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Regulation water electrolytes

Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In many instances, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the vasopressinergic system (VPS) are jointly activated by the same stimuli and engaged in the regulation of the same processes. RECENT FINDINGS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), which are the main active compounds of the RAS and the VPS, interact at several levels. Firstly, Ang II, acting on AT1 receptors (AT1R), plays a significant role in the release of AVP from vasopressinergic neurons and AVP, stimulating V1a receptors (V1aR), regulates the release of renin in the kidney...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Kotoku Kawaguchi, Ryo Hatano, Mitsunobu Matsubara, Shinji Asano
Moesin is expressed in several types of cells including epithelial and endothelial cells. Several groups reported that moesin plays important roles in the regulation of the cellular motility, and the process of internalization of membrane proteins. However, the physiological roles of moesin in the kidney still remain unclear. Herein, we examined the physiological function of moesin in the kidney using moesin knockout (Msn-/y ) mice. There was no obvious abnormality in the renal morphology of Msn-/y mice. However, we found that Msn-/y mice exhibited mild hyperchloremia, and reduced glomerular filtration rate compared to wild type (WT) mice...
March 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Cengiz Kaya, Muhammad Ashraf, Nudrat Aisha Akram
In the present experiment, we aimed to test the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) on growth, key oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide, mineral elements, and antioxidative defense in Capia-type red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants subjected to high concentration of zinc (Zn). A factorial experiment was designed with two Zn levels (0.05 and 0.5 mM) and 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H2 S supplied in combination plus nutrient solution through the root zone. High level of Zn led to reduce dry mass, chlorophyll pigments, fruit yield, leaf maximum fluorescence, and relative water content, but enhanced endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), H2 S, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jose Yeste, Laura Martínez-Gimeno, Xavi Illa, Pablo Laborda, Anton Guimerà, Juan P Sánchez-Marín, Rosa Villa, Ignacio Giménez
Transepithelial electrical measurements in the renal tubule have provided a better understanding of how kidney regulates electrolyte and water homeostasis through the reabsorption of molecules and ions (e.g., H2 O and NaCl). While experiments and measurement techniques using native tissue are difficult to prepare and to reproduce, cell cultures conducted largely with the Ussing chamber lack the effect of fluid shear stress which is a key physiological stimulus in the renal tubule. To overcome these limitations, we present a modular perfusion chamber for long-term culture of renal epithelial cells under flow that allows the continuous and simultaneous monitoring of both transepithelial electrical parameters and transepithelial NaCl transport...
February 20, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Sriteja Mantha, Grayson L Jackson, Mahesh K Mahanthappa, Arun Yethiraj
The dynamics of confined water is of fundamental and long-standing interest. In technologically important forms of confinement, such as proton exchange membranes, electrostatic interactions with the confining matrix and counterions play significant roles on the properties of water. There has been recent interest on the dynamics of water confined to the lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) morphologies of Gemini dicarboxylate surfactants. These systems are exciting because the nature of confinement, e.g., size and curvature of channels and surface functionality is dictated by the chemistry of the self-assembling surfactant molecules...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Surya Amarachintha, Eleana Harmel-Laws, Kris A Steinbrecher
The guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor regulates electrolyte and water secretion into the gut following activation by the E. coli enterotoxin STa, or by weaker endogenous agonists guanylin and uroguanylin. Our previous work has demonstrated that GC-C plays an important role in controlling initial infection as well as carrying load of non-invasive bacterial pathogens in the gut. Here, we use Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to determine whether GC-C signaling is important in host defense against pathogens that actively invade enterocytes...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fernanda Oliveira Coelho, Lecticia Barbosa Jorge, Ana Carolina de Bragança Viciana, Talita Rojas Sanches, Fernando Dos Santos, Claudia Maria B Helou, Maria Claudia Irigoyen, Makoto Kuro-O, Lucia Andrade
The klotho gene, which encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and a secreted protein, is expressed predominantly by the distal renal tubules and is related to calcium-phosphorus metabolism, ion channel regulation, intracellular signaling pathways, and longevity. Klotho deficiency aggravates acute kidney injury and renal fibrosis. Exposure to nicotine also worsens kidney injury. Here, we investigated renal klotho expression in a mouse model of chronic (28-day) nicotine exposure, in which mice received nicotine or vehicle (saccharine) in drinking water, comparing wild-type (klotho+/+) mice, klotho-haploinsufficient (klotho+/-) mice, and their respective controls, in terms of the effects of that exposure...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Dingguo Zhang, David M Pollock
Mounting evidence suggests that there is an internal molecular "clock" within the kidney to help maintain normal renal function. Disturbance of the kidney circadian rhythm may pose a threat to water and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation, amongst many other problems. The identification of circadian genes facilitated a more comprehensive appreciation of the importance of "keeping the body on time"; however, our knowledge is very limited with regard to how circadian genes regulate kidney function...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yan Willière, Aljona Borschewski, Andreas Patzak, Tatiana Nikitina, Carsten Dittmayer, Anna L Daigeler, Markus Schuelke, Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is essential for the formation of caveolae. Little is known about their functional role in the kidney. We tested the hypothesis that caveolae modulate renal salt and water reabsorption. Wild-type (WT) and Cav1-deficient (Cav1-/-) mice were studied. Cav1 expression and caveolae formation were present in vascular cells, late distal convoluted tubule and principal connecting tubule and collecting duct cells of WT but not Cav1-/- kidneys. Urinary sodium excretion was increased by 94% and urine flow by 126% in Cav1-/- mice (p < 0...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tingting Yang, Min He, Changlong Hu
Aldosterone is produced by zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of the adrenal cortex and plays a key role in balancing water and electrolytes levels. Autonomous overproduction of aldosterone leads to primary aldosteronism (PA), which is the most common form of secondary endocrine hypertension. Recently, significant progress has been made towards understanding the genetic basis of PA, where increasing clinical evidence suggests that mutations in ion channels appear to be the major cause of aldosterone-producing adenomas...
