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Osmotic homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674454/control-of-vacuole-membrane-homeostasis-by-a-resident-pi-3-5-kinase-inhibitor
#1
P C Malia, Johannes Numrich, Taki Nishimura, Ayelén González Montoro, Christopher J Stefan, Christian Ungermann
Lysosomes have an important role in cellular protein and organelle quality control, metabolism, and signaling. On the surface of lysosomes, the PIKfyve/Fab1 complex generates phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PI-3,5-P2 , which is critical for lysosomal membrane homeostasis during acute osmotic stress and for lysosomal signaling. Here, we identify the inverted BAR protein Ivy1 as an inhibitor of the Fab1 complex with a direct influence on PI-3,5-P2 levels and vacuole homeostasis. Ivy1 requires Ypt7 binding for its function, binds PI-3,5-P2 , and interacts with the Fab1 kinase...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659565/cyclic-di-amp-regulation-of-osmotic-homeostasis-is-essential-in-group-b-streptococcus
#2
Laura Devaux, Dona Sleiman, Maria-Vittoria Mazzuoli, Myriam Gominet, Philippe Lanotte, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Arnaud Firon
Cyclic nucleotides are universally used as secondary messengers to control cellular physiology. Among these signalling molecules, cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a specific bacterial second messenger recognized by host cells during infections and its synthesis is assumed to be necessary for bacterial growth by controlling a conserved and essential cellular function. In this study, we sought to identify the main c-di-AMP dependent pathway in Streptococcus agalactiae, the etiological agent of neonatal septicaemia and meningitis...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643996/selective-lysis-of-breast-carcinomas-by-simultaneous-stimulation-of-sodium-channels-and-blockade-of-sodium-pumps
#3
Harry J Gould, Jack Norleans, T David Ward, Chasiti Reid, Dennis Paul
Sodium influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) coupled with balanced removal of sodium ions via Na+ , K+ -ATPase is a major determinant of cellular homeostasis and intracellular ionic concentration. Interestingly, many metastatic carcinomas express high levels of these channels. We hypothesized that if excess VGSCs are activated and Na+ , K+ -ATPase is simultaneously blocked, the intracellular Na+ concentration should increase, resulting in water movement into the cell, causing swelling and lytic cell death...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621145/zebrafish-as-a-model-system-for-investigating-the-compensatory-regulation-of-ionic-balance-during-metabolic-acidosis
#4
REVIEW
Lletta Lewis, Raymond W M Kwong
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) have become an important model for integrative physiological research. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-osmotic environment; to maintain ionic and acid-base homeostasis, they must actively take up ions and secrete acid to the water. The gills in the adult and the skin at larval stage are the primary sites of ionic regulation in zebrafish. The uptake of ions in zebrafish is mediated by specific ion transporting cells termed ionocytes. Similarly, in mammals, ion reabsorption and acid excretion occur in specific cell types in the terminal region of the renal tubules (distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568414/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-gb-lp4-and-identification-of-evolutionarily-divergent-genes-in-high-osmolarity-environment
#5
Jaehoon Jung, Kwondo Kim, DongAhn Yoo, Chanho Lee, Jungsun Kang, Kyungjin Cho, Dae-Kyung Kang, Woori Kwak, Sook Hee Yoon, Hawsun Sohn, Heebal Kim, Seoae Cho
Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the widely-used probiotics and there have been a large number of advanced researches on the effectiveness of this species. However, the difference between previously reported plantarum strains, and the source of genomic variation among the strains were not clearly specified. In order to understand further on the molecular basis of L. plantarum on Korean traditional fermentation, we isolated the L. plantarum GB-LP4 from Korean fermented vegetable and conducted whole genome assembly...
2018: Genes & Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564630/proteomic-analysis-of-melatonin-mediated-osmotic-tolerance-by-improving-energy-metabolism-and-autophagy-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#6
Guibin Cui, Fengli Sun, Xinmei Gao, Kunliang Xie, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi
Melatonin-mediated osmotic tolerance was attributed to increased antioxidant capacity, energy metabolism, osmoregulation and autophagy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Melatonin is known to play multiple roles in plant abiotic stress tolerance. However, its role in wheat has been rarely investigated. In this study, 25% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used to simulate osmotic stress, and wheat seeds and seedlings were treated with different concentrations of melatonin under PEG stress. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic techniques were used to identify the differentially accumulated proteins from melatonin-treated and non-treated seedlings...
