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Osmotic homeostasys

Ashley E Mohrman, Mahmoud Farrag, He Huang, Stephan Ossowski, Stephanie Haft, Leah P Shriver, Nic D Leipzig
Syringomyelia is a condition of the spinal cord in which a syrinx, or fluid-filled cavity, forms from trauma, malformation, or general disorder. Previous work has shown that in noncanalicular syringomyelia irregular flow and pressure conditions enhance the volumetric growth of syrinxes. A better understanding of the underlying molecular pathways associated with syrinx formation will unveil targets for treatments and possibly prevention of syringomyelia in the future. In this study, we performed an established surgical induction of a syrinx using quisqualic acid and kaolin injections in rats to characterize the injury at the molecular level by RNA sequencing and metabolomics techniques at three and six weeks post-injury...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Upendarrao Golla, Deepthi Joseph, Raghuvir Singh Tomar
Valproic acid (VA) is a pharmacologically important histone deacetylase inhibitor that recently garnered attention as an anticancer agent. Since the molecular mechanisms behind the multiple effects of VA are unclear, this study was aimed to unravel the comprehensive cellular processes affected by VA and its molecular targets in vivo using budding yeast as a model organism. Interestingly, genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cells treated with VA showed differential regulation of 30% of the genome. Functional enrichment analysis of VA transcriptome evidenced alteration of various cellular processes including cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, DNA repair, ion homeostasis, metabolism, stress response, transport and ribosomal biogenesis, etc...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rosemary O'Connell, Yoichiro Mori
Cortical spreading depression (SD) is a spreading disruption in brain ionic homeostasis during which neurons experience complete and prolonged depolarizations. SD is generally believed to be the physiological substrate of migraine aura and is associated with many other brain pathologies. Here, we perform simulations with a model of SD treating brain tissue as a triphasic continuum of neurons, glia and the extracellular space. A thermodynamically consistent incorporation of the major biophysical effects, including ionic electrodiffusion and osmotic water flow, allows for the computation of important physiological variables including the extracellular voltage (DC) shift...
October 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Anisur Rahman, Md Shahadat Hossain, Jubayer-Al Mahmud, Kamrun Nahar, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Masayuki Fujita
Hydroponically grown 12-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 150 mM NaCl alone and combined with 0.5 mM MnSO4. Salt stress resulted in disruption of ion homeostasis by Na(+) influx and K(+) efflux. Higher accumulation of Na(+) and water imbalance under salinity caused osmotic stress, chlorosis, and growth inhibition. Salt-induced ionic toxicity and osmotic stress consequently resulted in oxidative stress by disrupting the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG), respectively...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Anika Sahr, Carmen Wolke, Jonas Maczewsky, Peter Krippeit-Drews, Anja Tetzner, Gisela Drews, Simone Venz, Sarah Gürtler, Jens van den Brandt, Sabine Berg, Paula Döring, Frank Dombrowski, Thomas Walther, Uwe Lendeckel
The ACE2/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) often opposes the detrimental effects of the ACE/AngII/AT1 axis and has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, while underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of Ang-(1-7) and its receptor Mas on β-cell function. Isolated islets from Mas-deficient and wild-type mice were stimulated with Ang-(1-7) or its antagonists and effects on insulin secretion determined. Islets' cytoplasmic calcium and cAMP concentrations, mRNA amounts of Ins1, Ins2, Pdx1, and Mafa, and effects of inhibitors of cAMP downstream signaling were determined...
October 7, 2016: Endocrinology
Andrea Egger, Marius E Kraenzlin, Christian Meier
Anti-diabetic drugs are widely used and are essential for adequate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, marketed anti-diabetic drugs include incretin-based therapies (GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. In contrast to well-known detrimental effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism and fracture risk, clinical data on the safety of incretin-based therapies is limited. Based on meta-analyses of trials investigating the glycemic-lowering effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4 inhibitors, it seems that incretin-based therapies are not associated with an increase in fracture risk...
