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Regulation water electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#1
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#2
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843889/physiological-and-antioxidant-responses-of-winter-wheat-cultivars-to-strigolactone-and-salicylic-acid-in-drought
#3
Mojde Sedaghat, Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Yahya Emam, Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli
Strigolactones are considered as important regulators of plant growth and development. Recently positive regulatory influence of strigolactones in plant in response to drought and salt stress has been revealed. Salicylic acid, a phytohormone, has reported to be involved in a number of stress responses such as pathogen infection, UV irradiation, salinity and drought. Considering the concealed role of strigolactones in agronomic crops drought tolerance and possible interaction among salicylic acid and strigolactone, we investigated the effects of exogenous application of GR24 and salicylic acid on two winter wheat cultivars under drought conditions...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843134/rdreb1bi-enhances-drought-tolerance-by-activating-aqp-related-genes-in-transgenic-strawberry
#4
Xianbin Gu, Zhihong Gao, Yichao Yan, Xiuyun Wang, Yushan Qiao, Yahua Chen
The dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB) family of transcription factors is associated with abiotic stress responses during plant growth and development. This study focussed on the subfamily member DREB1B, which was initially described as highly and specifically responsive to low temperature. However, here it is shown that DREB1B is not only involved in cold tolerance but also other abiotic stress tolerances, such as that of drought. To further understand the genetic improvement effects of the drought tolerance provided by RdreB1BI in transgenic strawberry, drought stress responses of transgenic plants were evaluated at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptional levels...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771454/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-drives-electroneutral-nacl-reabsorption-in-intercalated-cells-by-activating-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-oxgr1
#5
Paul R Grimm, Paul A Welling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1. RECENT FINDINGS: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748185/novel-actions-of-growth-hormone-in-podocytes-implications-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
REVIEW
Dhanunjay Mukhi, Rajkishor Nishad, Ram K Menon, Anil Kumar Pasupulati
The kidney regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and thus maintains body homeostasis. The kidney's potential to ensure ultrafiltered and almost protein-free urine is compromised in various metabolic and hormonal disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetic nephropathy (DN) accounts for ~20-40% of mortality in DM. Proteinuria, a hallmark of renal glomerular diseases, indicates injury to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The GFB is composed of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745412/edge-sites-with-unsaturated-coordination-on-core-shell-mn3-o4-mnx-co3-x-o4-nanostructures-for-electrocatalytic-water-oxidation
#7
Congling Hu, Lei Zhang, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Jun Luo, Jing Shi, Zhiqi Huang, Jinlong Gong
Transition-metal oxides are extensively investigated as efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, large-scale applications remain challenging due to their moderate catalytic activity. Optimized regulation of surface states can lead to improvement of catalytic properties. Here, the design of Mn@Cox Mn3-x O4 nanoparticles with abundant edge sites via a simple seed-mediated growth strategy is described. The unsaturated coordination generated on the edge sites of Cox Mn3-x O4 shells makes a positive contribution to the surface-structure tailoring...
July 26, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737810/ionic-diffusion-and-proton-transfer-in-aqueous-solutions-of-alkali-metal-salts
#8
Giuseppe Cassone, Fabrizio Creazzo, Paolo V Giaquinta, Jiri Sponer, Franz Saija
We report on a series of ab initio molecular dynamics investigations on LiCl, NaCl, and KCl aqueous solutions under the effect of static electric fields. We have found that although in low-to-moderate field intensity regimes the well-known sequence of cationic mobilities μ(K(+)) > μ(Na(+)) > μ(Li(+)) (i.e., the bigger the cation the higher the mobility) is recovered, from intense field strengths this intuitive rule is no longer verified. In fact, field-induced water molecular dissociations lead to more complex phenomena regulating the standard migration properties of the simplest monovalent cations...
August 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691402/osmolality-and-blood-pressure-stability-during-hemodialysis
#9
Anika T Singh, Finnian R Mc Causland
Homeostatic regulation of plasma osmolality (POsm) is critical for normal cellular function in humans. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the major hormone responsible for the maintenance of POsm and acts to promote renal water retention in conditions of increased POsm. However, AVP also exerts pressor effects, and its release can be stimulated by the development of effective arterial blood volume depletion. Patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, particularly those with minimal or no residual renal function, have impaired ability to regulate water retention in response to AVP...
July 9, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679632/trends-in-mica-mica-adhesion-reflect-the-influence-of-molecular-details-on-long-range-dispersion-forces-underlying-aggregation-and-coalignment
#10
Dongsheng Li, Jaehun Chun, Dongdong Xiao, Weijiang Zhou, Huacheng Cai, Lei Zhang, Kevin M Rosso, Christopher J Mundy, Gregory K Schenter, James J De Yoreo
Oriented attachment of nanocrystalline subunits is recognized as a common crystallization pathway that is closely related to formation of nanoparticle superlattices, mesocrystals, and other kinetically stabilized structures. Approaching particles have been observed to rotate to achieve coalignment while separated by nanometer-scale solvent layers. Little is known about the forces that drive coalignment, particularly in this "solvent-separated" regime. To obtain a mechanistic understanding of this process, we used atomic-force-microscopy-based dynamic force spectroscopy with tips fabricated from oriented mica to measure the adhesion forces between mica (001) surfaces in electrolyte solutions as a function of orientation, temperature, electrolyte type, and electrolyte concentration...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674542/physiological-mechanism-of-enhancing-salt-stress-tolerance-of-perennial-ryegrass-by-24-epibrassinolide
#11
Wenli Wu, Qiang Zhang, Erik H Ervin, Zhiping Yang, Xunzhong Zhang
Brassinosteroids (BR) regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR)'s impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl). The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660358/aspartame-and-soft-drink-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-rats-implication-of-oxidative-stress-apoptotic-signaling-pathways-electrolytes-and-hormonal-levels
#12
Mohamed A Lebda, Kadry M Sadek, Yasser S El-Sayed
A significant association between fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages consumption and increased risk of detrimental central nervous system effects has been recently reported. We hypothesized that the aspartame and soft drink induced disturbances in energy production and endocrine function, which play a role in the induction of brain damage. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of aspartame and soft drink on brain function and the link between energy status in the brain, oxidative stress and molecular pathways of apoptosis...
