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Osmotic homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028112/the-role-of-declining-adaptive-homeostasis-in-ageing
#1
Laura C D Pomatto, Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive homeostasis is, 'the transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range for any given physiological parameter in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signalling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events (Davies, 2016a)." Adaptive homeostasis enables biological systems to make continuous short-term adjustments for optimal functioning despite ever-changing internal and external environments. Initiation of adaptation in response to an appropriate signal allows organisms to successfully cope with much greater, normally toxic, stresses...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994331/evaluating-the-involvement-of-cerebral-microvascular-endothelial-na-k-atpase-and-na-k-2cl-co-transporter-in-electrolyte-fluxes-in-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-model-of-dehydration
#2
Kasper Lykke, Mette Assentoft, Sofie Hørlyck, Hans Cc Helms, Anca Stoica, Trine L Toft-Bertelsen, Katerina Tritsaris, Frederik Vilhardt, Birger Brodin, Nanna MacAulay
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in brain water and salt homeostasis. Blood osmolarity increases during dehydration and water is osmotically extracted from the brain. The loss of water is less than expected from pure osmotic forces, due to brain electrolyte accumulation. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms are unresolved, the current model suggests the luminally expressed Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) as a key component, while the role of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase remains uninvestigated...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985426/physiological-and-transcriptional-responses-of-catalpa-bungei-to-drought-stress-under-sufficient-and-deficient-nitrogen-conditions
#3
Huili Shi, Wenjun Ma, Junyu Song, Mei Lu, Siddiq Ur Rahman, Thi Tuyet Xuan Bui, Dinh Duy Vu, Huifang Zheng, Junhui Wang, Yi Zhang, Torgny Näsholm
Many semi-arid ecosystems are simultaneously limited by soil water and nitrogen (N). We conducted a greenhouse experiment to address how N availability impacts drought-resistant traits of Catalpa bungei C. A. Mey at the physiological and molecular level. A factorial design was used, consisting of sufficient-N and deficient-N combined with moderate drought and well-watered conditions. Seedling biomass and major root parameters were significantly suppressed by drought under the deficient-N condition, whereas N application mitigated the inhibiting effects of drought on root growth, particularly that of fine roots with a diameter <0...
July 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983110/comparison-of-phosphorylation-and-assembly-of-photosystem-complexes-and-redox-homeostasis-in-two-wheat-cultivars-with-different-drought-resistance
#4
Yang-Er Chen, Jun-Mei Cui, Yan-Qiu Su, Chao-Ming Zhang, Jie Ma, Zhong-Wei Zhang, Ming Yuan, Wen-Juan Liu, Huai-Yu Zhang, Shu Yuan
Reversible phosphorylation of proteins and the assembly of thylakoid complexes are the important protective mechanism against environmental stresses in plants. This research was aimed to investigate the different responses of the antioxidant defense system and photosystem II (PSII) to osmotic stress between drought-resistant and drought-susceptible wheat cultivars. Results showed that the decrease in PSII photochemistry and six enzyme activities was observed in drought-susceptible wheat compared with drought-resistant wheat under osmotic stress...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970255/dietary-methionine-restriction-modulates-renal-response-and-attenuates-kidney-injury-in-mice
#5
Diana Cooke, Amadou Ouattara, Gene P Ables
Methionine restriction (MR) extends the lifespan across several species, such as rodents, fruit flies, roundworms, and yeast. MR studies have been conducted on various rodent organs, such as liver, adipose tissue, heart, bones, and skeletal muscle, to elucidate its benefits to the healthspan; however, studies of the direct effect of MR on kidneys are lacking. To investigate the renal effects of MR, we used young and aged unilateral nephrectomized and 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) mice. Our studies indicated that MR mice experienced polydipsia and polyuria compared with control-fed counterparts...
September 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935723/draft-genome-sequence-of-natronolimnobius-baerhuensis-cgmcc-1-3597-t-an-aerobic-haloalkaliphilic-archaeon-isolated-from-a-soda-lake
#6
Xiaomeng Guo, Ziya Liao, Yanchun Yan, Mark Holtzapple, Qingping Hu, Baisuo Zhao
The haloalkaliphilic archaeon Natronolimnobius baerhuensis was isolated from a soda lake in Inner Mongolia (China), growing optimally at about 20% NaCl and pH 9.0. The draft genome consists of approximately 3.91 Mb and contains 3,810 predicted genes. Some genes that regulate intracellular osmotic stress and pH homeostasis were identified, providing insight into specific adaptations to this double-extreme environment.
September 21, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883132/draft-genome-sequence-of-natranaerobius-trueperi-dsm-18760-t-an-anaerobic-halophilic-alkaliphilic-thermotolerant-bacterium-isolated-from-a-soda-lake
#7
Xiaomeng Guo, Ziya Liao, Mark Holtzapple, Qingping Hu, Baisuo Zhao
The anaerobic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, thermotolerant bacterium Natranaerobius trueperi was isolated from a soda lake in Wadi An Natrun, Egypt. It grows optimally at 3.7 M Na(+), pH 9.5, and 43°C. The draft genome consists of 2.63 Mb and is composed of 2,681 predicted genes. Genomic analysis showed that various genes are potentially involved in the adaptation mechanisms for osmotic stress, pH homeostasis, and high temperatures.
