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Regulation water electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740578/using-electrolyte-free-water-balance-to-rationalize-and-treat-dysnatremias
#1
REVIEW
Sanjeev R Shah, Gautam Bhave
Dysnatremias or abnormalities in plasma [Na+ ] are often termed disorders of water balance, an unclear physiologic concept often confused with changes in total fluid balance. However, most clinicians clearly recognize that hypertonic or hypotonic gains or losses alter plasma [Na+ ], while isotonic changes do not modify plasma [Na+ ]. This concept can be conceptualized as the electrolyte free water balance (EFWB), which defines the non-isotonic components of inputs and outputs to determine their effect on plasma [Na+ ]...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712884/imbalance-of-gut-microbiome-and-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Judith N Lezutekong, Anish Nikhanj, Gavin Y Oudit
The main function of the intestinal barrier is to regulate the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from the lumen into circulation and to prevent the entry of pathogenic microorganisms and toxic luminal substances. To maintain this function, an ideal microbiota balance is required and gut microbiota are critical for the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. There is a demonstrable link between dysbiosis and intestinal dysfunction and diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687889/slc9-gene-family-function-expression-and-regulation
#3
Hua Xu, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
The Slc9 family of Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) plays a critical role in electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ in the mammalian intestine as well as other absorptive and secretory epithelia of digestive organs. These transport proteins contribute to the transepithelial Na+ and water absorption, intracellular pH and cellular volume regulation as well as the electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid volume homeostasis at the systemic level. They also influence the function of other membrane transport mechanisms, affect cellular proliferation and apoptosis as well as cell migration, adherence to the extracellular matrix, and tissue repair...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594117/erythrocyte-salt-sedimentation-assay-does-not-predict-response-to-renal-denervation
#4
Oliver Vonend, Ole Martin, Lars C Rump, Patrick Kroepil, Johannes Stegbauer
Renal denervation (RDN) has recently been shown to be effective in patients without antihypertensive medication. However, about 30% of patients do not respond to RDN, and therefore, there exists a need to find predictors of response. Individuals are either salt-sensitive (SS) or non-salt-sensitive (NSS) in terms of their blood pressure (BP) regulation. The sympathetic nervous system can influence water and salt handling. RDN reduces sympathetic drive and has an impact on salt excretion. The present study was conducted to test the influence of salt sensitivity in terms of the BP reducing effect after RDN procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581173/structural-mechanisms-of-cftr-function-and-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Tzyh-Chang Hwang, Jiunn-Tyng Yeh, Jingyao Zhang, Ying-Chun Yu, Han-I Yeh, Samantha Destefano
Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel plays a critical role in regulating transepithelial movement of water and electrolyte in exocrine tissues. Malfunction of the channel because of mutations of the cftr gene results in CF, the most prevalent lethal genetic disease among Caucasians. Recently, the publication of atomic structures of CFTR in two distinct conformations provides, for the first time, a clear overview of the protein. However, given the highly dynamic nature of the interactions among CFTR's various domains, better understanding of the functional significance of these structures requires an integration of these new structural insights with previously established biochemical/biophysical studies, which is the goal of this review...
March 26, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571254/er-shen-wan-extract-reduces-diarrhea-and-regulates-aqp-4-and-nhe-3-in-a-rat-model-of-spleen-kidney-yang-deficiency-induced-diarrhea
#6
Rui Xiong, Wenbing Li, Yidan Li, Kaixuan Zheng, Tingting Zhang, Mingyang Gao, Yun Li, Lin Hu, Changjiang Hu
INTRODUCTION: Er Shen Wan (ESW), a traditional Chinese medicinal formula comprised of Psoraleae Fructus (Babchi seeds, from Psoralea corylifolia Linn.) and Myristicae Semen (Nutmeg, from Myristica fragrans Houtt.), is widely used to treat spleen-kidney Yang deficiency (SKYD)-induced diarrhea. Previous studies have demonstrated preliminarily that the petroleum ether extract of ESW (ESWP) exhibits significant anti-diarrheal activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-diarrhea activity of ESWP and to explore the underlying mechanisms with respect to fluid metabolism in a rat model of SKYD-induced diarrhea...
