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Water electrolytes

Hamid Reza Rajabi, Fatemeh Karimi, Hossein Kazemdehdashti, Leila Kavoshi
In this research, a sono-assisted chemical precipitation method was developed for a quick and efficient water-based synthesis of zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs), in room temperature. ZnS QDs as pure and doped with some transition metal ions (such as Cu2+ , Mn2+ , Ag+ ) were prepared in the presence of l-cysteine, as capping agent. In comparison with the previous conventional methods, applying the ultrasonic irradiation provides a significant decrease in the reaction time. In comparison with previous reported conventional chemical QD synthesis methods, the required time for a complete synthesis in the presence of ultrasonic irradiations was significantly reduced to a period as short as 15 min, in a temperature of 40 °C...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jeiwan Tan, Wooseok Yang, Yunjung Oh, Hyungsoo Lee, Jaemin Park, Jooho Moon
Amorphous molybdenum sulfide (a-MoSx) is a promising hydrogen evolution catalyst owing to its low cost and high activity. A simple electrodeposition method (cyclic voltammetry) allows uniform formation of a-MoSx films on conductive surfaces. However, the morphology of a-MoSx, deposited on a TiO2/Sb2Se3 photocathode could be modulated by varying the starting potential. The cathodically initiated a-MoSx showed conformal film-like morphology, while anodic initiation induced inhomogeneous particulate deposition...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lijuan Wang, Wenzhong Wang, Yuanlu Chen, Lizhen Yao, Xin Zhao, Honglong Shi, Maosheng Cao, Yujie Liang
Heterogenous p-n junction CdS/Cu2O nanorod arrays have been fabricated by using a facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process to grow Cu2O nanoparticles on the surface of ordered CdS nanorod arrays. The heterogenous p-n junction nanorod arrays exhibit superior photoelectrochemical performance for hydrogen (H2) generation and high stability under visible light irradiation. The highest photocurrent density achieved by heterogenous nanorod array photoelectrode is 4.2 mA cm-2 in sacrificial Na2S and Na2SO3 mixture electrolyte solution at 0 V vs...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Luc Belloni, Daniel Borgis, Maximilien Levesque
The ion-induced long-range orientational order between water molecules recently observed in second harmonic scattering experiments and illustrated with large scale molecular dynamics simulations is quantitatively explained using the Ornstein-Zernike integral equation approach of liquid physics. This general effect, not specific to hydrogen-bonding solvents, is controlled by electroneutrality condition, dipolar interactions and dielectric+ionic screening. As expected, all numerical theories recover the well-known analytical expressions established 40 years ago...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ryan Scott Kingsbury, Sophie Flotron, Shan Zhu, Douglas Call, Orlando Coronell
Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are versatile materials relevant to a variety of water and waste treatment, energy production, and industrial separation processes. The defining characteristic of IEMs is their ability to selectively allow positive or negative ions to permeate, which is referred to as the permselectivity. Measured values of permselectivity that equal unity (corresponding to a perfectly-selective membrane) or exceed unity (theoretically impossible) have been reported for cation exchange membranes (CEMs)...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kotoku Kawaguchi, Ryo Hatano, Mitsunobu Matsubara, Shinji Asano
Moesin is expressed in several types of cells including epithelial and endothelial cells. Several groups reported that moesin plays important roles in the regulation of the cellular motility, and the process of internalization of membrane proteins. However, the physiological roles of moesin in the kidney still remain unclear. Herein, we examined the physiological function of moesin in the kidney using moesin knockout (Msn-/y ) mice. There was no obvious abnormality in the renal morphology of Msn-/y mice. However, we found that Msn-/y mice exhibited mild hyperchloremia, and reduced glomerular filtration rate compared to wild type (WT) mice...
