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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431388/retention-and-transport-of-graphene-oxide-in-water-saturated-limestone-media
#1
Shunan Dong, Yuanyuan Sun, Bin Gao, Xiaoqing Shi, Hongxia Xu, Jianfeng Wu, Jichun Wu
In this work, column experiments were conducted to investigate the transport characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles in limestone media under various electrolytes, solution pH, and humic acid (HA) concentration conditions. In the limestone media, GO exhibited relatively low mobility with the mass recovery rate lower than 65.2%, even when solution ionic strength was low. The presence of HA enhanced its mobility. In addition, the presence of S(2-), a divalent anion, also promoted GO transport in limestone media compared to Cl(-) under similar ionic strength conditions through neutralizing more positive charge and thus diminishing the cation bridging...
April 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429410/photoelectroreduction-toward-chemical-building-blocks
#2
Fengjiao Chen, Wei Cui, Jie Zhang, Yeyun Wang, Junhua Zhou, Yongpan Hu, Yanguang Li, Shuit-Tong Lee
Conventional photoelectrochemical cells utilize solar energy to drive the chemical conversion of water or CO2 into useful chemical fuels. Such processes are confronted with general challenges, including the low intrinsic activities and inconvenient storage and transportation of their gaseous products. A photoelectrochemical approach is proposed to drive the reductive production of industrial building-block chemicals and demonstrate that succinic acid and glyoxylic acid can be readily synthesized on Si nanowire array photocathodes free of any cocatalyst and at room temperature...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429007/tuning-the-electrical-conductivity-of-exfoliated-graphite-nanosheets-nanofluids-by-surface-functionalization
#3
C Hermida-Merino, M Pérez-Rodríguez, M M Piñeiro, M J Pastoriza-Gallego
The electrical conductivity of exfoliated graphite in water nanofluids has been experimentally determined, and compared with the same property when the dispersed nanosheets have been oxidized. The effect of oxidation on this property is different if compared with the case of sintered dry nanosheets. In any case, for the sintered raw material the conduction behaves as expected in a metal, while for the nanofluid it shows values and trends typical of a weak electrolyte solution. The effect of oxidation on the electrical conductivity of exfoliated graphite can be explained as being caused by the dissociation in the fluid phase of the moieties resulting from the chemical functionalization process...
April 21, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428757/circadian-rhythm-in-kidney-tissue-oxygenation-in-the-rat
#4
Tonja W Emans, Ben J Janssen, Jaap A Joles, C T Paul Krediet
Blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, electrolyte, and water excretion all display diurnal oscillation. Disturbance of these patterns is associated with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Kidney oxygenation is dependent on oxygen delivery and consumption that in turn are determined by renal hemodynamics and metabolism. We hypothesized that kidney oxygenation also demonstrates 24-h periodicity. Telemetric oxygen-sensitive carbon paste electrodes were implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g), either in renal medulla (n = 9) or cortex (n = 7)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426060/hierarchically-scaffolded-cop-cop2-nanoparticles-controllable-synthesis-and-their-application-as-a-well-matched-bifunctional-electrocatalyst-for-overall-water-splitting
#5
Wan Li, Shilin Zhang, Qining Fan, Fazhi Zhang, Sailong Xu
Transition metal phosphide (TMP) nanostructures have stimulated increasing interest for use in water splitting owing to their abundant natural sources and high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Typically, the preparation of hierarchical TMPs involves the utilization of expensive or dangerous phosphorus sources, and, in particular, the understanding of topotactic transformations of the precursors to crystalline phases-which could be utilized to enhance electrocatalytic performance-remains very limited...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422061/the-effect-of-particles-on-electrolytically-polymerized-thin-natural-mcf-rubber-for-soft-sensors-installed-in-artificial-skin
#6
Kunio Shimada, Osamu Mochizuki, Yoshihiro Kubota
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of particles as filler in soft rubber sensors installed in artificial skin. We examine sensors made of natural rubber (NR-latex) that include magnetic particles of Ni and Fe₃O₄ using magnetic compound fluid (MCF). The 1-mm thickness of the electrolytically polymerized MCF rubber makes production of comparatively thin rubber sensors feasible. We first investigate the effect of magnetic particles Ni and Fe₃O₄ on the curing of MCF rubber. Next, in order to adjust the electric properties of the MCF rubber, we adopt Al₂O₃ dielectric particles...