October 5, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Mathilde Royer, David Cohen, Nathalie Aubry, Vera Vendramin, Simone Scalabrin, Federica Cattonaro, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Irène Hummel
Molecular regulation of growth must include spatial and temporal coupling of cell production and cell expansion. The underlying mechanisms, especially under environmental challenge, remain obscure. Spatial patterns of cell processes make the root apex well suited to deciphering stress signaling pathways, and to investigating both processes. Kinematics and RNA-sequencing were used to analyze the immediate growth response of hydroponically grown Populus nigra cuttings submitted to osmotic stress. About 7400 genes and unannotated transcriptionally active regions were differentially expressed between the division and elongation zones...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Eva Degerman, Rene In 't Zandt, Annki Pålbrink, Lena Eliasson, Per Cayé-Thomasen, Måns Magnusson
CONCLUSION: The data indicate important roles for phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3, 4, 5, and related cAMP and cGMP pools in the regulation of inner ear fluid homeostasis. Thus, dysfunction of these enzymes might contribute to pathologies of the inner ear. OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying endolymphatic hydrops, a hallmark of inner ear dysfunction, are not known in detail; however, altered balance in cAMP and cGMP signaling systems appears to be involved. Key components of these systems are PDEs, enzymes that modulate the amplitude, duration, termination, and specificity of cAMP and cGMP signaling...
August 15, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Xinchi Shi, Yanan Zou, Yong Chen, Cheng Zheng, Hanjie Ying
Redox homeostasis is fundamental to the maintenance of metabolism. Redox imbalance can cause oxidative stress, which affects metabolism and growth. Water-forming NADH oxidase regulates the redox balance by oxidizing cytosolic NADH to NAD(+), which relieves cytosolic NADH accumulation through rapid glucose consumption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thus decreasing the production of the by product glycerol in industrial ethanol production. Here, we studied the effects of overexpression of a water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactococcus lactis on the stress response of S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hikari Takeshita, Masao Takeda, Koichi Yamamoto, Hiromi Rakugi
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE2), an enzyme that produces the Angiotensin 1-7(A1-7) from Angiotensin II, is considered to suppress organ damage by inhibition of the activation of renin-angiotensin system. We recently found that ACE2 deficiency in mice ameliorated insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle with reduced expression of glucose transporter 4 and myocyte enhancer factor 2, an important transcription factor to maintain homeostasis of skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated whether ACE2-A1-7 axis plays a protective role in aging-associated loss of skeletal muscle function in mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Andrew Donini, Heath A MacMillan
Chill susceptible insects like Drosophila lose the ability to regulate water and ion homeostasis at low temperatures. This loss of hemolymph ion and water balance drives a hyperkalemic state that depolarizes cells, causing cellular injury and death. The ability to maintain ion homeostasis at low temperatures and/or recover ion homeostasis upon rewarming is closely related to insect cold tolerance. We thus hypothesized that changes to organismal ion balance, which can be achieved in Drosophila through dietary salt loading, could alter whole animal cold tolerance phenotypes...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Dandan Zang, Hongyan Li, Hongyun Xu, Wenhui Zhang, Yiming Zhang, Xinxin Shi, Yucheng Wang
Plant zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a large protein family and they are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Although Arabidopsis RING/FYVE/PHD ZFP At5g62460 (AtRZFP) is found to bind to zinc, whether it is involved in abiotic stress tolerance is still unknown. In the present study, we characterized the roles of AtRZFP in response to abiotic stresses. The expression of AtRZFP was induced significantly by salt and osmotic stress. AtRZFP positively mediates tolerance to salt and osmotic stress...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Stefano Catola, Srikanta Dani Kaidala Ganesha, Luca Calamai, Francesco Loreto, Annamaria Ranieri, Mauro Centritto
