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Water electrolytes

Bo Zhou, Chao Bian, Jianhua Tong, Shanhong Xia
Water contamination is a main inducement of human diseases. It is an important step to monitor the water quality in the water distribution system. Due to the features of large size, high cost, and complicated structure of traditional water determination sensors and devices, it is difficult to realize real-time water monitoring on a large scale. In this paper, we present a multi-parameter sensor chip, which is miniature, low-cost, and robust, to detect the pH, conductivity, and temperature of water simultaneously...
January 14, 2017: Sensors
Beharu Woldemedhin, Teshome Nedi, Workineh Shibeshi, Mekonnen Sisay Shiferaw
BACKGROUND: Diuretics are drugs that increase the formation of urine and are important for the treatment of various diseases including hypertension and edema. The root decoction of Euclea divinorum has been used as a diuretic agent in the traditional medicine. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the diuretic activity of the crude extracts of the roots of Euclea divinorum in Sprague Dawley rats. METHODS: The aqueous extract (AE) and 80% methanol extract (80ME) of the plant were prepared using decoction and maceration, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anna Pawlik, Magdalena Jarosz, Karolina Syrek, Grzegorz D Sulka
Although single-drug therapy may prove insufficient in treating bacterial infections or inflammation after orthopaedic surgeries, complex therapy (using both an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory drug) is thought to address the problem. Among drug delivery systems (DDSs) with prolonged drug release profiles, nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil are very promising. In the discussed research, ATO samples were synthesized via a three-step anodization process in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte with fluoride ions...
January 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Fatima Ismail Hassan, Zezi Abdulkadir Umar, Danmalam Umar Habib, Yaro Abdullahi Hamza
OBJECTIVE: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis) is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1) received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively) daily for 28 days...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Xiaoli Dong, Hongchuan Yu, Yuanyuan Ma, Junwei Lucas Bao, Donald G Truhlar, Yonggang Wang, Yongyao Xia
Rechargeable batteries with organic electrodes are preferred to those with transition-metal-containing electrodes for their environmental friendliness and resource availability, but all such batteries reported to date are based on organic electrolytes, which raise concerns of safety and performance. Here we report an aqueous-electrolyte all-organic rechargeable battery with a maximum operating voltage of 2.1 V, in which polytriphenylamine (PTPAn) and 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA)-derived polyimide (PNTCDA) serve as cathode and anode material, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dennis C Prieve, Benjamin A Yezer, Aditya S Khair, Paul J Sides, James W Schneider
After presenting a brief historical overview of the classic contributions of Faraday, Arrhenius, Kohlrausch, Bjerrum, Debye, Hückel and Onsager to understanding the conductivity of true electrolytes in aqueous solutions, we present an in-depth review of the 1933 work of Fuoss & Kraus who explored the effect of the solvent on electrolyte dissociation equilibria in either polar or nonpolar media. Their theory predicts that the equilibrium constant for dissociation decays exponentially with the ratio of the Bjerrum length λB to the ion-pair size a...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Jibao Lu, Liam C Jacobson, Yamila A Perez Sirkin, Valeria Molinero
Molecular simulations provide a versatile tool to study the structure, anion conductivity, and stability of anion-exchange membrane (AEM) materials and can provide a fundamental understanding of the relation between structure and property of membranes that is key for their use in fuel cells and other applications. The quest for large spatial and temporal scales required to model the multiscale structure and transport processes in the polymer electrolyte membranes, however, cannot be met with fully atomistic models, and the available coarse-grained (CG) models suffer from several challenges associated with their low-resolution...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Qingqing Li, Baoliang Chen, Baoshan Xing
The cooperative effects of pH and electrolytes on the aggregation of GQDs and the aggregate morphologies are characterized. Because GQDs have an average size of 9 nm with abundant O-functionalized edges, their suspension was very stable even in a high electrolyte concentration and low pH solution. Divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) exceled at aggregating the GQD nanoplates, while monovalent cations (Na+ and K+) did not disturb the stability. For Na+ and K+, positive linear correlations were observed between the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) and pH levels...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Tuan Anh Pham, Yuan Ping, Giulia Galli
The generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight offers a promising approach for producing scalable and sustainable carbon-free energy. The key of a successful solar-to-fuel technology is the design of efficient, long-lasting and low-cost photoelectrochemical cells, which are responsible for absorbing sunlight and driving water splitting reactions. To this end, a detailed understanding and control of heterogeneous interfaces between photoabsorbers, electrolytes and catalysts present in photoelectrochemical cells is essential...
