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Water electrolytes

Kayte A Jenkin, Peijian He, C Chris Yun
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid molecule, which regulates a broad range of pathophysiological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that LPA modulates electrolyte flux in the intestine and its potential as an anti-diarrheal agent has been suggested. Of six LPA receptors, LPA5 is highly expressed in the intestine. Recent studies by our group have demonstrated activation of Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) by LPA5 . However, much of what has been elucidated was achieved using colonic cell lines that were transfected to express LPA5 ...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Wei Li, Ke R Yang, Xiahui Yao, Yumin He, Qi Dong, Gary W Brudvig, Victor S Batista, Dunwei Wang
The performance of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system is highly dependent on the charge separation, transport and transfer characteristics at the photoelectrode|electrolyte interface. Of the factors that influence the charge behaviors, the crystalline facets of the semiconductor in contact with the electrolyte play an important role but has been poorly studied previously. Here, we present a study aimed at understanding how the different facets of hematite affect the charge separation and transfer behaviors in a solar water oxidation reaction...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tao Cheng, Lu Wang, Boris V Merinov, William A Goddard
Hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and hydrogen evolution reac-tion (HER) are both two orders slower in alkaline electrolyte than in acidic electrolyte, but no explanation has been provided. The first step towards understanding this dramatic pH-dependent HOR/HER performance is to explain the pH-dependent hydrogen binding to the electrode, a perplexing behavior observed experimentally. In this work, we carried out Quantum Mechanics Molecular Dynam-ics (QMMD) with explicit considerations of solvent and applied voltage (U) to in situ simulate water/Pt (100) interface in the condi-tion of under-potential adsorption of hydrogen (HUPD)...
May 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Stanislav Jelavić, A Rath Nielsen, S L S Stipp, N Bovet
The interfacial free energy of a solid, which determines its adsorption properties, depends on interactions between the surface and the fluid. A change in surface composition can completely change the behaviour of the solid. Decades of work have explored adsorption and its effects at solid-fluid interfaces from the macroscopic perspective and using molecular modelling so the concept of the electric double layer (EDL) is well established in the community. However, direct, molecular level, experimental observations of the composition within the interface region, and its change with time and conditions, is not abundant...
May 23, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Shiyuan Gao, Bin Wang, Xinyu Liu, Zhanhu Guo, Zhongqing Liu, Yichao Wang
Amorphous molybdenum sulfides (a-MoSx) have been demonstrated as economic and efficient hydrogen evolution catalysts for water splitting. Further improvements of their hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activities could be achieved by coupling them with appropriate electron transfer intermediates via interfacial engineering. In this study, a novel ternary composite electrode comprising PbTe quantum dots (QDs), a-MoSx and TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) was successfully fabricated by a facile combination of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and electrodeposition routes...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Haitao Wu, Wang Sun, Junrong Shen, David W Rooney, Zhenhua Wang, Kening Sun
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are both fundamental and essential processes for various energy conversion and storage systems. The kinetics of ORR and OER play a critical role in their energy efficiency and practicality. Here, flower-like ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets synthesized through a facile solvothermal technique were studied as a bifunctional catalyst for both water splitting and non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. Due to the novel structure and highly active {110} and {100} exposed facets, which can effectively facilitate mass transfer and enhance catalytic capability, Co3O4 nanosheets exhibit better stability and higher ORR/OER activity than Co3O4 nanoparticles, Co3O4 bulks, Pt/C, and RuO2 in alkaline solution...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Chang Min Park
Mercury (Hg), one of the most toxic substances in nature, has long been released during the anthropogenic activity. A correct description of the adsorptive behavior of mercury is important to gain a better insight into its fate and transport in natural mineral surfaces, which will be a prerequisite for the development of surface complexation model for the adsorption processes. In the present study, simulation experiments on macroscopic Hg(II) sorption by gibbsite (α-Al(OH)3 ), a representative aluminum (hydr)oxide mineral, were performed using the charge distribution and multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) approach with 1-pK triple plane model (TPM)...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Manu L N G Malbrain, Niels Van Regenmortel, Bernd Saugel, Brecht De Tavernier, Pieter-Jan Van Gaal, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Jean-Louis Teboul, Todd W Rice, Monty Mythen, Xavier Monnet
