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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532001/apatite-grown-in-niobium-by-two-step-plasma-electrolytic-oxidation
#1
Bruno Leandro Pereira, Carlos Maurício Lepienski, Irineu Mazzaro, Neide Kazue Kuromoto
Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of niobium plates were done electrochemically in two steps with electrolytes containing phosphorous and calcium being observed the formation of crystalline apatite. All samples were submitted to a first step of PEO using an electrolyte containing phosphate ions. The second oxidization step was made using three different electrolytes. Some samples were oxidized by PEO in electrolyte containing calcium, while in other samples it was used two mixtures of phosphoric acid and calcium acetate monohydrate solutions...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530798/heterogeneous-molecular-catalysis-of-electrochemical-reactions-volcano-plots-and-catalytic-tafel-plots
#2
Cyrille Costentin, Jean-Michel Savéant
We analyze here, in the framework of heterogeneous mo-lecular catalysis the reasons of occurrence or non-occurrence of volcanoes upon plotting the kinetics of the catalytic reaction versus the stabilization free energy of the primary intermediate of the catalytic process. As in the case of homogeneous molecular catalysis or catalysis by surface active metallic sites, a strong motivation of such studies relates to modern energy challenges, particularly those involving small molecules such as water, hydrogen, oxygen, proton and carbon dioxide...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530305/ultrathin-coox-modified-hematite-with-low-onset-potential-for-solar-water-oxidation
#3
Chun Du, Jun Wang, Xiao Liu, Jie Yang, Kun Cao, Yanwei Wen, Rong Chen, Bin Shan
Photoelectrochemical water splitting holds great potential for solar energy conversion and storage with zero greenhouse gas emission. Integration of a suitable co-catalyst with an absorber material enables the realization of highly efficient photocleavage of water. Herein, nanostructured hematite film was coated with an ultrathin and conformal CoOx overlayer through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The best performing hybrid hematite with a 2-3 nm ALD CoOx overlayer yielded a remarkable turn on potential of 0...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527981/an-identification-of-the-soft-polyelectrolyte-gel-like-layer-on-silica-colloids-using-atomic-force-and-electron-microscopy
#4
Jiří Škvarla, Juraj Škvarla
A procedure is introduced for measuring the radius of spherical colloid particles from the curvature of upper parts of their central cross-sectional profiles obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To minimize the possible compression and displacement of the spheres, AFM is operated in a mode rendering a constant ultralow pN force on the tip. The procedure allows us to evaluate the mean radius of nearly monodisperse submicrometer spheres of silica in their natively hydrated state in aqueous electrolyte solutions, irrespective of whether they are coagulated or not...
May 16, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527458/conformation-change-of-an-isotactic-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-membrane-molecular-dynamics
#5
Irene Adroher-Benítez, Arturo Moncho-Jordá, Gerardo Odriozola
In this work, isotactic Poly (N-Isopropylacrylamide)-PNIPAM-in neat water and in electrolyte solutions is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. This is done for an infinitely diluted oligomer and for an assembly of several PNIPAM chains arranged into a planar membrane configuration with a core-shell morphology. We employed two different force fields, AMBER (assisted model building with energy refinement) and OPLS-AA (all atom - optimized potentials for liquid simulations) in combination with extended simple point charge water...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524071/flexible-low-cost-sensor-based-on-electrolyte-gated-carbon-nanotube-field-effect-transistor-for-organo-phosphate-detection
#6
Vijay Deep Bhatt, Saumya Joshi, Markus Becherer, Paolo Lugli
A flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on an electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistor is demonstrated. The enzyme immobilization is done on a planar gold gate electrode using 3-mercapto propionic acid as the linker molecule. The sensor showed good sensing capability as a sensor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, with a sensitivity of 5.7 μA/decade, and demonstrated excellent specificity when tested against interfering analytes present in the body. As the flexible sensor is supposed to suffer mechanical deformations, the endurance of the sensor was measured by putting it under extensive mechanical stress...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523565/blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-exacerbated-in-experimental-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-via-mmp-9-activation-and-downregulation-of-tight-junction-proteins
#7
Saurabh Dhanda, Rajat Sandhir
The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in bile duct ligation (BDL) model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Four weeks after BDL surgery, a significant increase was observed in serum bilirubin levels. Masson trichrome staining revealed severe hepatic fibrosis in the BDL rats. (99m)Tc-mebrofenin retention was increased in the liver of BDL rats suggesting impaired hepatobiliary transport. An increase in permeability to sodium fluorescein, Evans blue, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran along with increase in water and electrolyte content was observed in brain regions of BDL rats suggesting disrupted BBB...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514528/overcoming-the-instability-of-nanoparticle-based-catalyst-films-in-alkaline-electrolysers-by-self-assembling-and-self-healing-films
#8
Stefan Barwe, Justus Masa, Corina Andronescu, Bastian Mei, Wolfgang Schuhmann, Edgar Ventosa
Engineering stable electrodes using highly active catalyst nanopowders for electrochemical water splitting remains a notorious challenge. We report an innovative and general approach for attaining highly stable catalyst films with self-healing capability based on in-situ self-assembly of catalyst particles during electrolysis. The catalyst particles are added to the electrolyte forming a suspension that is pumped through the electrolyzer. Particles with negatively charged surfaces stick onto the anode, while particles with positively charged surfaces stick to the cathode...
