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Osmotic homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323942/incretin-therapies-do-not-expand-%C3%AE-cell-mass-or-alter-pancreatic-histology-in-young-male-mice
#1
Aaron R Cox, Carol J Lam, Matthew M Rankin, Jacqueline S Rios, Julia Chavez, Claire W Bonnyman, Kourtney B King, Roger A Wells, Deepti Anthony, Justin X Tu, Jenny J Kim, Changhong Li, Jake A Kushner
The impact of incretins upon pancreatic β-cell expansion remains extremely controversial. Multiple studies indicate that incretin-based therapies can increase β-cell proliferation, and incretins have been hypothesized to expand β-cell mass. However, considerable disagreement exists on whether incretins actually increase β-cell mass. Moreover, some reports indicate that incretins may cause metaplastic changes in pancreatic histology. To resolve these questions we treated a large cohort of mice with incretin-based therapies and carried out a rigorous analysis of β-cell turnover and pancreatic histology using high-throughput imaging...
March 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295473/mtorc1-senses-stresses-coupling-stress-to-proteostasis
#2
REVIEW
Kuo-Hui Su, Chengkai Dai
Beyond protein synthesis and autophagy, emerging evidence has implicated mTORC1 in regulating protein folding and proteasomal degradation as well, highlighting its prominent role in cellular proteome homeostasis or proteostasis. In addition to growth signals, mTORC1 senses and responds to a wide array of stresses, including energetic/metabolic stress, genotoxic stress, oxidative stress, osmotic stress, ER stress, proteotoxic stress, and psychological stress. Whereas growth signals unanimously stimulate mTORC1, stresses exert complex impacts on mTORC1, most of which are repressive...
March 15, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288366/oligomeric-protein-complexes-of-apolipoproteins-stabilize-the-internal-fluid-environment-of-organism-in-redfins-of-the-tribolodon-genus-pisces-cypriniformes-cyprinidae
#3
Alla M Andreeva, Marina V Serebryakova, Nina E Lamash
One of the most important functions of plasma proteins in vertebrates is their participation in osmotic homeostasis in the organism. Modern concepts about plasma proteins and their capillary filtration are based on a model of large monomeric proteins that are able to penetrate the interstitial space. At the same time, it was revealed that a considerable amount of oligomeric complexes are present in the low-molecular-weight (LM) protein fraction in the extracellular fluids of fishes. The functions of these complexes are unknown...
March 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280923/na-k-atpase-response-to-salinity-change-and-its-correlation-with-fxyd11-expression-in-anguilla-marmorata
#4
Fenfei Liang, Li Li, Guosong Zhang, Shaowu Yin, Xiaolu Wang, Peng Li, Yihe Jia, Yayuan Wang, Li Wang, Xiaojun Wang
The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is a primary electrogenic protein that promotes ion transport in teleosts. FXYD11 is a putative regulatory subunit of the NKA pump. The regulation of Na (+)/K (+) -ATPase and FXYD11 is of critical importance for osmotic homeostasis. To investigate the changes of the two genes under different salinity environments, we first identified NKA (AmNKAα1) and FXYD11 (AmFXYD11) in Anguilla marmorata, and then evaluated the mRNA levels of NKA and FXYD11 as well as the activity of NKA in the gill and kidney at different timepoints (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 360 h) under three salinity conditions-0‰ (fresh water: FW), 10‰ (brackish water: BW), and 25‰ (seawater: SW)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280549/the-mayfly-nymph-austrophlebioides-pusillus-harker-defies-common-osmoregulatory-assumptions
#5
Renee Dowse, Carolyn G Palmer, Kasey Hills, Fraser Torpy, Ben J Kefford
Osmoregulation is a key physiological function, critical for homeostasis. The basic physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are thought to be well established. However, through a series of experiments exposing the freshwater mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus (Ephemeroptera) to increasing salinities, we present research that challenges the extent of current understanding of the relationship between osmoregulation and mortality. A. pusillus had modelled 96 h LC10, LC50 and LC99 of 2.4, 4.8 and 10 g l(-1) added synthetic marine salt (SMS), respectively...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277971/distinct-light-stress-and-nutrient-dependent-regulation-of-multiple-tryptophan-rich-sensory-protein-tspo-genes-in-the-cyanobacterium-fremyella-diplosiphon
#6
Andrea W U Busch, Beronda L Montgomery
The cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon possesses 3 genes encoding homologs of the tryptophan-rich sensory protein (TSPO). TSPO proteins are membrane proteins implicated in stress responses across a range of organisms from bacteria to humans. Diverse TSPO proteins appear to generally bind tetrapyrrole ligands. Previously, we reported that one of these homologs, FdTSPO1, is involved in salt-, osmotic- and oxidative stress responses in F. diplosiphon. Here, we show distinct regulation of cellular mRNA levels of all 3 FdTSPO homologs by different abiotic stresses...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272446/critical-role-of-quorum-sensing-dependent-glutamate-metabolism-in-homeostatic-osmolality-and-outer-membrane-vesiculation-in-burkholderia-glumae
#7
Yongsung Kang, Eunhye Goo, Jinwoo Kim, Ingyu Hwang