March 21, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557361/dyslipidemia-modulates-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-sensing-and-transduction-of-ambient-information
#7
REVIEW
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550928/effect-of-vasopressin-induced-chronic-hyponatremia-on-the-regulation-of-the-middle-cerebral-artery-of-the-rat
#8
Marta Aleksandrowicz, Ewa Kozniewska
Vasopressin (arginine vasopressin, AVP) plays a crucial role in maintaining body fluid homeostasis. Excessive release of vasopressin can lead to hyponatremia. Changes in cerebral circulation during vasopressin-induced chronic hyponatremia are not elucidated. The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of chronic vasopressin-induced hyponatremia on the regulation of the tone of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of the rat. Chronic hyponatremia was induced in vivo with the help of vasopressin, released continuously from subcutaneously implanted ALZET mini-osmotic pumps, and a liquid diet...
March 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520945/a-vitis-vinifera-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factor-enhances-plant-cell-size-vegetative-biomass-and-reproductive-yield
#9
Sung Don Lim, Won Cheol Yim, Degao Liu, Rongbin Hu, Xiaohan Yang, John C Cushman
Strategies for improving plant size are critical targets for plant biotechnology to increase vegetative biomass or reproductive yield. To improve biomass production, a codon-optimized helix-loop-helix transcription factor (VvCEB1opt ) from wine grape was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana resulting in significantly increased leaf number, leaf and rosette area, fresh weight, and dry weight. Cell size, but typically not cell number, was increased in all tissues resulting in increased vegetative biomass and reproductive organ size, number, and seed yield...
March 9, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520291/ectopic-expression-of-gssrk-in-medicago-sativa-reveals-its-involvement-in-plant-architecture-and-salt-stress-responses
#10
Mingzhe Sun, Xue Qian, Chao Chen, Shufei Cheng, Bowei Jia, Yanming Zhu, Xiaoli Sun
Receptor-like kinases (RLK) play fundamental roles in plant growth and stress responses. Compared with other RLKs, little information is provided concerning the S-locus LecRLK subfamily, which is characterized by an extracellular G-type lectin domain and an S-locus-glycop domain. Until now, the function of the G-type lectin domain is still unknown. In a previous research, we identified a Glycine soja S-locus LecRLK gene GsSRK , which conferred increased salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis . In this study, to investigate the role of the G-type lectin domain and to breed transgenic alfalfa with superior salt stress tolerance, we transformed the full-length GsSRK ( GsSRK-f ) and a truncated version of GsSRK ( GsSRK-t ) deleting the G-type lectin domain into alfalfa...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503618/new-perspectives-on-the-potential-role-of-aquaporins-aqps-in-the-physiology-of-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Rosaria Meli, Claudio Pirozzi, Alessandra Pelagalli
Aquaporins (AQPs) are emerging, in the last few decades, as critical proteins regulating water fluid homeostasis in cells involved in inflammation. AQPs represent a family of ubiquitous membrane channels that regulate osmotically water flux in various tissues and sometimes the transport of small solutes, including glycerol. Extensive data indicate that AQPs, working as water channel proteins, regulate not only cell migration, but also common events essential for inflammatory response. The involvement of AQPs in several inflammatory processes, as demonstrated by their dysregulation both in human and animal diseases, identifies their new role in protection and response to different noxious stimuli, including bacterial infection...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497325/the-importance-of-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop-in-renal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#12
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468839/the-iron-stress-activated-rna-1-isar1-coordinates-osmotic-acclimation-and-iron-starvation-responses-in-the-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#13
Henriette Rübsam, Friedrich Kirsch, Viktoria Reimann, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka, Martin Hagemann, Wolfgang R Hess, Stephan Klähn
In nature, microorganisms are exposed to multiple stress factors in parallel. Here, we investigated the response of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to simultaneous iron limitation and osmotic stresses. Iron is a major limiting factor for bacterial and phytoplankton growth in most environments. Thus, bacterial iron homeostasis is tightly regulated. In Synechocystis, it is mediated mainly by the transcriptional regulator FurA and the iron-stress activated RNA 1 (IsaR1). IsaR1 is an important riboregulator that affects the acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to iron starvation in multiple ways...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459707/hologenomic-adaptations-underlying-the-evolution-of-sanguivory-in-the-common-vampire-bat
#14
M Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza, Zijun Xiong, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Anne Kathrine Runge, Julien Thézé, Daniel Streicker, Hannah K Frank, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Shengmao Liu, Oliver A Ryder, Jose Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, Aris Katzourakis, George Pacheco, Blanca Taboada, Ulrike Löber, Oliver G Pybus, Yang Li, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Kristine Bohmann, Aldo Carmona Baez, Carlos F Arias, Shiping Liu, Alex D Greenwood, Mads F Bertelsen, Nicole E White, Michael Bunce, Guojie Zhang, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, M P Thomas Gilbert
Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary adaptation. Specifically, we assembled its high-quality reference genome (scaffold N50 = 26.9 Mb, contig N50 = 36.6 kb) and gut metagenome, and compared them against those of insectivorous, frugivorous and carnivorous bats...