September 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878796/autophagy-is-rapidly-induced-by-salt-stress-and-is-required-for-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#8
Liming Luo, Pingping Zhang, Ruihai Zhu, Jing Fu, Jing Su, Jing Zheng, Ziyue Wang, Dan Wang, Qingqiu Gong
Salinity stress challenges agriculture and food security globally. Upon salt stress, plant growth slows down, nutrients are recycled, osmolytes are produced, and reallocation of Na(+) takes place. Since autophagy is a high-throughput degradation pathway that contributes to nutrient remobilization in plants, we explored the involvement of autophagic flux in salt stress response of Arabidopsis with various approaches. Confocal microscopy of GFP-ATG8a in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that autophagosome formation is induced shortly after salt treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845508/impact-of-renal-denervation-on-tissue-na-content-in-treatment-resistant-hypertension
#9
Christian Ott, Christoph Kopp, Anke Dahlmann, Axel Schmid, Peter Linz, Alexander Cavallaro, Matthias Hammon, Tilmann Ditting, Roland Veelken, Michael Uder, Jens Titze, Roland E Schmieder
OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation (RDN) has been introduced for reducing blood pressure (BP) in treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). The precise mechanism how RDN exerts its BP-lowering effects are not yet fully understood. It is widely accepted that sodium (Na(+)) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disease. However, there is increasing evidence of osmotically inactive Na(+) storage. We investigated the impact of RDN on Na(+) homeostasis using estimation of salt intake, and measurement of tissue Na(+) content...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833692/central-angiotensin-1-7-increases-osmotic-thirst
#10
Raoni Conceição Dos-Santos, Lívia da Rocha Natalino Monteiro, Bruno Paes-Leme, Danilo Lustrino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, André Souza Mecawi, Luís Carlos Reis
INTRODUCTION: Angiotensin 1-7 (ANG 1-7) is generated by type 2 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE 2) and binds to MAS receptor. Although it is well known that angiotensin 1-7 functionally antagonizes the effects of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in several situations, the role of ANG 1-7 in hydromineral homeostasis is not clear. This study aimed to assess the role of ANG 1-7 on neuroendocrine responses to hyperosmolality in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into the following three groups: control, 24 hours of water deprivation (WD) and 24 hours of salt loading (SL, 1...
August 22, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828605/taurine-homeostasis-and-volume-control
#11
Herminia Pasantes-Morales
Taurine content is high (mM) in mammalian brain. By its major role as an osmolyte, taurine contributes to the cell volume control, which is particularly critical in the brain. Taurine participates in osmotic adjustments required to maintain the organization and size of intracellular compartments. It counteracts volume fluctuations in unbalanced transmembrane fluxes of ions and neurotransmitters, preserving the functional synaptic contacts. Taurine has a key role in the long-term adaptation to chronic hyponatremia as well as in other pathologies leading to brain edema...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818757/expression-of-a-na-h-antiporter-rtnhx1-from-a-recretohalophyte-reaumuria-trigyna-improved-salt-tolerance-of-transgenic-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Ningning Li, Xue Wang, Binjie Ma, Chao Du, Linlin Zheng, Yingchun Wang
Reaumuria trigyna is an endangered recretohalophyte and a small xeric shrub that is endemic to the eastern Alxa and western Ordos areas of Inner Mongolia, China. Using transcriptome data, we identified a 1662-bp open reading frame encoding a 553-amino-acid protein corresponding to a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (RtNHX1) from R. trigyna. RtNHX1 was rapidly up-regulated by NaCl and exogenous abscisic acid treatment and had different tissue-specific expression patterns before and after salt-stress treatment. Overexpression of RtNHX1 enhanced seed germination, biomass accumulation, chlorophyll content, and root elongation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants under salt stress and rescued the salt-sensitive deficiencies of the nhx1 mutant...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816060/the-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-potential-of-mn-co-4-s2cnme-ch2co2h-a-water-soluble-co-releasing-molecule-corm-401-intracellular-accumulation-transcriptomic-and-statistical-analyses-and-membrane-polarization
#13
Lauren K Wareham, Samantha McLean, Ronald Begg, Namrata Rana, Salar Ali, John J Kendall, Guido Sanguinetti, Brian E Mann, Robert K Poole
AIMS: Carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORMs) are candidates for animal and antimicrobial therapeutics. We aimed to probe the antimicrobial potential of a novel manganese CORM. RESULTS: [Mn(CO)4S2CNMe(CH2CO2H)], CORM-401, inhibits growth of Escherichia coli and several antibiotic-resistant clinical pathogens. CORM-401 releases CO that binds oxidases in vivo, but is an ineffective respiratory inhibitor. Extensive CORM accumulation (assayed as intracellular manganese) accompanies antimicrobial activity...