Metabolic homeostasis in cooperative bacteria is achieved by modulating primary metabolism in a quorum sensing (QS)-dependent manner. A perturbed metabolism in QS mutants causes physiological stress in the rice bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Here, we show that increased bacterial osmolality in B. glumae is caused by unusually high cellular concentrations of glutamate and betaine generated by QS deficiencies. QS negatively controls glutamate uptake and the expression of genes involved in the glutamine synthetase and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycles...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261099/curcumin-a-potential-therapeutic-candidate-for-anterior-segment-eye-diseases-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Xiu-Fen Liu, Ji-Long Hao, Tian Xie, Nour Jama Mukhtar, Wiley Zhang, Tayyab Hamid Malik, Cheng-Wei Lu, Dan-Dan Zhou
Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251810/the-water-channel-protein-aquaporin-1-regulates-cellular-metabolism-and-competitive-fitness-in-a-global-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Gena Lee Meyers, Kwang-Woo Jung, Soohyun Bang, Jungyeon Kim, Sooah Kim, Joohyeon Hong, Eunji Cheong, Kyoung Heon Kim, Yong-Sun Bahn
In this study, an aquaporin protein, Aqp1, in Cryptococcus neoformans, which can lead either saprobic or parasitic lifestyles and causes life-threatening fungal meningitis was identified and characterized. AQP1 expression was rapidly induced (via the HOG pathway) by osmotic or oxidative stress. In spite of such transcriptional regulation, Aqp1 was found to be largely unnecessary for adaptation to diverse environmental stressors, regardless of the presence of the polysaccharide capsule. The latter is shown here to be a key environmental-stress protectant for C...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248529/neuronal-circuits-involved-in-osmotic-challenges
#10
M C Dos Santos Moreira, L M Naves, S M Marques, E F Silva, E Colombari, G R Pedrino
The maintenance of plasma sodium concentration within a narrow limit is crucial to life. When it differs from normal physiological patterns, several mechanisms are activated in order to restore body fluid homeostasis. Such mechanisms may be vegetative and/or behavioral, and several regions of the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in their triggering. Some of these are responsible for sensory pathways that perceive a disturbance of the body fluid homeostasis and transmit information to other regions...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222349/aldo-keto-reductase-1-akr1-protect-cellular-enzymes-from-salt-stress-by-detoxifying-reactive-cytotoxic-compounds
#11
Ramu S Vemanna, K C Babitha, Jayant K Solanki, V Amarnatha Reddy, S K Sarangi, M Udayakumar
Cytotoxic compounds like reactive carbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal (MG), melandialdehyde (MDA), besides the ROS accumulate significantly at higher levels under salinity stress conditions and affect lipids and proteins that inhibit plant growth and productivity. The detoxification of these cytotoxic compounds by overexpression of NADPH-dependent Aldo-ketoreductase (AKR1) enzyme enhances the salinity stress tolerance in tobacco. The PsAKR1 overexpression plants showed higher survival and chlorophyll content and reduced MDA, H2O2, and MG levels under NaCl stress...
February 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184395/microfluidic-platform-for-rapid-measurement-of-transepithelial-water-transport
#12
Byung-Ju Jin, A S Verkman
Water transport across epithelial monolayers is of central importance in mammalian fluid homeostasis, and epithelial aquaporin (AQP) water channels are potential drug targets. Current methods to measure transepithelial water permeability based on indicator dilution have limited accuracy and can require hours for a single measurement. We report here a microfluidics platform for rapid and accurate measurement of water transport across a conventionally cultured epithelial monolayer on a porous filter requiring only a single image obtained using a standard laboratory fluorescence microscope...
February 28, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167686/high-salt-diet-causes-osmotic-gradients-and-hyperosmolality-in-skin-without-affecting-interstitial-fluid-and-lymph
#13
Elham Nikpey, Tine V Karlsen, Natalia Rakova, Jens M Titze, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig
The common notion is that the body Na(+) is maintained within narrow limits for fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. Several studies have, however, shown that considerable amounts of Na(+) can be retained or removed from the body without commensurate water loss and that the skin can serve as a major salt reservoir. Our own data from rats have suggested that the skin is hypertonic compared with plasma on salt storage and that this also applies to skin interstitial fluid. Even small electrolyte gradients between plasma and interstitial fluid would represent strong edema-generating forces...
February 6, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164334/ethylene-response-factor-74-erf74-plays-an-essential-role-in-controlling-a-respiratory-burst-oxidase-homolog-d-rbohd-dependent-mechanism-in-response-to-different-stresses-in-arabidopsis
#14
Yuan Yao, Run Jun He, Qiao Li Xie, Xian Hai Zhao, Xiao Mei Deng, Jun Bo He, Lili Song, Jun He, Alan Marchant, Xiao-Yang Chen, Ai-Min Wu
Recent studies indicate that the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR VII (ERF-VII) transcription factor is an important regulator of osmotic and hypoxic stress responses in plants. However, the molecular mechanism of ERF-VII-mediated transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of ERF74 (a member of the ERF-VII protein family) by examining the abiotic stress tolerance of an ERF74 overexpression line and a T-DNA insertion mutant using flow cytometry, transactivation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays...
