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Osmotic homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450758/overexpression-of-altmp2-gene-from-the-halophyte-grass-aeluropus-littoralis-in-transgenic-tobacco-enhances-tolerance-to-different-abiotic-stresses-by-improving-membrane-stability-and-deregulating-some-stress-related-genes
#1
Walid Ben-Romdhane, Rania Ben-Saad, Donaldo Meynard, Nabil Zouari, Ali Mahjoub, Lotfi Fki, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Abdullah Al-Doss, Afif Hassairi
Herein, we report isolation of the AlTMP2 gene from the halophytic C4 grass Aeluropus littoralis. The subcellular localization suggested that AlTMP2 is a plasma membrane protein. In A. littoralis exposed to salt and osmotic stresses, the AlTMP2 gene was induced early and at a high rate, but was upregulated relatively later in response to abscisic acid and cold treatments. Expression of AlTMP2 in tobacco conferred improved tolerance against salinity, osmotic, H 2 O 2 , heat, and freezing stresses at the germination and seedling stages...
February 15, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416562/optimizing-anaerobic-growth-rate-and-fermentation-kinetics-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-expressing-calvin-cycle-enzymes-for-improved-ethanol-yield
#2
Ioannis Papapetridis, Maaike Goudriaan, María Vázquez Vitali, Nikita A de Keijzer, Marcel van den Broek, Antonius J A van Maris, Jack T Pronk
Background: Reduction or elimination of by-product formation is of immediate economic relevance in fermentation processes for industrial bioethanol production with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Anaerobic cultures of wild-type S. cerevisiae require formation of glycerol to maintain the intracellular NADH/NAD+ balance. Previously, functional expression of the Calvin-cycle enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) in S. cerevisiae was shown to enable reoxidation of NADH with CO2 as electron acceptor...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405580/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-modulation-of-the-vacuolar-cation-channel-trpy1-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Shin Hamamoto, Yasuo Mori, Isamu Yabe, Nobuyuki Uozumi
Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel homolog TRPY1 in its vacuolar membrane, considered to be an ancestral TRP channel. So far, studies have focused on the channel properties of TRPY1 but its regulation and physiological role remained to be elucidated. Here we investigated TRPY1 channel function in vitro and in vivo. Patch-clamp recording of TRPY1 in yeast vacuolar membranes showed that Ca2+ on the lumen side inhibited TRPY1-mediated channel activity, whereas luminal Zn2+ increased the currents...
February 6, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395317/dystrophin-71-and-%C3%AE-1syntrophin-in-morpho-functional-plasticity-of-rat-supraoptic-nuclei-effect-of-saline-surcharge-and-reversibly-normal-hydration
#4
Madina Sifi, Roza Benabdesselam, Sabrina Souttou, Tiziana Annese, Alvaro Rendon, Beatrice Nico, Latifa Dorbani-Mamine
Dystrophin (Dp) is a multidomain protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix through the dystrophin associated proteins complex (DAPC). Dp of 71 kDa (Dp71), corresponding to the COOH-terminal domain of dystrophin, and α1-syntrophin (α1Syn) as the principal component of the DAPC, are strongly expressed in the brain. To clarify their involvement in the central control of osmotic homeostasis, we investigated the effect of 14 days of salt loading (with drinking water containing 2% NaCl) and then reversibly to 30 days of normal hydration (with drinking water without salt), first on the expression by western-blotting and the distribution by immunochemistry of Dp71 and α1Syn in the SON of the rat and, second, on the level of some physiological parameters, as the plasma osmolality, natremia and hematocrit...
January 26, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393658/water-transport-and-homeostasis-as-a-major-function-of-erythrocytes
#5
Joseph Sugie, Marcos Intaglietta, Lanping Amy Sung
Erythrocytes have long been known to change volumes and shapes in response to different salt concentrations. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) was discovered in their membranes more than 20 years ago. The physiological roles of volume changes and AQP1 expression, however, have remained unclear. We propose that rapid water exchange through AQP1 coupled with large capacity for volume change may allow erythrocytes to play an important role in water regulation. In this study, we showed that erythrocytes in situ gradually reduced their volumes by 39% in response to the hyperosmotic corticomedullary gradient within mouse kidneys...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390033/evaluation-of-changes-arising-in-the-pig-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-transcriptome-following-cryopreservation-and-trichostatin-a-treatment
#6
Artur Gurgul, Joanna Romanek, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Tomasz Szmatoła, Jolanta Opiela
Cryopreservation is an important procedure in maintenance and clinical applications of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Although the methods of cell freezing using various cryoprotectants are well developed and allow preserving structurally intact living cells, the freezing process can be considered as a severe cellular stress associated with ice formation, osmotic damage, cryoprotectants migration/cytotoxicity or rapid cell shrinkage. The cellular response to freezing stress is aimed at the restoring of homeostasis and repair of cell damage and is crucial for cell viability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362098/protein-degradation-mechanisms-modulate-abscisic-acid-signaling-and-responses-during-abiotic-stress
#7
Pawel Jurkiewicz, Henri Batoko
Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, high temperature or freezing can be perceived, in part, as a transient or permanent hyperosmotic stress by the plant cell. As sessile organisms, the detrimental effects of these environmental insults limit plants productivity but also their geographical distribution. Sensing and signaling events that detect the hyperosmotic (or simply osmotic) stress involve the cellular increase of active abscisic acid (ABA). The stress phytohormone ABA regulates fundamental growth and developmental processes in the plant by marshalling metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361913/rna-seq-analysis-reveals-alternative-splicing-under-salt-stress-in-cotton-gossypium-davidsonii
#8
Guozhong Zhu, Weixi Li, Feng Zhang, Wangzhen Guo
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have focused on the regulation of gene expression in response to salt stress at the transcriptional level; however, little is known about this process at the post-transcriptional level. RESULTS: Using a diploid D genome wild salinity-tolerant cotton species, Gossypium davidsonii, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) of genes related to salt stress by comparing high-throughput transcriptomes from salt-treated and well-watered roots and leaves...
