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Osmotic homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932866/effect-of-peritoneal-dialysis-fluid-containing-osmo-metabolic-agents-on-human-endothelial-cells
#1
Mario Bonomini, Sara Di Silvestre, Pamela Di Tomo, Natalia Di Pietro, Domitilla Mandatori, Lorenzo Di Liberato, Vittorio Sirolli, Francesco Chiarelli, Cesare Indiveri, Assunta Pandolfi, Arduino Arduini
BACKGROUND: The use of glucose as the only osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions (PDSs) is believed to exert local (peritoneal) and systemic detrimental actions, particularly in diabetic PD patients. To improve peritoneal biocompatibility, we have developed more biocompatible PDSs containing xylitol and carnitine along with significantly less amounts of glucose and have tested them in cultured Human Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) obtained from the umbilical cords of healthy (C) and gestational diabetic (GD) mothers...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917349/effect-of-acute-salinity-stress-on-ion-homeostasis-na-k-atpase-and-histological-structure-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#2
Chenfan Geng, Yi Tian, Yanpeng Shang, Liqiang Wang, Yanan Jiang, Yaqing Chang
BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental condition such as salinity and studies are urgently needed to assess their effects to guide aquaculture efforts. The effects of acute salinity stress on coelomic fluid osmotic pressure, ion concentrations, the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in respiratory trees and the histological variations were measured to evaluate the salinity tolerance of sea cucumbers. RESULTS: Significant correlations in osmotic pressure were observed between coelomic fluid and ambient environmental salinity...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903630/genetic-causes-of-phenotypic-adaptation-to-the-second-fermentation-of-sparkling-wines-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Maria Martí-Raga, Emilien Peltier, Albert Mas, Gemma Beltran, Philippe Marullo
Hybridization is known to improve complex traits due to heterosis and phenotypic robustness. However, these phenomena have been rarely explained at the molecular level. Here, the genetic determinism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation performance was investigated using a QTL-mapping approach on an F1-progeny population. Three main QTLs were detected, with positive alleles coming from both parental strains. The heterosis effect found in the hybrid was partially explained by three loci showing pseudo-overdominance and dominance effect...
November 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899930/ability-to-remove-na-and-retain-k-correlates-with-salt-tolerance-in-two-maize-inbred-lines-seedlings
#4
Yong Gao, Yi Lu, Meiqin Wu, Enxing Liang, Yan Li, Dongping Zhang, Zhitong Yin, Xiaoyun Ren, Yi Dai, Dexiang Deng, Jianmin Chen
Maize is moderately sensitive to salt stress; therefore, soil salinity is a serious threat to its production worldwide. Here, excellent salt-tolerant maize inbred line TL1317 and extremely salt-sensitive maize inbred line SL1303 were screened to understand the maize response to salt stress and its tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, membrane stability index, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, maximum photochemical efficiency, photochemical efficiency, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, and proline and water soluble sugar content analyses were used to identify that the physiological effects of osmotic stress of salt stress were obvious and manifested at about 3 days after salt stress in maize...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899891/cardiac-stat3-deficiency-impairs-contractility-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-hypertension
#5
Raffaele Altara, Romain Harmancey, Sean P Didion, George W Booz, Fouad A Zouein
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protects the heart from acute ischemic stress. However, the importance of STAT3 to the heart in chronic stress, such as hypertension, is not known. To study this, we used cardiomyocyte-targeted STAT3 knockout (KO) mice and Angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion by osmotic minipumps. After 4 weeks, ANG II induced similar cardiac hypertrophy in wild type (WT) and cardiac Cre-expressing control (CTRL) mice with no impairment of cardiac function. In contrast, STAT3 KO mice exhibited reduced contractile function but similar hypertrophy to CTRL mice...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894883/incubation-relative-humidity-induces-renal-morphological-and-physiological-remodeling-in-the-embryo-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#6
Greta Bolin, Benjamin Dubansky, Warren W Burggren
The metanephric kidneys of the chicken embryo, along with the chorioallantoic membrane, process water and ions to maintain osmoregulatory homeostasis. We hypothesized that changes in relative humidity (RH) and thus osmotic conditions during embryogenesis would alter the developmental trajectory of embryonic kidney function. White leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at one of 25-30% relative humidity, 55-60% relative humidity, and 85-90% relative humidity. Embryos were sampled at days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 to examine embryo and kidney mass, glomerular characteristics, body fluid osmolalities, hematological properties, and whole embryo oxygen consumption...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890830/time-course-of-glial-changes-in-the-hyperhomocysteinemia-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#7
Tiffany L Sudduth, Erica M Weekman, Brittani R Price, Jennifer L Gooch, Abigail Woolums, Christopher M Norris, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a frequent co-morbidity with AD. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunction resulting from cerebrovascular disease. Astrocytic end-feet almost completely surround intraparenchymal blood vessels in the brain and express a variety of channels and markers indicative of their specialized functions in the maintenance of ionic and osmotic homeostasis and gliovascular signaling...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875309/rna-sequencing-reveals-a-role-of-tonebp-in-regulation-of-pro-inflammatory-genes-in-response-to-hyperosmolarity-in-healthy-nucleus-pulposus-cells-a-homeostatic-response
#8
Zariel I Johnson, Irving M Shapiro, Makarand V Risbud