In patients with septic shock, the administration of fluids during initial hemodynamic resuscitation remains a major therapeutic challenge. We are faced with many open questions regarding the type, dose and timing of intravenous fluid administration. There are only four major indications for intravenous fluid administration: aside from resuscitation, intravenous fluids have many other uses including maintenance and replacement of total body water and electrolytes, as carriers for medications and for parenteral nutrition...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Taekyung Kim, Jongsik Park, Haneul Jin, Aram Oh, Hionsuck Baik, Sang Hoon Joo, Kwangyeol Lee
Highly active and durable electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) may play a pivotal role in commercial success of electrolytic water splitting technology. Among various material classes, binary metal sulphides show a great promise as HER catalysts because of their tunable energy levels conducive to a high catalytic activity and high robustness under harsh operating conditions. On the other hand, facet-controlled nanoparticles with controlled surface energies have gained great recent popularity as active and selective catalysts...
May 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Qing Yang, Beibei Chen, Man He, Bin Hu
A rapid, simple, and effective method has been developed for the determination of seven triazine herbicides (terbutryn, prometryn, ametryn, prometon, propazine, atrazine, simazine) by coupling off-line hollow fiber liquid liquid liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME) with on-line sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC). In HF-LLLME, seven target triazines in hydrophobic form were extracted from the sample solution into decane impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber, and then back-extracted into 1 mol L-1 H3 PO4 inside the hollow fiber lumen...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Achille De Battisti, Paolo Formaglio, Sergio Ferro, Mustafa Al Aukidy, Paola Verlicchi
Lab-scale experiments using real groundwater were carried out using the CabECO® reactor system in order to evaluate its suitability for producing safe water, acceptable for civil purposes. Trials were carried out in discontinuous and in continuous mode, analyzing the influence of electrical and hydraulic process parameters on the quality of treated water. The use of highly boron-doped diamond electrodes in the reactor allowed the electrosynthesis of considerable amounts of ozone. Because of the relatively high amount of chloride in the groundwater samples, a mixture of HOCl/ClO- was also synthesized...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Kuniyasu Ogawa, Tatsuyoshi Sasaki, Shigeki Yoneda, Kumiko Tsujinaka, Ritsuko Asai
In order to increase the current density generated in a PEFC (polymer electrolyte fuel cell), a method for measuring the spatial distribution of both the current and the water content of the MEA (membrane electrode assembly) is necessary. Based on the frequency shifts of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) signals acquired from the water contained in the MEA using 49 NMR coils in a 7 × 7 arrangement inserted in the PEFC, a method for measuring the two-dimensional spatial distribution of electric current generated in a unit cell with a power generation area of 140 mm × 160 mm was devised...
May 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Takuya Mabuchi, Takashi Tokumasu
A reactive molecular dynamics simulation has been performed for the characterization of the relationship between proton transport and water clustering in polymer electrolyte membranes. We have demonstrated that the anharmonic two-state empirical valence bond ( aTS-EVB) model is capable of describing efficiently excess proton transport through the Grotthuss hopping mechanism within the simplicity of the theoretical framework. In order to explore the long-time diffusion behavior in PFSA membranes with statistical certainty, simulations that are longer than 10 ns are needed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Melad G Paulis, Eman I Hasan
The diagnosis of drowning is still a difficult task in forensic science. Biochemical changes in different body fluids have been examined for the identification of drowning. However, none of them alone gives accurate results in the diagnosis of drowning and differentiation of saltwater and freshwater drowning. This study aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid changes in drowned rabbits. Six groups of rabbits were used including immersed dead rabbits in freshwater or saltwater (as control groups), alive fully conscious rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater, and anesthetized rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Gilles Ulrich, Alexandra Sutter, Mourad Elhabiri
We describe here the synthesis of water soluble Red-NIR emissive BODIPY derivatives displaying optical (absorption and emission) responses in pH ranges of interest. Substitution effects close to the tertiary aniline or the phenol subunits selected as the proton sensitive sites allowed us to finely tune the pH ranges. Furthermore, introduction of sulfobetaine functions at the boron centre of these pH responsive BODIPYs afforded valuable fluorescent dyes in the Red-NIR region in aqueous media, for which the steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsions prevent their non emissive aggregation...