January 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361604/cold-tolerance-is-linked-to-osmoregulatory-function-of-the-hindgut-in-locusta-migratoria
#9
Lucie Gerber, Johannes Overgaard
There is growing evidence that maintenance of ion and water balance determine cold tolerance in many insects. The hindgut of terrestrial insects is critical for maintaining organismal homeostasis as it regulates solute- and water-balance of the hemolymph. Here we used ex vivo everted gut sacs of L. migratoria to examine the effects of temperature (0 - 30°C), thermal-acclimation, hypoxia, and ionic and osmotic forces on bulk water and ion (Na+, K+ and Cl-) movement across the rectal epithelium. These findings were related to simultaneous in vivo measurements of water and ion balance in locusts exposed to similar temperatures...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354377/protective-role-of-selenium-against-chromium-stress-involving-metabolites-and-essential-elements-in-brassica-juncea-l-seedlings
#10
Neha Handa, Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Renu Bhardwaj, Mohammed N Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Parvaiz Ahmad
The present study aimed at the potential role of selenium in providing protection to plants subjected to chromium toxicity. The study was carried out on 15-day-old seedlings of Brassica juncea raised in the solutions of Cr (300 µM) and Se (2, 4 and 6 µM), both alone and in combinations under controlled laboratory environment. The effects were studied on growth, plant metabolites (involved in osmotic homeostasis and stress protection), and essential elements. The results showed that the exposure of B. juncea seedlings to 300 µM Cr led to an increase in the contents of total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total phenols and flavonoids...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351565/sumo-targeting-of-a-stress-tolerant-ulp1-sumo-protease
#11
Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Jonathan L McMurry, Oliver Kerscher
SUMO proteases of the SENP/Ulp family are master regulators of both sumoylation and desumoylation and regulate SUMO homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. SUMO conjugates rapidly increase in response to cellular stress, including nutrient starvation, hypoxia, osmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and other proteotoxic stressors. Nevertheless, little is known about the regulation and targeting of SUMO proteases during stress. To this end we have undertaken a detailed comparison of the SUMO-binding activity of the budding yeast protein Ulp1 (ScUlp1) and its ortholog in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, KmUlp1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348608/phytase-overexpression-in-arabidopsis-improves-plant-growth-under-osmotic-stress-and-in-combination-with-phosphate-deficiency
#12
Nibras Belgaroui, Benoit Lacombe, Hatem Rouached, Moez Hanin
Engineering osmotolerant plants is a challenge for modern agriculture. An interaction between osmotic stress response and phosphate homeostasis has been reported in plants, but the identity of molecules involved in this interaction remains unknown. In this study we assessed the role of phytic acid (PA) in response to osmotic stress and/or phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. For this purpose, we used Arabidopsis lines (L7 and L9) expressing a bacterial beta-propeller phytase PHY-US417, and a mutant in inositol polyphosphate kinase 1 gene (ipk1-1), which were characterized by low PA content, 40% (L7 and L9) and 83% (ipk1-1) of the wild-type (WT) plants level...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329594/modelling-the-structure-of-a-cerna-theoretical-bipartite-microrna-mrna-interaction-network-regulating-intestinal-epithelial-cellular-pathways-using-r-programming
#13
J M Robinson, W A Henderson
OBJECTIVE: We report a method using functional-molecular databases and network modelling to identify hypothetical mRNA-miRNA interaction networks regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function. The model forms a data-analysis component of our cell culture experiments, which produce RNA expression data from Nanostring Technologies nCounter® system. The epithelial tight-junction (TJ) and actin cytoskeleton interact as molecular components of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Upstream regulation of TJ-cytoskeleton interaction is effected by the Rac/Rock/Rho signaling pathway and other associated pathways which may be activated or suppressed by extracellular signaling from growth factors, hormones, and immune receptors...
