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Water electrolytes

Jan-Patrick Melchior, Klaus-Dieter Kreuer, Joachim Maier
Ionic charge carrier formation and mobility, including the underlying conduction mechanisms, are investigated for phosphoric acid at water contents relevant for the acid's application as electrolyte in fuel cells. The high conductivity contribution from structural diffusion involving intermolecular proton transfer (∼97%) in neat phosphoric acid (H3PO4) passes through a maximum at this composition. Hydrogen bond network frustration (imbalance of the number of proton donors and acceptors), which is closely related to the appearance of structural diffusion, decreases with both elimination and addition of water...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jan-Patrick Melchior, Günter Majer, Klaus-Dieter Kreuer
Transport properties and hydration behavior of phosphoric acid/(benz)imidazole mixtures are investigated by diverse NMR techniques, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and conductivity measurements. The monomeric systems can serve as models for phosphoric acid/poly-benzimidazole membranes which are known for their exceptional performance in high temperature PEM fuel cells. (1)H- and (31)P-NMR data show benzimidazole acting as a strong Brønsted base with respect to neat phosphoric acid. Since benzimidazole's nitrogens are fully protonated with a low rate for proton exchange with phosphate species, proton diffusion and conduction processes must take place within the hydrogen bond network of phosphoric acid only...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Vitor S Domingues, Andrea S Monteiro, Gabriella Freitas Ferreira, Vera L Santos
The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of a lipopolysaccharide, produced by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2 using residue of biodiesel processing, to flocculate two different solids in suspension. In addition, the emulsifying activity and the stability of this lipopolysaccharide in response to pH and temperature variations and in the presence of some electrolytes were evaluated. The lipopolysaccharide was used in concentrations ranging from 20 to 80 mgL(-1) to flocculate 100 gL(-1) of kaolin and 50 gL(-1) of charcoal...
December 5, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mohammad Hossein Sheikh Mohammadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Mohammad Mehdi Arab, Mostafa Aalifar, Mostafa Arab, Mohammad Pessarakli
Drought stress is the major limiting factor which affects turfgrass management in area with restricted rainfall or irrigation water supply. Trinexapac ethyl (TE), Paclobutrazol (PAC) and Abscisic acid (ABA) are three plant growth regulators (PGRs) that are commonly used on turf species for increasing their tolerance to different environmental stresses such as drought. However, little is known about the impact of PGRs on stress tolerance of Iranian Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The present study was conducted to examine the visual and physiological changes of Iranian Perennial ryegrass in response to foliar application of TE, PAC, and ABA under drought stress conditions...
November 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Elliott S Kerrin, Robert L White, Michael A Quilliam
Recent reports of the widespread occurrence of the neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in cyanobacteria and particularly seafood have raised concerns for public health. LC-MS/MS is currently the analytical method of choice for BMAA determinations but incomplete separation of isomeric and isobaric compounds, matrix suppression and conjugated forms are plausible limitations. In this study, capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with MS/MS has been developed as an alternative method for the quantitative determination of free BMAA...
December 1, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Bimalesh Purkait, Manoj Kumar, Ankur Bansal, Ashok Kumar Sokhal, Satya Narayan Sankhwar, Kawaljit Singh
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) needs continuous irrigation for better vision and to wash away stone fragments and blood clots. Systemic absorption of irrigation fluids may lead to fluid overload and electrolyte disequilibrium. Renal failure patients are more prone to these electrolyte disturbances. We have evaluated the outcomes of normal saline as irrigation solution to be used in renal failure patient in comparison to distilled water. METHODS: Seventy-six patients with renal calculi were enrolled in this study between September, 2014, and December, 2015...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
Bernie Hansen, Alessio Vigani
The goal of maintenance fluid therapy in small animals is to replace normal ongoing losses of water and salts when oral intake is withheld. Hospitalized dogs and cats may have multiple stimuli for antidiuretic hormone release that disrupt normal osmoregulation and predispose to water retention. Severe illness promotes retention of both sodium and water as edema. Commercially available fluids have electrolyte concentrations that are very different from dietary maintenance requirements, and potential consequences include development of hypoosmolality, edema, or both when excesses of water or sodium are administered...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Janne P Capra, Sinikka M Eskelinen
A prerequisite for tissue electrolyte homeostasis is highly regulated ion and water transport through kidney or intestinal epithelia. In the present work, we monitored changes in the cell and luminal volumes of type II Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in a 3D environment in response to drugs, or to changes in the composition of the basal extracellular fluid. Using fluorescent markers and high-resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy, we could show that lack of sodium and potassium ions in the basal fluid (tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) buffer) induces a rapid increase in the cell and luminal volumes...
September 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
Willeke de Bruin, Chris van der Merwe, Quenton Kritzinger, Riana Bornman, Lise Korsten
It has long been understood that the presence of endocrine disrupter chemicals (EDCs) in water can affect the reproductive, behavioural and regulatory systems of different types of mammals. Thus far, only a handful of studies have examined its impact on plant systems. Present research is limited to the potential uptake of these chemicals by plants and the general phytotoxic effects it can elicit. The aim of this study was to determine what effect an EDC has on developing plant and cell organelles and how it affects it...
November 24, 2016: Chemosphere
Maykel Hernández-Mesa, Carmen Cruces-Blanco, Ana M García-Campaña
A novel capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry approach is proposed for the determination of eleven 5-nitroimidazoles in urine samples for therapeutical drug monitoring purposes. A comparison between two separation modes, namely micellar electrokinetic chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis was carried out, obtaining higher selectivity when 1M formic acid (pH 1.8) was selected as background electrolyte. 5-Nitroimidazoles were hydrodynamically injected in water for 40s at 50mbar and their separation was performed at 28kV and 25°C...
