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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151001/intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-hospitalized-and-critically-ill-children-rationale-available-drugs-and-possible-side-effects
#1
Thomas Langer, Rosamaria Limuti, Concezione Tommasino, Niels van Regenmortel, Els L I M Duval, Pietro Caironi, Manu L N G Malbrain, Antonio Pesenti
Human beings are constituted mainly of water. In particular, children's total body water might reach 75-80% of their body weight, compared to 60-70% in adults. It is therefore not surprising, that children, especially hospitalized newborns and infants, are markedly prone to water and electrolyte imbalances. Parenteral fluid therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment and is thus of exceptional relevance in this patient population. It is crucial to appreciate the fact that intravenous fluids are drugs with very different characteristics, different indications, contraindications and relevant side effects...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147533/what-is-the-fundamental-ion-specific-series-for-anions-and-cations-ion-specificity-in-standard-partial-molar-volumes-of-electrolytes-and-electrostriction-in-water-and-non-aqueous-solvents
#2
Virginia Mazzini, Vincent S J Craig
The importance of electrolyte solutions cannot be overstated. Beyond the ionic strength of electrolyte solutions the specific nature of the ions present is vital in controlling a host of properties. Therefore ion specificity is fundamentally important in physical chemistry, engineering and biology. The observation that the strengths of the effect of ions often follows well established series suggests that a single predictive and quantitative description of specific-ion effects covering a wide range of systems is possible...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146257/klebsiella-sp-confers-enhanced-tolerance-to-salinity-and-plant-growth-promotion-in-oat-seedlings-avena-sativa
#3
Swapnil Sapre, Iti Gontia-Mishra, Sharad Tiwari
Plant growth and yield is adversely affected by soil salinity. Salt tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain IG 3 was isolated from rhizosphere of wheat plants. The isolate IG 3 was able to grow in presence of NaCl ranging from 0 to 20% in Luria Bertani medium. The present study was planned to evaluate the role of inoculation of PGPR strain IG 3 and its efficacy in augmenting salt tolerance in oat (Avena sativa) under NaCl stress (100mM). The physiological parameter such as shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and relative water content (RWC) were remarkably higher in IG 3 inoculated plants in comparison to un-inoculated plants under NaCl stress...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144143/study-of-the-hydrate-melt-li4ti5o12-interphase-by-scanning-electron-microscopy-based-spectroscopy
#4
Mitsunori Kitta, Noboru Tagichi, Chie Fukada, Masanori Kohyama
To develop safe and low-cost Li-ion batteries, recently, an aqueous-based electrolyte so-called "hydrate-melt" electrolyte is proposed. Li4Ti5O12 is a promising negative electrode material for a Li-ion battery with such a hydrate-melt electrolyte, because of its unexpected reversible Li-insertion and extraction properties without usually-inevitable water reduction. The solid-electrolyte interphase formation is one of the reasons for this stable reaction, while a detail analysis is not yet performed. Here, a Li4Ti5O12 electrode surface reacted in a hydrate-melt electrolyte is investigated by scanning electron microscopy based analysis...
November 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141741/a-hospital-based-study-of-intestinal-capillariasis-in-thailand-clinical-features-potential-clues-for-diagnosis-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-85-patients
#5
Lakkhana Sadaow, Oranuch Sanpool, Pewpan M Intapan, Watana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Thidarat K Prasongdee, Wanchai Maleewong
Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis, a fish-borne nematode, is an important, emerging zoonotic helminthiasis. Cases may be fatal if suitable treatment is not administered in time. We reported a hospital-based study of 85 cases in Thailand, most of which were in the northeast. All patients had a history of eating raw or insufficiently cooked fresh water fish or prawns. The clinical manifestations are characterized by chronic diarrhea, borborygmi, abdominal pain, marked weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, dizziness, anorexia, and edema, as well as protein and electrolyte loss...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140297/a-proteomic-approach-to-investigate-the-drought-response-in-the-orphan-crop-eragrostis-tef
#6
Rizqah Kamies, Jill M Farrant, Zerihun Tadele, Gina Cannarozzi, Mohammed Suhail Rafudeen
The orphan crop, Eragrostis tef, was subjected to controlled drought conditions to observe the physiological parameters and proteins changing in response to dehydration stress. Physiological measurements involving electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and ultra-structural analysis showed tef plants tolerated water loss to 50% relative water content (RWC) before adverse effects in leaf tissues were observed. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry and appropriate database searching enabled the detection of 5727 proteins, of which 211 proteins, including a number of spliced variants, were found to be differentially regulated with the imposed stress conditions...