Transcription factor Tonicity-Responsive Enhancer-Binding Protein (TonEBP/NFAT5) is critical for osmo-adaptation and extracellular matrix homeostasis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in their hypertonic tissue niche. Recent studies implicate TonEBP signaling in inflammatory disease and rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. However, broader functions of TonEBP in the disc remain unknown. RNA-sequencing was performed on NP cells with TonEBP knockdown under hypertonic conditions. 1140 TonEBP-dependent genes were identified and categorized using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849309/activation-of-rac1-and-rhoa-preserve-corneal-endothelial-barrier-function
#9
María C Ortega, Diana Santander-García, Beatriz Marcos-Ramiro, Susana Barroso, Susan Cox, Ignacio Jiménez-Alfaro, Jaime Millán
Purpose: The corneal endothelium is responsible for the correct hydration of the corneal stroma. Corneal endothelial cells have a low proliferative capacity, so preserving their barrier function under suboptimal conditions that cause osmotic imbalance, such as those arising from corneal pathologies, age, cryopreservation, and transplantation, is essential for maintaining corneal transparency. We have investigated the signaling induced by hyperosmotic shock that reversibly disrupts corneal endothelial barriers in human endothelial cells and in murine corneas...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826949/cellular-mechanisms-contributing-to-multiple-stress-tolerance-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-with-potential-use-in-high-temperature-ethanol-fermentation
#10
Yasin Kitichantaropas, Chuenchit Boonchird, Minetaka Sugiyama, Yoshinobu Kaneko, Satoshi Harashima, Choowong Auesukaree
High-temperature ethanol fermentation has several benefits including a reduction in cooling cost, minimizing risk of bacterial contamination, and enabling simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. To achieve the efficient ethanol fermentation at high temperature, yeast strain that tolerates to not only high temperature but also the other stresses present during fermentation, e.g., ethanol, osmotic, and oxidative stresses, is indispensable. The C3253, C3751, and C4377 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, which have been previously isolated as thermotolerant yeasts, were found to be multiple stress-tolerant...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819144/effects-of-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-on-metabolism-unanswered-questions-and-controversies
#11
Vasilios Tsimihodimos, Theodosios D Filippatos, Moses S Elisaf
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors inhibit glucose re-absorption in the proximal renal tubules. These drugs also affect many anthropometric and metabolic parameters with various mechanisms of action. Areas covered: We present the available evidence regarding these effects. SGLT2 inhibitors can decrease body weight mainly due to a reduction of total fat mass. SGLT2 inhibitors can decrease blood pressure levels and serum uric acid levels and may also reduce the degree of diabetes-related albuminuria...
November 17, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796000/plasma-stress-responses-in-juvenile-red-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-akaara-exposed-to-abrupt-salinity-decrease
#12
Jang-Won Lee, Hyung Bae Kim, Hea Ja Baek
The objective of the current study was to determine acute plasma stress responses in two size groups of juvenile Epinephelus akaara (average body weight: 8.4±2.1 and 3.3±0.6 g; 150 and 120 days after hatch, respectively) exposed to abrupt salinity drops (from 34 practical salinity unit, PSU seawater to 18, 10 PSU (experiment 1) or 26, 18, 10 PSU (experiment 2), respectively). Plasma glucose, glutamic oxalate transaminase, glutamic pyruvate transaminase, red blood cell counts, and gill histology were determined during 72 h exposure...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782176/functional-kinomics-establishes-a-critical-node-of-volume-sensitive-cation-cl-cotransporter-regulation-in-the-mammalian-brain
#13
Jinwei Zhang, Geng Gao, Gulnaz Begum, Jinhua Wang, Arjun R Khanna, Boris E Shmukler, Gerrit M Daubner, Paola de Los Heros, Paul Davies, Joby Varghese, Mohammad Iqbal H Bhuiyan, Jinjing Duan, Jin Zhang, Daniel Duran, Seth L Alper, Dandan Sun, Stephen J Elledge, Dario R Alessi, Kristopher T Kahle
Cell volume homeostasis requires the dynamically regulated transport of ions across the plasmalemma. While the ensemble of ion transport proteins involved in cell volume regulation is well established, the molecular coordinators of their activities remain poorly characterized. We utilized a functional kinomics approach including a kinome-wide siRNA-phosphoproteomic screen, a high-content kinase inhibitor screen, and a kinase trapping-Orbitrap mass spectroscopy screen to systematically identify essential kinase regulators of KCC3 Thr(991)/Thr(1048) phosphorylation - a key signaling event in cell swelling-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVD)...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777302/alkaline-response-of-a-halotolerant-alkaliphilic-halomonas-strain-and-functional-diversity-of-its-na-k-h-antiporters
#14
Bin Cheng, Yiwei Meng, Yanbing Cui, Chunfang Li, Fei Tao, Huijia Yin, Chunyu Yang, Ping Xu
Halomonas sp. Y2 is a halotolerant alkaliphilic strain from Na+-rich pulp mill wastewater with high alkalinity (pH >11.0). Transcriptome analysis of this isolate revealed this strain may use various transport systems for pH homeostasis. Especially, the genes encoding four putative Na+/H+ antiporters were differentially expressed upon acidic or alkaline conditions. Further evidence, from heterologous expression and mutant studies, suggested that Halomonas sp. Y2 employs its Na+/H+ antiporters in a labor division way to deal with saline and alkaline environments...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771448/distinct-gene-networks-drive-differential-response-to-abrupt-or-gradual-water-deficit-in-potato
#15
Alfredo Ambrosone, Giorgia Batelli, Hamed Bostan, Nunzio D'Agostino, Maria Luisa Chiusano, Gaetano Perrotta, Antonietta Leone, Stefania Grillo, Antonello Costa
Water-limiting conditions affect dramatically plant growth and development and, ultimately, yield of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.). Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the response to water deficit is of paramount interest to obtain drought tolerant potato varieties. Herein, potato 10K cDNA array slides were used to profile transcriptomic changes of two potato cell populations under abrupt (shocked cells) or gradual exposure (adapted cells) to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated water stress...