March 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132715/quantification-of-nonosmotic-sodium-storage-capacity-following-acute-hypertonic-saline-infusion-in-healthy-individuals
#15
Rik H G Olde Engberink, Nienke M G Rorije, Bert-Jan H van den Born, Liffert Vogt
The assumption that sodium accumulation in the human body is always accompanied by water retention has been challenged by data showing that sodium can be stored nonosmotically. Here we investigated the contribution of nonosmotic sodium storage to short-term sodium homeostasis after hypertonic saline infusion in healthy individuals on a low-sodium diet. During four hours after infusion, we compared the observed changes in plasma sodium concentration and urinary cation excretion with changes that were calculated with the Adrogue-Madias and Nguyen-Kurtz formula, formulations widely implemented to guide the treatment of dysnatremias...
January 26, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130109/hypotonicity-activates-a-voltage-dependent-membrane-conductance-in-n2a-neuroblastoma-cells
#16
Akiyuki Taruno, Yoshinori Marunaka
To maintain cellular and bodily homeostasis, cells respond to extracellular stimuli including osmotic stress by activating various ion channels, which have been implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. However, cellular osmosensory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report a novel voltage-dependent current in N2a cells activated by exposure to hypotonic stress. After a hypotonic challenge, N2a cells sequentially develop two distinct currents. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) current emerges first and, after a delay, activation of a previously uncharacterized strongly outwardly rectifying current follows...
January 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098891/nhe1-is-upregulated-in-gastric-cancer-and-regulates-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion
#17
Rui Xie, Haibo Wang, Hai Jin, Guorong Wen, Biguang Tuo, Jingyu Xu
Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is known to play a key role in regulating intracellular pH and osmotic homeostasis and is involved in the development and progression of several types of cancer. However, the function and specific mechanism of NHE1 in gastric cancer (GC) are not clearly understood. In the present study, we report that NHE1 is overexpressed in tissues and cell lines from GC patients, and knockdown or inhibition of NHE1 suppressed GC cell proliferation via regulation of G1/S and G2/M cell cycle phase transitions, concomitant with a marked decrease in positive cell cycle regulators, including cyclin D1 and cyclin B1...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074534/depolarizing-gaba-contributes-to-glutamatergic-network-rewiring-in-epilepsy
#18
Nazim Kourdougli, Christophe Pellegrino, Juho-Matti Renko, Stanislav Khirug, Geneviève Chazal, Tiina-Kaisa Kukko-Lukjanov, Sari E Lauri, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Liang Zhou, Angélique Peret, Eero Castrén, Raimo Kalevi Tuominen, Valérie Crépel, Claudio Rivera
OBJECTIVE: Rewiring of excitatory glutamatergic neuronal circuits is a major abnormality in epilepsy. Besides the rewiring of excitatory circuit, an abnormal depolarizing GABAergic drive has been hypothesized to participate in the epileptogenic processes. However, a remaining clinically relevant question is whether early post Status Epilepticus (SE) evoked chloride dysregulation is important for the remodeling of aberrant glutamatergic neuronal circuit. METHODS: Osmotic mini-pumps were used to infuse intracerebrally a specific inhibitor of depolarizing GABAergic transmission as well as a functionally blocking antibody towards the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75(NTR) )...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072496/structural-reconstruction-of-the-perivascular-space-in-the-adult-mouse-neurohypophysis-during-an-osmotic-stimulation
#19
K Nishikawa, E Furube, S Morita, N Horii-Hayashi, M Nishi, S Miyata
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) neuropeptides in the neurohypophysis (NH) control lactation and body fluid homeostasis, respectively. Hypothalamic neurosecretory neurones project their axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the NH to make contact with the vascular surface and release OXT and AVP. The neurohypophysial vascular structure is unique because it has a wide perivascular space between the inner and outer basement membranes. However, the significance of this unique vascular structure remains unclear; therefore, we aimed to determine the functional significance of the perivascular space and its activity-dependent changes during salt loading in adult mice...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062279/nitric-oxide-induced-synthesis-of-hydrogen-sulfide-alleviates-osmotic-stress-in-wheat-seedlings-through-sustaining-antioxidant-enzymes-osmolyte-accumulation-and-cysteine-homeostasis
#20
M Nasir Khan, M Mobin, Zahid Khorshid Abbas, Manzer H Siddiqui
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been shown to act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, play significant roles in plant cellular processes, and also mediate responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The present investigation was carried out to test the effect of exogenous NO on endogenous synthesis of H2S in osmotic-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. The results show that application of NO to wheat seedlings, suffered from PEG8000-induced osmotic stress, considerably enhanced the activities of H2S-synthesizing enzymes l-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and d-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCD) leading to enhanced level of endogenous H2S content...
January 3, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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