September 28, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807601/ubx-domain-containing-proteins-are-involved-in-lipid-homeostasis-and-stress-responses-in-pichia-pastoris
#14
Meng Zhang, Qilin Yu, Zhe Liu, Chen Liang, Biao Zhang, Mingchun Li
Ubiquitin regulatory X (UBX) domain-containing proteins constitute a family of proteins and are substrate adaptors of AAA ATPase Cdc48. UBX proteins can bind to the N-terminal region of Cdc48 to perform endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD). In this study, we identified two UBX domain-containing proteins, Ubx1 and Ubx2, in Pichia pastoris and found that the two proteins could recover the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ubx2Δ. Our results revealed that Ubx1 and Ubx2 play critical roles in synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by affecting Spt23...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802667/different-approaches-to-modeling-analysis-of-mitochondrial-swelling
#15
REVIEW
Sabzali Javadov, Xavier Chapa-Dubocq, Vladimir Makarov
Mitochondria are critical players involved in both cell life and death through multiple pathways. Structural integrity, metabolism and function of mitochondria are regulated by matrix volume due to physiological changes of ion homeostasis in cellular cytoplasm and mitochondria. Ca(2+) and K(+) presumably play a critical role in physiological and pathological swelling of mitochondria when increased uptake (influx)/decreased release (efflux) of these ions enhances osmotic pressure accompanied by high water accumulation in the matrix...
August 10, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765275/proline-accumulation-is-regulated-by-transcription-factors-associated-with-phosphate-starvation
#16
Dávid Aleksza, Gábor V Horváth, Györgyi Sándor, László Szabados
Pro accumulation in plants is a well-documented physiological response to osmotic stress caused by drought or salinity. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the stress and ABA-induced Δ1-PYRROLINE-5-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHETASE1 (P5CS1) gene was previously shown to control Pro biosynthesis in such adverse conditions. To identify regulatory factors that control the transcription of P5CS1, Y1H screens were performed with a genomic fragment of P5CS1, containing 1.2-kB promoter and 0.8-kb transcribed regions. The myeloblastosis (MYB)-type transcription factors PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1 (PHR1) and PHR1-LIKE1 (PHL1) were identified to bind to P5CS1 regulatory sequences in the first intron, which carries a conserved PHR1-binding site (P1BS) motif...
September 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760831/a-mosquito-entomoglyceroporin-aedes-aegypti-aqp5-participates-in-water-transport-across-the-malpighian-tubules-of-larvae
#17
Lidiya Misyura, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Andrew Donini
The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for arboviral diseases such as Zika fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The larvae reside in hypo-osmotic freshwater habitats, where they face dilution of their body fluids from osmotic influx of water. The Malpighian tubules help maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis by removing excess water from the hemolymph, but the transcellular pathway for this movement remains unresolved. Aquaporins are transmembrane channels thought to permit transcellular transport of water from the hemolymph into the Malpighian tubule lumen...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754433/a-novel-double-intra-carotid-cannulation-technique-to-study-the-effect-of-central-nutrient-sensing-on-glucose-metabolism-in-the-rat
#18
M Rijnsburger, L Eggels, J Castel, C Cruciani-Guglielmacci, M T Ackermans, S Luquet, S E la Fleur
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamus plays a key role in central nutrient sensing and glucose homeostasis. Due to its position next to the third ventricle, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections or osmotic minipumps are widely applied techniques in studying effects of hormones and other molecules on the hypothalamus and glucose metabolism. NEW METHODS: The intracarotid catheter technique in which a catheter is placed in the carotid artery, pointing towards the brain, provides a physiological route to centrally infuse blood-borne molecules in an undisturbed animal...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751902/overexpression-of-sbsi-1-a-nuclear-protein-from-salicornia-brachiata-confers-drought-and-salt-stress-tolerance-and-maintains-photosynthetic-efficiency-in-transgenic-tobacco
#19
Jyoti Kumari, Pushpika Udawat, Ashish K Dubey, Md Intesaful Haque, Mangal S Rathore, Bhavanath Jha
A novel Salicornia brachiata Salt Inducible (SbSI-1) gene was isolated and overexpressed in tobacco for in planta functional validation subjected to drought and salt stress. SbSI-1 is a nuclear protein. The transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene exhibited better seed germination, growth performances, pigment contents, cell viability, starch accumulation, and tolerance index under drought and salt stress. Overexpression of SbSI-1 gene alleviated the build-up of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages thus improved the physiological health of transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744295/antarctic-moss-multiprotein-bridging-factor-1c-overexpression-in-arabidopsis-resulted-in-enhanced-tolerance-to-salt-stress
#20
Hemasundar Alavilli, Hyoungseok Lee, Mira Park, Byeong-Ha Lee
Polytrichastrum alpinum is one of the moss species that survives extreme conditions in the Antarctic. In order to explore the functional benefits of moss genetic resources, P. alpinum multiprotein-bridging factor 1c gene (PaMBF1c) was isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaMBF1c comprises of a multiprotein-bridging factor (MBF1) domain and a helix-turn-helix (HTH) domain. PaMBF1c expression was induced by different abiotic stresses in P. alpinum, implying its roles in stress responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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