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Osmotic homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217107/the-underlying-physiological-basis-of-the-desert-rodent-meriones-shawi-s-survival-to-prolonged-water-deprivation-central-vasopressin-regulation-on-peripheral-kidney-water-channels-aqps-2
#1
A Elgot, O El Hiba, M Belkouch, H Gamrani
Meriones shawi (M. shawi) is a particular semi-desert rodent known by its resistance to long periods of thirst. The aim of the present investigation is to clarify the underlying mechanisms allowing M. shawi to resist to hard conditions of dehydration. For this reason we used two different approaches: i) a morphometric study, which consists in measuring the effect of dehydration on body and kidneys weights as well as the report kidney weight/body weight, ii) By immunohistochemistry, we proceed to study the effect of dehydration on the immunoreactivity of central vasopressin (AVP) and the kidney aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) which is a channel protein that allows water to permeate across cell membranes...
December 4, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205383/elucidating-the-molecular-mechanisms-mediating-plant-salt-stress-responses
#2
REVIEW
Yongqing Yang, Yan Guo
Contents Summary I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Excess soluble salts in soil (saline soils) are harmful to most plants. Salt imposes osmotic, ionic, and secondary stresses on plants. Over the past two decades, many determinants of salt tolerance and their regulatory mechanisms have been identified and characterized using molecular genetics and genomics approaches. This review describes recent progress in deciphering the mechanisms controlling ion homeostasis, cell activity responses, and epigenetic regulation in plants under salt stress...
December 4, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203279/homeostatic-cell-growth-is-accomplished-mechanically-through-membrane-tension-inhibition-of-cell-wall-synthesis
#3
Enrique R Rojas, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Julie A Theriot
Feedback mechanisms are required to coordinate balanced synthesis of subcellular components during cell growth. However, these coordination mechanisms are not apparent at steady state. Here, we elucidate the interdependence of cell growth, membrane tension, and cell-wall synthesis by observing their rapid re-coordination after osmotic shocks in Gram-positive bacteria. Single-cell experiments and mathematical modeling demonstrate that mechanical forces dually regulate cell growth: while turgor pressure produces mechanical stress within the cell wall that promotes its expansion through wall synthesis, membrane tension induces growth arrest by inhibiting wall synthesis...
November 30, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196846/the-availability-of-water-associated-with-glycogen-during-dehydration-a-reservoir-or-raindrop
#4
Roderick F G J King, Ben Jones, John P O'Hara
PURPOSE: This study evaluated whether glycogen-associated water is a protected entity not subject to normal osmotic homeostasis. An investigation into practical and theoretical aspects of the functionality of this water as a determinant of osmolality, dehydration, and glycogen concentration was undertaken. METHODS: In vitro experiments were conducted to determine the intrinsic osmolality of glycogen-potassium phosphate mixtures as would be found intra-cellularly at glycogen concentrations of 2% for muscle and 5 and 10% for liver...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192500/comparative-proteomics-of-contrasting-maize-genotypes-provides-insights-into-salt-stress-tolerance-mechanisms
#5
Meijie Luo, Yanxin Zhao, Yuandong Wang, Zi Shi, Panpan Zhang, Yunxia Zhang, Wei Song, Jiuran Zhao
Salt stress is a major abiotic factor limiting maize yield. To characterize the mechanism underlying maize salt tolerance, we compared the seedling root proteomes of salt-tolerant Jing724 and salt-sensitive D9H. The germination rate and growth parameter values (weight and length) were higher for Jing724 than for D9H under saline conditions. Using an iTRAQ-based method, we identified 513 differentially regulated proteins (DRPs), with 83 and 386 DRPs specific to Jing724 and D9H, respectively. In salt-stressed Jing724, the DRPs were primarily associated with the pentose phosphate pathway, glutathione metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192359/a-field-and-laboratory-study-of-the-responses-of-cytoprotection-and-osmoregulation-to-salinity-stress-in-mosquitofish-gambusia-affinis
#6
Jeng-Wei Tsai, Hon-Jung Liew, Jyun-Jiang Jhang, Shiou-Han Hung, Pei-Jie Meng, Ming-Yih Leu, Christopher Lim, Cheng-Hao Tang
The mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) naturally inhabits freshwater (FW; 1-3‰) and seawater (SW; 28-33‰) ponds in constructed wetland. To explore the physiological status and molecular mechanisms for salinity adaptation of the mosquitofish, cytoprotective responses and osmoregulation were examined. In the field study, activation of protein quality control (PQC) mechanism through upregulation of the abundance of heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and 70 and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was found in the mosquitofish gills from SW pond compared to the individuals of FW pond...
