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Water electrolytes

Matthew J Lee, Adele E Sayers, Timothy R Wilson, Austin G Acheson, Iain D Anderson, Nicola S Fearnhead
AIM: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The National Audit of Small Bowel Obstruction (NASBO) is a collaboration between trainees and specialty associations to improve the care of patients with SBO through national clinical audit. The aim of this study was to define current Consultant practice preferences in the management of small bowel obstruction in the UK. METHOD: A survey was designed to assess practice preferences of consultant surgeons...
January 13, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Laura Fernández-Pérez, Pedro Villar-Salvador, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Andrei Toca, Miguel A Zavala
Drought and frosts are major determinants of plant functioning and distribution. Both stresses can cause xylem embolism and foliage damage. The objective of this study was to analyse if the distribution of six common pine species along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Europe is related to their interspecific differences in frost tolerance and to the physiological mechanisms underlying species-specific frost tolerance. We also evaluate if frost tolerance depends on plant water status. We studied survival to a range of freezing temperatures in 2-year-old plants and assessed the percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) due xylem embolism formation and foliage damage determined by needle electrolyte leakage (EL) after a single frost cycle to -15 °C and over a range of predawn water potential (ψpd) values...
January 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
Yan Willière, Aljona Borschewski, Andreas Patzak, Tatiana Nikitina, Carsten Dittmayer, Anna L Daigeler, Markus Schuelke, Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is essential for the formation of caveolae. Little is known about their functional role in the kidney. We tested the hypothesis that caveolae modulate renal salt and water reabsorption. Wild-type (WT) and Cav1-deficient (Cav1-/-) mice were studied. Cav1 expression and caveolae formation were present in vascular cells, late distal convoluted tubule and principal connecting tubule and collecting duct cells of WT but not Cav1-/- kidneys. Urinary sodium excretion was increased by 94% and urine flow by 126% in Cav1-/- mice (p < 0...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kentaro Matsuzaki, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Masanori Katakura, Eri Sumiyoshi, Toshiko Hara, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido
Saliva-a water-based fluid containing electrolytes, immunoglobulins, and enzymes-has many functions, including the protection and hydration of mucosal structures within the oral cavity and the initiation of digestion. Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteins that act as water channels through membranes. We have previously reported upregulation of the expression levels of AQP 1 and 5 in the submandibular glands (SMGs) in heat-acclimated rats. In this study, we investigated pilocarpine-induced saliva secretion and AQP expression in rats after voluntary exercise...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Kameliya Bratoeva, George S Stoyanov, Albena Merdzhanova, Mariya Radanova
Introduction International studies show an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). It is assumed that the major components of MS - obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension - are linked to renal damage through the systemic release of several pro-inflammatory mediators, such as uric acid (UA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and generalized oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of kidney impairment and manifestations of dysfunction in rats with fructose-induced MS...
November 7, 2017: Curēus
Songfeng Pei, Qinwei Wei, Kun Huang, Hui-Ming Cheng, Wencai Ren
Graphene oxide is highly desired for printing electronics, catalysis, energy storage, separation membranes, biomedicine, and composites. However, the present synthesis methods depend on the reactions of graphite with mixed strong oxidants, which suffer from explosion risk, serious environmental pollution, and long-reaction time up to hundreds of hours. Here, we report a scalable, safe and green method to synthesize graphene oxide with a high yield based on water electrolytic oxidation of graphite. The graphite lattice is fully oxidized within a few seconds in our electrochemical oxidation reaction, and the graphene oxide obtained is similar to those achieved by the present methods...