March 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Ronny Neumann, Alexander M Khenkin, Miriam Somekh, Raanan Carmieli
The sustainable, selective direct hydroxylation of arenes, such as benzene to phenol is an important research challenge. Mostly thermochemical approaches have been studied, but these still have various drawbacks. An electrocatalytic transformation using formic acid to oxidize benzene and its halogenated derivatives to selectively yield aryl formates that are easily hydrolyzed by water yielding the corresponding phenols is presented. The formylation reaction occurs on a Pt anode in the presence of [Co(III)W12O40]5- as catalyst and Li formate as electrolyte via formation of a formyloxyl radical as the reactive species, which was trapped by a BMPO spin trap and identified by EPR...
March 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Oscar Cabeza, Luisa Segade, Montserrat Domínguez-Pérez, Esther Rilo, David Ausín, Anna Martinelli, Negin Yaghini, Bernhard Gollas, Manfred Kriechbaum, Olga Russina, Alessandro Triolo, Elena López-Lago, Luis M Varela
This paper extends the study of the induced temperature change in the mesostructure and in the physical properties occurring in aqueous mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium octyl-sulfate [EMIm][OSO4 ]. For some compositions, these mixtures undergo a phase transition between the liquid (isotropic in the mesoscale) and the mesomorphic state (lyotropic liquid crystalline) at about room temperature. The behavior of mixtures doped with a divalent metal sulfate was investigated in order to observe their applicability as electrolytes...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jesse Gatten McDaniel, Chang Yun Son, Arun Yethiraj
Room temperature ionic liquids composed of organic anions bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI), bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI), and trifluoromethanesulfonate (OTf) exhibit interesting physical properties and are important for many electrochemical applications. TFSI and FSI form ``hydrophobic'' ionic liquids, immiscible with water but miscible with many organic solvents and polymers; for computer simulation studies, it is thus essential to develop force fields for these anions that are transferable among this wide variety of chemical environments...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
N Shaari, S K Kamarudin, S Basri, L K Shyuan, M S Masdar, D Nordin
The high methanol crossover and high cost of Nafion® membrane are the major challenges for direct methanol fuel cell application. With the aim of solving these problems, a non-Nafion polymer electrolyte membrane with low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity based on the sodium alginate (SA) polymer as the matrix and sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) as an inorganic filler (0.02-0.2 wt%) was prepared by a simple solution casting technique. The strong electrostatic attraction between -SO3 H of SGO and the sodium alginate polymer increased the mechanical stability, optimized the water absorption and thus inhibited the methanol crossover in the membrane...
March 13, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje
The survival of a child with severe volume depletion at the emergency department depends on the competency of the first responder to recognize and promptly treat hypovolemic shock. Although the basic principles on fluid and electrolytes therapy have been investigated for decades, the topic remains a challenge, as consensus on clinical management protocol is difficult to reach, and more adverse events are reported from fluid administration than for any other drug. While the old principles proposed by Holliday and Segar, and Finberg have stood the test of time, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have highlighted the risk of hyponatraemia, and hyponatraemic encephalopathy in some children treated with hypotonic fluids...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Ana Margarida Monteiro, Olinda Marques, Sofia Martins, Ana Antunes
The authors report a case of a 15-year-old girl with hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome diagnosed in the neonatal period. The patient was admitted to the emergency room with impaired consciousness and hypoglycaemia. The day before, she increased her water intake to about 1.5 L to perform a pelvic ultrasound. In the following hours, she developed vomiting and food refusal. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, decreased serum osmolality and normal urinary density. Hyponatraemia and adrenal crisis were managed with a gradual but slow resolution of consciousness and electrolytic balance...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sander Brugman, Eleanor R Townsend, Mireille M H Smets, Paolo Accordini, Elias Vlieg
The interfacial structure of muscovite in contact with aqueous CsI solutions was measured using surface X-ray diffraction for several CsI concentrations (2 - 1000 mM). At CsI concentrations up to 200 mM, Cs+ adsorption is likely hindered by H3O+, as both cations compete for the adsorption site above the muscovite hexagonal cavity. Above this concentration, more Cs+ adsorbs than is required to compensate the negatively charged muscovite surface, which means that co-adsorption of an anion takes place. The I- anion does not co-adsorb in an ordered manner...
