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Regulation water electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140297/a-proteomic-approach-to-investigate-the-drought-response-in-the-orphan-crop-eragrostis-tef
#1
Rizqah Kamies, Jill M Farrant, Zerihun Tadele, Gina Cannarozzi, Mohammed Suhail Rafudeen
The orphan crop, Eragrostis tef, was subjected to controlled drought conditions to observe the physiological parameters and proteins changing in response to dehydration stress. Physiological measurements involving electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and ultra-structural analysis showed tef plants tolerated water loss to 50% relative water content (RWC) before adverse effects in leaf tissues were observed. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry and appropriate database searching enabled the detection of 5727 proteins, of which 211 proteins, including a number of spliced variants, were found to be differentially regulated with the imposed stress conditions...
November 15, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134279/dietary-k-and-cl-independently-regulate-basolateral-conductance-in-principal-and-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#2
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir4...
November 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096056/salvinia-effect-inspired-sticky-superhydrophobic-surfaces-by-meniscus-confined-electrodeposition
#3
Deyin Zheng, Youhua Jiang, Wentao Yu, Xiufen Jiang, Xin Zhao, Chang-Hwan Choi, Guangyi Sun
Inspired by the Salvinia effect, we report the fabrication and characterization of a novel "sticky" superhydrophobic surface sustaining a Cassie-Baxter wetting state for water droplets with high contact angles but strong solid-liquid retention. Unlike superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus or petal effect, whose hydrophobicity and droplet retention are typically regulated by hierarchical micro- and nanostructures made of a homogeneous material with the same surface energy, our superhydrophobic surface merely requires singular microstructures covered with a hydrophobic coating but creatively coupled with hydrophilic tips with different surface energy...
November 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067456/effects-of-shu-gan-jian-pi-formula-on-rats-with-carbon-tetrachloride%C3%A2-induced-liver-fibrosis-using-serum-metabonomics-based-on-gas-chromatography%C3%A2-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#4
Hui Jiang, Xiu-Juan Qin, Wei-Ping Li, Rong Ma, Ting Wang, Zhu-Qing Li
Liver fibrosis is a common stage in the majority of chronic liver diseases, regardless of the etiology, and its progression may lead to hepatic cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolomics, a powerful approach in systems biology, is a discipline used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the small molecule metabolites of cells at specific times and under certain conditions. The present study aimed to investigate serum metabolic changes following Shu Gan Jian Pi formula (SGJPF) treatment of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‑induced liver fibrosis in rats using gas chromatography‑time of flight mass spectrometry (GC‑TOFMS)...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041883/-molecular-aspects-of-translational-cardiology-in-vascular-wall-research
#5
V A Maksimenko
Clinical-biochemical research of vascular wall hydrated state, water-electrolyte balance has broadened substantially our notions concerning initiation mechanism of vessel damages, methods of their prevention and treatment. Consecutive study of endothelial glycocalyx functioning, computational research of its interaction with oxidative stress, regulation of its state has been aimed at development of novel means of the vascular system protection. Mutual efforts of clinicians and scientists should contribute to the productivity of results of translational cardiology...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038361/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-decreases-aquaporin-3-expression-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-through-inhibition-of-constitutive-transcription
#6
Michael A Peplowski, Andrew J Vegso, Vadim Iablokov, Michael Dicay, Raza S Zaheer, Bernard Renaux, David Proud, Morley D Hollenberg, Paul L Beck, Wallace K MacNaughton
Inflammatory diseases of the gut are associated with altered electrolyte and water transport, leading to the development of diarrhea. Epithelially expressed aquaporins (AQPs) are downregulated in inflammation, although the mechanisms involved are not known. We hypothesized that AQP3 expression in intestinal epithelial cells is altered in intestinal inflammation and that these changes are driven by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α Human colonic adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells were treated with TNFα to investigate signaling mechanisms in vitro...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024278/why-do-sglt2-inhibitors-reduce-heart-failure-hospitalization-a-differential-volume-regulation-hypothesis
#7
REVIEW
K Melissa Hallow, Gabriel Helmlinger, Peter J Greasley, John J V McMurray, David W Boulton
The effect of a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) in reducing heart failure hospitalization in the EMPA-REG OUTCOMES trial has raised the possibility of using these agents to treat established heart failure. We hypothesize that osmotic diuresis induced by SGLT2 inhibition, a distinctly different diuretic mechanism than other diuretic classes, results in greater electrolyte-free water clearance, and ultimately in greater fluid clearance from the interstitial fluid (IF) space than from the circulation, potentially resulting in congestion relief with minimal impact on blood volume, arterial filling, and organ perfusion...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021227/physiological-regulation-of-the-epithelial-na-channel-by-casein-kinase-ii
#8
Jonathan M Berman, Elena Mironova, James D Stockand
The Epithelial Na+ Channel, ENaC, is the final arbiter of sodium excretion in the kidneys. As such, discretionary control of ENaC by hormones is critical to the fine-tuning of electrolyte and water excretion and consequently, blood pressure. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates ENaC. Phosphorylation by CK2 is necessary for normal ENaC activity. We tested the physiological importance of CK2 regulation of ENaC as the degree to which ENaC activity is dependent on CK2 phosphorylation in the living organism is unknown...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987351/effects-of-electrolysis-time-and-electric-potential-on-chlorine-generation-of-electrolyzed-deep-ocean-water
#9
Guoo-Shyng Wang Hsu, Yi-Fa Lu, Shun-Yao Hsu
Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on the chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water (DOW). DOW was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum-plated titanium anode and cathode. The results showed that chlorine concentration reached maximal level in the batch process...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976197/electroviscous-dissipation-in-aqueous-electrolyte-films-with-overlapping-electric-double-layers
#10
F Liu, A Klaassen, C Zhao, F Mugele, D van den Ende
We use dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the forces involved in squeezing out thin films of aqueous electrolyte between an AFM tip and silica substrates at variable pH and salt concentration. From amplitude and phase of the AFM signal we determine both conservative and dissipative components of the tip sample interaction forces. The measured dissipation is enhanced by up to a factor of 5 at tip-sample separations of ≈ one Debye length compared to the expectations based on classical hydrodynamic Reynolds damping with bulk viscosity...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972562/de-novo-assembly-and-analysis-of-tartary-buckwheat-fagopyrum-tataricum-garetn-transcriptome-discloses-key-regulators-involved-in-salt-stress-response
#11
Qi Wu, Xue Bai, Wei Zhao, Dabing Xiang, Yan Wan, Jun Yan, Liang Zou, Gang Zhao
Soil salinization has been a tremendous obstacle for agriculture production. The regulatory networks underlying salinity adaption in model plants have been extensively explored. However, limited understanding of the salt response mechanisms has hindered the planting and production in Fagopyrum tataricum, an economic and health-beneficial plant mainly distributing in southwest China. In this study, we performed physiological analysis and found that salt stress of 200 mM NaCl solution significantly affected the relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in tartary buckwheat seedlings...
