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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027643/contribution-of-theory-of-mind-executive-functioning-and-pragmatics-to-socialization-behaviors-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#1
Carmen Berenguer, Ana Miranda, Carla Colomer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Belén Roselló
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992273/neural-correlates-of-moral-judgment-in-pedophilia
#2
Claudia Massau, Christian Kärgel, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Jorge Ponseti, Tillmann Hc Krueger, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment paradigm consisting of 36 scenarios describing different types of offenses...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984351/scaling-theory-of-mind-in-a-small-scale-society-a-case-study-from-vanuatu
#3
Henry G W Dixson, Aimée F Komugabe-Dixson, Barnaby J Dixson, Jason Low
Although theory of mind (ToM) is argued to emerge between 3 and 5 years of age, data from non-Western, small-scale societies suggest diversity. Deeper investigations into these settings are warranted. In the current study, over 400 Melanesian children from Vanuatu (range = 3-14 years), growing up in either urban or rural remote environments, completed culturally tailored ToM batteries. Results show a marked delay in false belief (FB) performance, particularly among participants from rural villages. By further investigating a diverse range of concepts beyond FB, we illustrate two unique cultural sequences for a suite of mental state concepts among urban and rural ni-Vanuatu children...
October 6, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983150/theory-of-mind-and-resource-allocation-in-the-context-of-hidden-inequality
#4
Leon Li, Michael T Rizzo, Amanda R Burkholder, Melanie Killen
In many situations, children evaluate straightforward resource inequalities as unfair. It remains unclear, however, how children interpret hidden inequalities (i.e., inequalities that are unknown to allocators and/or recipients). Children 3-9-years-old (N = 87) evaluated and attributed intentions to a naïve resource allocator who, while unaware of a hidden inequality, made three hypothetical resource allocations: 1) an unknowingly equitable allocation (which rectified the inequality), 2) an inequitable allocation (which perpetuated the inequality), and 3) an equal allocation (which maintained the inequality)...
July 2017: Cognitive Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961079/theory-of-mind-and-executive-functions-in-young-bilingual-children
#5
SvenOlof Dahlgren, Helena Almén, Annika Dahlgren Sandberg
Few studies have explored the relationship between theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and bilingualism at the same time. In this study 14 young bilingual children were compared with monolingual children on a test battery composed of 5 ToM tests, 5 EF tests, and 1 test of general language ability. The result showed that despite significantly lower verbal ability, the bilingual children outperformed the monolingual ones on tests of EF. There were no differences in ToM performance. The authors argue that there is a strong relationship between bilingualism and EF, but, contrary to results from earlier studies, they could not find any relationship between bilingualism and ToM...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952180/probing-the-depth-of-infants-theory-of-mind-disunity-in-performance-across-paradigms
#6
Diane Poulin-Dubois, Jessica Yott
There is currently a hot debate in the literature regarding whether or not infants have a true theory of mind (ToM) understanding. According to the mentalistic view, infants possess the same false belief understanding that older children have but their competence is masked by task demands. On the other hand, others have proposed that preverbal infants are incapable of mental state attribution and simply respond to superficial features of the events in spontaneous-responses tasks. In the current study, we aimed to clarify the nature of infants' performance in tasks designed to assess implicit theory of mind (ToM) by adopting a within-subject design that involved testing 18-month-old infants on two batteries of tasks measuring the same four ToM constructs (intention, desire, true belief, and false belief)...
September 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933883/not-just-numeracy-and-literacy-theory-of-mind-development-and-school-readiness-among-low-income-children
#7
Elizabeth Woodburn Cavadel, Douglas A Frye
The current study investigated the role of theory of mind development in school readiness among 120 low-income preschool and kindergarten children. A short-term longitudinal design was used to examine relations among theory of mind, the understanding of teaching, and learning behaviors and their collective role in children's literacy and numeracy skills at school entry. Results replicate differences in theory of mind development among low-income children as compared to typically studied, higher-income samples...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923129/a-cinema-for-the-unborn-moving-pictures-mental-pictures-and-electra-sparks-s-new-thought-film-theory
#8
Patrick Ellis
In the 1910s, New York suffragette Electra Sparks wrote a series of essays in the Moving Picture News that advocated for cine-therapy treatments for pregnant women. Film was, in her view, the great democratizer of beautiful images, providing high-cultural access to the city's poor. These positive 'mental pictures' were important for her because, she claimed, in order to produce an attractive, healthy child, the mother must be exposed to quality cultural material. Sparks's championing of cinema during its 'second birth' was founded upon the premise of New Thought...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922520/a-review-of-joint-attention-and-social-cognitive-brain-systems-in-typical-development-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Peter Mundy
This article provides a review of the increasingly detailed literature on the neurodevelopment of joint attention. Many findings from this literature support and inform the hypothesis that the neurodevelopment of joint attention contributes to the functional development of neural systems for human social cognition. Joint attention begins to develop by 5 months of age and is tantamount to the ability to adopt a common perspective with another person. It involves a whole-brain system with nodes in the: (a) dorsal and medial frontal cortex, (b) orbital frontal/insula cortex, (c) anterior/ posterior cingulate cortex, (d) superior temporal cortex, (e) precuneus/parietal cortex, and (f) amygdala and striatum...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922467/intelligence-and-neurophysiological-markers-of-error-monitoring-relate-to-children-s-intellectual-humility
#10
Judith H Danovitch, Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z Hambrick, Jason Moser
This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888809/childhood-maltreatment-psychological-resources-and-depressive-symptoms-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#11
Kate Ryan Kuhlman, Chloe C Boyle, Michael R Irwin, Patricia A Ganz, Catherine M Crespi, Arash Asher, Laura Petersen, Julienne E Bower
Childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for depression across the human lifespan. Identifying the pathways through which childhood maltreatment relates to depressive symptoms may elucidate intervention targets that have the potential to reduce the lifelong negative health sequelae of maltreatment exposure. In this cross-sectional study, 271 women with early-stage breast cancer were assessed after their diagnosis but before the start of adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, endocrine therapy)...
