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Osmotic homeostasys

Karen Weber, Cecilia Casali, Virginia Gaveglio, Susana Pasquaré, Emanuel Morel Gómez, Leandro Parra, Luciana Erjavec, Cecilia Perazzo, María C Fernández Tome
Hyperosmolarity is a controversial signal for renal cells. It can induce cell stress or differentiation and both require an active lipid metabolism. We showed that hyperosmolarity upregulates phospholipid (PL) de novo synthesis in renal cells. PL synthesis requires fatty acids (FA), usually stored as triglycerides (TAG). PL and TAG de novo synthesis utilize the same initial biosynthetic route: sn-glycerol 3P (G3P) → phosphatidic acid (PA) → diacylglycerol (DAG). In the present work, we evaluate how such pathway contributes to PL and TAG synthesis in renal cells subjected to hyperosmolarity...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yongqing Yang, Yan Guo
Salt stress is a major environmental factor limiting plant growth and productivity. A better understanding of the mechanisms mediating salt resistance will help researchers design ways to improve crop performance under adverse environmental conditions. Salt stress can lead to ionic stress, osmotic stress, and secondary stresses, particularly oxidative stress, in plants. Therefore, to adapt to salt stress, plants rely on signals and pathways that re-establish cellular ionic, osmotic, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Jianhua Xiang, Xiaoyun Zhou, Xianwen Zhang, Ailing Liu, Yanci Xiang, Mingli Yan, Yan Peng, Xinbo Chen
Potassium (K+ ) is one of the essential macronutrients required for plant growth and development, and the maintenance of cellular K+ homeostasis is important for plants to adapt to abiotic stresses and growth. However, the mechanism involved has not been understood clearly. In this study, we demonstrated that AtUNC-93 plays a crucial role in this process under the control of abscisic acid (ABA). AtUNC-93 was localized to the plasma membrane and mainly expressed in the vascular tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marco Agostoni, Alshaé R Logan-Jackson, Emily R Heinz, Geoffrey B Severin, Eric L Bruger, Christopher M Waters, Beronda L Montgomery
Second messengers are intracellular molecules regulated by external stimuli known as first messengers that are used for rapid organismal responses to dynamic environmental changes. Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a relatively newly discovered second messenger implicated in cell wall homeostasis in many pathogenic bacteria. C-di-AMP is synthesized from ATP by diadenylyl cyclases (DAC) and degraded by specific c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE). C-di-AMP DACs and PDEs are present in all sequenced cyanobacteria, suggesting roles for c-di-AMP in the physiology and/or development of these organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katie E Marshall, Brent J Sinclair
Internal ice formation leads to wholesale changes in ionic, osmotic and pH homeostasis, energy metabolism, and mechanical damage, across a small range of temperatures, and is thus an abiotic stressor that acts at a distinct, physiologically-relevant, threshold. Insects that experience repeated freeze-thaw cycles over winter will cross this stressor threshold many times over their lifespan. Here we examine the effect of repeatedly crossing the freezing threshold on short-term physiological parameters (metabolic reserves and cryoprotectant concentration) as well as long-term fitness-related performance (survival and egg production) in the freeze-tolerant goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis We exposed overwintering prepupae to a series of low temperatures (-10, -15, or -20 °C) with increasing numbers of freezing events (3, 6, or 10) with differing recovery periods between events (1, 5, or 10 days)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Asier Etxaniz, David González-Bullón, César Martín, Helena Ostolaza
Permeabilization of the plasma membrane represents an important threat for any cell, since it compromises its viability by disrupting cell homeostasis. Numerous pathogenic bacteria produce pore-forming toxins that break plasma membrane integrity and cause cell death by colloid-osmotic lysis. Eukaryotic cells, in turn, have developed different ways to cope with the effects of such membrane piercing. Here, we provide a short overview of the general mechanisms currently proposed for plasma membrane repair, focusing more specifically on the cellular responses to membrane permeabilization by pore-forming toxins and presenting new data on the effects and cellular responses to the permeabilization by an RTX (repeats in toxin) toxin, the adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin secreted by the whooping cough bacterium Bordetella pertussis , which we have studied in the laboratory...
