan Page
Escherichia coli transport and release experiments were conducted to investigate the pore-water velocity (v) dependency of the sticking efficiency (α), the fraction of the solid surface area that contributed to retention (Sf), the percentage of injected cells that were irreversibly retained (Mirr), and cell release under different (10-300mM) ionic strength (IS) conditions. Values of α, Sf, and Mirr increased with increasing IS and decreasing v, but the dependency on v was greatest at intermediate IS (30 and 50mM)...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639647/water-mediated-proton-conduction-in-a-sulfonated-microporous-organic-polymer
#3
C Klumpen, S Gödrich, G Papastavrou, J Senker
Polymer membranes (PEMs) within fuel cells (FCs) act as separators and efficient proton conducting electrolytes. Established systems tend to microphase separation into hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, making these materials prone to water loss at elevated temperatures. Therefore, recent approaches utilize porous materials, which promise stronger interactions between water molecules and the framework, while still providing efficient conductive pathways. Here we show, that the microporous polymer PAF-1 exhibits proton conductivities up to 10(-1) S cm(-1) under hydrous conditions, after post-synthetic sulfonation...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636684/balanced-work-function-as-a-driver-for-facile-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-comprehension-and-experimental-assessment-of-interfacial-catalytic-descriptor
#4
Aleksandar R Zeradjanin, Ashokanand Vimalanandan, George Polymeros, Angel A Topalov, Karl J J Mayrhofer, Michael Rohwerder
A major step in the development of (electro)catalysis would be the possibility to estimate accurately the energetics of adsorption processes related to reaction intermediates. Computational chemistry (e.g. using DFT) developed significantly in that direction and allowed the fast prediction of (electro)catalytic activity trends and improved the general understanding of adsorption at electrochemical interfaces. However, building a reliable and comprehensive picture of electrocatalytic reactions undoubtedly requires experimental assessment of adsorption energies...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636393/lithium-ion-coupled-electron-transfer-rates-in-superconcentrated-electrolytes-exploring-the-bottlenecks-for-fast-charge-transfer-rates-with-limn2o4-cathode-materials
#5
Victoria A Nikitina, Maxim V Zakharkin, Sergey Yu Vassiliev, Lada V Yashina, Evgeny V Antipov, Keith J Stevenson
The charge transfer kinetics of lithium ion intercalation into LixMn2O4 cathode materials was examined in dilute and concentrated aqueous and carbonate LiTFSI solutions using electrochemical methods. Distinctive trends in ion intercalation rates were observed between water-based and ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate solutions. The influence of the solution concentration on the rate of lithium ion transfer in aqueous media can be tentatively attributed to the process associated with Mn dissolution, while in carbonate solutions the rate is influenced by the formation of a concentration-dependent solid electrolyte interface (SEI)...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636350/integrating-a-semi-transparent-fullerene-free-organic-solar-cell-in-tandem-with-a-bivo4-photoanode-for-unassisted-solar-water-splitting
#6
Yuelin Peng, Gokul V Govindaraju, Dong Ki Lee, Kyoung-Shin Choi, Trisha L Andrew
We report an unassisted solar water splitting system powered by a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-containing semi-transparent organic solar cell. Two major merits of this fullerene-free solar cell enable its integration with a BiVO4 photoanode. First is the high open circuit voltage and high fill factor displayed by this single junction solar cell, which yields sufficient power to effect water splitting when serially-connected to an appropriate electrode/catalyst. Second, the wavelength-resolved photoaction spectrum of the DPP-based solar cell has minimal overlap with that of the BiVO4 photoanode, thus ensuring that light collection across these two components can be optimized...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631789/electrolyte-effect-in-induced-charge-electroosmosis
#7
Huicheng Feng, Yi Huang, Teck Neng Wong, Fei Duan
This paper reports an interesting phenomenon that the velocity increases with increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in induced charge electroosmosis (ICEO) around a conducting cylinder measured by microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV). It is different from the widely reported velocity decay with increasing electrolyte concentration in AC electroosmosis (ACEO) [M. Z. Bazant et al., MicroTAS, 2007, 2875-2878] and induced charge electrophoresis (ICEP) of Janus particles [S. Gangwal et al., Phys. Rev...
June 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627573/surface-specific-vibrational-spectroscopy-of-the-water-silica-interface-screening-and-interference
#8
Jan Schaefer, Grazia Gonella, Mischa Bonn, Ellen H G Backus
Surface-specific vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (V-SFG) is frequently used to obtain information about the molecular structure at charged interfaces. Here, we provide experimental evidence that not only screening of surface charges but also interference limits the extent to which V-SFG probes interfacial water at sub-mM salt concentrations. As a consequence, V-SFG yields information about the ∼single monolayer interfacial region not only at very high ionic strength, where the surface charge is effectively screened, but also for pure water due to the particularly large screening length at this low ionic strength...
