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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072823/syntactic-recursion-facilitates-and-working-memory-predicts-recursive-theory-of-mind
#1
Burcu Arslan, Annette Hohenberger, Rineke Verbrugge
In this study, we focus on the possible roles of second-order syntactic recursion and working memory in terms of simple and complex span tasks in the development of second-order false belief reasoning. We tested 89 Turkish children in two age groups, one younger (4;6-6;5 years) and one older (6;7-8;10 years). Although second-order syntactic recursion is significantly correlated with the second-order false belief task, results of ordinal logistic regressions revealed that the main predictor of second-order false belief reasoning is complex working memory span...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062515/joint-attention-and-brain-functional-connectivity-in-infants-and-toddlers
#2
Adam T Eggebrecht, Jed T Elison, Eric Feczko, Alexandre Todorov, Jason J Wolff, Sridhar Kandala, Chloe M Adams, Abraham Z Snyder, John D Lewis, Annette M Estes, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Kelly N Botteron, Robert C McKinstry, John N Constantino, Alan Evans, Heather C Hazlett, Stephen Dager, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Guido Gerig, Samir Das, Penelope Kostopoulos, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett
Initiating joint attention (IJA), the behavioral instigation of coordinated focus of 2 people on an object, emerges over the first 2 years of life and supports social-communicative functioning related to the healthy development of aspects of language, empathy, and theory of mind. Deficits in IJA provide strong early indicators for autism spectrum disorder, and therapies targeting joint attention have shown tremendous promise. However, the brain systems underlying IJA in early childhood are poorly understood, due in part to significant methodological challenges in imaging localized brain function that supports social behaviors during the first 2 years of life...
January 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059932/a-developmental-perspective-on-social-cognition-difficulties-in-youth-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#3
Sarah Hope Lincoln, Emily M Norkett, Katherine H Frost, Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich, Eugene J D'Angelo
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate the evolution of social cognitive abilities as a developmental process• Assess the evidence regarding social cognition difficulties in youth at clinical high risk for psychosisIndividuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis exhibit a broad range of difficulties, including impaired social cognition, which may represent a target for early identification and intervention. Several studies have examined various domains of social cognition in CHR individuals...
January 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024828/gene-and-environment-interaction-is-the-differential-susceptibility-hypothesis-relevant-for-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Roberta Dalle Molle, Hajar Fatemi, Alain Dagher, Robert D Levitan, Patricia P Silveira, Laurette Dubé
The differential susceptibility model states that a given genetic variant is associated with an increased risk of pathology in negative environments but greater than average resilience in enriched ones. While this theory was first implemented in psychiatric-genetic research, it may also help us to unravel the complex ways that genes and environments interact to influence feeding behavior and obesity. We reviewed evidence on gene vs. environment interactions that influence obesity development, aiming to support the applicability of the differential susceptibility model for this condition, and propose that various environmental "layers" relevant for human development should be considered when bearing the differential susceptibility model in mind...
December 23, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992896/child-molesters-cognitive-distortions-conceptualizations-of-the-term
#5
REVIEW
Filip Szumski, Monika Zielona-Jenek
The concept of cognitive distortion was created by A. T. Beck and it is one of the key-concepts of cognitive psychotherapy. In the 80s of the twentieth century, researchers began to use it in studies of sexual offending, but with reference to the social learning theory rather than to the theory of cognitive psychotherapy. Subsequent authors continued the use of this term in the determinants of child molestation and defined them as products emerging from specific implicit theory of the offender, the judgements resulting from his beliefs, values and actions, dysfunctional cognitive schemas, deviant cognitive practices undertaken in the interaction of internal and external components of perpetrator's cognitive system and his social practices...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977224/scientific-thinking-in-elementary-school-children-s-social-cognition-and-their-epistemological-understanding-promote-experimentation-skills
#6
Christopher Osterhaus, Susanne Koerber, Beate Sodian
Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding...
