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Regulation water electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624615/adenylyl-cyclase-6-expression-is-essential-for-cholera-toxin-induced-diarrhea
#1
Robert A Fenton, Sathish K Murali, Izumi Kaji, Yasutada Akiba, Jonathan D Kaunitz, Tina B Kristensen, Soren B Poulsen, Jessica A Dominguez Rieg, Timo Rieg
Background: Cholera toxin (CT)-induced diarrhea is mediated by cAMP-mediated active Cl - secretion via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Although the constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) in response to CT is due to ADP-ribosylation of Gsα activating CFTR with consequent secretory diarrhea, the AC isoform(s) involved remain unknown. Methods: We generated intestine epithelial cell-specific adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6) knockout mice to study its role in cholera toxin-induced diarrhea...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30560268/-the-function-and-regulation-of-basolateral-kir4-1-and-kir4-1-kir5-1-in-renal-tubules
#2
Yu Xiao, Xin-Xin Meng, Hao Zhang, Xi-Wen Guo, Rui-Min Gu
Basolateral inwardly-rectifying K+ channels (Kir) play an important role in the control of resting membrane potential and transepithelial voltage, thereby modulating water and electrolyte transport in the distal part of nephron. Kir4.1 and Kir4.1/Kir5.1 heterotetramer are abundantly expressed in the basolateral membrane of late thick ascending limb (TAL), distal convoluted tubule (DCT), connecting tubule (CNT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD). Loss-of-function mutations in KCNJ10 cause EAST/SeSAME syndrome in humans associated with epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness and water-electrolyte metabolism imbalance, which is characterized by salt wasting, hypomagnesaemia, hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis...
December 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30554363/metabolic-requirements-of-the-nephron
#3
REVIEW
Kasey Cargill, Sunder Sims-Lucas
The mammalian kidney is a complex organ that has several metabolically active cell types to aid in waste filtration, salt-water balance, and electrolyte homeostasis in the body. These functions are done primarily through the nephron, which relies on strict regulation of various metabolic pathways. Any deviations in the metabolic profile of nephrons or their precursor cells called nephron progenitors can lead to renal pathologies and abnormal development. Metabolism encompasses the mechanisms by which cells generate intermediate molecules and energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
December 15, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547756/cucumber-phospholipase-d-alpha-gene-overexpression-in-tobacco-enhanced-drought-stress-tolerance-by-regulating-stomatal-closure-and-lipid-peroxidation
#4
Tuo Ji, Shuzhen Li, Lujun Li, Meili Huang, Xiufeng Wang, Min Wei, Qinghua Shi, Yan Li, Biao Gong, Fengjuan Yang
BACKGROUND: Plant phospholipase D (PLD), which can hydrolyze membrane phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), a secondary signaling molecule, has been proposed to function in diverse plant stress responses. Both PLD and PA play key roles in plant growth, development, and cellular processes. PLD was suggested to mediate the regulation of stomatal movements by abscisic acid (ABA) as a response to water deficit. In this research, we characterized the roles of the cucumber phospholipase D alpha gene (CsPLDα, GenBank accession number EF363796) in the growth and tolerance of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to drought stress...
December 14, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537808/engineering-the-surface-metal-active-sites-of-nickel-cobalt-oxide-nanoplates-toward-enhanced-oxygen-electrocatalysis-for-zn-air-battery
#5
Jun Zhao, Yu He, Zelin Chen, Xuerong Zheng, Xiaopeng Han, Dewei Rao, Cheng Zhong, Wenbin Hu, Yida Deng
Clarifying and controlling the surface catalytic active sites is at the heart of developing low-cost effective bifunctional oxygen catalysts to replace precious metals for metal-air batteries. Herein, a shape-control of hexagon nickel cobalt oxide spinel nanosheets was reported to engineer the surface metal active sites for enhanced electrocatalysis of oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions (OER/ORR). Specifically, through simply tuning annealing temperature, different Ni3+/Ni2+ and Co3+/Co2+ atomic configurations on nickel cobalt oxide surface were controllably synthesized...