April 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421081/mechanistic-insight-into-salt-tolerance-of-acacia-auriculiformis-the-importance-of-ion-selectivity-osmoprotection-tissue-tolerance-and-na-exclusion
#7
Md M Rahman, Md A Rahman, Md G Miah, Satya R Saha, M A Karim, Mohammad G Mostofa
Salinity, one of the major environmental constraints, threatens soil health and consequently agricultural productivity worldwide. Acacia auriculiformis, being a halophyte, offers diverse benefits against soil salinity; however, the defense mechanisms underlying salt-tolerant capacity in A. auriculiformis are still elusive. In this study, we aimed to elucidate mechanisms regulating the adaptability of the multi-purpose perennial species A. auriculiformis to salt stress. The growth, ion homeostasis, osmoprotection, tissue tolerance and Na(+) exclusion, and anatomical adjustments of A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413754/an-approach-toward-replacing-vanadium-a-single-organic-molecule-for-the-anode-and-cathode-of-an-aqueous-redox-flow-battery
#8
Tobias Janoschka, Christian Friebe, Martin D Hager, Norbert Martin, Ulrich S Schubert
By combining a viologen unit and a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical in one single combi-molecule, an artificial bipolar redox-active material, 1-(4-(((1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)carbonyl)benzyl)-1'-methyl-[4,4'-bipyridine]-1,1'-diium-chloride (VIOTEMP), was created that can serve as both the anode (-0.49 V) and cathode (0.67 V vs. Ag/AgCl) in a water-based redox-flow battery. While it mimics the redox states of flow battery metals like vanadium, the novel aqueous electrolyte does not require strongly acidic media and is best operated at pH 4...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409340/drosophila-malpighian-tubules-a-model-for-understanding-kidney-development-function-and-disease
#9
Naveen Kumar Gautam, Puja Verma, Madhu G Tapadia
The Malpighian tubules of insects are structurally simple but functionally important organs, and their integrity is important for the normal excretory process. They are functional analogs of human kidneys which are important physiological organs as they maintain water and electrolyte balance in the blood and simultaneously help the body to get rid of waste and toxic products after various metabolic activities. In addition, it receives early indications of insults to the body such as immune challenge and other toxic components and is essential for sustaining life...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405139/regulation-of-intestinal-permeability-the-role-of-proteases
#10
REVIEW
Hanne Van Spaendonk, Hannah Ceuleers, Leonie Witters, Eveline Patteet, Jurgen Joossens, Koen Augustyns, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Ingrid De Meester, Joris G De Man, Benedicte Y De Winter
The gastrointestinal barrier is - with approximately 400 m(2) - the human body's largest surface separating the external environment from the internal milieu. This barrier serves a dual function: permitting the absorption of nutrients, water and electrolytes on the one hand, while limiting host contact with noxious luminal antigens on the other hand. To maintain this selective barrier, junction protein complexes seal the intercellular space between adjacent epithelial cells and regulate the paracellular transport...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402119/impact-of-electrolyte-on-adsorption-at-the-air-water-interface-for-ternary-surfactant-mixtures-above-the-critical-micelle-concentration
#11
Jessica R Liley, Robert K Thomas, Jeffrey Penfold, Ian M Tucker, Jordan T Petkov, Paul Stevenson, John R P Webster
The composition of the air-water adsorbed layer of the ternary surfactant mixture, octaethylene monododecyl ether, C12E8, sodium dodecyl 6-benzenesulfonate, LAS, and sodium dioxyethylene glycol monododecyl sulfate, SLES, and of each of the binary mixtures, with varying amounts of electrolyte, has been studied by neutron reflectivity. The measurements were made above the mixed critical micelle concentration. In the absence of electrolyte adsorption is dominated by the nonionic component C12E8 but addition of electrolyte gradually changes this so that SLES and LAS dominate at higher electrolyte concentrations...
April 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400780/overexpression-of-a-new-osmotin-like-protein-gene-sindolp-confers-tolerance-against-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses-in-sesame
#12
Supriyo Chowdhury, Arpita Basu, Surekha Kundu
Osmotin-like proteins (OLPs), of PR-5 family, mediate defense against abiotic, and biotic stresses in plants. Overexpression in sesame of an OLP gene (SindOLP), enhanced tolerance against drought, salinity, oxidative stress, and the charcoal rot pathogen. SindOLP was expressed in all parts and localized to the cytosol. The transgenic plants recovered after prolonged drought and salinity stress, showing less electrolyte leakage, more water content, longer roots, and smaller stomatal aperture compared to control plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400576/a-sputtered-silicon-oxide-electrolyte-for-high-performance-thin-film-transistors
#13
Xiaochen Ma, Jiawei Zhang, Wensi Cai, Hanbin Wang, Joshua Wilson, Qingpu Wang, Qian Xin, Aimin Song
Low operating voltages have been long desired for thin-film transistors (TFTs). However, it is still challenging to realise 1-V operation by using conventional dielectrics due to their low gate capacitances and low breakdown voltages. Recently, electric double layers (EDLs) have been regarded as a promising candidate for low-power electronics due to their high capacitance. In this work, we present the first sputtered SiO2 solid-state electrolyte. In order to demonstrate EDL behaviour, a sputtered 200 nm-thick SiO2 electrolyte was incorporated into InGaZnO TFTs as the gate dielectric...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397882/photoanodes-based-on-tio2-and-%C3%AE-fe2o3-for-solar-water-splitting-superior-role-of-1d-nanoarchitectures-and-of-combined-heterostructures
#14
REVIEW
Stepan Kment, Francesca Riboni, Sarka Pausova, Lei Wang, Lingyun Wang, Hyungkyu Han, Zdenek Hubicka, Josef Krysa, Patrik Schmuki, Radek Zboril
Solar driven photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC-WS) using semiconductor photoelectrodes represents a promising approach for a sustainable and environmentally friendly production of renewable energy vectors and fuel sources, such as dihydrogen (H2). In this context, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and iron oxide (hematite, α-Fe2O3) are among the most investigated candidates as photoanode materials, mainly owing to their resistance to photocorrosion, non-toxicity, natural abundance, and low production cost. Major drawbacks are, however, an inherently low electrical conductivity and a limited hole diffusion length that significantly affect the performance of TiO2 and α-Fe2O3 in PEC devices...