September 7, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878726/the-family-alliance-model-a-way-to-study-and-characterize-early-family-interactions
#12
Nicolas Favez, France Frascarolo, Hervé Tissot
The aim of this paper is to present the family alliance (FA) model, which is designed to conceptualize the relational dynamics in the early family. FA is defined as the coordination a family can reach when fulfilling a task, such as playing a game or having a meal. According to the model, being coordinated as a family depends on four interactive functions: participation (all members are included), organization (members assume differentiated roles), focalization (family shares a common theme of activity), affect sharing (there is empathy between members)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867944/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-generalized-anxiety
#13
Lucas Borza
As a form of therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is more than a mere "toolbox." CBT allows us to better understand how the human mind is functioning because it is based on neuroscience and experimental and scientific psychology. At the beginning, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was "nontheoretical," but nowadays (the most recent version being DSM-5), it is increasingly based on CBT paradigms (with the insertion of important notions such as cognitions and behaviors). This Brief Report presents what we currently know about generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and how we can treat this condition by nonpharmaceutical means...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858772/the-influence-of-reputational-concerns-on-children-s-prosociality
#14
REVIEW
Jan M Engelmann, Diotima J Rapp
While it is well known that reputational concerns promote prosociality in adults, their ontogenetic origins remain poorly understood. Here we review evidence suggesting that the first prosocial acts of young children are not aimed at gaining reputational credit. However, at approximately five years of age, children come to be concerned about their reputations, and their prosocial behaviors show the signature of self-promotional strategies: increased prosociality in public compared to private settings. In middle childhood, at around eight years of age, children acquire further abilities to control the image they project and start to reason explicitly about their reputation...
August 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829682/young-children-are-more-likely-to-spontaneously-attribute-mental-states-to-members-of-their-own-group
#15
Niamh McLoughlin, Harriet Over
We investigated whether young children were more likely to spontaneously attribute mental states to members of their own social group than to members of an out-group. We asked 5- and 6-year-old children to describe the actions of interacting geometric shapes and manipulated whether the children believed these shapes represented their own group or another group. Children of both ages spontaneously used mental-state words more often in their description of in-group members compared with out-group members. Furthermore, 6-year-olds produced a greater diversity of mental-state terms when talking about their own social group...
October 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822896/giving-what-one-should-explanations-for-the-knowledge-behavior-gap-for-altruistic-giving
#16
REVIEW
Peter R Blake
Several studies have shown that children struggle to give what they believe that they should: the so-called knowledge-behavior gap. Over a dozen recent Dictator Game studies find that, although young children believe that they should give half of a set of resources to a peer, they typically give less and often keep all of the resources for themselves. This article reviews recent evidence for five potential explanations for the gap and how children close it with age: self-regulation, social distance, theory of mind, moral knowledge and social learning...
August 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818286/adding-sound-to-theory-of-mind-comparing-children-s-development-of-mental-state-understanding-in-the-auditory-and-visual-realms
#17
Anita A Hasni, Lauren B Adamson, Rebecca A Williamson, Diana L Robins
Theory of mind (ToM) gradually develops during the preschool years. Measures of ToM usually target visual experience, but auditory experiences also provide valuable social information. Given differences between the visual and auditory modalities (e.g., sights persist, sounds fade) and the important role environmental input plays in social-cognitive development, we asked whether modality might influence the progression of ToM development. The current study expands Wellman and Liu's ToM scale (2004) by testing 66 preschoolers using five standard visual ToM tasks and five newly crafted auditory ToM tasks...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818270/the-glass-ceiling-a-biological-phenomenon
#18
Tom W J Schulpen
Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813301/stress-and-child-development-a-review-of-the-family-stress-model
#19
REVIEW
April S Masarik, Rand D Conger
In the present report, we provide an illustrative review of the Family Stress Model (FSM) framework [1] to understand how family stress influences children across development in physical, social-emotional, and cognitive domains. We note that the FSM as a theory has evolved through inspection of: (a) new explanatory pathways (mediators); (b) factors that moderate FSM pathways; and (c) joint tests of competing models. Also important, most researchers cited in this review used longitudinal designs to test the proposed causal ordering of FSM pathways, which replicated among a diverse set of families varied in structure, ethnic background, and geographic location...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809068/false-belief-attribution-in-children-with-williams-syndrome-the-answer-is-in-the-emotion
#20
R Campos, P Martínez-Castilla, M Sotillo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) show difficulties in attributing false beliefs, whereas they are better at attributing emotions. This study examines whether being asked about the emotion linked to a false belief, instead of explicitly about the belief, facilitates performance on theory of mind (ToM) tasks. METHOD: Thirty children with WS and 90 typically developing children, who were individually matched on mental age (50-112 months), were administered six explicit (i...
November 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
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