December 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529172/alleviation-of-drought-stress-in-grapevine-by-foliar-applied-strigolactones
#6
Zhuo Min, Runyu Li, Li Chen, Yang Zhang, Ziyu Li, Min Liu, Yanlun Ju, Yulin Fang
Drought is one of the major abiotic stress factors that affect grape growth and yield, which in turn negatively affects the grape and wine production industry. Developing effective approaches to improve grapevine tolerance to drought stress is a priority for viticulture. Strigolactones, a newly discovered class of carotenoid-derived phytohormones, have been found to participate in various physiological processes. Herein, the effect of strigolactones (SLs) on grape seedlings under drought stress was investigated...
December 3, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511183/an-apple-transcription-factor-mddreb76-confers-salt-and-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco-by-activating-the-expression-of-stress-responsive-genes
#7
Vishal Sharma, Parul Goel, Sanjay Kumar, Anil Kumar Singh
An apple gene, MdDREB76 encodes a functional transcription factor and imparts salinity and drought stress endurance to transgenic tobacco by activating expression of stress-responsive genes. The dehydration-responsive element (DRE)-binding protein (DREB) transcription factors are well known to be involved in regulating abiotic stress-mediated gene expression in plants. In this study, MdDREB76 gene was isolated from apple (Malus x domestica), which encodes a functional transcription factor protein. Overexpression of MdDREB76 in tobacco conferred salt and drought stress tolerance to transgenic lines by inducing antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase...
December 3, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484231/application-of-muse-cell-therapy-for-kidney-diseases
#8
Nao Uchida, Naonori Kumagai, Yoshiaki Kondo
The kidney plays an essential role in the maintenance of homeostasis in healthy individuals, e.g., by regulating the amount of water and concentration of electrolyte in the body. Owing to the structural complexity, renal dysfunction is caused by a myriad of diseases and conditions, and in severe cases, it progresses to end-stage renal disease in which patients require renal replacement therapy, i.e., maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation. The currently available therapeutic modalities, with the exception of renal transplantation, cannot recover severely deteriorated renal function...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476906/lentivirus-mediated-gene-silencing-of-lymphocyte-function-associated-antigen-1-inhibits-apoptosis-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats-with-acute-cerebral-ischemia-after-cerebral-lymphatic-blockage
#9
Jin-Lu Yu, Chao Li, Li-He Che, Ning Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral ischemia is considered to be the most common cause of stroke with high mortality. It occurs as a result of the damage of the hippocampal neurons with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 being emphasized to play a role in the biological functions of hippocampal neurons. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of specific knockdown of LFA-1 expression by lentivirus had on the apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons, simulated by rat models of acute cerebral ischemia after cerebral lymphatic blockage...
November 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30469223/synthesis-of-sulfonation-poly-n-propylsulfonicacid-isatin-biphenylene-for-polymer-electrolyte-membrane-fuel-cell-containing-sio%C3%A2-nanocomposite-membrane
#10
Sujin Yoon, Taewook Ryu, Kyungchul Kim, Sabuj Sutradhar Chandra, Faiz Ahmed, Hanmo Yang, Seungchan Lee, Jaewoong Kim, Whangi Kim
Polymer containing isatin was synthesized by super acid-catalyzed carbon-carbon coupling reaction. Propylsulfonic acid was grafted on isatin unit by substitution reaction with potassium salt of 3-bromo-1-propanesulfonic acid. The sulfonic acid composition was regulated at 25~80 mol% of propylsulfonic acid in order to achieve expected ion exchange capacity of maximum 2.0 meq/g. The copolymers were of high molecular weight (inherent viscosity, η inh = 1.2 dL/g) to afford a tough membrane by solution casting...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365278/-the-becoming-and-development-of-the-scientific-school-of-physiology-of-kidneys-and-water-salt-metabolism-in-novosibirsk
#11
R I Ayzman, A S Panova, T S Sorokina, V V Odintsova
The article considers analysis of stages of becoming and development of scientific school of physiology of kidneys and water-salt metabolism in at the chair of normal physiology of the Novosibirsk State Medical Institute (University) being one of branches of prominent physiological school of I. P. Pavlov-L. A. Orbeli-A. G. Ginetsinsky and his disciples. An original periodization of its history (precondition, becoming, development and concluding periods) is proposed. The fundamental role of professor A.G. Ginetsinsky in becoming of the given physiological school and its further development under the guidance of professor Ya...
