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Regulation water electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190443/neurologic-manifestations-of-major-electrolyte-abnormalities
#1
M Diringer
The brain operates in an extraordinarily intricate environment which demands precise regulation of electrolytes. Tight control over their concentrations and gradients across cellular compartments is essential and when these relationships are disturbed neurologic manifestations may develop. Perturbations of sodium are the electrolyte disturbances that most often lead to neurologic manifestations. Alterations in extracellular fluid sodium concentrations produce water shifts that lead to brain swelling or shrinkage...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179232/kidney-specific-genetic-deletion-of-both-ampk-%C3%AE-subunits-causes-salt-and-water-wasting
#2
Yoskaly Lazo-Fernández, Goretti Baile, Patricia Meade, Pilar Torcal, Laura Martínez, Carmen Ibañez, Maria Luisa Bernal, Benoit Viollet, Ignacio Giménez
AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) controls cell energy homeostasis by modulating ATP synthesis and expenditure. In vitro studies have suggested AMPK may also control key elements of renal epithelial electrolyte transport but in vivo physiological confirmation is still insufficient. We studied sodium renal handling and extracellular volume regulation in mice with genetic deletion of AMPK catalytic subunits. AMPKα1 knockout (KO) mice exhibit normal renal sodium handling and a moderate antidiuretic state. This is accompanied by higher urinary aldosterone excretion rates and reduced blood pressure...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117000/vasopressin-and-related-peptides-potential-value-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-disorders
#3
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Zera, Piotr Sosnowski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Anna Puszko, Aleksandra Misicka
Vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors play a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. As a consequence, the vasopressin system has emerged as an important target for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in a number of medical conditions. Stoichiometric generation of AVP with copeptin, which is relatively accessible in the blood for measurements, makes copeptin a valuable surrogate of AVP. In this review, we present the regulation of release of AVP and activation of V1a, V1b, and V2 vasopressin receptors under physiological and pathological conditions...
January 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104353/fluid-energy-and-nutrient-recovery-via-ad-libitum-intake-of-different-fluids-and-food
#4
Nadia Campagnolo, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Christopher Irwin, Matthew Schubert, Gregory R Cox, Michael Leveritt, Ben Desbrow
INTRODUCTION: This study compared the effects of ad libitum consumption of different beverages and foods on fluid retention and nutrient intake following exercise. METHODS: Ten endurance trained males (mean±SD; Age=25.3±4.9years, VO2max=63.0±7.2mL·kg·min(-1)) performed four trials employing a counterbalanced, crossover design. Following 60min of exercise (matched for energy expenditure and fluid loss) participants consumed either water (W1 and W2), a sports drink (Powerade® (P)) or a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport® (SS)) over a four hour recovery period...
January 16, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009170/modulation-of-molecular-flux-using-a-graphene-nanopore-capacitor
#5
Manish Shankla, Aleksei Aksimentiev
Modulation of ionic current flowing through nanoscale pores is one of the fundamental biological processes. Inspired by nature, nanopores in synthetic solid-state membranes are being developed to enable rapid analysis of biological macromolecules and to serve as elements of nanofludic circuits. Here, we theoretically investigate ion and water transport through a graphene-insulator-graphene membrane containing a single, electrolyte-filled nanopore. By means of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the charge state of such a graphene nanopore capacitor can regulate both the selectivity and the magnitude of the nanopore ionic current...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999588/divergent-regulation-of-cbf-regulon-on-cold-tolerance-and-plant-phenotype-in-cassava-overexpressing-arabidopsis-cbf3-gene
#6
Dong An, Qiuxiang Ma, Wei Yan, Wenzhi Zhou, Guanghua Liu, Peng Zhang
Cassava is a tropical origin plant that is sensitive to chilling stress. In order to understand the CBF cold response pathway, a well-recognized regulatory mechanism in temperate plants, in cassava, overexpression of an Arabidopsis CBF3 gene is studied. This gene renders cassava increasingly tolerant to cold and drought stresses but is associated with retarded plant growth, leaf curling, reduced storage root yield, and reduced anthocyanin accumulation in a transcript abundance-dependent manner. Physiological analysis revealed that the transgenic cassava increased proline accumulation, reduced malondialdehyde production, and electrolyte leakage under cold stress...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915174/molecular-and-physiological-responses-of-iranian-perennial-ryegrass-as-affected-by-trinexapac-ethyl-paclobutrazol-and-abscisic-acid-under-drought-stress
#7
Mohammad Hossein Sheikh Mohammadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Mohammad Mehdi Arab, Mostafa Aalifar, Mostafa Arab, Mohammad Pessarakli
Drought stress is the major limiting factor which affects turfgrass management in area with restricted rainfall or irrigation water supply. Trinexapac ethyl (TE), Paclobutrazol (PAC) and Abscisic acid (ABA) are three plant growth regulators (PGRs) that are commonly used on turf species for increasing their tolerance to different environmental stresses such as drought. However, little is known about the impact of PGRs on stress tolerance of Iranian Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The present study was conducted to examine the visual and physiological changes of Iranian Perennial ryegrass in response to foliar application of TE, PAC, and ABA under drought stress conditions...
