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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895605/social-cognition-in-preschoolers-effects-of-early-experience-and-individual-differences
#1
Daniela Bulgarelli, Paola Molina
Social cognition is the way in which people process, remember, and use information in social contexts to explain and predict their own behavior and that of others. Children's social cognition may be influenced by multiple factors, both external and internal to the child. In the current study, two aspects of social cognition were examined: Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of type of early care (0-3 years of age), maternal education, parents' country of birth, and child's language on the social cognition of 118 Italian preschoolers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893232/narrative-production-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-similarities-and-differences
#2
Sanne J M Kuijper, Catharina A Hartman, Suzanne T M Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Petra Hendriks
The present study focuses on the similarities and differences in language production between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we investigated whether Theory of Mind (ToM), working memory, and response inhibition are associated with language production. Narratives, produced by 106 Dutch-speaking children (36 with ASD, 34 with ADHD, and 36 typically developing) aged 6 to 12 during ADOS assessment, were examined on several linguistic measures: verbal productivity, speech fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical semantics, and discourse pragmatics...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867370/theory-of-mind-deficits-and-social-emotional-functioning-in-preschoolers-with-specific-language-impairment
#3
REVIEW
Constance Vissers, Sophieke Koolen
Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM). In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years) with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859217/feeling-one-s-way-in-the-world-making-a-life
#4
Margaret M Browning
This paper argues for the psychoanalytic relevance of the works of James Gibson and Susanne Langer in explicating the early development of the human child and makes use of this combined formulation of development to think about psychoanalytic theory and practice. From the insights of James Gibson's ecological psychology we can appreciate the embodiment and embeddedness of the child's growing mind within both her physical and social environments. Making use of Susanne Langer's concept of feeling to redefine ecological psychology's perceptual counterpart to action allows us to understand the child's seamless transition into active participation in her culture, as she learns to project her animalian capacity to feel into intersubjectively defined forms of behavior and experience with others...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856121/corrigendum-to-neural-responses-to-affective-and-cognitive-theory-of-mind-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-neurosci-lett-621-2016-117-125
#5
Eunjoo Kim, Sunghyon Kyeong, Keun-Ah Cheon, Bumhee Park, Maeng-Keun Oh, Ji Won Chun, Hae-Jeong Park, Jae-Jin Kim, Dong-Ho Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826283/peer-interaction-does-not-always-improve-children-s-mental-state-talk-production-in-oral-narratives-a-study-in-6-to-10-year-old-italian-children
#6
Giuliana Pinto, Christian Tarchi, Lucia Bigozzi
Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind (ToM), thus they represent an ideal means to explore children's use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children's ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children's mental state talk...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821294/development-of-constructivist-theory-of-mind-from-middle-childhood-to-early-adulthood-and-its-relation-to-social-cognition-and-behavior
#7
Amy A Weimer, Susan J Parault Dowds, William V Fabricius, Paula J Schwanenflugel, Go Woon Suh
Two studies examined the development of constructivist theory of mind (ToM) during late childhood and early adolescence. In Study 1, a new measure was developed to assess participants' understanding of the interpretive and constructive processes embedded in memory, comprehension, attention, comparison, planning, and inference. Using this measure, Study 2 tested a mediational model in which prosocial reasoning about conflict mediated the relation between constructivist ToM and behavior problems in high school...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818637/social-competence-in-children-with-borderline-intellectual-functioning-delayed-development-of-theory-of-mind-across-all-complexity-levels
#8
Gisella Baglio, Valeria Blasi, Francesca Sangiuliano Intra, Ilaria Castelli, Davide Massaro, Francesca Baglio, Annalisa Valle, Michela Zanette, Antonella Marchetti
Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that this population still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study children with BIF investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) as a pillar of social competence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812344/beyond-conceptual-knowledge-the-impact-of-children-s-theory-of-mind-on-dyadic-spatial-tasks
#9
Karine M P Viana, Imac M Zambrana, Evalill B Karevold, Francisco Pons
Recent studies show that Theory of Mind (ToM) has implications for children's social competences and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, although it is well documented that children overall take advantage when they have to resolve cognitive problems together with a partner, whether individual difference in ToM is one of the mechanisms that could explain cognitive performances produced in social interaction has received little attention. This study examines to what extent ToM explains children's spatial performances in a dyadic situation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790175/predictors-and-moderators-of-spontaneous-pretend-play-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Erin Kang, Eliana F Klein, Angeline S Lillard, Matthew D Lerner
Although pretend play has long been linked to children's normative cognitive development, inconsistent findings call for greater rigor in examining this relation (Lillard et al., 2013). Spontaneous pretend play is often impacted in atypical development, notably in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since ASD traits exist along a continuum in the general population, investigating how pretend play varies across the range of ASD symptoms by indexing variations in ASD traits in both typically developing and ASD populations may provide insight into how ASD symptoms may influence the relation between pretend play and associated processes in cognitive development...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780091/gender-differentiated-effects-of-theory-of-mind-emotion-understanding-and-social-preference-on-prosocial-behavior-development-a-longitudinal-study
#11
Rebecca-Lee Kuhnert, Sander Begeer, Elian Fink, Marc de Rosnay