June 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625998/structures-compositions-and-activities-of-live-shewanella-biofilms-formed-on-graphite-electrodes-in-electrochemical-flow-cells
#9
Miho Kitayama, Ryota Koga, Takuya Kasai, Atsushi Kouzuma, Kazuya Watanabe
An electrochemical flow cell equipped with a graphite working electrode (WE) at the bottom was inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 expressing an anaerobic fluorescence protein, and biofilm formation on WE were observed over time during current generation at WE potentials of +0.4 and 0 V (vs. standard hydrogen electrodes) under electrolyte-flow conditions. Electrochemical analyses suggest the presence of unique electron-transfer mechanisms in the +0.4 V biofilm. Microscopic analyses revealed that, different from aerobic biofilms, current-generating biofilm (at +0...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625070/mckittrick-wheelock-syndrome-unusual-but-potentially-lethal
#10
María López Álvarez, Jesús Ángel Yañéz López, Aldara Naveiras Calvo
McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is characterized by extracellular volume depletion and severe fluid and electrolyte imbalance caused by secretory tumors of the rectum, usually villous adenomas. Patients usually present signs of dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and prerenal azotemia due to the chronic diarrhea, rich in ions and water. Since this is a potencially lethal entity without treatment, and a very unusual condition, we report a clinical case. Treatment consists in surgical resection of the tumor, although endoscopy polypectomy has also been reported...
June 19, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622725/self-supported-biocarbon-fiber-electrode-decorated-with-molybdenum-carbide-nanoparticles-for-highly-active-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#11
Jian Xiao, Yan Zhang, Zheye Zhang, Qi-Ying Lv, Feng Jing, Kai Chi, Shuai Wang
To devise and facilely synthesize an efficient noble metal-free electrocatalyst for accelerating the sluggish kinetics in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are still a big challenge for electrolytic water splitting. Herein, we present a simple one-step approach for constructing self-supported biocarbon fiber cloth decorated with molybdenum carbide nanoparticles (BCF/Mo2C) electrodes by a direct annealing treatment of the Mo oxyanions loaded cotton T-shirt. The Mo2C nanoparticles not only serve as the catalytic active sites toward the HER but also enhance the hydrophilicity and conductivity of resultant electrodes...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619670/hyponatraemia-diagnosis-and-treatment-clinical-practice-guidelines
#12
Goce Spasovski, Raymond Vanholder, Bruno Allolio, Djillali Annane, Steve Ball, Daniel Bichet, Guy Decaux, Wiebke Fenske, Ewout J Hoorn, Carole Ichai, Michael Joannidis, Alain Soupart, Robert Zietse, Maria Haller, Sabine van der Veer, Wim van Biesen, Evi Nagler, Liliana Gonzalez-Espinoza, Alberto Ortiz
Hyponatremia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135mmol/l, is the most common water-electrolyte imbalance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from mild to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay. Despite this, the management of hyponatremia patients remains problematic. The prevalence of hyponatremia in a wide variety of conditions and the fact that hyponatremia is managed by clinicians with a broad variety of backgrounds have fostered diverse institution- and specialty-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment...
June 12, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618171/highly-fluorinated-polymers-with-sulfonate-sulfamide-and-n-n-diethylamino-groups-for-the-capillary-electromigration-separation-of-proteins-and-steroid-hormones
#13
Dzema Daria, Kartsova Liudmila, Emelianov Gennady
Highly fluorinated polymers are promising materials in separation methods due to combination of high chemical and thermally stability, hydro- and oleophobicity and weak intermolecular forces. However, application of these polymers in chromatography is limited because of their low solubility in aqueous-organic solvents. In our research, the highly fluorinated water soluble polymers with -SO3(-) N(Et)4(+) , -SO2 NH2 and -N(Et)2 terminal groups were synthesized and applied as additives to the background electrolyte for the separation of steroid hormones and proteins by capillary electromigration methods...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614067/nano-engineering-of-p-n-cufeo2-zno-heterojunction-photoanode-with-improved-light-absorption-and-charge-collection-for-photoelectrochemical-water-oxidation
#14
Keshab Karmakar, Ayan Sarkar, Kalyan Mandal, Gobinda Gopal Khan
The effective utilization of abundant visible solar light for photoelectrochemical water splitting is a green approach for energy harvesting to reduce the enormous rise of carbon content in atmosphere. Here, a novel efficient strategy for designing of p-n type nano-heterojunction photoanode is demonstrated for empowering the water splitting efficiency by growing low band-gap p-CuFeO2 nanolayer on n-ZnO nanorods by an easy and scalable electrochemical route. The photoconversion efficiency of p-n CuFeO2/ZnO photoanode is found to be ~450% higher than that of the pristine ZnO Nanorods electrode under visible solar light illumination (λ > 420 nm, intensity 10 mWcm-2)...
