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Osmotic homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499095/trpm7-is-involved-in-volume-regulation-in-salivary-glands
#1
J M Kim, S Choi, K Park
Under hypotonic conditions, the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) is essential to maintain physiological homeostasis and functions in diverse biological systems. Intracellular Ca(2+) has been reported as an important mediator of this response, but the underlying Ca(2+) mechanism responsible for RVD is still controversial. Here we investigate the role of Ca(2+) in the RVD response using live-cell imaging, microspectrofluorimetry, and a patch-clamp technique. A typical RVD was observed in submandibular gland acinar cells after swelling in a hypotonic solution, whereas intracellular Ca(2+) chelation completely inhibited the RVD response...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495450/rho-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-rgnef-is-a-prosurvival-factor-under-stress-conditions
#2
Kevin Cheung, Cristian A Droppelmann, Adam MacLellan, Ian Cameron, Benjamin Withers, Danae Campos-Melo, Kathryn Volkening, Michael J Strong
Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF) is a 190kDa RNA binding protein (RBP) that also contains a Dbl/PH domain capable of RhoA activation. Consistent with a key role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), RGNEF forms pathological neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in degenerating spinal motor neurons. To further understand the role of RGNEF in the stress response, we first observed that the expression of RGNEF is upregulated in murine spinal motor neurons following distal sciatic nerve injury...
May 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481319/salinity-response-in-chloroplasts-insights-from-gene-characterization
#3
REVIEW
Jinwei Suo, Qi Zhao, Lisa David, Sixue Chen, Shaojun Dai
Salinity is a severe abiotic stress limiting agricultural yield and productivity. Plants have evolved various strategies to cope with salt stress. Chloroplasts are important photosynthesis organelles, which are sensitive to salinity. An understanding of molecular mechanisms in chloroplast tolerance to salinity is of great importance for genetic modification and plant breeding. Previous studies have characterized more than 53 salt-responsive genes encoding important chloroplast-localized proteins, which imply multiple vital pathways in chloroplasts in response to salt stress, such as thylakoid membrane organization, the modulation of photosystem II (PS II) activity, carbon dioxide (CO₂) assimilation, photorespiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, osmotic and ion homeostasis, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling, and gene expression regulation, as well as protein synthesis and turnover...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450879/sos1-hkt1-5-and-nhx1-synergistically-modulate-na-homeostasis-in-the-halophytic-grass-puccinellia-tenuiflora
#4
Wei-Dan Zhang, Pei Wang, Zhulatai Bao, Qing Ma, Li-Jie Duan, Ai-Ke Bao, Jin-Lin Zhang, Suo-Min Wang
Puccinellia tenuiflora is a typical salt-excluding halophytic grass with excellent salt tolerance. Plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) transporter SOS1, HKT-type protein and tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiporter NHX1 are key Na(+) transporters involved in plant salt tolerance. Based on our previous research, we had proposed a function model for these transporters in Na(+) homeostasis according to the expression of PtSOS1 and Na(+), K(+) levels in P. tenuiflora responding to salt stress. Here, we analyzed the expression patterns of PtSOS1, PtHKT1;5, and PtNHX1 in P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439282/overexpression-of-cucumber-phospholipase-d-alpha-gene-cspld%C3%AE-in-tobacco-enhanced-salinity-stress-tolerance-by-regulating-na-k-balance-and-lipid-peroxidation
#5
Tuo Ji, Shuzhen Li, Meili Huang, Qinghua Di, Xiufeng Wang, Min Wei, Qinghua Shi, Yan Li, Biao Gong, Fengjuan Yang
Plant phospholipase D (PLD), which can hydrolyze membrane phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), a secondary signaling molecule, has been proposed to function in diverse plant stress responses. In this research, we characterized the roles of the cucumber phospholipase D alpha gene (PLDα, GenBank accession number EF363796) in growth and tolerance to short- and long-term salt stress in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Fresh and dry weights of roots, PLD activity and content, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene expression, Na(+)-K(+) homeostasis, expression of genes encoding ion exchange, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and osmotic adjustment substances were investigated in wild type (WT) and CsPLDα-overexpression tobacco lines grown under short- and long-term high salt (250 mM) stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432152/exposure-to-seawater-increases-intestinal-motility-in-euryhaline-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#6
Jeroen Brijs, Grant W Hennig, Albin Gräns, Esmée Dekens, Michael Axelsson, Catharina Olsson