Although key differences have been found in boys' and girls' prosocial behavior toward peers, few studies have systematically examined gender differences in how intrinsic perspective-taking abilities-theory of mind (ToM) and emotion understanding (EU)-and the extrinsic peer environment relate to prosocial behavior. In this prospective longitudinal study, we studied gender differences in the relations between children's observed prosocial behavior and their ToM, EU, and social preference ratings in 114 children (58 boys and 56 girls)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774075/false-belief-understanding-and-language-ability-mediate-the-relationship-between-emotion-comprehension-and-prosocial-orientation-in-preschoolers
#12
Veronica Ornaghi, Alessandro Pepe, Ilaria Grazzani
Emotion comprehension (EC) is known to be a key correlate and predictor of prosociality from early childhood. In the present study, we examined this relationship within the broad theoretical construct of social understanding which includes a number of socio-emotional skills, as well as cognitive and linguistic abilities. Theory of mind, especially false-belief understanding, has been found to be positively correlated with both EC and prosocial orientation. Similarly, language ability is known to play a key role in children's socio-emotional development...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773367/bayesian-change-point-analysis-reveals-developmental-change-in-a-classic-theory-of-mind-task
#13
Sara T Baker, Alan M Leslie, C R Gallistel, Bruce M Hood
Although learning and development reflect changes situated in an individual brain, most discussions of behavioral change are based on the evidence of group averages. Our reliance on group-averaged data creates a dilemma. On the one hand, we need to use traditional inferential statistics. On the other hand, group averages are highly ambiguous when we need to understand change in the individual; the average pattern of change may characterize all, some, or none of the individuals in the group. Here we present a new method for statistically characterizing developmental change in each individual child we study...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741442/the-influence-of-a-bystander-agent-s-beliefs-on-children-s-and-adults-decision-making-process
#14
Frances Buttelmann, David Buttelmann
The ability to attribute and represent others' mental states (e.g., beliefs; so-called "theory of mind") is essential for participation in human social interaction. Despite a considerable body of research using tasks in which protagonists in the participants' attentional focus held false or true beliefs, the question of automatic belief attribution to bystander agents has received little attention. In the current study, we presented adults and 6-year-olds (N=92) with an implicit computer-based avoidance false-belief task in which participants were asked to place an object into one of three boxes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726852/does-the-way-we-read-others-mind-change-over-the-lifespan-insights-from-a-massive-web-poll-of-cognitive-skills-from-childhood-to-late-adulthood
#15
David Klindt, Marie Devaine, Jean Daunizeau
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e., the ability to recognize what people think or feel, is a crucial component of human social intelligence. It has been recently proposed that ToM can be decomposed into automatic and controlled neurocognitive components, where only the latter engage executive functions (e.g., working memory, inhibitory control and task switching). Critical here is the notion that such dual processes are expected to follow different developmental dynamics. In this work, we provide novel experimental evidence for this notion...
September 23, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705092/an-fmri-study-on-the-comparison-of-different-types-of-false-belief-reasoning-false-belief-based-emotion-and-behaviour-attribution
#16
Katrin Döhnel, Tobias Schuwerk, Beate Sodian, Göran Hajak, Rainer Rupprecht, Monika Sommer
False belief reasoning is a key Theory of Mind (ToM) competence. By four years of age children understand that a person's behaviour can be based on a false belief about reality. Children cannot understand that a person's emotion can also be based on a false belief before the age of six. In order to generate hypothesis on basic processes distinguishing these two types of belief reasoning, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in adults directly compares functional activity associated with these two false belief tasks...
October 5, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703438/playing-with-expectations-a-contextual-view-of-humor-development
#17
Gabriella Airenti
In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children's ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699986/unresolved-attachment-and-agency-in-women-victims-of-intimate-partner-violence-a-case-control-study
#18
Susanna Pallini, Agnese Alfani, Lucrezia Marech, Fiorenzo Laghi
OBJECTIVES: Women victims of IPV are more likely insecurely attached and have experienced childhood abuse, which according to the attachment theory is deeply related to disorganized attachment. This case-control study was performed with the aim to compare the attachment status and the defensive processing patterns of women victims of IPV (cases) with women with no experiences of IPV (controls). METHODS: Cases were 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 51 years...
October 4, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696613/implicit-and-explicit-false-belief-development-in-preschool-children
#19
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann, Angela D Friederici, Tania Singer, Nikolaus Steinbeis
The ability to represent the mental states of other agents is referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). A developmental breakthrough in ToM consists of understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. Recently, infants younger than 2 years of age have been shown to pass novel implicit false belief tasks. However, the processes underlying these tasks and their relation to later-developing explicit false belief understanding, as well as to other cognitive abilities, are not yet understood. Here, we study a battery of implicit and explicit false belief tasks in 3- and 4-year-old children, relating their performance to linguistic abilities and executive functions...
October 2, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696187/reputation-management-in-children-on-the-autism-spectrum
#20
Eilidh Cage, Geoffrey Bird, Elizabeth Pellicano
Being able to manage reputation is an important social skill, but it is unclear whether autistic children can manage reputation. This study investigated whether 33 autistic children matched to 33 typical children could implicitly or explicitly manage reputation. Further, we examined whether cognitive processes-theory of mind, social motivation, inhibitory control and reciprocity-contribute to reputation management. Results showed that neither group implicitly managed reputation, and there was no group difference in explicit reputation management...
December 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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