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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674170/theory-of-mind-as-a-link-between-oxytocin-and-maternal-behavior
#1
Anna L MacKinnon, C Sue Carter, Nancy Feeley, Ian Gold, Barbara Hayton, Sangeetha Santhakumaran, Phyllis Zelkowitz
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a neuropeptide associated with maternal behavior. However the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. In a previous study we observed an indirect effect of increased plasma oxytocin during late pregnancy on early postpartum maternal interactive behavior via theory of mind, as assessed by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). The current study aimed to extend these findings by testing whether this indirect effect would hold longitudinally for maternal behavior at 2-3 years postpartum, as well as for an additional observational measure of maternal mind-mindedness...
March 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671641/theory-of-mind-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-associations-with-the-sibling-constellation
#2
Nicole L Matthews, Wendy A Goldberg
The two prior studies that have examined associations between the sibling constellation and theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder yielded discrepant findings. Thus, efforts to better understand the sibling-theory of mind link in autism spectrum disorder are necessary. This study examined a sample of prekindergarten- and kindergarten-aged (i.e. 4-6 years) typically developing children ( n = 39) and verbal children with autism spectrum disorder ( n = 61). Sibling presence, number of siblings, and having younger and older siblings were positively associated with theory of mind in typically developing children, but not in the full sample of children with autism spectrum disorder...
April 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669270/eye-movements-provide-insight-into-individual-differences-in-children-s-analogical-reasoning-strategies
#3
Ariel Starr, Michael S Vendetti, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning is considered a key driver of cognitive development and is a strong predictor of academic achievement. However, it is difficult for young children, who are prone to focusing on perceptual and semantic similarities among items rather than relational commonalities. For example, in a classic A:B::C:? propositional analogy task, children must inhibit attention towards items that are visually or semantically similar to C, and instead focus on finding a relational match to the A:B pair. Competing theories of reasoning development attribute improvements in children's performance to gains in either executive functioning or semantic knowledge...
April 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660808/longitudinal-theory-of-mind-tom-development-from-preschool-to-adolescence-with-and-without-tom-delay
#4
Candida C Peterson, Henry M Wellman
Longitudinal tracking of 107 three- to-thirteen-year-olds in a cross-sequential design showed a 6-step theory of mind (ToM) sequence identified by a few past cross-sectional studies validly depicted longitudinal ToM development from early to middle childhood for typically developing (TD) children and those with ToM delays owing to deafness or autism. Substantively, all groups showed ToM progress throughout middle childhood. Atypical development was more extended and began and ended at lower levels than for TD children...
April 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644583/construction-of-past-and-future-events-in-children-and-adolescents-with-asd-role-of-self-relatedness-and-relevance-to-decision-making
#5
Elisa Ciaramelli, Silvia Spoglianti, Elena Bertossi, Nadia Generali, Francesca Telarucci, Raffaella Tancredi, Filippo Muratori, Roberta Igliozzi
We studied episodic memory and future thinking for self-relevant and other-relevant events at different levels of retrieval support, theory of mind, and delay discounting in ASD children and adolescents (ASDs). Compared to typically developing controls, ASDs produced fewer internal (episodic) but a similar number of external (semantic) details while remembering past events, imagining future events, and imagining future events happening to others, indicating a general impairment of event construction. This deficit was driven by group differences under high retrieval support, and therefore unlikely to depend on self-initiated retrieval/construction deficits...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619648/on-the-relation-between-theory-of-mind-and-executive-functioning-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#6
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Jennifer M Jenkins, Keith O Yeates, Tricia Williams, Kang Lee
Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) show marked interrelatedness across childhood, and developmental psychologists have long been interested in understanding the nature of this association. The present review addresses this issue from a cognitive neuroscience perspective by exploring three hypotheses regarding their functional overlap: (1) ToM relies on EF (EF→ToM); (2) EF relies on ToM (ToM→EF); and (3) ToM and EF are mutually related, owing to shared neural structures or networks (ToM↔EF)...
April 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602030/children-s-referential-communication-skills-the-role-of-cognitive-abilities-and-adult-models-of-speech
#7
Berna A Uzundag, Aylin C Küntay
Referential communication is effective when speakers describe a specific entity in a way that leads to accurate identification of that referent among competitors. Young children's initial referential expressions are often inadequate, and this state of miscommunication needs to be repaired in subsequent communicative attempts. Exposure to adults' effective descriptions of referents is beneficial for children to develop referentially clear initial descriptions. Here, we examined whether adult models of speech also provide benefits for children's communicative repair behavior...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593053/functional-organization-of-the-temporal-parietal-junction-for-theory-of-mind-in-preverbal-infants-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Daniel C Hyde, Charline E Simon, Fransisca Ting, Julia Nikolaeva
Successful human social life requires imagining what others believe or think to understand and predict behavior. This ability, often referred to as theory of mind, reliably engages a specialized network of temporal and prefrontal brain regions in older children and adults, including selective recruitment of temporal-parietal junction (TPJ). To date, how and when this specialized brain organization for ToM arises is unknown due to limitations in functional neuroimaging at younger ages. Here we employed the emerging technique of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure the functional brain response across the parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions in 7-month old male and female infants as they viewed different video scenarios of a person searching for a hidden object...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576384/assessing-social-pragmatic-inferencing-skills-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Soile Loukusa, Leena Mäkinen, Sanna Kuusikko-Gauffin, Hanna Ebeling, Eeva Leinonen
By utilizing the Pragma test this study investigated how sixteen five- to ten-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and sixteen typically developing (TD) children comprehended contextually challenging scenarios demanding 1) contextual inference with theory of mind (ToM), 2) contextual inference without ToM, 3) relevant use of language, 4) recognition of feelings, and 5) understanding false beliefs. The study also compared children's ability to explain their own correct answers. In addition, this study evaluated the sensitivity of three different methods for discriminating the children with ASD from the TD children: 1) the Pragma test, 2) the Social Interaction Deviance Composite (SIDC) of Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2), and 3) the Theory of Mind subtest of the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second edition (NEPSY-II)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576026/developmental-trends-of-hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-school-aged-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-links-with-theory-of-mind
#10
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been investigated using only "cool"-cognitive EF tasks while there is limited knowledge regarding the development of "hot"-affective EF. Although cool EF development and its links to theory of mind (ToM) have been widely examined, understanding of the influence of hot EF to ToM mechanisms is minimal. The present study introduced a longitudinal design to examine the developmental changes in cool and hot EF of children with ASD (n = 45) and matched (to age and IQ) controls (n = 37) as well as the impact of EF on ToM development over a school year...
