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Osmotic homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222349/aldo-keto-reductase-1-akr1-protect-cellular-enzymes-from-salt-stress-by-detoxifying-reactive-cytotoxic-compounds
#1
Ramu S Vemanna, K C Babitha, Jayant K Solanki, V Amarnatha Reddy, S K Sarangi, M Udayakumar
Cytotoxic compounds like reactive carbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal (MG), melandialdehyde (MDA), besides the ROS accumulate significantly at higher levels under salinity stress conditions and affect lipids and proteins that inhibit plant growth and productivity. The detoxification of these cytotoxic compounds by overexpression of NADPH-dependent Aldo-ketoreductase (AKR1) enzyme enhances the salinity stress tolerance in tobacco. The PsAKR1 overexpression plants showed higher survival and chlorophyll content and reduced MDA, H2O2, and MG levels under NaCl stress...
February 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184395/microfluidic-platform-for-rapid-measurement-of-transepithelial-water-transport
#2
Byung-Ju Jin, A S Verkman
Water transport across epithelial monolayers is of central importance in mammalian fluid homeostasis, and epithelial aquaporin (AQP) water channels are potential drug targets. Current methods to measure transepithelial water permeability based on indicator dilution have limited accuracy and can require hours for a single measurement. We report here a microfluidics platform for rapid and accurate measurement of water transport across a conventionally cultured epithelial monolayer on a porous filter requiring only a single image obtained using a standard laboratory fluorescence microscope...
February 10, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167686/high-salt-diet-causes-osmotic-gradients-and-hyperosmolality-in-skin-without-affecting-interstitial-fluid-and-lymph
#3
Elham Nikpey, Tine V Karlsen, Natalia Rakova, Jens M Titze, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig
The common notion is that the body Na(+) is maintained within narrow limits for fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. Several studies have, however, shown that considerable amounts of Na(+) can be retained or removed from the body without commensurate water loss and that the skin can serve as a major salt reservoir. Our own data from rats have suggested that the skin is hypertonic compared with plasma on salt storage and that this also applies to skin interstitial fluid. Even small electrolyte gradients between plasma and interstitial fluid would represent strong edema-generating forces...
February 6, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164334/ethylene-response-factor-74-erf74-plays-an-essential-role-in-controlling-a-respiratory-burst-oxidase-homolog-d-rbohd-dependent-mechanism-in-response-to-different-stresses-in-arabidopsis
#4
Yuan Yao, Run Jun He, Qiao Li Xie, Xian Hai Zhao, Xiao Mei Deng, Jun Bo He, Lili Song, Jun He, Alan Marchant, Xiao-Yang Chen, Ai-Min Wu
Recent studies indicate that the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR VII (ERF-VII) transcription factor is an important regulator of osmotic and hypoxic stress responses in plants. However, the molecular mechanism of ERF-VII-mediated transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of ERF74 (a member of the ERF-VII protein family) by examining the abiotic stress tolerance of an ERF74 overexpression line and a T-DNA insertion mutant using flow cytometry, transactivation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays...
March 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132715/quantification-of-nonosmotic-sodium-storage-capacity-following-acute-hypertonic-saline-infusion-in-healthy-individuals
#5
Rik H G Olde Engberink, Nienke M G Rorije, Bert-Jan H van den Born, Liffert Vogt
The assumption that sodium accumulation in the human body is always accompanied by water retention has been challenged by data showing that sodium can be stored nonosmotically. Here we investigated the contribution of nonosmotic sodium storage to short-term sodium homeostasis after hypertonic saline infusion in healthy individuals on a low-sodium diet. During four hours after infusion, we compared the observed changes in plasma sodium concentration and urinary cation excretion with changes that were calculated with the Adrogue-Madias and Nguyen-Kurtz formula, formulations widely implemented to guide the treatment of dysnatremias...
January 26, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130109/hypotonicity-activates-a-voltage-dependent-membrane-conductance-in-n2a-neuroblastoma-cells
#6
Akiyuki Taruno, Yoshinori Marunaka
To maintain cellular and bodily homeostasis, cells respond to extracellular stimuli including osmotic stress by activating various ion channels, which have been implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. However, cellular osmosensory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report a novel voltage-dependent current in N2a cells activated by exposure to hypotonic stress. After a hypotonic challenge, N2a cells sequentially develop two distinct currents. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) current emerges first and, after a delay, activation of a previously uncharacterized strongly outwardly rectifying current follows...