July 2018: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30354966/thick-ascending-limb-sodium-transport-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension
#12
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Fara Saez, Casandra M Monzon, Jessica Asirwatham, Jeffrey L Garvin
The thick ascending limb plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte balance. The importance of this segment in regulating blood pressure is evidenced by the effect of loop diuretics or local genetic defects on this parameter. Hormones and factors produced by thick ascending limbs have both autocrine and paracrine effects, which can extend prohypertensive signaling to other structures of the nephron. In this review, we discuss the role of the thick ascending limb in the development of hypertension, not as a sole participant, but one that works within the rich biological context of the renal medulla...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257583/changes-in-photosynthetic-pigments-osmolytes-and-antioxidants-of-indian-mustard-by-drought-and-exogenous-polyamines
#13
Elham Mostafaei, Saeid Zehtab-Salmasi, Yahya Salehi-Lisar, Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani
A pot experiment was performed as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications, to assess the effects of 1 mM spermidine (SPD) and 1 mM putrescine (PUT) on Indian mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) under different levels of watering (100, 75, 50 and 25% of field capacity). Chlorophyll a and b contents decreased, but the ratio of Chl a/b and carotenoid content increased with decreasing water supply. Foliar sprays of polyamines improved chlorophylls a and b and carotenoid contents, while the ratio of Chl a/b was reduced by these growth regulators...
September 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189680/detection-of-glyphosate-in-drinking-water-a-fast-and-direct-detection-method-without-sample-pretreatment
#14
Jafar Safaa Noori, Maria Dimaki, John Mortensen, Winnie E Svendsen
Glyphosate (Gly) is one of the most problematic pesticides that repeatedly appears in drinking water. Continuous on-site detection of Gly in water supplies can provide an early warning in incidents of contamination, before the pesticide reaches the drinking water. Here, we report the first direct detection of Gly in tap water with electrochemical sensing. Gold working electrodes were used to detect the pesticide in spiked tap water without any supporting electrolyte, sample pretreatment or electrode modifications...
September 5, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179148/cerebrospinal-fluid-brain-electrolytes-balance-and-the-unsuspected-intrinsic-property-of-melanin-to-dissociate-the-water-molecule
#15
Arturo Solís Herrera, Ghulam Md Ashraf, María Del Carmen Arias Esparza, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Marco F Avila-Rodriguez, Alfiya Makhmutovа, Magdah Ganash, Osama F Mosa, Abdul Hafeez, Sergey O Bachurin, Gjumrakch Aliev
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Regulation of composition, volume and turnover of fluids surrounding the brain and damp cells is vital. These fluids transport all substances required for cells and remove the unwanted materials. This regulation tends to act as barrier to prevent free exchange of materials between the brain and blood. There are specific mechanisms concerned with fluid secretion of the controlled composition of the brain, and others responsible for reabsorption eventually to blood and the extracellular fluid whatever their composition is...
2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174509/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-regulate-the-oxidative-system-hormones-and-ionic-equilibrium-to-trigger-salt-stress-tolerance-in-cucumis-sativus-l
#16
Abeer Hashem, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Al-Bandari Fahad Al-Arjani, Horiah Abdulaziz Aldehaish, Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) association increases plant stress tolerance. This study aimed to determine the mitigation effect of AMF on the growth and metabolic changes of cucumbers under adverse impact of salt stress. Salinity reduced the water content and synthesis of pigments. However, AMF inoculation ameliorated negative effects by enhancing the biomass, synthesis of pigments, activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and the content of ascorbic acid, which might be the result of lower level lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage...