June 28, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648603/effects-of-brn2-overexpression-on-eccrine-sweat-gland-development-in-the-mouse-paw
#13
Min Keun Chee, Seong Kyeong Jo, Kyung Cheol Sohn, Chang Deok Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Young Ho Lee
Eccrine sweat glands regulate body temperature by secreting water and electrolytes. In humans, eccrine sweat glands are ubiquitous in the skin, except in the lips and external genitalia. In mice, eccrine sweat glands are present only in the paw pad. Brn2 is a protein belonging to a large family of transcription factors. A few studies have examined Brn2 in melanoma cells and epidermal keratinocytes. This study investigated changes in the skin in the K5-Brn2 transgenic mouse, which overexpresses Brn2 and contains the keratin 5 promotor...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642338/cellular-distribution-and-function-of-ion-channels-involved-in-transport-processes-in-rat-tracheal-epithelium
#14
Anne Hahn, Johannes Faulhaber, Lalita Srisawang, Andreas Stortz, Johanna J Salomon, Marcus A Mall, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca(2+) or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca(2+)- dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl(-) secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, the epithelial Na(+) channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577072/regulation-of-renal-na-k-cl-cotransporters-by-vasopressin
#15
REVIEW
Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Vasopressin (AVP) induces antidiuresis, thus playing an essential role in body water and electrolyte homeostasis. Its antidiuretic effects are mediated chiefly by V2 vasopressin receptors (V2R) expressed along the distal nephron and collecting duct epithelia. NaCl reabsorption in the distal nephron, which includes the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT), largely depends on the activity of two structurally related Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters, NKCC2 in TAL and NCC in DCT. AVP-induced activation of these transporters contributes to urine concentration and renal electrolyte reabsorption...
August 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575641/systematic-analysis-of-the-g-box-factor-14-3-3-gene-family-and-functional-characterization-of-gf14a-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#16
Li Yang, Jun You, Yanping Wang, Jinzhu Li, Wenli Quan, Mingzhu Yin, Qingfeng Wang, Zhulong Chan
The 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved and ubiquitously found in eukaryotes. Plant 14-3-3 proteins are involved in many signaling pathways to regulate plant growth and development. Here we identified seven Brachypodium distachyon 14-3-3 genes and analyzed the evolution, gene structure and expression profiles of these genes. Several cis-elements involved in stress response and hormone pathway were found in the promoter region of 14-3-3 genes. Results of gene expression analysis showed that these genes were induced by abiotic stresses or hormone treatments...
May 25, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551805/mitochondria-damage-and-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Pu Duann, Pei-Hui Lin
The kidney is a vital organ that demands an extraordinary amount of energy to actively maintain the body's metabolism, plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis, nutrients reabsorption, and hormone secretion. Kidney is only second to the heart in mitochondrial count and oxygen consumption. As such, the health and status of the energy power house, the mitochondria, is pivotal to the health and proper function of the kidney. Mitochondria are heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles and their functions are subject to complex regulations through modulation of its biogenesis, bioenergetics, dynamics and clearance within cell...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544484/neglected-issues-concerning-teaching-human-adrenal-steroidogenesis-in-popular-biochemistry-textbooks
#18
Zhiyong Han, Mark S Elliott
In the human body, the adrenal steroids collectively regulate a plethora of fundamental functions, including electrolyte and water balance, blood pressure, stress response, intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and immunity. Therefore, adrenal steroidogenesis is an important biochemistry topic for students to learn in order for them to understand health consequences caused by deficiencies of enzymes in the adrenal steroidogenic pathways. However, popular biochemistry textbooks contain insufficient information and may sometimes give students a misimpression about certain aspects of human adrenal steroidogenesis...
May 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493993/mechanism-of-down-regulation-of-na-h-exchanger-2-in-experimental-colitis
#19
Amal Ali Soleiman, Farook Thameem, Islam Khan
BACKGROUND: The Na-H exchanger [NHE] performs an electroneutral uptake of NaCl and water from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. There are several distinct NHE isoforms, some of which show an altered expression in the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this study, we examined a role of NHE-2 in experimental colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intra-rectal administration of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). On day 6 post-TNBS, the animals were sacrificed, colonic and ileal segments were taken out, cleaned with phosphate buffered saline and used in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482333/ethephon-improved-drought-tolerance-in-maize-seedlings-by-modulating-cuticular-wax-biosynthesis-and-membrane-stability
#20
Haiyue Yu, Yushi Zhang, Yan Xie, Yubin Wang, Liusheng Duan, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li
Cuticular wax is the outermost thin hydrophobic layer covering the surface of aerial plant parts, which provides a primary waterproof barrier and protection against different environmental stresses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ethephon, as an ethylene-releasing compound, in counteracting drought stress by modulating cuticular wax biosynthesis, water balance, and antioxidant regulation in maize seedlings. Our results showed that ethephon significantly increased the ethylene evolution rate, regulate the expression of cuticular wax synthesis regulatory gene ZmERE and the wax biosynthetic genes ZmGL1, ZmGL15, ZmFDH1, and ZmFAE1, and promote cuticular wax accumulation in maize seedlings under normal or drought stress conditions...
July 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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