March 9, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
G Capillo, S Silvestro, M Sanfilippo, E Fiorino, G Giangrosso, V Ferrantelli, I Vazzana, C Faggio
Faro Lake is a coastal meromictic lagoon with singular characteristics in the Mediterranean (Messina, Sicily - Italy). It is part of the Natural Oriented Reserve of Capo Peloro (38°15'57" N; 15° 37'50" E). In this area, traditional mollusc farming activity persists, producing "autochthonous" mussels. This study reports of the Mytilus galloprovincialis haemolymph chemical profile and water variables determination of one year-lasted survey (April 2016-March 2017). The determinations of electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, P inorganic) and heavy metals in both Faro lake water and haemolymph have been carried out...
March 9, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Tsukasa Ikemura, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Nobuhiro Nakamura, Koichi Yada, Naoyuki Hayashi
PURPOSE: It remains unclear whether rehydration restores retinal blood flow reduced by exhaustive exercise. We investigated the effect of fluid intake on retinal blood flow after exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Blood flow in the inferior (ITRA) and superior temporal retinal arterioles (STRA) was measured before and after incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion in 13 healthy males. After the exercise, the subjects rested without drinking (control condition: CON) or with drinking an electrolyte containing water (rehydrate condition: REH) and were followed up for a period of 120 min...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Elżbieta Królak, Jolanta Raczuk, Danuta Sakowicz, Elżbieta Biardzka
Background: Home methods of drinking water treatment through filtration have recently become quite popular. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition of unfiltered water with water filtered in households with pitcher water filters. Obtained results were discussed in view of the effect of analysed chemical components of water on human health. Material and methods: Water samples were taken from water works supplies and from home dug wells from the agricultural area...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Hafeez Ur Rehman, Hesham F Alharby, Yahya Alzahrani, Mostafa M Rady
Magnesium (Mg) often leaches down in sandy soils due to high mobility and its foliar application proves to be beneficial. Organic biostimulants also prove to be helpful to affect plant physio-biochemistry and antioxidative defense system. The present study evaluated the beneficial effects of seed soaking in maize grain extract (MGE; 3%) in integration with or without foliar Mg (1 mM) in comparison to control (no treatment) on growth, yield performance, seed oil and fatty acid profile including physiological and biochemical basis of Hysun-336 sunflower hybrid grown on a sandy soil under greenhouse conditions...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ken Verguts, João Coroa, Cedric Huyghebaert, Stefan De Gendt, Steven Brems
The mechanism of graphene delamination from a Pt catalyst growth surface with electrochemical methods is studied. After a water intercalation step, an electrochemical graphene delamination process is done with a variety of different electrolytes. It is shown that (hydrogen or oxygen) bubble formation is not the main driving force to decouple graphene from its catalyst growth substrate. Ion intercalation is identified as the primary component for a fast graphene delamination process from its catalytic growth substrate...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Dino Klotz, Daniel A Grave, Hen Dotan, Avner Rothschild
Photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PEIS) is a useful tool for the characterization of photoelectrodes for solar water splitting. However, the analysis of PEIS spectra often involves a priori assumptions that might bias the results. This work puts forward an empirical method that analyzes the distribution of relaxation times (DRT), obtained directly from the measured PEIS spectra of a model hematite photoanode. By following how the DRT evolves as a function of control parameters such as the applied potential and composition of the electrolyte solution, we obtain unbiased insights into the underlying mechanisms that shape the photocurrent...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Todd S Ing, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Yijuan Sun, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Osmotic diuresis results from urine loss of large amounts of solutes distributed either in total body water or in the extracellular compartment. Replacement solutions should reflect the volume and monovalent cation (sodium and potassium) content of the fluid lost. Whereas the volume of the solutions used to replace losses that occurred prior to the diagnosis of osmotic diuresis is guided by the clinical picture, the composition of these solutions is predicated on serum sodium concentration and urinary sodium and potassium concentrations at presentation...
March 6, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
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