January 9, 2017: Nature Materials
Nachiket R Raravikar, Andrew Dobos, Eshwaran Narayanan, Taraka Sai Pavan Grandhi, Saurabh Mishra, Kaushal Rege, Michael Goryll
Electrochemical pseudo-capacitors are an attractive choice for energy storage applications because they offer higher energy densities than electrostatic or electric double layer capacitors. They also offer higher power densities in shorter durations of time, as compared to batteries. Recent efforts on pseudo-capacitors include biocompatible hydrogel electrolytes and transition metal electrodes for implantable energy storage applications. Pseudo-capacitive behavior in these devices has been attributed to the redox reactions that occur within the electric double layer, which is formed at the electrode-electrolyte interface...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S Swiatkiewicz, A Arczewska-Wlosek, D Jozefiak
Foot pad dermatitis (FPD), a condition of inflammation and necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads, is commonly observed in fast-growing broiler chickens and turkeys. FPD negatively affects the welfare of birds, performance indices and the economic profit of poultry meat production. Nutrition is an important factor affecting water intake, excreta moisture and litter quality and, in this way, the occurrence and intensity of FPD in birds. This article reviews and discusses the recent results published in the literature on the effects of nutritional factors on litter quality and FPD severity in broiler chickens and turkeys...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Nicklas Blomquist, Thomas Wells, Britta Andres, Joakim Bäckström, Sven Forsberg, Håkan Olin
Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SCs) are fast energy storage devices with high pulse efficiency and superior cyclability, which makes them useful in various applications including electronics, vehicles and grids. Aqueous SCs are considered to be more environmentally friendly than those based on organic electrolytes. Because of the corrosive nature of the aqueous environment, however, expensive electrochemically stable materials are needed for the current collectors and electrodes in aqueous SCs...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ning Wang, Min Liu, Hairen Tan, Junhui Liang, Qixing Zhang, Changchun Wei, Ying Zhao, Edward H Sargent, Xiaodan Zhang
Photoelectrochemical water splitting has become far more efficient thanks to the novel ZnOSe/ZnO/BZO thin-film photoanodes fabricated in this work. A novel structure is developed for simultaneously suppressing the charge recombination in the ZnO bulk and at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. This structure achieves a five-fold enhancement in water-splitting performance, compared to that of pristine ZnO photoanodes, when illuminated using visible light.
January 5, 2017: Small
Susanne Sihler, Ulrich Ziener
Water-soluble organic dyes like fluorescein are widely used, mainly for coloration of e.g. biological samples, groundwater tracing etc., and they are not obviously amphiphilic by molecular structure like surfactants. Here, we show that the dyes alone stabilize oil-in-water emulsions. Exemplarily, fluorescein is compared with the classical surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by means of surface/interfacial tension, concentration of stabilizer and electrolyte as well as pH. The principle can be extended to further classes of water-soluble dyes, which keep up with or exceed SDS by efficiency...
January 4, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yajun Zhou, Lingxia Zhang, Weimin Huang, Min Wang, Lisong Chen, Xiangzhi Cui, Xiaohua Zhang, Jianlin Shi
Here we report a redox-anchoring strategy for synthesizing a non-noble metal carbide (MoCx ) nanocomposite electrocatalyst for water electrolysis in acidic media, using glucose and ammonium heptamolybdate as carbon and Mo precursors, respectively, without the need of gaseous carbon sources such as CH4 . Specifically, the aldehyde groups of glucose are capable of reducing Mo(6+) to Mo(4+) (MoO2 ), and thus molybdenum species can be well anchored by a redox reaction onto a carbon matrix to prevent the aggregation of MoCx nanoparticles during the following carbonization process...
December 31, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Shuhu Xiao, Dongjin Wan, Kun Zhang, Hongbin Qu, Jianfeng Peng
TiO2 nanotube (TiNT) electrodes anodized in fluorinated organic solutions were successfully prepared on Ti sheets. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize the TiNT electrodes. The linear voltammetry results under irradiation showed that the TiNT electrode annealed at 450°C presented the highest photoelectrochemical activity. By combining photocatalytic with electrochemical process, a significantly synergetic effect on ammonia degradation was observed with Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte at pH10...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Aselefech Sorsa Wotango, Wei-Nien Su, Ermias Girma Leggesse, Atetegeb Meazah Haregewoin, Ming-Hsien Lin, Tilahun Awoke Zegeye, Ju-Hsiang Cheng, Bing-Joe Hwang
Trace water content in the electrolyte causes the degradation of LiPF6 and the decomposed products further react with water to produce HF, which alters the surface of anode and cathode. As a result, the reaction of HF and the deposition of decomposed products on electrode surface cause significant capacity fading of cells. Avoiding these phenomena is crucial for lithium ion batteries. Considering the Lewis-base feature of N-Si bond, 1-(Trimethylsilyl)imidazole (1-TMSI) is proposed as a novel water scavenging electrolyte additive to suppress LiPF6 decomposition...
December 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
R Brisse, R Faddoul, T Bourgeteau, D Tondelier, J Leroy, S Campidelli, T Berthelot, B Geffroy, B Jousselme
Fabrication at low cost of transparent p-type semiconductors with suitable electronic properties is essential toward the scalability of many electronic devices, especially for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. In this context, the synthesis of mesoporous NiO films through inkjet printing of a sol-gel ink was investigated for the first time. Nickel chloride and Pluronic F-127, used as nickel oxide precursor and pore-forming agent, respectively, were formulated in a water/ethanol mixture to prepare a jettable ink for Dimatix printer...
January 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Weijian Chen, Taotao Wang, Jiawei Xue, Shikuo Li, Zidan Wang, Song Sun
TiO2 -based photoanodes have attracted extensive attention worldwide for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, but these materials still suffer from poor electron-hole separation and low photoconversion efficiency. Here, the high PEC water splitting activity and long-term stability against photocorrosion of well-aligned hierarchical TiO2 @CoNi-layered double hydroxides nanotube arrays (TiO2 @CoNi-LDHs NTAs) are reported. The typical TiO2 @CoNi-LDHs NTAs exhibits enhancing photocurrent density of 4.4 mA cm(-2) at a potential of 1...
December 27, 2016: Small
Khaled Boobés, Robert M Rosa, Daniel Batlle
Ogilvie's syndrome, or acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, is characterized by massive dilation of the colon without mechanical obstruction. Water and electrolytes often can be sequestered in the dilated intestinal loops resulting in profuse and watery diarrhea as well as hypokalemia. We report an anuric, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) who developed acute colonic pseudo-obstruction causing a prolonged hospitalization. He also developed severe hypokalemia with a serum potassium (K+) as low as 2...
December 27, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
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