November 15, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139299/integrating-zeolite-type-chalcogenide-with-titanium-dioxide-nanowires-for-enhanced-photoelectrochemical-activity
#7
Chengyu Mao, Yanxiang Wang, Wei Jiao, Xitong Chen, Qipu Lin, Mingli Deng, Yun Ling, Yaming Zhou, Xianhui Bu, Pingyun Feng
Developing photoanodes with efficient visible-light harvesting and excellent charge separation still remains a key challenge in photoelectrochemical water splitting. Here zeolite-type chalcogenide CPM-121 is integrated with TiO2 nanowires to form a heterostructured photoanode, in which crystalline CPM-121 particles serve as a visible light absorber and TiO2 nanowires serve as an electron conductor. Owing to the small band gap of chalcogenides, the hybrid electrode demonstrates obvious absorption in visible-light range...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139146/effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitor-velagliflozin-a-new-drug-with-therapeutic-potential-to-treat-diabetes-in-cats
#8
M Hoenig, M Clark, D J Schaeffer, D Reiche
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are used in the treatment of human diabetics. They increase glucose excretion and correct hyperglycemia. We examined the investigational SGLT2 inhibitor velagliflozin in two groups of six neutered adult obese cats (equal gender distribution). Placebo (Pl) or drug (D; 1 mg/kg) was administered for 35 days. Routine blood examinations, fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucagon, adiponectin, and leptin were measured before and after treatment, also water intake, and urinary electrolytes, glucose, and volume...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136921/voltammetric-detection-of-antimony-in-natural-water-on-cathodically-pretreated-microcrystalline-boron-doped-diamond-electrode-a-possibility-how-to-eliminate-interference-of-arsenic-without-surface-modification
#9
Zuzana Lukáčová-Chomisteková, Eva Culková, Renata Bellová, Danica Melicherčíková, Jaroslav Durdiak, Ernest Beinrohr, Miroslav Rievaj, Peter Tomčík
Very simple and fast electroanalytical method for the detection Sb(III) on chemically unmodified boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) has been developed. Voltammetric behavior of antimony was investigated in various acidic supporting electrolytes and the most suitable medium for the determination of Sb(III) on bare BDDE has been 6molL(-1) HClO4 solution. The analytical performance was studied with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) with optimized conditions (deposition potential -1V vs...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134279/dietary-k-and-cl-independently-regulate-basolateral-conductance-in-principal-and-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#10
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir4...
November 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134220/non-contact-electric-potential-measurements-of-electrode-components-in-an-operating-polymer-electrolyte-fuel-cell-by-near-ambient-pressure-xps
#11
Liwei Yu, Yasumasa Takagi, Takahiro Nakamura, Oki Sekizawa, Tomohiro Sakata, Tomoya Uruga, Mizuki Tada, Yasuhiro Iwasawa, Gabor Samjeské, Toshihiko Yokoyama
Photoelectron spectroscopy has the advantage of providing electric potentials by non-contact measurements based on the kinetic energy shift in component potential. We performed operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements with an 8 keV excitation source to measure the shift in electron kinetic energies as a function of the voltages of all the components at the anode and cathode electrodes of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). At the cathode electrode, when we increase the voltage between the cathode and anode from 0...
November 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127701/release-kinetics-of-somatostatin-from-self-assembled-nanostructured-hydrogels
#12
Uma Rai, Thilini R Thrimawithana, Durga Dharmadana, Celine Valery, Simon A Young
Somatostatin-14 is a native neuropeptide with widespread functions in the body. Self-assembly of somatostatin-14 into amyloid-like nanofibrils has been previously demonstrated in aqueous media. We here hypothesize that the somatostatin nanofibrils can form a stable depot that release monomers in a controlled manner. This study aims to investigate if somatostatin monomers are released from physical hydrogels formed in water and in the presence of electrolytes. The release kinetics of the somatostatin monomers is investigated for the first time...
November 11, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124059/evaluation-of-three-hydration-strategies-in-detection-dogs-working-in-a-hot-environment
#13
Cynthia M Otto, Elizabeth Hare, Jess L Nord, Shannon M Palermo, Kathleen M Kelsey, Tracy A Darling, Kasey Schmidt, Destiny Coleman
Physical activity in hot environments can increase the risk of heat stress or heat stroke in dogs. Heat tolerance is influenced by acclimatization to the environment, physical fitness, and hydration state. Three common strategies to promote hydration in working dogs are free access to water (W), oral electrolyte solutions (OESs), and administration of subcutaneous fluids (SQs). None of these methods have been compared for safety or efficacy in a working environment. In a cross-over design, seven vehicle-screening canines were randomly assigned to each of the three hydration strategies during working shifts at the Sarita, TX checkpoint...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119982/engineering-n-p-junction-for-photo-electrochemical-hydrogen-production
#14
J Toupin, H Strub, S Kressmann, M Boudot, V Artero, Ch Laberty-Robert
The generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight offers a promising approach for producing scalable and sustainable carbon free fuels. One of the challenges of solar-to-fuel technology is the design of efficient, long-lasting and low-cost photocathodes, which are responsible for absorbing sunlight and driving catalytic hydrogen evolution. We report on the protection of a Cu/Cu2O/CuO photoelectrode against photocorrosion by a 200-300 nm-thick BaTiO3 perovskite layer, deposited using the sol-gel method. This photoelectrode mediates H2 production with a current density of ∼3...