November 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901358/mdck-cells-are-capable-of-water-secretion-and-reabsorption-in-response-to-changes-in-the-ionic-environment
#8
Janne P Capra, Sinikka M Eskelinen
A prerequisite for tissue electrolyte homeostasis is highly regulated ion and water transport through kidney or intestinal epithelia. In the present work, we monitored changes in the cell and luminal volumes of type II Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in a 3D environment in response to drugs, or to changes in the composition of the basal extracellular fluid. Using fluorescent markers and high-resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy, we could show that lack of sodium and potassium ions in the basal fluid (tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) buffer) induces a rapid increase in the cell and luminal volumes...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#9
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884088/physiopathology-clinical-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia
#10
Fabrice Gankam Kengne
Hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. It develops when the mechanisms regulating water and electrolyte handling are impaired, which in many instances occur in the setting of concurrent diseases such as heart failure, liver failure, renal failure etc… Hyponatremia as an electrolyte disorder has several specificities: when profound it can be quickly fatal and when moderate it carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity, but at the same time incorrect treatment of profound hyponatremia can lead to debilitating neurological disease and it remains unclear if treatment of moderate hyponatremia is associated with a decrease in mortality and morbidity...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810325/mechanisms-underlying-toxicity-and-stimulatory-role-of-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-in-hyoscyamus-niger-during-drought-stress-simulated-by-polyethylene-glycol
#11
Mehrnaz Hatami, Javad Hadian, Mansour Ghorbanpour
In this study, seeds of Hyoscyamus niger were exposed to different concentrations (50-800μgmL(-1)) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) under different levels of drought stress (0.5-1.5MPa) for 14days. Germinated seeds were subsequently allowed to grow in the same culture media for 7 more days to test the further response of the seedlings in terms of biochemical changes to the employed treatments. Seeds subjected to drought showed reduction in germination percentage, vigor and lengths of roots and shoots...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797511/highly-active-and-stable-catalysts-of-phytic-acid-derivative-transition-metal-phosphides-for-full-water-splitting
#12
Gong Zhang, Guichang Wang, Yang Liu, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu, Jinghong Li
Application of transition metal phosphide (TMP) catalysts for full water splitting has great potential to help relieve the energy crisis. Various methods have been investigated to obtain high catalytic activity, but the use of electronic structure regulation by incorporation of different elements is of particular simplicity and significance for development of a universal TMP synthesis method. We herein describe a novel approach for fabricating a series of TMPs by pyrolyzing phytic acid (PA) cross-linked metal complexes...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789672/promoter-cpg-island-methylation-in-ion-transport-mechanisms-and-associated-dietary-intakes-jointly-influence-the-risk-of-clear-cell-renal-cell-cancer
#13
Ivette A G Deckers, Manon van Engeland, Piet A van den Brandt, Leander Van Neste, Patricia M M B Soetekouw, Maureen J B Aarts, Marcella M L L Baldewijns, András P Keszei, Leo J Schouten
BACKGROUND: Sodium intake, but not potassium or fluid intake, has been associated with higher renal cell cancer (RCC) risk. However, risk factors may differ by molecular subtypes of the tumour. In renal physiology, electrolyte and water homeostasis is facilitated by ion transport mechanisms (ITM). Aberrant regulation of ITM genes, for example by promoter CpG island methylation, may modify associations between sodium, potassium and fluid intake and RCC risk. METHODS: We identified ARHGDIG, ATP1A1, SCNN1B and SLC8A3 as ITM genes exhibiting RCC-specific promoter methylation and down-regulation...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761136/exogenous-melatonin-suppresses-dark-induced-leaf-senescence-by-activating-the-superoxide-dismutase-catalase-antioxidant-pathway-and-down-regulating-chlorophyll-degradation-in-excised-leaves-of-perennial-ryegrass-lolium-perenne-l
#14
Jing Zhang, Huibin Li, Bin Xu, Jing Li, Bingru Huang
Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. 'Pinnacle') leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754289/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#15
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721134/medicago-truncatula-genotypes-jemalong-a17-and-r108-show-contrasting-variations-under-drought-stress
#17
Shi-Shuai Luo, Yan-Ni Sun, Xue Zhou, Tong Zhu, Li-Sha Zhu, Muhammad Arfan, Li-Juan Zou, Hong-Hui Lin
Drought is one of the most significant abiotic stresses that restrict crop productivity. Medicago truncatula is a model legume species with a wide genetic diversity. We compared the differential physiological and molecular changes of two genotypes of M. truncatula (Jemalong A17 and R108) in response to progressive drought stress and rewatering. The MtNCED and MtZEP activation and higher abscisic acid (ABA) content was observed in Jemalong A17 plants under normal conditions. Additionally, a greater increase in ABA content and expression of MtNCED and MtZEP in Jemalong A17 plants than that of R108 plants were observed under drought conditions...
December 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717468/expression-of-a-grape-vitis-vinifera-bzip-transcription-factor-vlbzip36-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-confers-tolerance-of-drought-stress-during-seed-germination-and-seedling-establishment
#18
Mingxing Tu, Xianhang Wang, Tongying Feng, Xiaomeng Sun, Yaqiong Wang, Li Huang, Min Gao, Yuejin Wang, Xiping Wang
Drought is one of the most serious factors that limit agricultural productivity and there is considerable interest in understanding the molecular bases of drought responses and their regulation. While numbers of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) are known to play key roles in response of plants to various abiotic stresses, only a few group K bZIP TFs have been functionally characterized in the context of stress signaling. In this study, we characterized the expression of the grape (Vitis vinifera) group K bZIP gene, VlbZIP36, and found evidence for its involvement in response to drought and the stress-associated phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA)...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643287/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#19
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643143/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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