June 9, 2018: Toxins
Zachary N Wilson, Amber L Scott, Robin D Dowell, Greg Odorizzi
Lysosomes are dynamic organelles with critical roles in cellular physiology. The lysosomal signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2 ) is a key regulator that has been implicated to control lysosome ion homeostasis, but the scope of ion transporters targeted by PI(3,5)P2 and the purpose of this regulation is not well understood. Through an unbiased screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified loss-of-function mutations in the vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and in Vnx1, a vacuolar monovalent cation/proton antiporter, as suppressor mutations that relieve the growth defects and osmotic swelling of vacuoles (lysosomes) in yeast lacking PI(3,5)P2 ...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Yu V Natochin, D V Golosova, E I Shakhmatova
After a water load in rats hyperhydration occurs and the secretion of oxytocin increases by the neurohypophysis. This increases the water diuresis, the water is quickly excreted by the kidney, and the recovery of osmotic homeostasis is accelerated.
March 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Natalie A Hager, Collin J Krasowski, Timothy D Mackie, Alexander R Kolb, Patrick G Needham, Andrew A Augustine, Alison Dempsey, Christopher Szent-Gyorgyi, Marcel P Bruchez, Daniel J Bain, Adam V Kwiatkowski, Allyson F O'Donnell, Jeffrey L Brodsky
Protein composition at the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, with rapid protein internalization and selective targeting to the cell surface occurring in response to environmental changes. For example, ion channels are dynamically relocalized to or from the plasma membrane in response to physiological alterations, allowing cells and organisms to maintain osmotic and salt homeostasis. To identify additional factors that regulate the selective trafficking of a specific ion channel, we used a yeast model for a mammalian potassium channel, the K+ inwardly rectifying channel Kir2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Talita L L Carmo, Vinícius C Azevedo, Priscila R Siqueira, Tiago D Galvão, Fabrício A Santos, Cláudia B R Martinez, Carlos R Appoloni, Marisa N Fernandes
Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NP) have been intensely applied in numerous industrial products and may be a risk for aquatic systems as they are not completely removed from domestic and industrial wastes after water treatment. This study evaluated the osmo- and ionic balance, Na+ /K+ -ATPase, H+ -ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activities and the mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) in the gills and kidney of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus after 2 (acute) and 14 (subchronic) days of exposure to nominal 0, 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L-1 TiO2 -NP...
May 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
N Gurdo, G F Novelli Poisson, Á B Juárez, M C Ríos de Molina, M A Galvagno
AIMS: To investigate multiple tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained through a laboratory strategy of adaptive evolution in acetic acid, its relation with enzymatic ROS detoxification and bioethanol 2G production. METHODS AND RESULTS: After adaptive evolution in acetic acid, a clone (Y8A) was selected for its tolerance to high acetic acid concentrations (13 g l-1 ) in batch cultures. Y8A was resistant to multiple stresses: osmotic, thermic, oxidative, saline, ethanol, organic acid, phenolic compounds and slow freeze-thawing cycles...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
L Jagmasevic-Mezesova, P Svitok, B Kalocayova, M Zeman, N Vrbjar
In rodents, increased angiotensin 2 (Ang2) during pregnancy increases blood pressure and decreases salt sensitivity in the offspring. To explore the underlying mechanisms, this study evaluated the effects of prenatal Ang2 exposure on the activity of renal Na,K-ATPase, which is one of the main systems that maintains sodium ion homeostasis in an organism. Moreover, this study also investigated the impact of a higher-salt diet on the enzyme activity in the offspring in a sex-dependent manner. Pregnant Wistar rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that continuously released Ang2 (2 μg/kg/h) for 2 weeks...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Tommaso Michele Moles, Lorenzo Mariotti, Leandro Federico De Pedro, Lorenzo Guglielminetti, Piero Picciarelli, Andrea Scartazza
Water deficit triggers a dynamic and integrated cross-talk between leaves and roots. Tolerant plants have developed several physiological and molecular mechanisms to establish new cell metabolism homeostasis, avoiding and/or escaping from permanent impairments triggered by drought. Two tomato genotypes (a Southern Italy landrace called Ciettaicale and the well-known commercial cultivar Moneymaker) were investigated at vegetative stage to assess leaf and root metabolic strategies under 20 days of water deficit...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Florence Yellin, Yizeng Li, Varun K A Sreenivasan, Brenda Farrell, Manu B Johny, David Yue, Sean X Sun