May 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yoshiharu Tanaka, Yasukazu Saitoh, Nobuhiko Miwa
Biomedical properties of hydrogen water have been extensively investigated, but the effect of hydrogen on good healthy subjects remains unclear. This study was designed to explore the hygiene improvement by electrolytically generated hydrogen warm water (40°C) on capillary blood streams, skin moisture, and keratin plugs in skin pores in normal good healthy subjects with their informed consents. Fingertip-capillary blood stream was estimated after hand-immersing in hydrogen warm water by videography using a CCD-based microscope, and the blood flow levels increased to about 120% versus normal warm water, after 60 minutes of the hand-immersing termination...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
Christopher P Muzzillo, W Ellis Klein, Zhen Li, Alexander Daniel DeAngelis, Kimberly Horsley, Kai Zhu, Nicolas Gaillard
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting is an elegant method of converting sunlight and water into H2 fuel. To be commercially advantageous, PEC devices must become cheaper, more efficient and much more durable. This work examines low-cost polycrystalline chalcopyrite films, which are successful as photovoltaic absorbers, for application as PEC absorbers. In particular, Cu-Ga-Se films with wide band gaps can be employed as top cell photocathodes in tandem devices as a realistic route to high efficiencies...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eric H J Verschuren, Sami G Mohammed, Wouter N Leonhard, Caro Overmars-Bos, Kimberly A M Veraar, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels, Dorien J M Peters, Francisco J Arjona
The PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC1), a mechanosensor triggering intracellular responses upon urinary flow sensing in kidney tubular cells. Mutations in PKD1 lead to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The involvement of PC1 in renal electrolyte handling remains unknown since renal electrolyte physiology in ADPKD patients has only been characterized in cystic ADPKD. We thus studied the renal electrolyte handling in inducible kidney-specific Pkd1 knockout (iKsp-Pkd1-/-) mice manifesting a pre-cystic phenotype...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Nulee Jang, Muhammad Yasin, Hyunsoo Kang, Yeubin Lee, Gwon Woo Park, Shinyoung Park, In Seop Chang
This study investigated the effects of electrolytes (CaCl2 , K2 HPO4 , MgSO4 , NaCl, and NH4 Cl) on CO mass transfer and ethanol production in a HFMBR. The hollow fiber membranes (HFM) were found to generate tiny gas bubbles; the bubble coalescence was significantly suppressed in electrolyte solution. The volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (kL a) increased up to 414% compared to the control. Saturated CO (C∗ ) decreased as electrolyte concentrations increased. Overall, the maximum mass transfer rate (Rmax ) in electrolyte solution ranged from 106% to 339% of the value obtained in water...
May 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jozef Šesták, Regula Theurillat, Friederike A Sandbaumhüter, Wolfgang Thormann
Head-column field-amplified sample stacking of cations from a low conductivity sample followed by enantiomeric separation using negatively charged chiral selectors was studied experimentally and with computer simulation. Aspects investigated include the direct electrokinetic injection of the analytes into the background electrolyte, the use of a selector free buffer plug, the contribution of complexation within the buffer plug and the application of an additional water plug between sample and buffer plug. Attention was paid for changes of ionic strength which is known to have a significant impact on complexation and thus effective mobility...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
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