January 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Saurav Z K Sajib, Mun Bae Lee, Hyung Joong Kim, Eung Je Woo, Oh In Kwon
Techniques for electrical brain stimulation (EBS), in which weak electrical stimulation is applied to the brain, have been extensively studied in various therapeutic brain functional applications. The extracellular fluid in the brain is a complex electrolyte that is composed of different types of ions, such as sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium (Ca+). Abnormal levels of electrolytes can cause a variety of pathological disorders. In this paper, we present a novel technique to visualize the total electrolyte concentration in the extracellular compartment of biological tissues...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephen A Ferguson, Xuewei Wang, Mollie Mahoney, Mark E Meyerhoff
A universal method for the detection, quantification, and characterization of polyquaterniums (PQs) in a simple background electrolyte solution and in more complex recreational swimming pool water samples is presented. This method involves the application of polycation-sensitive ion-selective optodes (ISOs) prepared by inkjet printing dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (H+DNNS-) and chromoionophore I directly onto WhatmanTM qualitative filter paper. No plasticizer or added polymer matrix is required for the fabrication of the sensing layer which is coated on the cellulose fibers of the filter paper...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Michael Woodward, Peter Gonski, Mathis Grossmann, John Obeid, Ron Scholes, Duncan J Topliss
Hyponatraemia (serum sodium concentration below 135 mmol/L) is the most common electrolyte disturbance and occurs commonly in older people. The causes can be complex to diagnose and treat and many published guidelines do not focus on the issues in an older patient group. Here, we are principally concerned with diagnosis and management of euvolaemic and hypervolaemic hyponatraemia in hospitalised patients over 70 years old. We also aim to increase awareness of hyponatraemia in residential aged care facilities and the community...
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Filip Podjaski, Julia Kröger, Bettina V Lotsch
Graphitic carbon nitrides have emerged as an earth-abundant family of polymeric materials for solar energy conversion. Herein, a 2D cyanamide-functionalized polyheptazine imide (NCN-PHI) is reported, which for the first time enables the synergistic coupling of two key functions of energy conversion within one single material: light harvesting and electrical energy storage. Photo-electrochemical measurements in aqueous electrolytes reveal the underlying mechanism of this "solar battery" material: the charge storage in NCN-PHI is based on the photoreduction of the carbon nitride backbone and charge compensation is realized by adsorption of alkali metal ions within the NCN-PHI layers and at the solution interface...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
Su-Jin Lee, Woo-Seok Choi, Gun-Hoo Park, Tae-Ho Kim, Chulhong Oh, Soo-Jin Heo, Do-Hyung Kang
Microalgae hold promise as a renewable energy source for the production of biofuel, as they can convert light energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis. However, cost-efficient harvest of microalgae remains a major challenge to commercial-scale algal biofuel production. We firstly investigated the potential of electrolytic water as a flocculantfor harvesting Tetraselmis sp.Alkaline electrolytic water (AEW) is produced at cathode through water electrolysis.It contains mineral ions such as Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ that can act as flocculant...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Subinuer Yilixiati, Rabees Rafiq, Yiran Zhang, Vivek Sharma
Freestanding films of soft matter containing micelles, nanoparticles, polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes, bilayers and smectic liquid crystals exhibit stratification. Stepwise thinning and coexisting thick-thin regions associated with drainage via stratification are attributed to the confinement-induced structuring and layering of supramolecular structures, that contribute supramolecular oscillatory structural forces. In freestanding micellar films, formed by a solution of an ionic surfactant above its critical micelle concentration, both interfacial adsorption and the micelle size and shape, are determined by the concentration of surfactant and of added electrolytes...
January 9, 2018: ACS Nano
Emily Sahadeo, Jaehee Song, Karen Gaskell, Nam Kim, Gary Rubloff, Sang Bok Lee
Batteries based on magnesium chemistry are being widely investigated as an alternative energy storage system to replace lithium-ion batteries. Mg batteries have multiple challenges, especially on the cathode side. The divalent Mg ion has slow insertion kinetics in many metal oxide cathodes conventionally used in Li-ion batteries. One solution that has been explored is adding water molecules into an organic electrolyte, which has been shown to aid in Mg insertion and improve performance of manganese oxide (MnO2) cathodes...
