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Water electrolytes

R Uña Orejón, L Gisbert de la Cuadra, D Garríguez Pérez, J Díez Sebastián, M P Ureta Tolsada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the types of maintenance fluids used in our hospital, comparing their volume and composition to the standards recommended by the guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study. Volume and type of fluid therapy administered during 24h to patients admitted to various hospital departments were recorded. Patients receiving fluid therapy because of water-electrolyte imbalance were excluded. RESULTS: Out of 198 patients registered, 74 (37...
February 14, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Xing Liu, Zhifu Liu, Zhenli Zhu, Dong He, Siqi Yao, Hongtao Zheng, Shenghong Hu
In this study, a novel high efficiency vapor generation strategy was proposed based on solution anode glow discharge for the determination of Cd and Zn by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. In this approach, a glow discharge microplasma was acted as a gaseous cathode to initiate the plasma electrochemical vapor generation of Cd and Zn. Cadmium/Zinc ions could be converted into molecular species efficiently at the plasma-liquid interface from a supporting electrolyte (HCl, pH=3.2). It was found that the overall efficiency of the plasma electrochemical vapor generation (PEVG) system was much higher than the conventional electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG) and HCl-KBH4 system...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Xuezhi Yang, Qi Wang, Xiaolei Qu, Wei Jiang
Natural organic matter influences the carbon nanotube transport in aqueous environments. The role of bound humic acid (HA) on carbon nanotubes and unbound HA in bulk solution in the aggregation and deposition of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (C-MWNTs) was examined in NaCl and CaCl2 electrolyte solution. Time-resolved dynamic light scattering and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring were employed to investigate the C-MWNT aggregation and deposition kinetics, respectively. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of C-MWNTs is 30mM in NaCl and 3mM in CaCl2...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nerea Casado, Matthias Hilder, Cristina Pozo-Gonzalo, Maria Forsyth, David Mecerreyes
Biomass derived polymers, such as lignin, contain redox quinone/hydroquinone redox moieties that can be used to store charge. Composites based on the biopolymer lignin and several conjugated polymers have shown good charge storage properties. However, their performance has been just studied in acidic aqueous media limiting the applications mainly to supercapacitors. Here we show that PEDOT/Lignin biopolymers are electroactive in aprotic ionic liquids and we move a step further by assembling sodium full cell batteries using PEDOT/Lignin as electrode material and ionic liquid electrolytes...
February 15, 2017: ChemSusChem
Ju E Morozova, V V Syakaev, Ya V Shalaeva, A M Ermakova, I R Nizameev, M K Kadirov, A D Voloshina, V V Zobov, I S Antipin, A I Konovalov
The association of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) micelles in the presence of octaacetated tetraphenyleneoxymethylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CR) leads to the formation of unusual spherical supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs). Within the range of CR/CPC molar ratios from 10/1 to 1/10 (except for 1/8), CR, acting as a counterion, decreases the critical micelle concentration of CPC by one order of magnitude and leads to the formation of SNPs with an average hydrodynamic radius of 164 nm and an average zeta potential of -60 mV...
February 15, 2017: Soft Matter
M Diringer
The brain operates in an extraordinarily intricate environment which demands precise regulation of electrolytes. Tight control over their concentrations and gradients across cellular compartments is essential and when these relationships are disturbed neurologic manifestations may develop. Perturbations of sodium are the electrolyte disturbances that most often lead to neurologic manifestations. Alterations in extracellular fluid sodium concentrations produce water shifts that lead to brain swelling or shrinkage...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Xuping Sun
Developing earth-abundant electrocatalysts for efficient and stable water oxidation under near neutral conditions is of great importance but still remains a key challenge. In this Communication, we demonstrate the development of an interconnected network of shell-core Co-Bi-Pi@CoP via anodic polarization of CoP nanoarray in potassium borate aqueous electrolyte (KBi). This 3D Co-Bi-Pi@CoP exhibits super high catalytic activity for water oxidation at pH 9.2 and needs overpotential of only 410 mV to drive a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm-2, with a high turnover frequency of 819 h-1 at overpotential of 610 mV...
February 11, 2017: ChemSusChem
F Sambraus, P G Fjelldal, S C Remø, E M Hevrøy, T O Nilsen, A Thorsen, T J Hansen, R Waagbø
The aim of the present study was to investigate cataract development in diploid (2N) and triploid (3N) Atlantic salmon smolts and post-smolts at two water temperatures (10 and 16 °C) given diets with different histidine supplementation (LH, 10.4 and HH, 13.1 g kg(-1) ) before and after seawater transfer. In freshwater, a severe cataract outbreak was recorded in both ploidies reared at 16 °C. The cataract score was significantly higher in triploids compared to diploids, and the severity was lower in both ploidies fed the HH diet...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Yin-Cheng Yen, Jau-An Chen, Sheng Ou, Yi-Shin Chen, Kuan-Jiuh Lin
In this study, an anatase/rutile mixed-phase titanium dioxide (TiO2) hierarchical network deposited with Au nanoparticles (Au/TiO2 ARHN) was synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method followed by a simple calcination step. Such a unique structure was designed for improving the light harvest, charge transportation/separation, and the performance of photo-electro-chemical (PEC) cells. The properties of the as-synthesized Au/TiO2 ARHN in PEC cells were investigated by electrochemical measurements using a three-electrode system in a 1 M NaOH electrolyte...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yasumasa Takagi, Heng Wang, Yohei Uemura, Takahiro Nakamura, Liwei Yu, Oki Sekizawa, Tomoya Uruga, Mizuki Tada, Gabor Samjeské, Yasuhiro Iwasawa, Toshihiko Yokoyama
We performed in situ hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements of the electronic states of platinum nanoparticles on the cathode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) using a near ambient pressure (NAP) HAXPES instrument having an 8 keV excitation source. We successfully observed in situ NAP-HAXPES spectra of the Pt/C cathode catalysts of PEFCs under working conditions involving water, not only for the Pt 3d states with large photoionization cross-sections in the hard X-ray regime but also for the Pt 4f states and the valence band with small photoionization cross-sections...