June 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612461/oxygen-vacancy-engineering-of-co3o4-nanocrystals-via-constructing-coupled-interface-with-metal-supports-for-promoting-water-oxidation-in-neutral-electrolyte
#15
Jun-Jun Zhang, Hong-Hui Wang, Tian-Jian Zhao, Ke-Xin Zhang, Xiao Wei, Xin-Hao Li, Shin-Ichi Hirano, Jie-Sheng Chen
Oxygen vacancies could help to capture oxygen-containing species and act as active centers for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Unfortunately, effective methods for generating a rich amount of oxygen vacancies on the surface of various nanocatalysts are rather limited. In this work, we described an effective way to generate oxygen vacancy-rich surface of transition metal oxides, exemplified with Co3O4 here, simply by constructing highly coupled interface of ultra-fine Co3O4 nanocrystals and metallic Ti. Impressively, the amounts of oxygen vacancy on the surface of Ti@Co3O4 far surpassed the reported values of the Co3O4 modified even under highly critical conditions...
June 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609743/facile-synthesis-of-self-assembled-ultrathin-%C3%AE-feooh-nanorod-graphene-oxide-composites-for-supercapacitors
#16
Yuxue Wei, Ruimin Ding, Chenghua Zhang, Baoliang Lv, Yi Wang, Chengmeng Chen, Xiaoping Wang, Jian Xu, Yong Yang, Yongwang Li
A one-pot facile, impurity-free hydrothermal method to synthesize ultrathin α-FeOOH nanorods/graphene oxide (GO) composites is reported. It is directly synthesized from GO and iron acetate in water solution without inorganic or organic additives. XRD, Raman, FT-IR, XPS and TEM are used to characterize the samples. The nanorods in composites are single crystallite with an average diameter of 6nm and an average length of 75nm, which are significantly smaller than GO-free α-FeOOH nanorods. This can be attributed to the confinement effect and special electronic influence of GO...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608260/water-electrolyte-acid-base-and-trace-elements-alterations-in-cirrhotic-patients
#17
REVIEW
Carlos G Musso, Rossina Juarez, Richard J Glassock
Chronic hepatic patients, and particularly those suffering from cirrhosis, are predisposed to different sort of water, electrolyte, acid-base, and trace elements disorders due to their altered liver function, and also to their exposition to infectious, inflammatory, oncologic, and pharmacologic variables whose combination undermines their homeostatic capability. Hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory, and metabolic alkalosis are the main internal milieu alterations in this group...
June 12, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607991/electrochemistry-of-single-droplets-of-inverse-water-in-oil-emulsions
#18
Haozhi Zhang, Lior Sepunaru, Stanislav V Sokolov, Eduardo Laborda, Christopher Batchelor-McAuley, Richard G Compton
We demonstrate the feasibility of electrochemically detecting individual water droplets dispersed in an oil phase (inverse emulsions) via the use of a redox probe confined in the droplet phase. The water droplets were tagged with potassium ferrocyanide, and were injected into an electrolyte cyclohexene/dichloromethane oil solution. Via simple cyclic voltammetry scans it is shown that single water droplets from a water-in-oil emulsion can be detected provided that rapid anion transfer from the oil to the water phase maintains electro-neutrality in the droplet...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602195/a-portable-solution-cathode-glow-discharge-atomic-emission-spectrometer-for-the-rapid-determination-of-thallium-in-water-samples
#19
Wenchuan Zu, Yu Wang, Xiaotao Yang, Cong Liu
A novel and high performance method for rapid determination of thallium in water samples was established by using a portable solution cathode glow discharger with a fiber-optical spectrometer. The operating conditions including the solution acidity, the electrolyte cathode, etc were optimized with 1.0mgL(-1) thallium standard solution. The resolution of the fiber-optical spectrometer investigated with the peak width at half height of thallium was tested to be about 1.8nm,and thallium was determined at the emission wavelength of 535...
October 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600794/citric-acid-enhanced-the-antioxidant-defense-system-and-chromium-uptake-by-lemna-minor-l-grown-in-hydroponics-under-cr-stress
#20
Rasham Sallah-Ud-Din, Mujahid Farid, Rashid Saeed, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari
Phytoextraction is a cost-effective and eco-friendly technique for the removal of pollutants, mainly heavy metal(loids) especially from polluted water and metal-contaminated soils. The phytoextraction of heavy metals is, in general, limited due to the low availability of heavy metals in the growth medium. Organic chelators can help to improve the phytoextraction by increasing metal mobility and solubility in the growth medium. The present research was carried out to examine the possibility of citric acid (CA) in improving chromium (Cr) phytoextraction by Lemna minor (duckweed)...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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