January 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Keiichi Fukushi, Yuki Fujita, Junpei Nonogaki, Jun-Ichi Tsujimoto, Takanari Hattori, Hideyuki Inui, Vladimir P Beškoski, Hiroki Hotta, Mitsuru Hayashi, Takeshi Nakano
We developed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect UV detection for the determination of fluoride (F-) in seawater using transient isotachophoresis (tITP) as an on-line concentration procedure. A method of correcting sample salinity effects was also proposed so that F- concentrations were obtained using a calibration graph. The proposed method is simple: it requires no sample pretreatment aside from dilution. The following optimum conditions were established: background electrolyte (BGE), 5 mM 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDC) adjusted to pH 3...
January 9, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Luhong Fu, Fulin Yang, Gongzhen Cheng, Wei Luo
The search for active and stable bifunctional electrocatalysts toward acidic overall water splitting is under increasing demand for the development of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolyzers. However, developing bifunctional electrocatalysts with Pt-like activity and superior stability under acidic media still remains a big challenge. Herein, we report a successful synthesis of Ir wavy nanowires with an ultrathin diameter of 1.7 nm through a simple wet-chemical approach. Benefiting from the unique morphology with high aspect ratios and a large specific surface area, the as-synthesized ultrathin Ir wavy nanowires exhibit enhanced activity and durability for both the oxygen evolution reaction and the hydrogen evolution reaction in acidic electrolytes...
January 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Anna-Caterina Senn, Stephan J Hug, Ralf Kaegi, Janet G Hering, Andreas Voegelin
The co-precipitation of arsenate (As(V)) with Fe(III)-precipitates is of great importance in water treatment and critically affects the fate of As in environmental systems. We studied the effects of dissolved phosphate (P; 0-1 mM), silicate (Si; 0 or 0.5 mM) and Ca (0, 0.5 and 4 mM) on the sequestration of 7 μM As(V) by Fe(III)-precipitates formed by the oxidation of 0.5 mM Fe(II) in aerated bicarbonate-buffered solutions with an initial pH of 7.0 as well as the retention or release of As(V) after precipitate aging for 30 d at 40 °C...
December 19, 2017: Water Research
Hua Li, Xiao-Li Yang, Hai-Liang Song, Shuai Zhang, Xi-Zi Long
The fate of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and associated antibiotic-resistant gene (ARG) expression under electrolytic stimulation in bio-electrochemical reactors (BERs) was unknown. In this study, sulfadiazine resistant bacteria (Klebsiella spp.), which were isolated from a BER, were subjected to constant direct current (DC) stimulation in a simulated BER. With an increase of the current from 7 to 28 mA, it was found that lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) showed a 1.03-, 1.21-, 1.34-, and 1.46-fold value compared with the control at 48 h, indicating that the cell membrane permeability had increased...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
Christopher Pelar, Karima Greenaway, Hugo Zea, Chun-Hsien Wu, Claudia C Luhrs, Jonathan Phillips
This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES) process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 °C for 10 min in a tube furnace under a slow flow of nitrogen gas. The processed wires were then polished and characterized, primarily with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 5, 2018: Materials
I Delcheva, D A Beattie, J Ralston, M Krasowska
Many of the applications of ionic liquids rely on their bulk properties or their solvation abilities. However, it is their interactions with solid surfaces that underpin many of their potential applications in advanced technologies. Whether it is as lubricants for wind turbines or as electrolytes in supercapacitors, there are many areas where ionic liquids can provide an improvement in performance relative to more commonplace liquids. However, there are some barriers to their implementation in such applications...
January 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Arnaud Gigot, Marco Fontana, Candido Fabrizio Pirri, Paola Rivolo
Ruthenium active species containing Ruthenium Sulphide (RuS₂) is synthesized together with a self-assembled reduced graphene oxide (RGO) aerogel by a one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. Ruthenium Chloride and L-Cysteine are used as reactants. The hydrothermal synthesis of the innovative hybrid material occurs at 180 °C for 12 h, by using water as solvent. The structure and morphology of the hybrid material are fully characterized by Raman, XRD, XPS, FESEM and TEM. The XRD and diffraction pattern obtained by TEM display an amorphous nanostructure of RuS₂ on RGO crystallized flakes...
December 30, 2017: Materials
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