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) are compounds found mainly in marine phytoplankton and in some halophytic plants. DMS is a globally important biogenic volatile in regulating of global sulfur cycle and planetary albedo, whereas DMSP is involved in the maintenance of plant-environment homeostasis. Plants emit minute amounts of DMS compared to marine phytoplankton and there is a need for hypersensitive analytic techniques to enable its quantification in plants. Solid Phase Micro Extraction from Head Space (HS-SPME) is a simple, rapid, solvent-free and cost-effective extraction mode, which can be easily hyphenated with GC-MS for the analysis of volatile organic compounds...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qi Zhao, Jinwei Suo, Sixue Chen, Yudan Jin, Xiaolin Ma, Zepeng Yin, Yuhong Zhang, Tai Wang, Ji Luo, Wenhai Jin, Xia Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Shaojun Dai
Soil alkalization severely affects crop growth and agricultural productivity. Alkali salts impose ionic, osmotic, and high pH stresses on plants. The alkali tolerance molecular mechanism in roots from halophyte Puccinellia tenuiflora is still unclear. Here, the changes associated with Na2CO3 tolerance in P. tenuiflora roots were assessed using physiological and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses. We set up the first protein dataset in P. tenuiflora roots containing 2,671 non-redundant proteins. Our results showed that Na2CO3 slightly inhibited root growth, caused ROS accumulation, cell membrane damage, and ion imbalance, as well as reduction of transport and protein synthesis/turnover...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yu V Natochin, A S Marina, A V Kutina, E V Balbotkina, T A Karavashkina
We have found the physiological mechanism of intensification of the excessive fluid removal from the body under the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 and its analog exenatide. Under the water load in rats, exenatide significantly increased the clearance of lithium, reduced fluid reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the nephron and intensified reabsorption of sodium ions in the distal parts, which contributed to the formation of sodium-free water and faster recovery of osmotic homeostasis. Blocking this pathway with a selective antagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors slowed down the elimination of excessive water from the body...
July 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Li-Ping Wang, Su-Jing Fan, Shu-Min Li, Xiao-Jun Wang, Jun-Ling Gao, Xiu-Hong Yang
The intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa3.1) channel plays a vital role in myocardial fibrosis induced by angiotensin (Ang) II. However, as the antagonists of Ang II, the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis on KCa3.1 channel during myocardial fibrosis remains unknown. This study was designed to explore the function of KCa3.1 channel in the cardioprotective role of ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas. Wild-type (WT) mice, hACE2 transgenic mice (Tg), and ACE2 deficiency mice (ACE2(-/-)) were administrated with Ang II by osmotic mini-pumps...
September 3, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Klaus W Beyenbach
In chemistry, the ratio of all dissolved solutes to the solution's volume yields the osmotic concentration. The present Review uses this chemical perspective to examine how insects deal with challenges to extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, solute content and osmotic concentration (pressure). Solute/volume plots of the ECF (hemolymph) reveal that insects tolerate large changes in all three of these ECF variables. Challenges beyond those tolerances may be 'corrected' or 'compensated'. While a correction simply reverses the challenge, compensation accommodates the challenge with changes in the other two variables...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Tongren Yang, Sufei Yao, Lin Hao, Yuanyuan Zhao, Wenjing Lu, Kai Xiao
Wheat bHLH family gene TabHLH1 is responsive to drought and salt stresses, and it acts as one crucial regulator in mediating tolerance to aforementioned stresses largely through an ABA-associated pathway. Osmotic stresses are adverse factors for plant growth and crop productivity. In this study, we characterized TabHLH1, a gene encoding wheat bHLH-type transcription factor (TF) protein, in mediating plant adaptation to osmotic stresses. TabHLH1 protein contains a conserved basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain shared by its plant counterparts...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Aruna Sharma, Preeti Menon, Dafin F Muresanu, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, José V Lafuente, Hari Sharma
The BBB is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within the narrow limit. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the fluid microenvironment of the CNS healthy. However, following any noxious insult to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins the function of the BBB is altered to small as well as to large molecules e...
August 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Lucie Maršálová, Pavel Vítámvás, Radovan Hynek, Ilja T Prášil, Klára Kosová
Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley H. marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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