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Water electrolytes

Simon Geiger, Olga Kasian, Andrea M Mingers, Shannon S Nicley, Ken Haenen, Karl J J Mayrhofer, Serhiy Cherevko
In searching for alternative oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts for acidic water splitting, fast screening of materials intrinsic activity and stability in half-cell tests is of vital importance. It significantly accelerates the discovery of new promising materials without the need of time-consuming real cell analysis. In commonly employed tests, a conclusion on the catalyst stability is drawn solely on the basis of pure electrochemical information, e.g. by evaluating potential vs. time profiles. In this work we demonstrate important limitations of such approaches, which are related to the degradation of the backing electrode material...
September 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Lennart Köhler, Majid Ebrahimizadeh Abrishami, Vladimir Roddatis, Janis Geppert, Marcel Risch
Targeted improvement of the low efficiency of water oxidation during the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is severely hindered by insufficient knowledge of the electrocatalytic mechanism on heterogeneous surfaces. We chose LiMn2O4 as a model system for mechanistic investigations as it shares the cubane structure with the active site of photosystem II and the valence of Mn3.5+ with the dark-stable S1 state in the mechanism of natural photosynthesis. The investigated LiMn2O4 nanoparticles are electrochemically stable in NaOH electrolytes and show respectable activity in any of the main metrics...
September 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Malihe Khalili, Mohammad Abedi, Hossein Salar Amoli, Seyed Ahmad Mozaffari
In commercialization of liquid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), whose leakage, evaporation and toxicity of organic solvents are limiting factors, replacement of organic solvents with water-based gel electrolyte is recommended. This work reports on utilizing and comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticle as different gelling agents in preparation of water-based gel electrolyte in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells. All photovoltaic parameters such as open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF), short circuit current density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency (η) were measured...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Karolina Sipa, Mariola Brycht, Andrzej Leniart, Paweł Urbaniak, Agnieszka Nosal-Wiercińska, Bartłomiej Pałecz, Sławomira Skrzypek
In this work, a glassy carbon electrode modified with β-cyclodextrins and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (β-CDs/MWCNTs/GCE) was constructed and applied for the square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (SWAdSV) determination of the pesticide dichlorophen (Dcp). For the first time, this compound was electrochemically investigated. The voltammetric measurements were conducted in phosphate buffer (PBS) at pH 6.5 as a supporting electrolyte, and SWAdSV technique parameters were optimized. A linear calibration curve in the wide concentration range from 5...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
A L Benavides, M A Portillo, V C Chamorro, J R Espinosa, J L F Abascal, C Vega
Despite considerable efforts over more than two decades, our knowledge of the interactions in electrolyte solutions is not yet satisfactory. Not even one of the most simple and important aqueous solutions, NaCl(aq), escapes this assertion. A requisite for the development of a force field for any water solution is the availability of a good model for water. Despite the fact that TIP4P/2005 seems to fulfill the requirement, little work has been devoted to build a force field based on TIP4P/2005. In this work, we try to fill this gap for NaCl(aq)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Eric J Hull, Katherine Zodrow
Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a metal-rich wastewater that forms upon oxidation of sulfidic minerals. Although ARD impacts >12,000 miles of rivers in the U.S. and has an estimated cleanup cost of $32 - $72 billion, the low pH and high metal concentrations in ARD make rapid, high volume treatment without chemical addition difficult. This research focuses on a novel method of ARD treatment, membrane distillation (MD). In MD, heated ARD is separated from a cooled distillate by a hydrophobic, water-excluding membrane...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
Hailin Cong, Bing Yu, Chao Tian, Shuai Zhang, Hua Yuan
Monodisperse silica particles with average diameters of 1.9-2.9 μm were synthesized by a modified Stöber method, in which tetraethyl orthosilicate was continuously supplied to the reaction mixture containing KCl electrolyte, water, ethanol and ammonia. The obtained silica particles were modified by self-assembly with positively charged photosensitive diazoresin on the surface. After treatment with ultraviolet light, the ionic bonding between silica and diazoresin was converted into covalent bonding through a unique photochemistry reaction of diazoresin...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Heng Zhu, Shicheng Yan, Zhaosheng Li, Zhigang Zou
Adding charge scavengers, which usually are more unstable than water, is an effective method to quantify the quantum efficiency loss of photoelectrode during the charge separation, transfer, and injection processes of the water splitting reaction. Here, we detected, on TiO2 nanotube photoanodes after using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a hole scavenger, a nearly 40% saturated photocurrent decrease in alkaline electrolyte and a negligible saturated photocurrent difference in acid electrolyte. We found that the photoelectrons were trapped in the surface states of TiO2 with the nearly same storage capacity of electrons in a wide range of pH values from 1...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of selenium in alleviating cadmium stress in Solanum lycopersicum seedlings. Cadmium (150 mg L(-1)) treatment caused a significant reduction in growth in terms of height and biomass accumulation and affected chlorophyll pigments, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Selenium (10 μM) application mitigated the adverse effects of cadmium on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, leaf relative water content, and other physiological attributes...
September 12, 2017: Protoplasma
Nan Xu, Xueying Cheng, Kairong Zhou, Xiaoting Xu, Zuling Li, Jianping Chen, Dongtian Wang, Duo Li
The widespread use of nanoparticles (NPs) has led to their inevitable introduction into environmental systems. How the existence of hydrochars in crop soils will affect the mobility of nanoparticle titanium dioxide (nTiO2), especially in the presence of ammonium (NH4(+)), remains unknown. Research is needed to study the effects of hydrochars on the transport and retention of nTiO2 and to uncover the mechanisms of these effects on nTiO2 transport. Column experiments with nTiO2 and hydrochars were performed in various electrolyte (NaCl, NH4Cl, and CaCl2) solutions under a controlled pH (6...