May 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513645/electrode-potential-dependent-desolvation-and-resolvation-of-germanium-100-in-contact-with-aqueous-perchlorate-electrolytes
#9
Fang Niu, Rainer Schulz, Arcesio Castañeda Medina, Rochus Schmid, Andreas Erbe
The electrode potential dependence of the hydration layer on an n-Ge(100) surface was studied by a combination of in situ and operando electrochemical attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and real space density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Constant-potential DFT calculations were coupled to a modified generalised Poisson-Boltzmann ion distribution model and applied within an ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) scheme. As a result, potential-dependent vibrational spectra of surface species and surface water were obtained, both experimentally and by simulations...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513620/efficient-hydrogen-production-on-moni4-electrocatalysts-with-fast-water-dissociation-kinetics
#10
Jian Zhang, Tao Wang, Pan Liu, Zhongquan Liao, Shaohua Liu, Xiaodong Zhuang, Mingwei Chen, Ehrenfried Zschech, Xinliang Feng
Various platinum-free electrocatalysts have been explored for hydrogen evolution reaction in acidic solutions. However, in economical water-alkali electrolysers, sluggish water dissociation kinetics (Volmer step) on platinum-free electrocatalysts results in poor hydrogen-production activities. Here we report a MoNi4 electrocatalyst supported by MoO2 cuboids on nickel foam (MoNi4/MoO2@Ni), which is constructed by controlling the outward diffusion of nickel atoms on annealing precursor NiMoO4 cuboids on nickel foam...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513475/self-assembling-graphene-anthraquinone-2-sulphonate-supramolecular-nanostructures-with-enhanced-energy-density-for-supercapacitors
#11
Li Niu, Lifang Gao, Shiyu Gan, Hongyan Li, Dongxue Han, Fenghua Li, Yu Bao
Boosting the energy density remains a crucial issue for facilitating applications of capacitive energy storage devices. Herein, we report a graphene-anthraquinone supramolecular nanostructure by self-assembly for supercapacitors. The sulfonated anthraquinone exhibits high water solubility, π-conjugated structure and redox active features, which not only serves as a spacer to interact and stabilize graphene but also introduces extra contribution of pesudocapacitance. The formed nest-like three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure by further hydrothermal treatment enhances the accessibility of ion transfers and exposes the redox-active quinone groups into electrolytes...
May 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507120/highly-active-catalyst-derived-from-a-3d-foam-of-fe-po3-2-ni2p-for-extremely-efficient-water-oxidation
#12
Haiqing Zhou, Fang Yu, Jingying Sun, Ran He, Shuo Chen, Ching-Wu Chu, Zhifeng Ren
Commercial hydrogen production by electrocatalytic water splitting will benefit from the realization of more efficient and less expensive catalysts compared with noble metal catalysts, especially for the oxygen evolution reaction, which requires a current density of 500 mA/cm(2) at an overpotential below 300 mV with long-term stability. Here we report a robust oxygen-evolving electrocatalyst consisting of ferrous metaphosphate on self-supported conductive nickel foam that is commercially available in large scale...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506057/liquid-spray-dielectric-barrier-discharge-induced-plasma-chemical-vapor-generation-for-the-determination-of-lead-by-icp-ms
#13
Xing Liu, Zhenli Zhu, Huilai Li, Dong He, Yatai Li, Hongtao Zheng, Yiqun Gan, Yanxiang Li, Nicholas Stanley Belshaw, Shenghong Hu
In the present study, a novel and sensitive liquid spray dielectric barrier discharge induced plasma-chemical vapor generation technique (LSDBD-CVG) is developed for the determination of lead concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The dissolved Pb(2+) is readily converted to volatile species by LSDBD plasma induced chemical processes in the presence of 5% (v/v) formic acid in a supporting electrolyte (HCl, 0.01 mol L(-1)). In this LSDBD approach, the sample solution is converted to aerosol and simultaneously mixed with the DBD plasma generated at the nozzle of a pneumatic nebulizer, which greatly facilitates Pb vapor generation because of the enhanced interaction of sprayed analytes and the plasma...