Upon exposure to seawater, euryhaline teleosts need to imbibe and desalinate seawater to allow for intestinal ion and water absorption, as this is essential for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Despite the potential benefits of increased mixing and transport of imbibed water for increasing the efficiency of absorptive processes, the effect of water salinity on intestinal motility in teleosts remains unexplored. By qualitatively and quantitatively describing in vivo intestinal motility of euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), this study demonstrates that in freshwater, the most common motility pattern consisted of clusters of rhythmic, posteriorly propagating contractions that lasted ∼1-2 minutes followed by a period of quiescence lasting ∼4-5 minutes...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424587/interactions-of-the-mechanosensitive-channels-with-extracellular-matrix-integrins-and-cytoskeletal-network-in-osmosensation
#7
REVIEW
Runsheng Jiao, Dan Cui, Stephani C Wang, Dongyang Li, Yu-Feng Wang
Life is maintained in a sea water-like internal environment. The homeostasis of this environment is dependent on osmosensory system translation of hydromineral information into osmotic regulatory machinery at system, tissue and cell levels. In the osmosensation, hydromineral information can be converted into cellular reactions through osmoreceptors, which changes thirst and drinking, secretion of antidiuretic vasopressin (VP), reabsorption of water and salt in the kidneys at systemic level as well as cellular metabolic activity and survival status at tissue level...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419154/salt-stress-induces-changes-in-the-proteomic-profile-of-micropropagated-sugarcane-shoots
#8
Lucas Z Passamani, Roberta R Barbosa, Ricardo S Reis, Angelo S Heringer, Patricia L Rangel, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Clícia Grativol, Carlos F M Veiga, Gonçalo A Souza-Filho, Vanildo Silveira
Salt stress is one of the most common stresses in agricultural regions worldwide. In particular, sugarcane is affected by salt stress conditions, and no sugarcane cultivar presently show high productivity accompanied by a tolerance to salt stress. Proteomic analysis allows elucidation of the important pathways involved in responses to various abiotic stresses at the biochemical and molecular levels. Thus, this study aimed to analyse the proteomic effects of salt stress in micropropagated shoots of two sugarcane cultivars (CB38-22 and RB855536) using a label-free proteomic approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414295/high-salt-intake-reprioritizes-osmolyte-and-energy-metabolism-for-body-fluid-conservation
#9
Kento Kitada, Steffen Daub, Yahua Zhang, Janet D Klein, Daisuke Nakano, Tetyana Pedchenko, Louise Lantier, Lauren M LaRocque, Adriana Marton, Patrick Neubert, Agnes Schröder, Natalia Rakova, Jonathan Jantsch, Anna E Dikalova, Sergey I Dikalov, David G Harrison, Dominik N Müller, Akira Nishiyama, Manfred Rauh, Raymond C Harris, Friedrich C Luft, David H Wassermann, Jeff M Sands, Jens Titze
Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414294/salt-and-water-not-so-simple
#10
Mark L Zeidel
It has long been viewed that the maintenance of osmotic balance in response to high salt intake is a passive process that is mediated largely by increased water consumption to balance the salt load. Two studies in this issue of the JCI challenge this notion and demonstrate that osmotic balance in response to high salt intake involves a complex regulatory process that is influenced by hormone fluctuation, metabolism, food consumption, water intake, and renal salt and water excretion. Rakova et al. report the unexpected observation that long-term high salt intake did not increase water consumption in humans but instead increased water retention...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400260/prevention-of-the-adverse-effects-of-olanzapine-on-lipid-metabolism-with-the-antiepileptic-zonisamide
#11
Aneta Stefanidis, Matthew J Watt, Michael A Cowley, Brian J Oldfield
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotic drugs, particularly olanzapine, represent a mainstay in the treatment of psychoses; however, their use is commonly associated with weight gain and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether combined administration of olanzapine and zonisamide can be used to prevent olanzapine-induced metabolic disturbances. METHODS AND RESULTS: These experiments involved female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6-8/group) that were administered olanzapine, either acutely (6 mg/kg, s...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351916/identification-of-mupp-as-a-new-peptidoglycan-recycling-factor-and-antibiotic-resistance-determinant-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Coralie Fumeaux, Thomas G Bernhardt
Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential cross-linked polymer that surrounds most bacterial cells to prevent osmotic rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane. Its synthesis relies on penicillin-binding proteins, the targets of beta-lactam antibiotics. Many Gram-negative bacteria, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are resistant to beta-lactams because of a chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase called AmpC. In P. aeruginosa, expression of the ampC gene is tightly regulated and its induction is linked to cell wall stress...