December 1, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179210/enacs-as-both-effectors-and-regulators-of-mirnas-in-lung-epithelial-development-and-regeneration
#7
Yan Ding, Runzhen Zhao, Xiaoli Zhao, Michael A Matthay, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) play an important role in re-absorbing excessive luminal fluid by building up an osmotic Na+ gradient across the tight epithelium in the airway, the lung, the kidney, and the colon. The ENaC is a major pathway for retention of salt in kidney too. MicroRNAs (miRs), a group of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, have emerged as a novel class of regulators for ENaC. Given the ENaC pathway is crucial for maintaining fluid homeostasis in the lung and the kidney and other cavities, we summarized the cross-talk between ENaC and miRs and recapitulated the underlying regulatory factors, including aldosterone, transforming growth factor-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A in the lung and other epithelial tissues/organs...
November 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163616/co-expression-of-arabidopsis-nhx1-and-bar-improves-the-tolerance-to-salinity-oxidative-stress-and-herbicide-in-transgenic-mungbean
#8
Sanjeev Kumar, Angkana Kalita, Richa Srivastava, Lingaraj Sahoo
Mungbean is an important pulse crop extensively cultivated in Southeast Asia for supply of easily digestible protein. Salinity severely limits the growth and productivity of mungbean, and weeding poses nutritional and disease constraints to mungbean cultivation. To pyramid both salt tolerance and protection against herbicide in mungbean, the AtNHX1 encoding tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiporter from Arabidopsis, and bar gene associated with herbicide resistance were co-expressed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163608/oshak1-a-high-affinity-potassium-transporter-positively-regulates-responses-to-drought-stress-in-rice
#9
Guang Chen, Chaolei Liu, Zhenyu Gao, Yu Zhang, Hongzhen Jiang, Li Zhu, Deyong Ren, Ling Yu, Guohua Xu, Qian Qian
Drought is one of the environmental factors that severely restrict plant distribution and crop production. Recently, we reported that the high-affinity potassium transporter OsHAK1 plays important roles in K acquisition and translocation in rice over low and high K concentration ranges, however, knowledge on the regulatory roles of OsHAK1 in osmotic/drought stress is limited. Here, transcript levels of OsHAK1 were found transiently elevated by water deficit in roots and shoots, consistent with the enhanced GUS activity in transgenic plants under stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113748/roles-for-xenopus-aquaporin-3b-aqp3-l-during-gastrulation-fibrillar-fibronectin-and-tissue-boundary-establishment-in-the-dorsal-margin
#10
Jennifer Forecki, Daniel J Van Antwerp, Sean M Lujan, Christa S Merzdorf
Aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins are a large family of membrane channel proteins that allow rapid movement of water and small, uncharged solutes into and out of cells along concentration gradients. Recently, aquaporins have been gaining recognition for more complex biological roles than the regulation of cellular osmotic homeostasis. We have identified a specific expression pattern for Xenopus aqp3b (also called aqp3.L) during gastrulation, where it is localized to the sensorial (deep) layer of the blastocoel roof and dorsal margin...
November 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109733/plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-in-amelioration-of-salinity-stress-a-systems-biology-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Gayathri Ilangumaran, Donald L Smith
Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109103/hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1a-deficiency-causes-hemolytic-anemia-in-mice-by-altering-erythrocyte-sphingolipid-homeostasis
#12
Karin von Wnuck Lipinski, Sarah Weske, Petra Keul, Susann Peters, Hideo A Baba, Gerd Heusch, Markus H Gräler, Bodo Levkau
The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor (HNF) family regulates complex networks of metabolism and organ development. Human mutations in its prototypical member HNF1A cause maturity-onset of diabetes of the young (MODY) type 3. In this study, we identified an important role for HNF1A in the preservation of erythrocyte membrane integrity, calcium homeostasis and osmotic resistance through a yet unrecognized link of HNF1A to sphingolipid homeostasis. HNF1A(-/-) mice displayed microcytic hypochromic anemia with reticulocytosis that was partially compensated by avid extramedullary erythropoiesis at all erythroid stages in the spleen thereby excluding erythroid differentiation defects...
November 6, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106544/effects-of-adult-female-rat-androgenization-on-brain-morphology-and-metabolomic-profile
#13
Carmen Perez-Laso, Sebastián Cerdan, Carme Junque, Ángel Gómez, Esperanza Ortega, Mireia Mora, Carlos Avendaño, Esther Gómez-Gil, María Cruz Rodríguez Del Cerro, Antonio Guillamon
Androgenization in adult natal women, as in transsexual men (TM), affects brain cortical thickness and the volume of subcortical structures. In order to understand the mechanism underlying these changes we have developed an adult female rat model of androgenization. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to monitor brain volume changes, white matter microstructure and ex vivo metabolic profiles over 32 days in androgenized and control subjects. Supraphysiological doses of testosterone prevents aging decrease of fractional anisotropy values, decreased general cortical volume and the relative concentrations of glutamine (Gln) and myo-Inositol (mI)...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093213/unexpected-connections-between-humidity-and-ion-transport-discovered-using-a-model-to-bridge-guard-cell-to-leaf-scales
#14
Yizhou Wang, Adrian Hills, Silvere Rm Vialet-Chabrand, Maria Papanatsiou, Howard Griffiths, Simon Rogers, Tracy Lawson, Virgilio Lew, Michael R Blatt
Stomatal movements depend on the transport and metabolism of osmotic solutes that drive reversible changes in guard cell volume and turgor. These processes are defined by a deep knowledge of the identities of the key transporters and of their biophysical and regulatory properties, and have been modelled successfully with quantitative kinetic detail at the cellular level. Transpiration of the leaf and canopy, by contrast, is described by quasi-linear, empirical relations for the inputs of atmospheric humidity, CO2, and light, but without connection to guard cell mechanics...