September 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132153/tomato-myb49-enhances-resistance-to-phytophthora-infestans-and-tolerance-to-water-deficit-and-salt-stress
#17
Jun Cui, Ning Jiang, Xiaoxu Zhou, Xinxin Hou, Guanglei Yang, Jun Meng, Yushi Luan
MYB49-overexpressing tomato plants showed significant resistance to Phytophthora infestans and tolerance to drought and salt stresses. This finding reveals the potential application of tomato MYB49 in future molecular breeding. Biotic and abiotic stresses severely reduce the productivity of tomato worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to find key genes to simultaneously improve plant resistance to pathogens and tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In this study, based on homologous relationships with Arabidopsis R2R3-MYBs (AtMYBs) involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, we identified a total of 24 R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the tomato genome...
December 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127798/high-performance-of-photosynthesis-and-osmotic-adjustment-are-associated-with-salt-tolerance-ability-in-rice-carrying-drought-tolerance-qtl-physiological-and-co-expression-network-analysis
#18
Noppawan Nounjan, Pakkanan Chansongkrow, Varodom Charoensawan, Jonaliza L Siangliw, Theerayut Toojinda, Supachitra Chadchawan, Piyada Theerakulpisut
Understanding specific biological processes involving in salt tolerance mechanisms is important for improving traits conferring tolerance to salinity, one of the most important abiotic stresses in plants. Under drought and salinity stresses, plants share overlapping responsive mechanisms such as physiological changes and activation of signaling molecules, which induce and transmit signals through regulator genes in a regulatory network. In this study, two near isogenic lines of rice carrying chromosome segments of drought tolerance QTL on chromosome 8 from IR68586-F2-CA-31 (DH103) in the genetic background of sensitive cultivar "Khao Dawk Mali 105; KDML105" (designated as CSSL8-94 and CSSL8-95) were used to investigate physiological responses to salt stress [namely growth, Na+ /K+ ratio, water status, osmotic adjustment, photosynthetic parameters, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), proline and sugar accumulations], compared with the standard salt tolerant (Pokkali; PK) and their recurrent parent (KDML105) rice cultivars...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109835/calcium-sensing-receptor-in-nutrient-sensing-an-insight-into-the-modulation-of-intestinal-homoeostasis
#19
Guangmang Liu, Wei Cao, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Jing Wang
The animal gut effectively prevents the entry of hazardous substances and microbes while permitting the transfer of nutrients, such as water, electrolytes, vitamins, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals and microbial metabolites, which are intimately associated with intestinal homoeostasis. The gut maintains biological functions through its nutrient-sensing receptors, including the Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR), which activates a variety of signalling pathways, depending on cellular context. CaSR coordinates food digestion and nutrient absorption, promotes cell proliferation and differentiation, regulates energy metabolism and immune response, stimulates hormone secretion, mitigates secretory diarrhoea and enhances intestinal barrier function...
October 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107882/ectopic-expression-of-fvwrky42-a-wrky-transcription-factor-from-the-diploid-woodland-strawberry-fragaria-vesca-enhances-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-improves-osmotic-stress-resistance-and-increases-abscisic-acid-sensitivity-in-arabidopsis
#20
Wei Wei, Meng-Yuan Cui, Yang Hu, Kuan Gao, Yin-Ge Xie, Ying Jiang, Jia-Yue Feng
WRKY transcription factors play a critical role in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants, but very few WRKYs have been reported in strawberry plants. Here, a multiple stress-inducible gene, FvWRKY42, was isolated from the wild diploid woodland strawberry (accession Heilongjiang-3). FvWRKY42 expression was induced by treatment with powdery mildew, salt, drought, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), abscisic acid (ABA), and ethylene. The protein interaction network analysis showed that the FvWRKY42 protein interacts with various stress-related proteins...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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