January 15, 2017: Talanta
Hye-Ryun Cho, Young-Sang Youn, Euo Chang Jung, Wansik Cha
The aim of this work is to determine the solubility product of plutonium hydroxide under reducing conditions and to ascertain the stability of Pu(OH)3 (am) in water. Hydrolysis of Pu(iii) and solubility of Pu(OH)3 (am) were investigated at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 M NaClO4. Coulometric titration was adopted to adjust the pH of plutonium solutions, during which the electrolytic reducing conditions maintained the oxidation state of Pu(iii). Chemical speciation for dissolved plutonium was investigated using sensitive spectrophotometry coupled with a liquid waveguide capillary cell...
November 25, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Fabrice Gankam Kengne
Hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. It develops when the mechanisms regulating water and electrolyte handling are impaired, which in many instances occur in the setting of concurrent diseases such as heart failure, liver failure, renal failure etc… Hyponatremia as an electrolyte disorder has several specificities: when profound it can be quickly fatal and when moderate it carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity, but at the same time incorrect treatment of profound hyponatremia can lead to debilitating neurological disease and it remains unclear if treatment of moderate hyponatremia is associated with a decrease in mortality and morbidity...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
A Gholamipour-Shirazi, M S Carvalho, M F G Huila, K Araki, P Dommersnes, J O Fossum
Colloidal clay in water suspensions are known to exhibit a multitude of bulk phases depending on initial colloidal concentration and ionic strength, and examples of this include repulsive Wigner colloidal glasses at low ionic strength and attractive gels at higher ionic strength due to screened electrostatic forces by the electrolyte. From confocal Raman microscopy combined with elasticity measurements, we infer that clay trapped at quasi two-dimensional interfaces between oil and water also exhibit confined glass-like or gel-like states...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tsubasa Kobayashi, Takahiro Ichikawa, Takashi Kato, Hiroyuki Ohno
Glassy bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals are developed to be a matrix having a hydrophilic infinite periodic minimal surface (IPMS). They function as a scaffold for water, leading to the formation of a 3D continuous hydrogen-bonding network of water molecules along the IPMS. This material design is advantageous for developing novel electrolytes with rigidity and high proton conductivity.
November 24, 2016: Advanced Materials
Jeffrey L Segar
Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management is critical for optimal care of very low birth weight or sick infants. Delivery of such care requires an understanding of developmental changes in renal water and salt handling that occur with advancing gestational age as well as postnatal age. This review focuses on the principles of sodium homeostasis during fetal and postnatal life. The physiology of renal tubular transport mechanisms, as well as neurohumoral factors impacting renal tubular transport are highlighted...
November 20, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Francesca De Giorgio, Nina Laszczynski, Jan von Zamory, Marina Mastragostino, Catia Arbizzani, Stefano Passerini
The performance of graphite//LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cells whose both electrodes are made using water-soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder is reported for the first time. The full cell performed outstandingly at 400 cycles in the conventional electrolyte ethylene carbonate: dimethyl carbonate - 1M LiPF6 and the delivered specific energy at the 100th, 200th, 300th and 400th cycle corresponded to 82%, 78%, 73% and 66% of the initial energy value of 259 Wh kg-1 referred to the sum of the two electrode composite weights...
November 22, 2016: ChemSusChem
Mingyu Pi, Tianli Wu, Dingke Zhang, Shijian Chen, Shuxia Wang
The design and development of high-efficiency and non-noble metal hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts with optimized nanostructures for human clean and sustainable energy systems has attracted significant research interest over the past years. Herein, self-supported semimetallic tungsten diphosphide nanowire arrays on carbon cloth (WP2 NWs/CC) were topotactically fabricated by in situ phosphidation of a WO3 NWs/CC precursor. Such a binder-free flexible HER cathode with integrated three-dimensional nanostructures can not only provide a large surface area to expose abundant active sites, but also facilitate electrolyte penetration for electrons and electrolyte ions...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
Hyungkyu Han, Francesca Riboni, Frantisek Karlicky, Stepan Kment, Anandarup Goswami, Pitchaimuthu Sudhagar, Jeongeun Yoo, Lei Wang, Ondrej Tomanec, Martin Petr, Ondrej Haderka, Chiaki Terashima, Akira Fujishima, Patrik Schmuki, Radek Zboril
We report the fabrication of 3D hierarchical hetero-nanostructures composed of thin α-Fe2O3 nanoflakes branched on TiO2 nanotubes. The novel α-Fe2O3/TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures, synthesized on FTO through a multi-step hydrothermal process, exhibit enhanced performances in photo-electrochemical water splitting and in the photocatalytic degradation of an organic dye, with respect to pure TiO2 nanotubes. An enhanced separation of photogenerated charge carriers is here proposed as the main factor for the observed photo-activities: electrons photogenerated in TiO2 are efficiently collected at FTO, while holes are transferred to the α-Fe2O3 nanobranches that serve as charge mediators to the electrolyte...
November 22, 2016: Nanoscale
Emanuele Dell'Aglio, Susanne Heidi Plattner, Maria Pia Sammartino, Giovanni Visco, Luigi Campanella
Research in restoration and conservation is directed vs. more sustainable working materials, methods and technologies. Electrophoretic removal, from porous material, of undesired stains due to charged species is theoretically an interesting alternative to chemical cleaning methods, but the lack of specific and comprehensive research work leads to controversial opinions about the efficiency and the needed harmfulness for the treated objects. In this work paper, samples with artificial rust stains were subjected to electrophoretic cleaning treatments in mineral water as electrolyte...
November 21, 2016: Natural Product Research
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