Cell volume regulation is fundamentally important in phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and embryogenesis. How the cell size is set, maintained, and changed over a cell's lifetime is not well understood. In this work we focus on how the volume of nonexcitable tissue cells is coupled to the cell membrane electrical potential and the concentrations of membrane-permeable ions in the cell environment. Specifically, we demonstrate that a sudden cell depolarization using the whole-cell patch clamp results in a 50% increase in cell volume, whereas hyperpolarization results in a slight volume decrease...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Rogier Min, Marjo S van der Knaap
Electrical activity of neurons in the brain, caused by the movement of ions between intracellular and extracellular compartments, is the basis of all our thoughts and actions. Maintaining the correct ionic concentration gradients is therefore crucial for brain functioning. Ion fluxes are accompanied by the displacement of osmotically obliged water. Since even minor brain swelling leads to severe brain damage and even death, brain ion and water movement has to be tightly regulated. Glial cells, in particular astrocytes, play a key role in ion and water homeostasis...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
Vijayata Singh, Ajit Pal Singh, Jyoti Bhadoria, Jitender Giri, Jogendra Singh, Vineeth T V, P C Sharma
The understanding of physio-biochemical and molecular attributes along with morphological traits contributing to the salinity tolerance is important for developing salt-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. To explore these facts, rice genotypes CSR10 and MI48 with contrasting salt tolerance were characterized under salt stress (control, 75 and 150 mM NaCl) conditions. CSR10 expressed higher rate of physio-biochemical parameters, maintained lower Na/K ratio in shoots, and restricted Na translocation from roots to shoots than MI48...
May 8, 2018: Protoplasma
K R Konrad, T Maierhofer, R Hedrich
Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) serve to transmit information in eukaryotic cells. The involvement of this second messenger in plant cell growth as well as osmotic- and water relations is well established. After almost 40 years of intense research on the coding and decoding of plant Ca2+ signals, numerous proteins involved in Ca2+ action have been identified. However, we are still far from understanding the complexity of Ca2+ networks. New in vivo Ca2+ imaging techniques combined with molecular genetics allow visualisation of spatio-temporal aspects of Ca2+ signalling...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rasmus Ern, Andrew J Esbaugh
Understanding the physiological responses of fishes to salinity changes and aquatic hypoxia is essential for the conservation of marine species. Salinity changes affect the osmotic gradient across the gill epithelium, while hypoxia increases gill ventilation and the flow of water over the gills. Both processes affect the diffusive movement of ions and water across the gill epithelium, and the rate of active ion transport required for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Consequently, salinity and hypoxia may affect the energetic cost of osmoregulation, and consequently the energy available for other physiological functions such as migration, growth, and reproduction...
April 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Nicolás Cifuentes-Esquivel, Jonathan Celiz-Balboa, Carlos Henriquez-Valencia, Irina Mitina, Paulina Arraño-Salinas, Adrián A Moreno, Claudio Meneses, Francisca Blanco-Herrera, Ariel Orellana
Low temperatures, salinity, and drought cause significant crop losses. These conditions involve osmotic stress, triggering transcriptional remodeling, and consequently, the restitution of cellular homeostasis and growth recovery. Protein transcription factors regulate target genes, thereby mediating plant responses to stress. bZIP17 is a transcription factor involved in cellular responses to salinity and the unfolded protein response. Because salinity can also produce osmotic stress, the role of bZIP17 in response to osmotic stress was assessed...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
P C Malia, Johannes Numrich, Taki Nishimura, Ayelén González Montoro, Christopher J Stefan, Christian Ungermann
Lysosomes have an important role in cellular protein and organelle quality control, metabolism, and signaling. On the surface of lysosomes, the PIKfyve/Fab1 complex generates phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PI-3,5-P2 , which is critical for lysosomal membrane homeostasis during acute osmotic stress and for lysosomal signaling. Here, we identify the inverted BAR protein Ivy1 as an inhibitor of the Fab1 complex with a direct influence on PI-3,5-P2 levels and vacuole homeostasis. Ivy1 requires Ypt7 binding for its function, binds PI-3,5-P2 , and interacts with the Fab1 kinase...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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