January 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098891/nhe1-is-upregulated-in-gastric-cancer-and-regulates-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion
#7
Rui Xie, Haibo Wang, Hai Jin, Guorong Wen, Biguang Tuo, Jingyu Xu
Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is known to play a key role in regulating intracellular pH and osmotic homeostasis and is involved in the development and progression of several types of cancer. However, the function and specific mechanism of NHE1 in gastric cancer (GC) are not clearly understood. In the present study, we report that NHE1 is overexpressed in tissues and cell lines from GC patients, and knockdown or inhibition of NHE1 suppressed GC cell proliferation via regulation of G1/S and G2/M cell cycle phase transitions, concomitant with a marked decrease in positive cell cycle regulators, including cyclin D1 and cyclin B1...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074534/depolarizing-gaba-contributes-to-glutamatergic-network-rewiring-in-epilepsy
#8
Nazim Kourdougli, Christophe Pellegrino, Juho-Matti Renko, Stanislav Khirug, Geneviève Chazal, Tiina-Kaisa Kukko-Lukjanov, Sari E Lauri, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Liang Zhou, Angélique Peret, Eero Castrén, Raimo Kalevi Tuominen, Valérie Crépel, Claudio Rivera
OBJECTIVE: Rewiring of excitatory glutamatergic neuronal circuits is a major abnormality in epilepsy. Besides the rewiring of excitatory circuit, an abnormal depolarizing GABAergic drive has been hypothesized to participate in the epileptogenic processes. However, a remaining clinically relevant question is whether early post Status Epilepticus (SE) evoked chloride dysregulation is important for the remodeling of aberrant glutamatergic neuronal circuit. METHODS: Osmotic mini-pumps were used to infuse intracerebrally a specific inhibitor of depolarizing GABAergic transmission as well as a functionally blocking antibody towards the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75(NTR) )...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072496/structural-reconstruction-of-the-perivascular-space-in-the-adult-mouse-neurohypophysis-during-an-osmotic-stimulation
#9
K Nishikawa, E Furube, S Morita, N Horii-Hayashi, M Nishi, S Miyata
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), neuropeptides in the neurohypophysis (NH), control lactation and body fluid homeostasis, respectively. Hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons project their axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the NH to make contact with the vascular surface and release OXT and AVP. The neurohypophysial vascular structure is unique, because it has a wide perivascular space between the inner and outer basement membranes. However, the significance of this unique vascular structure remains unclear; therefore, we aimed to elucidate the functional significance of the perivascular space and its activity-dependent changes during salt loading in adult mice...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062279/nitric-oxide-induced-synthesis-of-hydrogen-sulfide-alleviates-osmotic-stress-in-wheat-seedlings-through-sustaining-antioxidant-enzymes-osmolyte-accumulation-and-cysteine-homeostasis
#10
M Nasir Khan, M Mobin, Zahid Khorshid Abbas, Manzer H Siddiqui
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been shown to act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, play significant roles in plant cellular processes, and also mediate responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The present investigation was carried out to test the effect of exogenous NO on endogenous synthesis of H2S in osmotic-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. The results show that application of NO to wheat seedlings, suffered from PEG8000-induced osmotic stress, considerably enhanced the activities of H2S-synthesizing enzymes l-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and d-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCD) leading to enhanced level of endogenous H2S content...
January 3, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030573/cation-stress-responsive-transcription-factors-slta-and-crza-regulate-morphogenetic-processes-and-pathogenicity-of-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides
#11
Amit K Dubey, Shiri Barad, Neta Luria, Dilip Kumar, Eduardo A Espeso, Dov B Prusky
Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the presence of cation salts NaCl and KCl inhibited fungal growth and anthracnose symptom of colonization. Previous reports indicate that adaptation of Aspergillus nidulans to salt- and osmotic-stress conditions revealed the role of zinc-finger transcription factors SltA and CrzA in cation homeostasis. Homologs of A. nidulans SltA and CrzA were identified in C. gloeosporioides. The C. gloeosporioides CrzA homolog is a 682-amino acid protein, which contains a C2H2 zinc finger DNA-binding domain that is highly conserved among CrzA proteins from yeast and filamentous fungi...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017617/mir-263a-regulates-enac-to-maintain-osmotic-and-intestinal-stem-cell-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#12
Kevin Kim, Ruei-Jiun Hung, Norbert Perrimon
Proper regulation of osmotic balance and response to tissue damage is crucial in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) homeostasis. We found that Drosophila miR-263a downregulates the expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits in enterocytes (ECs) to maintain osmotic and ISC homeostasis. In the absence of miR-263a, the intraluminal surface of the intestine displays dehydration-like phenotypes, Na(+) levels are increased in ECs, stress pathways are activated in ECs, and ISCs overproliferate. Furthermore, miR-263a mutants have increased bacterial load and expression of antimicrobial peptides...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011319/effect-of-vacuolar-atpase-subunit-h-vmah-on-cellular-ph-asexual-cycle-stress-tolerance-and-virulence-in-beauveria-bassiana
#13
Jing Zhu, Xiao-Guan Zhu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a conserved multi-subunit protein complex that mediates intracellular acidification in fungi. Here we show functional diversity of V-ATPase subunit H (BbVmaH) in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen. Deletion of BbvmaH resulted in elevated vacuolar pH, increased Ca(2+) level in cytosol but not in vacuoles, accelerated culture acidification and reduced accumulation of extracellular ammonia. Aerial conidiation and submerged blastospore production were largely delayed and reduced in the deletion mutant, respectively, accompanied with a significant delay in conidial germination, alterations of conidia and blastospores in morphology, size and/or density, and severe growth defects in minimal media with different carbon and nitrogen sources...