December 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t 1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
March 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad Javed Akhtar, Shehzad Mehmood, Kalsoom Akhter, Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Baqir Hussain, Saddam Hussain
Lead (Pb) contamination is ubiquitous and usually causes toxicity to plants. Nevertheless, application of compost and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria synergistically may ameliorate the Pb toxicity in radish. The present study assessed the effects of compost and Bacillus sp. CIK-512 on growth, physiology, antioxidants and uptake of Pb in contaminated soil and explored the possible mechanism for Pb phytotoxicity amelioration. Treatments comprised of un-inoculated control, compost, CIK-512, and compost + CIK-512; plants were grown in soil contaminated with Pb (500mgkg-1 ) and without Pb in pot culture...
February 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
H Wiig, F C Luft, J M Titze
The role of salt in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is not well understood. According to the current understanding, the central mechanism for blood pressure (BP) regulation relies on classical studies linking BP and Na+ balance, placing the kidney at the very centre of long-term BP regulation. To maintain BP homeostasis, the effective circulating fluid volume and thereby body Na+ content has to be maintained within very narrow limits. From recent work in humans and rats, the notion has emerged that Na+ could be stored somewhere in the body without commensurate water retention to buffer free extracellular Na+ and that previously unidentified extrarenal, tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms are operative regulating the release and storage of Na+ from a kidney-independent reservoir...
March 2018: Acta Physiologica
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Ian C Dunican, Gregory R Cox, Louise M Burke
Novel methods of acute weight loss practiced by combat sport athletes include 'water loading&#x2019;; the consumption of large fluid volumes for several days prior to restriction. We examined claims this technique increases total body water losses, while also assessing the risk of hyponatremia. Male athletes were separated into control (CON, n=10) and water loading (WL, n=11) groups and fed a standardised energy-matched diet for 6 days. Day 1-3 fluid intake was 40 mL·kg-1 and 100 mL·kg-1 for CON and WL, respectively with both groups consuming 15 mL·kg-1 on Day 4 and following the same rehydration protocol on Days 5-6...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Rizqah Kamies, Jill M Farrant, Zerihun Tadele, Gina Cannarozzi, Mohammed Suhail Rafudeen
The orphan crop, Eragrostis tef, was subjected to controlled drought conditions to observe the physiological parameters and proteins changing in response to dehydration stress. Physiological measurements involving electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and ultra-structural analysis showed tef plants tolerated water loss to 50% relative water content (RWC) before adverse effects in leaf tissues were observed. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry and appropriate database searching enabled the detection of 5727 proteins, of which 211 proteins, including a number of spliced variants, were found to be differentially regulated with the imposed stress conditions...
November 15, 2017: Proteomes
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir4...
November 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Deyin Zheng, Youhua Jiang, Wentao Yu, Xiufen Jiang, Xin Zhao, Chang-Hwan Choi, Guangyi Sun
Inspired by the Salvinia effect, we report the fabrication and characterization of a novel "sticky" superhydrophobic surface sustaining a Cassie-Baxter wetting state for water droplets with high contact angles but strong solid-liquid retention. Unlike superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus or petal effect, whose hydrophobicity and droplet retention are typically regulated by hierarchical micro- and nanostructures made of a homogeneous material with the same surface energy, our superhydrophobic surface merely requires singular microstructures covered with a hydrophobic coating but creatively coupled with hydrophilic tips with different surface energy...
November 28, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hui Jiang, Xiu-Juan Qin, Wei-Ping Li, Rong Ma, Ting Wang, Zhu-Qing Li
Liver fibrosis is a common stage in the majority of chronic liver diseases, regardless of the etiology, and its progression may lead to hepatic cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolomics, a powerful approach in systems biology, is a discipline used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the small molecule metabolites of cells at specific times and under certain conditions. The present study aimed to investigate serum metabolic changes following Shu Gan Jian Pi formula (SGJPF) treatment of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‑induced liver fibrosis in rats using gas chromatography‑time of flight mass spectrometry (GC‑TOFMS)...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
V A Maksimenko
Clinical-biochemical research of vascular wall hydrated state, water-electrolyte balance has broadened substantially our notions concerning initiation mechanism of vessel damages, methods of their prevention and treatment. Consecutive study of endothelial glycocalyx functioning, computational research of its interaction with oxidative stress, regulation of its state has been aimed at development of novel means of the vascular system protection. Mutual efforts of clinicians and scientists should contribute to the productivity of results of translational cardiology...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
Michael A Peplowski, Andrew J Vegso, Vadim Iablokov, Michael Dicay, Raza S Zaheer, Bernard Renaux, David Proud, Morley D Hollenberg, Paul L Beck, Wallace K MacNaughton
Inflammatory diseases of the gut are associated with altered electrolyte and water transport, leading to the development of diarrhea. Epithelially expressed aquaporins (AQPs) are downregulated in inflammation, although the mechanisms involved are not known. We hypothesized that AQP3 expression in intestinal epithelial cells is altered in intestinal inflammation and that these changes are driven by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α Human colonic adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells were treated with TNFα to investigate signaling mechanisms in vitro...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
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