January 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290360/trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-harmful-protective-or-diagnostic-marker-in-lifestyle-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Artur Nowiński, Marcin Ufnal
Diet has been considered a general health determinant for many years. Recent research shows a connection between gut microbiota composition that is shaped by our diet and lifestyle diseases. Several studies point to a positive correlation between elevated plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut bacteria metabolite, and an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Therefore, it has been suggested that TMAO is a link between the diet, gut microbiota, and illness. Emerging experimental and clinical evidence shows that TMAO may be involved in the etiology of hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and renal failure...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228701/a-systematic-assessment-of-chemical-genetic-and-epigenetic-factors-influencing-the-activity-of-anticancer-drug-kp1019-ffc14a
#15
Upendarrao Golla, Swati Swagatika, Sakshi Chauhan, Raghuvir Singh Tomar
KP1019 ([trans-RuCl4(1H-indazole)2]; FFC14A) is one of the promising ruthenium-based anticancer drugs undergoing clinical trials. Despite the pre-clinical and clinical success of KP1019, the mode of action and various factors capable of modulating its effects are largely unknown. Here, we used transcriptomics and genetic screening approaches in budding yeast model and deciphered various genetic targets and plethora of cellular pathways including cellular signaling, metal homeostasis, vacuolar transport, and lipid homeostasis that are primarily targeted by KP1019...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217107/the-underlying-physiological-basis-of-the-desert-rodent-meriones-shawi-s-survival-to-prolonged-water-deprivation-central-vasopressin-regulation-on-peripheral-kidney-water-channels-aqps-2
#16
A Elgot, O El Hiba, M Belkouch, H Gamrani
Meriones shawi (M. shawi) is a particular semi-desert rodent known by its resistance to long periods of thirst. The aim of the present investigation is to clarify the underlying mechanisms allowing M. shawi to resist to hard conditions of dehydration. For this reason we used two different approaches: i) a morphometric study, which consists in measuring the effect of dehydration on body and kidneys weights as well as the report kidney weight/body weight, ii) By immunohistochemistry, we proceed to study the effect of dehydration on the immunoreactivity of central vasopressin (AVP) and the kidney aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) which is a channel protein that allows water to permeate across cell membranes...
December 4, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205383/elucidating-the-molecular-mechanisms-mediating-plant-salt-stress-responses
#17
REVIEW
Yongqing Yang, Yan Guo
Contents Summary I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Excess soluble salts in soil (saline soils) are harmful to most plants. Salt imposes osmotic, ionic, and secondary stresses on plants. Over the past two decades, many determinants of salt tolerance and their regulatory mechanisms have been identified and characterized using molecular genetics and genomics approaches. This review describes recent progress in deciphering the mechanisms controlling ion homeostasis, cell activity responses, and epigenetic regulation in plants under salt stress...
December 4, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203279/homeostatic-cell-growth-is-accomplished-mechanically-through-membrane-tension-inhibition-of-cell-wall-synthesis
#18
Enrique R Rojas, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Julie A Theriot
Feedback mechanisms are required to coordinate balanced synthesis of subcellular components during cell growth. However, these coordination mechanisms are not apparent at steady state. Here, we elucidate the interdependence of cell growth, membrane tension, and cell-wall synthesis by observing their rapid re-coordination after osmotic shocks in Gram-positive bacteria. Single-cell experiments and mathematical modeling demonstrate that mechanical forces dually regulate cell growth: while turgor pressure produces mechanical stress within the cell wall that promotes its expansion through wall synthesis, membrane tension induces growth arrest by inhibiting wall synthesis...
December 27, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196846/the-availability-of-water-associated-with-glycogen-during-dehydration-a-reservoir-or-raindrop
#19
Roderick F G J King, Ben Jones, John P O'Hara
PURPOSE: This study evaluated whether glycogen-associated water is a protected entity not subject to normal osmotic homeostasis. An investigation into practical and theoretical aspects of the functionality of this water as a determinant of osmolality, dehydration, and glycogen concentration was undertaken. METHODS: In vitro experiments were conducted to determine the intrinsic osmolality of glycogen-potassium phosphate mixtures as would be found intra-cellularly at glycogen concentrations of 2% for muscle and 5 and 10% for liver...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192500/comparative-proteomics-of-contrasting-maize-genotypes-provides-insights-into-salt-stress-tolerance-mechanisms
#20
Meijie Luo, Yanxin Zhao, Yuandong Wang, Zi Shi, Panpan Zhang, Yunxia Zhang, Wei Song, Jiuran Zhao
Salt stress is a major abiotic factor limiting maize yield. To characterize the mechanism underlying maize salt tolerance, we compared the seedling root proteomes of salt-tolerant Jing724 and salt-sensitive D9H. The germination rate and growth parameter values (weight and length) were higher for Jing724 than for D9H under saline conditions. Using an iTRAQ-based method, we identified 513 differentially regulated proteins (DRPs), with 83 and 386 DRPs specific to Jing724 and D9H, respectively. In salt-stressed Jing724, the DRPs were primarily associated with the pentose phosphate pathway, glutathione metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
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