March 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346473/oral-administration-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-alleviates-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-homeostasis-by-inducing-mucosal-protective-factors
#13
Tomohiro Kawahara, Yutaka Makizaki, Yosuke Oikawa, Yoshiki Tanaka, Ayako Maeda, Masaki Shimakawa, Satoshi Komoto, Kyoko Moriguchi, Hiroshi Ohno, Koki Taniguchi
Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338762/redox-and-reactive-oxygen-species-network-in-acclimation-for-salinity-tolerance-in-sugar-beet
#14
M Sazzad Hossain, Abdelaleim Ismail ElSayed, Marten Moore, Karl-Josef Dietz
Fine-tuned and coordinated regulation of transport, metabolism and redox homeostasis allows plants to acclimate to osmotic and ionic stress caused by high salinity. Sugar beet is a highly salt tolerant crop plant and is therefore an interesting model to study sodium chloride (NaCl) acclimation in crops. Sugar beet plants were subjected to a final level of 300 mM NaCl for up to 14 d in hydroponics. Plants acclimated to NaCl stress by maintaining its growth rate and adjusting its cellular redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) network...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338609/ectopic-expression-of-aeluropus-littoralis-plasma-membrane-protein-gene-altmp1-confers-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco-by-improving-water-status-and-cation-homeostasis
#15
Walid Ben Romdhane, Rania Ben-Saad, Donaldo Meynard, Jean-Luc Verdeil, Jalel Azaza, Nabil Zouari, Lotfi Fki, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Abdullah Al-Doss, Afif Hassairi
We report here the isolation and functional analysis of AlTMP1 gene encoding a member of the PMP3 protein family. In Aeluropus littoralis, AlTMP1 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. Transgenic tobacco expressing AlTMP1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, osmotic, H₂O₂, heat and freezing stresses at the seedling stage. Under greenhouse conditions, the transgenic plants showed a higher level of tolerance to drought than to salinity. Noteworthy, AlTMP1 plants yielded two- and five-fold more seeds than non-transgenic plants (NT) under salt and drought stresses, respectively...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323942/incretin-therapies-do-not-expand-%C3%AE-cell-mass-or-alter-pancreatic-histology-in-young-male-mice
#16
Aaron R Cox, Carol J Lam, Matthew M Rankin, Jacqueline S Rios, Julia Chavez, Claire W Bonnyman, Kourtney B King, Roger A Wells, Deepti Anthony, Justin X Tu, Jenny J Kim, Changhong Li, Jake A Kushner
The impact of incretins upon pancreatic β-cell expansion remains extremely controversial. Multiple studies indicate that incretin-based therapies can increase β-cell proliferation, and incretins have been hypothesized to expand β-cell mass. However, considerable disagreement exists on whether incretins actually increase β-cell mass. Moreover, some reports indicate that incretins may cause metaplastic changes in pancreatic histology. To resolve these questions we treated a large cohort of mice with incretin-based therapies and carried out a rigorous analysis of β-cell turnover and pancreatic histology using high-throughput imaging...
March 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295473/mtorc1-senses-stresses-coupling-stress-to-proteostasis
#17
REVIEW
Kuo-Hui Su, Chengkai Dai
Beyond protein synthesis and autophagy, emerging evidence has implicated mTORC1 in regulating protein folding and proteasomal degradation as well, highlighting its prominent role in cellular proteome homeostasis or proteostasis. In addition to growth signals, mTORC1 senses and responds to a wide array of stresses, including energetic/metabolic stress, genotoxic stress, oxidative stress, osmotic stress, ER stress, proteotoxic stress, and psychological stress. Whereas growth signals unanimously stimulate mTORC1, stresses exert complex impacts on mTORC1, most of which are repressive...
March 15, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288366/oligomeric-protein-complexes-of-apolipoproteins-stabilize-the-internal-fluid-environment-of-organism-in-redfins-of-the-tribolodon-genus-pisces-cypriniformes-cyprinidae
#18
Alla M Andreeva, Marina V Serebryakova, Nina E Lamash
One of the most important functions of plasma proteins in vertebrates is their participation in osmotic homeostasis in the organism. Modern concepts about plasma proteins and their capillary filtration are based on a model of large monomeric proteins that are able to penetrate the interstitial space. At the same time, it was revealed that a considerable amount of oligomeric complexes are present in the low-molecular-weight (LM) protein fraction in the extracellular fluids of fishes. The functions of these complexes are unknown...
March 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280923/na-k-atpase-response-to-salinity-change-and-its-correlation-with-fxyd11-expression-in-anguilla-marmorata
#19
Fenfei Liang, Li Li, Guosong Zhang, Shaowu Yin, Xiaolu Wang, Peng Li, Yihe Jia, Yayuan Wang, Li Wang, Xiaojun Wang
The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is a primary electrogenic protein that promotes ion transport in teleosts. FXYD11 is a putative regulatory subunit of the NKA pump. The regulation of Na (+)/K (+) -ATPase and FXYD11 is of critical importance for osmotic homeostasis. To investigate the changes of the two genes under different salinity environments, we first identified NKA (AmNKAα1) and FXYD11 (AmFXYD11) in Anguilla marmorata, and then evaluated the mRNA levels of NKA and FXYD11 as well as the activity of NKA in the gill and kidney at different timepoints (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 360 h) under three salinity conditions-0‰ (fresh water: FW), 10‰ (brackish water: BW), and 25‰ (seawater: SW)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280549/the-mayfly-nymph-austrophlebioides-pusillus-harker-defies-common-osmoregulatory-assumptions
#20
Renee Dowse, Carolyn G Palmer, Kasey Hills, Fraser Torpy, Ben J Kefford
Osmoregulation is a key physiological function, critical for homeostasis. The basic physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are thought to be well established. However, through a series of experiments exposing the freshwater mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus (Ephemeroptera) to increasing salinities, we present research that challenges the extent of current understanding of the relationship between osmoregulation and mortality. A. pusillus had modelled 96 h LC10, LC50 and LC99 of 2.4, 4.8 and 10 g l(-1) added synthetic marine salt (SMS), respectively...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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