May 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505096/attenuation-of-drought-stress-in-brassica-seedlings-with-exogenous-application-of-ca-2-and-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2
#14
Akram Khan, Yasir Anwar, Md Mahadi Hasan, Aqib Iqbal, Muhammad Ali, Hesham F Alharby, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Drought is one of the most common abiotic stresses, affecting the growth and productivity of crop plants globally, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Different strategies are used to mitigate the impact of drought among crop plants. Exogenous application of different substances are known to decrease the effects of various abiotic stresses, including drought stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ca(2+) and H₂O₂ in developing drought stress tolerance in Brassica napus "Bulbul-98" seedlings...
May 13, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501144/sequential-injection-differential-pulse-voltammetric-method-based-on-screen-printed-carbon-electrode-modified-with-carbon-nanotube-nafion-for-sensitive-determination-of-paraquat
#15
Prakit Chuntib, Suwaphid Themsirimongkon, Surin Saipanya, Jaroon Jakmunee
The screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with various nanoparticles has been studied for using as a working electrode in voltammetric technique. The electrochemical behavior of paraquat on different electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), and then differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been employed for trace analysis of paraquat based on redox reaction which the peak current was directly proportional to the concentration of paraquat in the solution. The SPCE modified with carbon nanotube dispersed in Nafion and ethanol (SPCE-CNT/Nafion) gave the best result...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498384/highly-efficient-oxygen-evolution-from-cos2-cnt-nanocomposites-via-a-one-step-electrochemical-deposition-and-dissolution-method
#16
Jizhang Yang, Zhi Yang, Lu Hua Li, Qiran Cai, Huagui Nie, Mengzhan Ge, Xi'an Chen, Ying Chen, Shaoming Huang
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has been viewed as a critical step in electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices. However, searching for cheap and efficient OER electrocatalysts still remains an urgent task. Herein, we develop a new strategy involving a one-step electrochemical deposition and dissolution method to fabricate hydrophilic porous CoS2/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites (CNT-CoS2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements confirm the formation of hydrophilic groups on the surface of the porous CoS2 during electrochemical oxidation...
May 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497571/determination-of-strobilurin-fungicide-residues-in-fruits-and-vegetables-by-nonaqueous-micellar-electrokinetic-capillary-chromatography-with-indirect-laser-induced-fluorescence
#17
Xin Guo, Kun Wang, Guan-Hua Chen, Jie Shi, Xian Wu, Lu-Lu Di, Yi Wang
A nonaqueous micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method with indirect laser induced fluorescence was developed for the determination of strobilurin fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables. Hydrophobic CdTe quantum dots (QDs) synthesized in aqueous phase were used as background fluorescent substance. The background electrolyte (BGE) solution, QD concentration and separation voltage were optimized to obtain the best separation efficiency and the highest signal intensity. The optimal BGE solution consists of 40 mM phosphate, 120 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 15% (V/V) water and 15% (V/V) hydrophobic CdTe QDs in formamide, of which apparent pH is 9...
May 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497085/evaluation-of-water-and-electrolytes-disorders-in-severe-acute-diarrhea-patients-treated-by-who-protocol-in-eight-large-hospitals-in-tehran-a-nephrology-viewpoint
#18
Alireza Soleimani, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Mohammad Reza Tamadon
Introduction: The most common cause of death from diarrhea is the shock caused by dehydration, electrolytes and acid-base disorders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate water and electrolytes disorders in diarrhea patients after treating severe acute diarrhea. Patients and Methods: In this study we used a historical cohort and studied patients who were hospitalized due to acute diarrhea and were similarly treated for dehydration and water and electrolyte disorders as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline...
2017: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493993/mechanism-of-down-regulation-of-na-h-exchanger-2-in-experimental-colitis
#19
Amal Ali Soleiman, Farook Thameem, Islam Khan
BACKGROUND: The Na-H exchanger [NHE] performs an electroneutral uptake of NaCl and water from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. There are several distinct NHE isoforms, some of which show an altered expression in the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this study, we examined a role of NHE-2 in experimental colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intra-rectal administration of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). On day 6 post-TNBS, the animals were sacrificed, colonic and ileal segments were taken out, cleaned with phosphate buffered saline and used in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493434/carbon-thin-film-wrapped-on-three-dimensional-nitrogen-doped-carbon-scaffold-for-superior-performance-supercapacitor
#20
Lingling Xu, Dandan Yin, Hongyang Zhao, Na Li, Suhua Chen, Jiale Xia, Bingan Lu, Yaping Du
Carbon thin film/carbon foam core-sheath structure is synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on carbonized melamine foam. The unique structure has specific capacitance of 310 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1. The structure shows outstanding electrochemical performance in both aqueous and "water-in-salt" electrolyte. Electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge test reveals there is high capacitive contribution up to more than 90% of its total capacitance. The core-sheath structure has advantages in ion transport as well as high utilization of electrode surface, and the synthesis process shows a way to coat carbon thin film on any substrate using nickel catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method...
May 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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