February 19, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450758/overexpression-of-altmp2-gene-from-the-halophyte-grass-aeluropus-littoralis-in-transgenic-tobacco-enhances-tolerance-to-different-abiotic-stresses-by-improving-membrane-stability-and-deregulating-some-stress-related-genes
#15
Walid Ben-Romdhane, Rania Ben-Saad, Donaldo Meynard, Nabil Zouari, Ali Mahjoub, Lotfi Fki, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Abdullah Al-Doss, Afif Hassairi
Herein, we report isolation of the AlTMP2 gene from the halophytic C4 grass Aeluropus littoralis. The subcellular localization suggested that AlTMP2 is a plasma membrane protein. In A. littoralis exposed to salt and osmotic stresses, the AlTMP2 gene was induced early and at a high rate, but was upregulated relatively later in response to abscisic acid and cold treatments. Expression of AlTMP2 in tobacco conferred improved tolerance against salinity, osmotic, H 2 O 2 , heat, and freezing stresses at the germination and seedling stages...
February 15, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416562/optimizing-anaerobic-growth-rate-and-fermentation-kinetics-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-expressing-calvin-cycle-enzymes-for-improved-ethanol-yield
#16
Ioannis Papapetridis, Maaike Goudriaan, María Vázquez Vitali, Nikita A de Keijzer, Marcel van den Broek, Antonius J A van Maris, Jack T Pronk
Background: Reduction or elimination of by-product formation is of immediate economic relevance in fermentation processes for industrial bioethanol production with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Anaerobic cultures of wild-type S. cerevisiae require formation of glycerol to maintain the intracellular NADH/NAD+ balance. Previously, functional expression of the Calvin-cycle enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) in S. cerevisiae was shown to enable reoxidation of NADH with CO2 as electron acceptor...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405580/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-modulation-of-the-vacuolar-cation-channel-trpy1-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Shin Hamamoto, Yasuo Mori, Isamu Yabe, Nobuyuki Uozumi
Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel homolog TRPY1 in its vacuolar membrane, considered to be an ancestral TRP channel. So far, studies have focused on the channel properties of TRPY1 but its regulation and physiological role remained to be elucidated. Here we investigated TRPY1 channel function in vitro and in vivo. Patch-clamp recording of TRPY1 in yeast vacuolar membranes showed that Ca2+ on the lumen side inhibited TRPY1-mediated channel activity, whereas luminal Zn2+ increased the currents...
February 6, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395317/dystrophin-71-and-%C3%AE-1syntrophin-in-morpho-functional-plasticity-of-rat-supraoptic-nuclei-effect-of-saline-surcharge-and-reversibly-normal-hydration
#18
Madina Sifi, Roza Benabdesselam, Sabrina Souttou, Tiziana Annese, Alvaro Rendon, Beatrice Nico, Latifa Dorbani-Mamine
Dystrophin (Dp) is a multidomain protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix through the dystrophin associated proteins complex (DAPC). Dp of 71 kDa (Dp71), corresponding to the COOH-terminal domain of dystrophin, and α1-syntrophin (α1Syn) as the principal component of the DAPC, are strongly expressed in the brain. To clarify their involvement in the central control of osmotic homeostasis, we investigated the effect of 14 days of salt loading (with drinking water containing 2% NaCl) and then reversibly to 30 days of normal hydration (with drinking water without salt), first on the expression by western-blotting and the distribution by immunochemistry of Dp71 and α1Syn in the SON of the rat and, second, on the level of some physiological parameters, as the plasma osmolality, natremia and hematocrit...
January 26, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393658/water-transport-and-homeostasis-as-a-major-function-of-erythrocytes
#19
Joseph Sugie, Marcos Intaglietta, Lanping Amy Sung
Erythrocytes have long been known to change volumes and shapes in response to different salt concentrations. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) was discovered in their membranes more than 20 years ago. The physiological roles of volume changes and AQP1 expression, however, have remained unclear. We propose that rapid water exchange through AQP1 coupled with large capacity for volume change may allow erythrocytes to play an important role in water regulation. In this study, we showed that erythrocytes in situ gradually reduced their volumes by 39% in response to the hyperosmotic corticomedullary gradient within mouse kidneys...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390033/evaluation-of-changes-arising-in-the-pig-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-transcriptome-following-cryopreservation-and-trichostatin-a-treatment
#20
Artur Gurgul, Joanna Romanek, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Tomasz Szmatoła, Jolanta Opiela
Cryopreservation is an important procedure in maintenance and clinical applications of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Although the methods of cell freezing using various cryoprotectants are well developed and allow preserving structurally intact living cells, the freezing process can be considered as a severe cellular stress associated with ice formation, osmotic damage, cryoprotectants migration/cytotoxicity or rapid cell shrinkage. The cellular response to freezing stress is aimed at the restoring of homeostasis and repair of cell damage and is crucial for cell viability...
2018: PloS One
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