September 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rukan Genc, Melis Ozge Alas, Ersan Harputlu, Sergej Repp, Nora Kremer, Mike Castellano, Suleyman Gokhan Colak, Kasim Ocakoglu, Emre Erdem
Multi-colored, water soluble fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-Dots) with quantum yield changing from 4.6 to 18.3% were synthesized in multi-gram using dated cola beverage through a simple thermal synthesis method and implemented as conductive and ion donating supercapacitor component. Various properties of C-Dots, including size, crystal structure, morphology and surface properties along with their Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra were analyzed and compared by means of their fluorescence and electronic properties...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zemin Zhang, Yunxia Li, Xiao Jiang, Weihua Han, Mingzheng Xie, Fangcong Wang, Erqing Xie
It is challenging to design a photocatalyst with high-efficiency light absorption, charge separation and even high-efficiency charge transfer. Here, we report a demonstration by utilizing a three-dimensional multilayered core-shell nanowire array (rGO-ITO@BiVO4) as the composite photocatalyst. The core-shell structure can shorten the length of charge transfer and enhance light absorption through multireflection. RGO with defects can work as the charge transfer medium to improve the hole injection from semiconductor to electrolyte...
September 11, 2017: Nanoscale
Hadrián Montes-Campos, José Manuel Otero-Mato, Trinidad Méndez-Morales, Oscar Cabeza, Luis J Gallego, Alina Ciach, Luis M Varela
We perform molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquids confined between graphene walls under a large variety of conditions (pure ionic liquids, mixtures with water and alcohols, mixtures with lithium salts and defective graphene walls). Our results show that the formation of striped and hexagonal patterns in the Stern layer can be considered as a general feature of ionic liquids at electrochemical interfaces, the transition between patterns being controlled by the net balance of charge in the innermost layer of adsorbed molecules...
September 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Masaki Kinoshita, Hideki Okayama, Tetsuya Kosaki, Saki Hosokawa, Go Kawamura, Tatsuya Shigematsu, Tatsunori Takahashi, Yoshitaka Kawada, Go Hiasa, Tadakatsu Yamada, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Yukio Kazatani
Tolvaptan (TLV) is an oral selective vasopressin 2 receptor antagonist that acts on the distal nephrons, causing a loss of electrolyte-free water. To date, its early administration in very elderly patients after repeat hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) despite receiving optimal medical therapy has not been evaluated. Fifty-six ADHF patients who were >80 years old and had been repeatedly hospitalized were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Twenty-five patients (14 men; mean age 86...
September 9, 2017: Heart and Vessels
Shingi Yamaguchi, Kazuhide Kamiya, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Shuji Nakanishi
This work demonstrates that a single Ru atom-modified covalent triazine framework (Ru-CTF) has selectivity for the electrooxidation of benzyl alcohol in water over the oxygen evolution reaction. Additionally, Ru-CTF displayed higher stability than an immobilized Ru-organometallic complex due to the covalently cross-linked structure of CTF.
September 8, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Hongqiang Wang, Xuesong Xie, Xiaolu Wei, Xiaohui Zhang, Jiujun Zhang, Youguo Huang, Qingyu Li
The performance of CEI and SEI configuration and formation mechanism on the cathode and anode side for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/natural graphite (LNMO/NG) batteries is investigated, where series permutations of the NG electrodes modified with TEOS species as the anode for the LNMO full cells. It is believed that the excellent long-term cycling performance of LNMO/NG full cells at the high voltage is a result of alleviating the devastated reaction to form the CEI and SEI on the both electrodes with electrolyte, respectively...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cobra Tofighi, Ramazan Ali Khavari-Nejad, Farzaneh Najafi, Khadijeh Razavi, Farhad Rejali
This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of 24-Epibrassinolide (BR), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae, singularly and collectively under salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. After foliar spraying of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants by 5 µM epibrassinolide (24-Epi), they were treated with 0 and 150 mM NaCl for 2 weeks and then harvested. The results showed interactions of G. mosseae and 24-Epi could alleviate the adverse effects of salinity by improving relative water content (RWC) of leaves (62%), relative growth rate (40...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Qiang Zhang, TianMin Wu, Chen Chen, Shaul Mukamel, Wei Zhuang
Water dynamics in concentrated ionic solutions plays an important role in a number of material and energy conversion processes such as the charge transfer at the electrolyte-electrode interface in aqueous rechargeable ion batteries. One long-standing puzzle is that all electrolytes, regardless of their "structure-making/breaking" nature, make water rotate slower at high concentrations. To understand this effect, we present a theoretical simulation study of the reorientational motion of water molecules in different ionic solutions...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qingyun Hu, Christian Weber, Hsiu-Wei Cheng, Frank Uwe Renner, Markus Valtiner
The molecular structure at charged solid/liquid interfaces is vital for many chemical or electrochemical processes, such as adhesion, catalysis or the stability of colloidal dispersions. How cations influence structural hydration forces and interactions across negatively charged surfaces have been studied in great detail. However, how anions influence structural hydration forces on positively charged surfaces is much less understood. Here we report force versus distance profiles on freshly cleaved mica using Atomic Force Microscopy with silicon tips...
September 5, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
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