December 21, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004282/a-subclass-of-hsp70s-regulate-development-and-abiotic-stress-responses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Linna Leng, Qianqian Liang, Jianjun Jiang, Chi Zhang, Yuhan Hao, Xuelu Wang, Wei Su
Members of the HSP70 family function as molecular chaperones to maintain cellular homeostasis and help plants cope with environmental stimuli. However, due to functional redundancy and lack of effective chemical inhibitors, our knowledge of functions of individual HSP70s has remained limited. Here, we confirmed a subclass of HSP70s, including HSP70-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5, localized to the cytosol and nucleus in Arabidopsis thaliana. Histochemical analyses of promoter:GUS reporter lines showed that HSP70-1, -2, -3, and -4 genes were widely expressed, but HSP70-5 was not...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979971/osmotic-stress-induced-phosphorylation-by-nlk-at-ser128-activates-yap
#15
Audrey W Hong, Zhipeng Meng, Hai-Xin Yuan, Steven W Plouffe, Sungho Moon, Wantae Kim, Eek-Hoon Jho, Kun-Liang Guan
YAP is the major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, which controls cell growth, tissue homeostasis, and organ size. Aberrant YAP activation, resulting from dysregulation of the Hippo pathway, is frequently observed in human cancers. YAP is a transcription co-activator, and the key mechanism of YAP regulation is its nuclear and cytoplasmic translocation. The Hippo pathway component, LATS, inhibits YAP by phosphorylating YAP at Ser127, leading to 14-3-3 binding and cytoplasmic retention of YAP Here, we report that osmotic stress stimulates transient YAP nuclear localization and increases YAP activity even when YAP Ser127 is phosphorylated...
January 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960161/cannabinoid-2-receptor-agonist-improves-systemic-sensitivity-to-insulin-in-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#16
Xiuyuan Zhang, Shan Gao, Jinfeng Niu, Pan Li, Juan Deng, Shixin Xu, Zhihong Wang, Weiwei Wang, Deling Kong, Chen Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The endocannabinoid signalling (ECS) system has been known to regulate glucose homeostasis. Previous studies have suggested that the cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor may play a regulatory role on insulin secretion, immune modulation and insulin resistance. Given that diabetes and insulin resistance are attributable to elevated inflammatory tone, we investigated the role of CB2 receptor on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mice...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932866/effect-of-peritoneal-dialysis-fluid-containing-osmo-metabolic-agents-on-human-endothelial-cells
#17
Mario Bonomini, Sara Di Silvestre, Pamela Di Tomo, Natalia Di Pietro, Domitilla Mandatori, Lorenzo Di Liberato, Vittorio Sirolli, Francesco Chiarelli, Cesare Indiveri, Assunta Pandolfi, Arduino Arduini
BACKGROUND: The use of glucose as the only osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions (PDSs) is believed to exert local (peritoneal) and systemic detrimental actions, particularly in diabetic PD patients. To improve peritoneal biocompatibility, we have developed more biocompatible PDSs containing xylitol and carnitine along with significantly less amounts of glucose and have tested them in cultured Human Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) obtained from the umbilical cords of healthy (C) and gestational diabetic (GD) mothers...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917349/effect-of-acute-salinity-stress-on-ion-homeostasis-na-k-atpase-and-histological-structure-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#18
Chenfan Geng, Yi Tian, Yanpeng Shang, Liqiang Wang, Yanan Jiang, Yaqing Chang
BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental condition such as salinity and studies are urgently needed to assess their effects to guide aquaculture efforts. The effects of acute salinity stress on coelomic fluid osmotic pressure, ion concentrations, the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in respiratory trees and the histological variations were measured to evaluate the salinity tolerance of sea cucumbers. RESULTS: Significant correlations in osmotic pressure were observed between coelomic fluid and ambient environmental salinity...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903630/genetic-causes-of-phenotypic-adaptation-to-the-second-fermentation-of-sparkling-wines-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Maria Martí-Raga, Emilien Peltier, Albert Mas, Gemma Beltran, Philippe Marullo
Hybridization is known to improve complex traits due to heterosis and phenotypic robustness. However, these phenomena have been rarely explained at the molecular level. Here, the genetic determinism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation performance was investigated using a QTL-mapping approach on an F1-progeny population. Three main QTLs were detected, with positive alleles coming from both parental strains. The heterosis effect found in the hybrid was partially explained by three loci showing pseudo-overdominance and dominance effect...
November 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899930/ability-to-remove-na-and-retain-k-correlates-with-salt-tolerance-in-two-maize-inbred-lines-seedlings
#20
Yong Gao, Yi Lu, Meiqin Wu, Enxing Liang, Yan Li, Dongping Zhang, Zhitong Yin, Xiaoyun Ren, Yi Dai, Dexiang Deng, Jianmin Chen
Maize is moderately sensitive to salt stress; therefore, soil salinity is a serious threat to its production worldwide. Here, excellent salt-tolerant maize inbred line TL1317 and extremely salt-sensitive maize inbred line SL1303 were screened to understand the maize response to salt stress and its tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, membrane stability index, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, maximum photochemical efficiency, photochemical efficiency, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, and proline and water soluble sugar content analyses were used to identify that the physiological effects of osmotic stress of salt stress were obvious and manifested at about 3 days after salt stress in maize...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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