February 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ding-Yuan Kuo, Jason Ken Kawasaki, Jocienne N Nelson, Jan Kloppenburg, Geoffroy Hautier, Kyle M Shen, Darrell G Schlom, Jin Suntivich
A catalyst functions by stabilizing reaction intermediates, usually through surface adsorption. In the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), surface oxygen adsorptions play an indispensable role in the electrocatalysis. The relationship, however, between the adsorption energetics and OER kinetics has not yet been experimentally measured. Herein, we report an experimental relationship between the adsorption of surface oxygen and the kinetics of the OER on IrO2(110) epitaxially grown on a TiO2(110) single crystal...
February 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Muthuraman Govindan, Alan M Bond, Il-Shik Moon
Electro-scrubbing is being developed as a futuristic technology for the removal of air-pollutants. To date, only one homogeneous mediator for the removal of air pollutants has been generated in each experiment using a divided electrolytic flow cell in an acidic medium. This paper reports the concurrent generation of two homogenous mediators, one at the anodic half-cell containing an acidic solution and the other at the cathodic half-cell containing a basic solution. The concept was inspired by the change in pH that occurs during water electrolysis in a divided cell...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
Yoskaly Lazo-Fernández, Goretti Baile, Patricia Meade, Pilar Torcal, Laura Martínez, Carmen Ibañez, Maria Luisa Bernal, Benoit Viollet, Ignacio Giménez
AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) controls cell energy homeostasis by modulating ATP synthesis and expenditure. In vitro studies have suggested AMPK may also control key elements of renal epithelial electrolyte transport but in vivo physiological confirmation is still insufficient. We studied sodium renal handling and extracellular volume regulation in mice with genetic deletion of AMPK catalytic subunits. AMPKα1 knockout (KO) mice exhibit normal renal sodium handling and a moderate antidiuretic state. This is accompanied by higher urinary aldosterone excretion rates and reduced blood pressure...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Purushothaman Varadhan, Hui-Chun Fu, Davide Priante, Jose Ramon Duran Retamal, Chao Zhao, Mohamed Ebaid, Tien Khee Ng, Idris A Ajia, Somak Mitra, Iman S Roqan, Boon S Ooi, Jr-Hau He
Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultra-large surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency...
February 8, 2017: Nano Letters
Aminu K Rabiu, Peter S Toth, Andrew N J Rodgers, Robert A W Dryfe
There is much interest in understanding the interfacial properties of carbon nanotubes, particularly at water/oil interfaces. Here, the adsorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at the water/1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) interface, and the subsequent investigation of the influence of the adsorbed nanotube layer on interfacial ion transfer, is studied by using the voltammetric transfer of tetramethylammonium (TMA(+)) and hexafluorophosphate (PF6(-)) as probe ions. The presence of the interfacial SWCNT layer significantly suppresses the transfer of both ions across the interface, with a greater degree of selectivity towards the PF6(-) ion...
February 2017: ChemistryOpen
Elham Nikpey, Tine V Karlsen, Natalia Rakova, Jens M Titze, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig
The common notion is that the body Na(+) is maintained within narrow limits for fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. Several studies have, however, shown that considerable amounts of Na(+) can be retained or removed from the body without commensurate water loss and that the skin can serve as a major salt reservoir. Our own data from rats have suggested that the skin is hypertonic compared with plasma on salt storage and that this also applies to skin interstitial fluid. Even small electrolyte gradients between plasma and interstitial fluid would represent strong edema-generating forces...
February 6, 2017: Hypertension
Anabel Brandoni, Adriana M Torres
Renal damage due to urinary tract obstruction accounts for up to 30% of acute kidney injury in paediatrics and adults. Bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) is associated with polyuria and reduced urinary concentrating capacity. We investigated the renal handling of water and electrolytes together with the renal expression and the urinary excretion of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) after 1 (BUO-1), 2 (BUO-2), and 7 (BUO-7) days of release of BUO. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies showed that NKCC2 expression was upregulated in apical membranes both from BUO-2 and from BUO-7 rats...
2017: BioMed Research International
Yu Song, Tian-Yu Liu, Bin Yao, Tian-Yi Kou, Dong-Yang Feng, Xiao-Xia Liu, Yat Li
Previous studies show that vanadium oxides suffer from severe capacity loss during cycling in the liquid electrolyte, which has hindered their applications in electrochemical energy storage. The electrochemical instability is mainly due to chemical dissolution and structural pulverization of vanadium oxides during charge/discharge cyclings. In this study the authors demonstrate that amorphous mixed-valence vanadium oxide deposited on exfoliated carbon cloth (CC) can address these two limitations simultaneously...
February 3, 2017: Small
Albert Albert, Alejandro O Barnett, Magnus S Thomassen, Thomas J Schmidt, Lorenz Gubler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kuniyasu Ogawa, Tomoyuki Haishi, Masaru Aoki, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Shinichi Morisaka, Seitaro Hashimoto
A small radio-frequency (rf) coil inserted into a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) can be used to acquire nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from the water in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) or in oxygen gas channels in the PEFC. Measuring the spatial distribution of the water in a large PEFC requires using many rf probes, so an NMR measurement system which acquires NMR signals from 128 rf probes at intervals of 0.5 s was manufactured. The system has eight rf transceiver units with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for modulation of the excitation pulse and quadrature phase detection of the NMR signal, and one control unit with two ring buffers for data control...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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