January 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760771/molecular-mechanisms-regulating-aquaporin-2-in-kidney-collecting-duct
#16
Hyun Jun Jung, Tae-Hwan Kwon
Kidney collecting duct is an important renal tubular segment for regulation of body water homeostasis and urine concentration. Water reabsorption in the collecting duct principal cells is controlled by vasopressin, a peptide hormone which induces the osmotic water transport across the collecting duct epithelia through regulation of water channel proteins aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3). In particular, vasopressin induces both intracellular translocation of AQP2-bearing vesicles to the apical plasma membrane and transcription of Aqp2 gene to increase AQP2 protein abundance...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757236/salinity-tolerances-of-two-australian-freshwater-turtles-chelodina-expansa-and-emydura-macquarii-testudinata-chelidae
#17
Deborah S Bower, David M Scheltinga, Simon Clulow, John Clulow, Craig E Franklin, Arthur Georges
Freshwater biota experience physiological challenges in regions affected by salinization, but often the effects on particular species are poorly understood. Freshwater turtles are of particular concern as they appear to have limited ability to cope with environmental conditions that are hyperosmotic to their body fluids. Here, we determined the physiological responses of two Australian freshwater chelid turtles, Emydura macquarii and Chelodina expansa, exposed to freshwater (0‰) and brackish water (15‰, representing a hyperosmotic environment)...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754061/os-15-09-does-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-axis-protect-from-aging-associated-loss-of-skeletal-muscle-function
#18
Hikari Takeshita, Masao Takeda, Koichi Yamamoto, Hiromi Rakugi
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE2), an enzyme that produces the Angiotensin 1-7(A1-7) from Angiotensin II, is considered to suppress organ damage by inhibition of the activation of renin-angiotensin system. We recently found that ACE2 deficiency in mice ameliorated insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle with reduced expression of glucose transporter 4 and myocyte enhancer factor 2, an important transcription factor to maintain homeostasis of skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated whether ACE2-A1-7 axis plays a protective role in aging-associated loss of skeletal muscle function in mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736311/spinal-cord-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-after-excitotoxic-injection-injury-model-of-syringomyelia
#19
Ashley E Mohrman, Mahmoud Farrag, He Huang, Stephan Ossowski, Stephanie Haft, Leah P Shriver, Nic D Leipzig
Syringomyelia is a condition of the spinal cord in which a syrinx, or fluid-filled cavity, forms from trauma, malformation, or general disorder. Previous work has shown that in noncanalicular syringomyelia irregular flow and pressure conditions enhance the volumetric growth of syrinxes. A better understanding of the underlying molecular pathways associated with syrinx formation will unveil targets for treatments and possibly prevention of syringomyelia in the future. In this study, we performed an established surgical induction of a syrinx using quisqualic acid and kaolin injections in rats to characterize the injury at the molecular level by RNA sequencing and metabolomics techniques at three and six weeks post-injury...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734932/combined-transcriptomics-and-chemical-genetics-reveal-molecular-mode-of-action-of-valproic-acid-an-anticancer-molecule-using-budding-yeast-model
#20
Upendarrao Golla, Deepthi Joseph, Raghuvir Singh Tomar
Valproic acid (VA) is a pharmacologically important histone deacetylase inhibitor that recently garnered attention as an anticancer agent. Since the molecular mechanisms behind the multiple effects of VA are unclear, this study was aimed to unravel the comprehensive cellular processes affected by VA and its molecular targets in vivo using budding yeast as a model organism. Interestingly, genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cells treated with VA showed differential regulation of 30% of the genome. Functional enrichment analysis of VA transcriptome evidenced alteration of various cellular processes including cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, DNA repair, ion homeostasis, metabolism, stress response, transport and ribosomal biogenesis, etc...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
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