November 1, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089961/redox-and-ionic-homeostasis-regulations-against-oxidative-salinity-and-drought-stress-in-wheat-a-systems-biology-approach
#15
REVIEW
Zahid Hussain Shah, Hafiz M Rehman, Tasneem Akhtar, Ihsanullah Daur, Muhammad A Nawaz, Muhammad Q Ahmad, Iqrar A Rana, Rana M Atif, Seung H Yang, Gyuhwa Chung
Systems biology and omics has provided a comprehensive understanding about the dynamics of the genome, metabolome, transcriptome, and proteome under stress. In wheat, abiotic stresses trigger specific networks of pathways involved in redox and ionic homeostasis as well as osmotic balance. These networks are considerably more complicated than those in model plants, and therefore, counter models are proposed by unifying the approaches of omics and stress systems biology. Furthermore, crosstalk among these pathways is monitored by the regulation and streaming of transcripts and genes...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081249/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-amine-functionalized-copper-nanoparticles-exhibit-different-mechanisms-of-bioactivity-in-fundulus-heteroclitus-in-fresh-and-brackish-water
#16
Merryl N Black, Elenor F Henry, Olivia A Adams, J Craig F Bennett, Tyson James MacCormack
The bioavailability of engineered nanomaterials should be limited in marine environments, but uptake and toxicity has been noted in marine fish and invertebrates, albeit at exposure doses far exceeding predicted environmental levels. We examined the bioactivity of amine functionalized copper nanoparticles (nCu; 5-10 nm core diameter) to the euryhaline killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in fresh (FW) and brackish water (BW). Free copper dissolution was undetectable in either water type and nCu remained relatively well dispersed in BW, despite the high ionic strength...
October 30, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075236/home-alone-elimination-of-all-but-one-alternative-sigma-factor-in-listeria-monocytogenes-allows-prediction-of-new-roles-for-%C3%AF-b
#17
Yichang Liu, Renato H Orsi, Kathryn J Boor, Martin Wiedmann, Veronica Guariglia-Oropeza
Among Listeria monocytogenes' four alternative σ factors, σ(B) controls the largest regulon. As σ(B)-dependent transcription of some genes may be masked by overlaps among regulons, and as some σ(B)-dependent genes are expressed only under very specific conditions, we hypothesized that the σ(B) regulon is not yet fully defined. To further extend our understanding of the σ(B) regulon, we used RNA-seq to identify σ(B)-dependent genes in an L. monocytogenes strain that expresses σ(B) following rhamnose induction, and in which genes encoding the other alternative sigma factors have been deleted...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066463/angiotensin-1-7-stimulates-brown-adipose-tissue-and-reduces-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Hidechika Morimoto, Jun Mori, Hisakazu Nakajima, Yasuhiro Kawabe, Yusuke Tsuma, Shota Fukuhara, Kazuki Kodo, Kazuya Ikoma, Satoaki Matoba, Gavin Y Oudit, Hajime Hosoi
The renin-angiotensin system is a key regulator of metabolism with beneficial effects of the angiotensin 1-7 peptide. We hypothesized that the anti-obesity effect of Ang 1-7 is related to the stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We administered Ang 1-7 (0.54 mg・kg-1・d-1) for 28 days via implanted micro-osmotic pumps to mice with high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. Ang 1-7 treatment reduced body weight, upregulated thermogenesis and ameliorated impaired glucose homeostasis without affecting food consumption...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051181/disorders-of-erythrocyte-hydration
#19
Patrick G Gallagher
The erythrocyte contains a network of pathways that regulate salt and water content in the face of extracellular and intracellular osmotic perturbations. This allows the erythrocyte to maintain a narrow range of cell hemoglobin concentration, a process critical for normal red blood cell function and survival. Primary disorders that perturb volume homeostasis jeopardize the erythrocyte and may lead to its premature destruction. These disorders are marked by clinical, laboratory, and physiologic heterogeneity...
October 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046361/trefoil-factor-family-peptides-enhance-cell-migration-by-increasing-cellular-osmotic-permeability-and-aquaporin-3-levels
#20
Tania Marchbank, Raymond J Playford
Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are produced rapidly at sites of injury, stimulating epithelial migration, a process involving rapid changes in cell shape and volume, requiring rapid flow of water into and out of the cell. We examined the effect of TFFs on fluidity of cells by measuring their sensitivity to osmotic challenges and cell migration, and determined whether those results were mediated through altering the levels of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of transmembrane water channels involved in cellular water homeostasis...
October 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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