October 3, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955251/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-mediated-regulation-of-bk-channels
#12
REVIEW
Zhen-Ye Zhang, Ling-Ling Qian, Ru-Xing Wang
Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) belong to a family of Ca(2+)-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels and play a vital role in various physiological activities in the human body. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is acknowledged as being vital in the body's hormone system and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has profound influences on the expression and bioactivity of BK channels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#13
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#14
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843889/physiological-and-antioxidant-responses-of-winter-wheat-cultivars-to-strigolactone-and-salicylic-acid-in-drought
#15
Mojde Sedaghat, Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Yahya Emam, Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli
Strigolactones are considered as important regulators of plant growth and development. Recently positive regulatory influence of strigolactones in plant in response to drought and salt stress has been revealed. Salicylic acid, a phytohormone, has reported to be involved in a number of stress responses such as pathogen infection, UV irradiation, salinity and drought. Considering the concealed role of strigolactones in agronomic crops drought tolerance and possible interaction among salicylic acid and strigolactone, we investigated the effects of exogenous application of GR24 and salicylic acid on two winter wheat cultivars under drought conditions...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843134/rdreb1bi-enhances-drought-tolerance-by-activating-aqp-related-genes-in-transgenic-strawberry
#16
Xianbin Gu, Zhihong Gao, Yichao Yan, Xiuyun Wang, Yushan Qiao, Yahua Chen
The dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB) family of transcription factors is associated with abiotic stress responses during plant growth and development. This study focussed on the subfamily member DREB1B, which was initially described as highly and specifically responsive to low temperature. However, here it is shown that DREB1B is not only involved in cold tolerance but also other abiotic stress tolerances, such as that of drought. To further understand the genetic improvement effects of the drought tolerance provided by RdreB1BI in transgenic strawberry, drought stress responses of transgenic plants were evaluated at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptional levels...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771454/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-drives-electroneutral-nacl-reabsorption-in-intercalated-cells-by-activating-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-oxgr1
#17
Paul R Grimm, Paul A Welling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1. RECENT FINDINGS: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748185/novel-actions-of-growth-hormone-in-podocytes-implications-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#18
REVIEW
Dhanunjay Mukhi, Rajkishor Nishad, Ram K Menon, Anil Kumar Pasupulati
The kidney regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and thus maintains body homeostasis. The kidney's potential to ensure ultrafiltered and almost protein-free urine is compromised in various metabolic and hormonal disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetic nephropathy (DN) accounts for ~20-40% of mortality in DM. Proteinuria, a hallmark of renal glomerular diseases, indicates injury to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The GFB is composed of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745412/edge-sites-with-unsaturated-coordination-on-core-shell-mn3-o4-mnx-co3-x-o4-nanostructures-for-electrocatalytic-water-oxidation
#19
Congling Hu, Lei Zhang, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Jun Luo, Jing Shi, Zhiqi Huang, Jinlong Gong
Transition-metal oxides are extensively investigated as efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, large-scale applications remain challenging due to their moderate catalytic activity. Optimized regulation of surface states can lead to improvement of catalytic properties. Here, the design of Mn@Cox Mn3-x O4 nanoparticles with abundant edge sites via a simple seed-mediated growth strategy is described. The unsaturated coordination generated on the edge sites of Cox Mn3-x O4 shells makes a positive contribution to the surface-structure tailoring...
July 26, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737810/ionic-diffusion-and-proton-transfer-in-aqueous-solutions-of-alkali-metal-salts
#20
Giuseppe Cassone, Fabrizio Creazzo, Paolo V Giaquinta, Jiri Sponer, Franz Saija
We report on a series of ab initio molecular dynamics investigations on LiCl, NaCl, and KCl aqueous solutions under the effect of static electric fields. We have found that although in low-to-moderate field intensity regimes the well-known sequence of cationic mobilities μ(K(+)) > μ(Na(+)) > μ(Li(+)) (i.e., the bigger the cation the higher the mobility) is recovered, from intense field strengths this intuitive rule is no longer verified. In fact, field-induced water molecular dissociations lead to more complex phenomena regulating the standard migration properties of the simplest monovalent cations...
August 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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