November 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119164/enhanced-photoelectrochemical-water-oxidation-performance-of-a-hematite-photoanode-by-decorating-with-au-pt-core-shell-nanoparticles
#15
Biyi Chen, Weiqiang Fan, Baodong Mao, Hao Shen, Weidong Shi
It is well known that bimetallic nanomaterials usually exhibit unique catalytic, optical, electric and magnetic properties due to the synergistic effect between different metals. In this work, we reported on a scalable method to fabricate an AuPt bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles loaded hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanode for solar-driven photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Compared to single metal-modified α-Fe2O3 photoanodes, the AuPt bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles loaded α-Fe2O3 photoanodes exhibited a synergistic effect for photoelectrochemical water oxidation...
November 9, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118340/the-liquid-glass-jamming-transition-in-disordered-ionic-nanoemulsions
#16
Marco Braibanti, Ha Seong Kim, Nesrin Şenbil, Matthew J Pagenkopp, Thomas G Mason, Frank Scheffold
In quenched disordered out-of-equilibrium many-body colloidal systems, there are important distinctions between the glass transition, which is related to the onset of nonergodicity and loss of low-frequency relaxations caused by crowding, and the jamming transition, which is related to the dramatic increase in elasticity of the system caused by the deformation of constituent objects. For softer repulsive interaction potentials, these two transitions become increasingly smeared together, so measuring a clear distinction between where the glass ends and where jamming begins becomes very difficult or even impossible...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116238/atomically-dispersed-hybrid-nickel-iridium-sites-for-photoelectrocatalysis
#17
Chunhua Cui, Marc Heggen, Wolf-Dietrich Zabka, Wei Cui, Jürg Osterwalder, Benjamin Probst, Roger Alberto
Atomically dispersed supported catalysts can maximize atom efficiency and minimize cost. In spite of much progress in gas-phase catalysis, applying such catalysts in the field of renewable energy coupled with electrochemistry remains a challenge due to their limited durability in electrolyte. Here, we report a robust and atomically dispersed hybrid catalyst formed in situ on a hematite semiconductor support during photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution by electrostatic adsorption of soluble monomeric [Ir(OH)6](2-) coupled to positively charged NiOx sites...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115339/electro-oxidation-of-a-cobalt-based-steel-in-lioh-a-non-noble-metal-based-electro-catalyst-suitable-for-durable-water-splitting-in-an-acidic-milieu
#18
Helmut Schäfer, Karsten Küpper, Klaus Müller-Buschbaum, Diemo Daum, Martin Steinhart, Joachim Wollschläger, Ulrich Krupp, Mercedes Schmidt, Weijia Han, Johannes Stangl
The use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers is the method of choice for the conversion of solar energy when frequently occurring changes of the current load are an issue. However, this technique requires electrolytes with low pH. All oxygen evolving electrodes working durably and actively in acids contain IrOx. Due to their scarcity and high acquisition costs, noble elements like Pt, Ru and Ir need to be replaced by earth abundant elements. We have evaluated a cobalt containing steel for use as an oxygen-forming electrode in H2SO4...
November 8, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114956/quality-control-of-compounded-crystalloid-fluids-for-intravenous-delivery-to-horses
#19
C B Magnusson, K P Poulsen, J A Budde, F A Hartmann, N A Aulik, S M Raabis, A S D Moreira, B J Darien, S F Peek
BACKGROUND: Periodic lack of availability and high cost of commercially produced isotonic fluids for intravenous (IV) use in horses have increasingly led to use of home-made or commercially compound fluids by veterinarians. Data regarding the quality control and safety of compounded fluids would be of benefit to equine veterinarians. OBJECTIVES: To compare electrolyte concentrations, sterility, and endotoxin contamination of commercially available fluids to 2 forms of compounded isotonic crystalloid fluids intended for IV use in horses...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112334/wtf-nano-one-pot-dewatering-and-water-free-topochemical-modification-of-nanocellulose-in-ionic-liquids-or-gamma-valerolactone
#20
Tiina Laaksonen, Jussi Kari Juhani Helminen, Laura Lemetti, Jesper Långbacka, Daniel Rico Del Cerro, Michael Hummel, Erkko Ilari Filpponen, Antti Rantamäki, Tia Kakko, Marianna Kemell, Susanne Wiedmer, Sami Heikkinen, Ilkka Kilpeläinen, Alistair William Thomas King
It is shown that ionic liquids can be used to dewater birch kraft pulp cellulose nanofibrillar (CNF) suspension and act as a medium for water-free topochemical modification of the nanocellulose. Acetylation, was applied as a model reaction to investigate the degree of modification and scope of effective ionic liquid structures. Little difference in reactivity was observed when water was removed, after introduction of ionic liquid or molecular co-solvent. However, the viscoelastic properties of CNF suspended in two ionic liquids showed that the more basic, but non-dissolving ionic liquid, allows for better solvation of the CNF...
November 7, 2017: ChemSusChem
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