March 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568160/learning-about-parenting-together-a-programme-to-support-parents-with-inter-generational-concerns-in-pune-india
#11
Emma E de Wit, Adithy, Cheryl Chakranarayan, Joske F G Bunders-Aelen, Barbara J Regeer
Rapid developments in the last few decades have brought about dramatic changes in Indian social life, particularly affecting new middle-class families. Inter-generational conflicts, high academic pressures, and modern anxieties lead to stress both in parents and in children. There is a need for parenting programmes that respond to these specific concerns, in order to reduce parenting stress and improve family well-being. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a parenting programme in Pune, India, based on a 'theory of change'...
2018: Contemporary Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558768/using-story-based-interventions-to-improve-episodic-memory-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551956/theory-of-mind-development-and-early-sibling-relationships-after-the-birth-of-a-sibling-parental-discipline-matters
#13
Ju-Hyun Song, Brenda Volling
This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and sibling interactions (i.e., positive engagement and antagonism) and parental discipline strategies (i.e., child-centred and parent-centred discipline) at 4 and 8 months in the first year of siblinghood...
January 2018: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547763/executive-function-predicts-theory-of-mind-but-not-social-verbal-communication-in-school-aged-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Bonnie Auyeung
BACKGROUND: The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544158/evaluation-of-an-intervention-promoting-emotion-regulation-skills-for-adults-with-persisting-distress-due-to-adverse-childhood-experiences
#15
Linda D Cameron, Paul Carroll, W Kyle Hamilton
This phase II trial evaluated psychosocial and health outcomes of an intervention designed to improve emotion regulation skills in adults suffering from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which 92 adults enrolled in the community-based program completed pretest measures, attended either a faith-based or secular version of the 12-week ACE Overcomers program, and then completed posttest measures. The theory-guided program involved group sessions providing education and skills training to improve emotion regulation, self-awareness, resilience, and social functioning...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531321/development-of-the-social-brain-from-age-three-to-twelve-years
#16
Hilary Richardson, Grace Lisandrelli, Alexa Riobueno-Naylor, Rebecca Saxe
Human adults recruit distinct networks of brain regions to think about the bodies and minds of others. This study characterizes the development of these networks, and tests for relationships between neural development and behavioral changes in reasoning about others' minds ('theory of mind', ToM). A large sample of children (n = 122, 3-12 years), and adults (n = 33), watched a short movie while undergoing fMRI. The movie highlights the characters' bodily sensations (often pain) and mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions), and is a feasible experiment for young children...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528676/children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-show-pronoun-reversals-in-interpretation
#17
Jessica Overweg, Catharina A Hartman, Petra Hendriks
Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6-12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children with ASD and 43 typically developing (TD) peers. We contrasted children's interpretation of I and you in indirect and direct speech reports, with the latter type requiring an additional perspective shift. To examine which cognitive processes are involved in pronoun interpretation, additional tasks were administered to measure Theory of Mind (ToM) understanding, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525893/children-s-demonstrative-comprehension-and-the-role-of-non-linguistic-cognitive-abilities-a-cross-linguistic-study
#18
Chia-Ying Chu, Utako Minai
Previous studies have shown that young children often fail to comprehend demonstratives correctly when they are uttered by a speaker whose perspective is different from children's own, and instead tend to interpret them with respect to their own perspective (e.g., Webb and Abrahamson in J Child Lang 3(3):349-367, 1976); Clark and Sengul in J Child Lang 5(3):457-475, 1978). In the current study, we examined children's comprehension of demonstratives in English (this and that) and Mandarin Chinese (zhe and na) in order to test the hypothesis that children's non-adult-like demonstrative comprehension is related to their still-developing non-linguistic cognitive abilities supporting perspective-taking, including Theory of Mind and Executive Function...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505608/evidence-of-embodied-social-competence-during-conversation-in-high-functioning-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Veronica Romero, Paula Fitzpatrick, Stephanie Roulier, Amie Duncan, Michael J Richardson, R C Schmidt
Even high functioning children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit impairments that affect their ability to carry out and maintain effective social interactions in multiple contexts. One aspect of subtle nonverbal communication that might play a role in this impairment is the whole-body motor coordination that naturally arises between people during conversation. The current study aimed to measure the time-dependent, coordinated whole-body movements between children with ASD and a clinician during a conversational exchange using tools of nonlinear dynamics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461111/executive-function-in-middle-childhood-and-the-relationship-with-theory-of-mind
#20
Jennifer Wilson, Glenda Andrews, Christy Hogan, Si Wang, David H K Shum
A group of 126 typically developing children (aged 5-12 years) completed three cool executive function tasks (spatial working memory, stop signal, intra-extra dimensional shift), two hot executive function tasks (gambling, delay of gratification), one advanced theory of mind task (strange stories with high versus low affective tone), and a vocabulary test. Older children performed better than younger children, consistent with the protracted development of hot and cool executive functions and theory of mind...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
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