April 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395161/antibacterial-potential-of-electrochemically-exfoliated-graphene-sheets
#15
Zoran M Marković, Danka M Matijašević, Vladimir B Pavlović, Svetlana P Jovanović, Ivanka D Holclajtner-Antunović, Zdenko Špitalský, Matej Mičušik, Miroslav D Dramićanin, Dušan D Milivojević, Miomir P Nikšić, Biljana M Todorović Marković
Electrochemically exfoliated graphene is functionalized graphene with potential application in biomedicine. Two most relevant biological features of this material are its electrical conductivity and excellent water dispersibility. In this study we have tried to establish the correlation between graphene structure and its antibacterial properties. The exfoliation process was performed in a two electrode-highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrochemical cell. Solution of ammonium persulfate was used as an electrolyte...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392900/cadmium-chloride-treatment-of-rats-significantly-impairs-membrane-integrity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-electrolyte-imbalance-and-lipid-peroxidation-a-possible-explanation-of-cd-related-osteoporosis
#16
Mohammad Husein Abnosi, Someyeh Golami
OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in bone health. Cadmium causes osteoporosis, but the exact mechanisms of its effect on MSCs are not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were treated with cadmium chloride (40 mg/l) in drinking water for six weeks, and then the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs were carried out as a cellular backup for osteoblasts. Viability and proliferation properties of the cells were evaluated using MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391928/the-application-of-iron-mesh-double-layer-as-anode-for-the-electrochemical-treatment-of-reactive-black-5-dye
#17
Wei Tze Mook, Mohammed A Ajeel, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Małgorzata Szlachta
In this work a novel anode configuration consisting of an iron mesh double layer is proposed for the electrochemical treatment of wastewater. The removal of Reactive Black 5 dye (RB5) from synthetic contaminated water was used as a model system. At a constant anode surface area, identical process operating parameters and batch process mode, the iron mesh double layer electrode showed better performance compared to the conventional single layer iron mesh. The double layer electrode was characterized by RB5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 98...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390725/comparison-of-a-commercially-available-oral-nutritional-supplement-and-intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-dehydration-in-dairy-calves
#18
Jared D Taylor, Merel Rodenburg, Timothy A Snider
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390665/electrokinetic-preconcentration-of-magnetite-core-carboxylic-shell-nanoparticles-by-capillary-electrophoresis
#19
Daniel Baron, Carmen Cacho, Jan Petr
Online electrokinetic preconcentration of magnetite core/carboxylic shell nanoparticles (MNPs) was studied by capillary electrophoresis using reversed and suppressed electroosmotic flow (EOF). 50mM sodium borate pH 9.5 was used as a background electrolyte. CTAB additive was used to reverse EOF and commercial polyvinylalcohol (PVA)-coated capillaries were used for EOF suppressed studies. Analyses in PVA-coated capillaries were more reproducible and therefore, the setup was further optimized in terms of water plug injection time, sample injection time, and voltage...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388126/multiscale-modeling-of-a-rectifying-bipolar-nanopore-comparing-poisson-nernst-planck-to-monte-carlo
#20
Bartłomiej Matejczyk, Mónika Valiskó, Marie-Therese Wolfram, Jan-Frederik Pietschmann, Dezső Boda
In the framework of a multiscale modeling approach, we present a systematic study of a bipolar rectifying nanopore using a continuum and a particle simulation method. The common ground in the two methods is the application of the Nernst-Planck (NP) equation to compute ion transport in the framework of the implicit-water electrolytemodel. The difference is that the Poisson-Boltzmann theory is used in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) approach, while the Local Equilibrium Monte Carlo (LEMC) method is used in the particle simulation approach (NP+LEMC) to relate the concentration profile to the electrochemical potential profile...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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