February 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567220/effects-of-electrode-gap-and-electric-current-on-chlorine-generation-of-electrolyzed-deep-ocean-water
#7
Guoo-Shyng Wang Hsu, Shun-Yao Hsu
Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmental friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrode gap and electric current on chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water. Deep ocean water was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum-plated titanium anode and cathode in a constant-current operation mode. Results showed that current density, chlorine concentration, and electrolyte temperature increased with electric current, while electric efficiency decreased with electric current and electrode gap...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556787/dysregulation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-the-vasopressinergic-system-interactions-in-cardiovascular-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In many instances, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the vasopressinergic system (VPS) are jointly activated by the same stimuli and engaged in the regulation of the same processes. RECENT FINDINGS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), which are the main active compounds of the RAS and the VPS, interact at several levels. Firstly, Ang II, acting on AT1 receptors (AT1R), plays a significant role in the release of AVP from vasopressinergic neurons and AVP, stimulating V1a receptors (V1aR), regulates the release of renin in the kidney...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541861/internalization-of-nkcc2-is-impaired-in-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-in-moesin-knockout-mice
#9
Kotoku Kawaguchi, Ryo Hatano, Mitsunobu Matsubara, Shinji Asano
Moesin is expressed in several types of cells including epithelial and endothelial cells. Several groups reported that moesin plays important roles in the regulation of the cellular motility, and the process of internalization of membrane proteins. However, the physiological roles of moesin in the kidney still remain unclear. Herein, we examined the physiological function of moesin in the kidney using moesin knockout (Msn-/y ) mice. There was no obvious abnormality in the renal morphology of Msn-/y mice. However, we found that Msn-/y mice exhibited mild hyperchloremia, and reduced glomerular filtration rate compared to wild type (WT) mice...
March 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468392/hydrogen-sulfide-regulates-the-levels-of-key-metabolites-and-antioxidant-defense-system-to-counteract-oxidative-stress-in-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-plants-exposed-to-high-zinc-regime
#10
Cengiz Kaya, Muhammad Ashraf, Nudrat Aisha Akram
In the present experiment, we aimed to test the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) on growth, key oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide, mineral elements, and antioxidative defense in Capia-type red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants subjected to high concentration of zinc (Zn). A factorial experiment was designed with two Zn levels (0.05 and 0.5 mM) and 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H2 S supplied in combination plus nutrient solution through the root zone. High level of Zn led to reduce dry mass, chlorophyll pigments, fruit yield, leaf maximum fluorescence, and relative water content, but enhanced endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), H2 S, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes...
May 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460274/a-perfusion-chamber-for-monitoring-transepithelial-nacl-transport-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-renal-tubule
#11
Jose Yeste, Laura Martínez-Gimeno, Xavi Illa, Pablo Laborda, Anton Guimerà, Juan P Sánchez-Marín, Rosa Villa, Ignacio Giménez
Transepithelial electrical measurements in the renal tubule have provided a better understanding of how kidney regulates electrolyte and water homeostasis through the reabsorption of molecules and ions (e.g., H2 O and NaCl). While experiments and measurement techniques using native tissue are difficult to prepare and to reproduce, cell cultures conducted largely with the Ussing chamber lack the effect of fluid shear stress which is a key physiological stimulus in the renal tubule. To overcome these limitations, we present a modular perfusion chamber for long-term culture of renal epithelial cells under flow that allows the continuous and simultaneous monitoring of both transepithelial electrical parameters and transepithelial NaCl transport...
June 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397720/counterion-regulated-dynamics-of-water-confined-in-lyotropic-liquid-crystalline-morphologies
#12
Sriteja Mantha, Grayson L Jackson, Mahesh K Mahanthappa, Arun Yethiraj
The dynamics of confined water is of fundamental and long-standing interest. In technologically important forms of confinement, such as proton-exchange membranes, electrostatic interactions with the confining matrix and counterions play significant roles on the properties of water. There has been recent interest on the dynamics of water confined to the lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) morphologies of Gemini dicarboxylate surfactants. These systems are exciting because the nature of confinement, for example, size and curvature of channels and surface functionality is dictated by the chemistry of the self-assembling surfactant molecules...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367634/guanylate-cyclase-c-reduces-invasion-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-by-bacterial-pathogens
#13
Surya Amarachintha, Eleana Harmel-Laws, Kris A Steinbrecher
The guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor regulates electrolyte and water secretion into the gut following activation by the E. coli enterotoxin STa, or by weaker endogenous agonists guanylin and uroguanylin. Our previous work has demonstrated that GC-C plays an important role in controlling initial infection as well as carrying load of non-invasive bacterial pathogens in the gut. Here, we use Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to determine whether GC-C signaling is important in host defense against pathogens that actively invade enterocytes...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363324/chronic-nicotine-exposure-reduces-klotho-expression-and-triggers-different-renal-and-hemodynamic-responses-in-klotho-haploinsufficient-mice
#14
Fernanda Oliveira Coelho, Lecticia Barbosa Jorge, Ana Carolina de Bragança Viciana, Talita Rojas Sanches, Fernando Dos Santos, Claudia Maria B Helou, Maria Claudia Irigoyen, Makoto Kuro-O, Lucia Andrade
The klotho gene, which encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and a secreted protein, is expressed predominantly by the distal renal tubules and is related to calcium-phosphorus metabolism, ion channel regulation, intracellular signaling pathways, and longevity. Klotho deficiency aggravates acute kidney injury and renal fibrosis. Exposure to nicotine also worsens kidney injury. Here, we investigated renal klotho expression in a mouse model of chronic (28-day) nicotine exposure, in which mice received nicotine or vehicle (saccharine) in drinking water, comparing wild-type (klotho+/+) mice, klotho-haploinsufficient (klotho+/-) mice, and their respective controls, in terms of the effects of that exposure...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357439/circadian-regulation-of-kidney-function-finding-a-role-for-bmal1
#15
Dingguo Zhang, David M Pollock
Mounting evidence suggests that there is an internal molecular "clock" within the kidney to help maintain normal renal function. Disturbance of the kidney circadian rhythm may pose a threat to water and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation, amongst many other problems. The identification of circadian genes facilitated a more comprehensive appreciation of the importance of "keeping the body on time"; however, our knowledge is very limited with regard to how circadian genes regulate kidney function...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323234/caveolin-1-promotes-renal-water-and-salt-reabsorption
#16
Yan Willière, Aljona Borschewski, Andreas Patzak, Tatiana Nikitina, Carsten Dittmayer, Anna L Daigeler, Markus Schuelke, Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is essential for the formation of caveolae. Little is known about their functional role in the kidney. We tested the hypothesis that caveolae modulate renal salt and water reabsorption. Wild-type (WT) and Cav1-deficient (Cav1-/-) mice were studied. Cav1 expression and caveolae formation were present in vascular cells, late distal convoluted tubule and principal connecting tubule and collecting duct cells of WT but not Cav1-/- kidneys. Urinary sodium excretion was increased by 94% and urine flow by 126% in Cav1-/- mice (p < 0...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287775/regulation-of-aldosterone-production-by-ion-channels-from-basal-secretion-to-primary-aldosteronism
#17
Tingting Yang, Min He, Changlong Hu
Aldosterone is produced by zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of the adrenal cortex and plays a key role in balancing water and electrolytes levels. Autonomous overproduction of aldosterone leads to primary aldosteronism (PA), which is the most common form of secondary endocrine hypertension. Recently, significant progress has been made towards understanding the genetic basis of PA, where increasing clinical evidence suggests that mutations in ion channels appear to be the major cause of aldosterone-producing adenomas...
March 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#18
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t 1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
March 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195224/combined-application-of-compost-and-bacillus-sp-cik-512-ameliorated-the-lead-toxicity-in-radish-by-regulating-the-homeostasis-of-antioxidants-and-lead
#19
Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad Javed Akhtar, Shehzad Mehmood, Kalsoom Akhter, Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Baqir Hussain, Saddam Hussain
Lead (Pb) contamination is ubiquitous and usually causes toxicity to plants. Nevertheless, application of compost and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria synergistically may ameliorate the Pb toxicity in radish. The present study assessed the effects of compost and Bacillus sp. CIK-512 on growth, physiology, antioxidants and uptake of Pb in contaminated soil and explored the possible mechanism for Pb phytotoxicity amelioration. Treatments comprised of un-inoculated control, compost, CIK-512, and compost + CIK-512; plants were grown in soil contaminated with Pb (500mgkg-1 ) and without Pb in pot culture...
February 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193764/the-interstitium-conducts-extrarenal-storage-of-sodium-and-represents-a-third-compartment-essential-for-extracellular-volume-and-blood-pressure-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
H Wiig, F C Luft, J M Titze
The role of salt in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is not well understood. According to the current understanding, the central mechanism for blood pressure (BP) regulation relies on classical studies linking BP and Na+ balance, placing the kidney at the very centre of long-term BP regulation. To maintain BP homeostasis, the effective circulating fluid volume and thereby body Na+ content has to be maintained within very narrow limits. From recent work in humans and rats, the notion has emerged that Na+ could be stored somewhere in the body without commensurate water retention to buffer free extracellular Na+ and that previously unidentified extrarenal, tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms are operative regulating the release and storage of Na+ from a kidney-independent reservoir...
March 2018: Acta Physiologica
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