December 15, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966800/individual-differences-in-children-s-corepresentation-of-self-and-other-in-joint-action
#7
Sophie J Milward, Sotaro Kita, Ian A Apperly
Previous research has shown that children aged 4-5 years, but not 2-3 years, show adult-like interference from a partner when performing a joint task (Milward, Kita, & Apperly, 2014). This raises questions about the cognitive skills involved in the development of such "corepresentation (CR)" of a partner (Sebanz, Knoblich, & Prinz, 2003). Here, individual differences data from one hundred and thirteen 4- to 5-year-olds showed theory of mind (ToM) and inhibitory control (IC) as predictors of ability to avoid CR interference, suggesting that children with better ToM abilities are more likely to succeed in decoupling self and other representations in a joint task, while better IC is likely to help children avoid interference from a partner's response when selecting their own response on the task...
December 14, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939397/on-the-origins-of-organology-franz-joseph-gall-and-a-girl-named-bianchi
#8
Paul Eling, Stanley Finger, Harry Whitaker
Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) introduced a new theory of mind and brain at the end of the eighteenth century, which he referred to as organology, dealing with mental functions and their cortical localizations. Gall wrote that observations regarding the verbal learning capacities of his schoolmates brought about his new way of thinking. This widely accepted view, however, requires qualification. Although Gall's experiences and observations as a schoolboy were relevant, especially for his craniology, these childhood memories might have been recalled and reinterpreted after he had started to think about the faculties of mind-specifically after he had met Bianchi, a 5-year-old girl with a special talent for music...
November 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895605/social-cognition-in-preschoolers-effects-of-early-experience-and-individual-differences
#9
Daniela Bulgarelli, Paola Molina
Social cognition is the way in which people process, remember, and use information in social contexts to explain and predict their own behavior and that of others. Children's social cognition may be influenced by multiple factors, both external and internal to the child. In the current study, two aspects of social cognition were examined: Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of type of early care (0-3 years of age), maternal education, parents' country of birth, and child's language on the social cognition of 118 Italian preschoolers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893232/narrative-production-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-similarities-and-differences
#10
Sanne J M Kuijper, Catharina A Hartman, Suzanne T M Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Petra Hendriks
The present study focuses on the similarities and differences in language production between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we investigated whether Theory of Mind (ToM), working memory, and response inhibition are associated with language production. Narratives, produced by 106 Dutch-speaking children (36 with ASD, 34 with ADHD, and 36 typically developing) aged 6 to 12 during ADOS assessment, were examined on several linguistic measures: verbal productivity, speech fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical semantics, and discourse pragmatics...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867370/theory-of-mind-deficits-and-social-emotional-functioning-in-preschoolers-with-specific-language-impairment
#11
REVIEW
Constance Vissers, Sophieke Koolen
Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM). In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years) with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859217/feeling-one-s-way-in-the-world-making-a-life
#12
Margaret M Browning
This paper argues for the psychoanalytic relevance of the works of James Gibson and Susanne Langer in explicating the early development of the human child and makes use of this combined formulation of development to think about psychoanalytic theory and practice. From the insights of James Gibson's ecological psychology we can appreciate the embodiment and embeddedness of the child's growing mind within both her physical and social environments. Making use of Susanne Langer's concept of feeling to redefine ecological psychology's perceptual counterpart to action allows us to understand the child's seamless transition into active participation in her culture, as she learns to project her animalian capacity to feel into intersubjectively defined forms of behavior and experience with others...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856121/corrigendum-to-neural-responses-to-affective-and-cognitive-theory-of-mind-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-neurosci-lett-621-2016-117-125
#13
Eunjoo Kim, Sunghyon Kyeong, Keun-Ah Cheon, Bumhee Park, Maeng-Keun Oh, Ji Won Chun, Hae-Jeong Park, Jae-Jin Kim, Dong-Ho Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826283/peer-interaction-does-not-always-improve-children-s-mental-state-talk-production-in-oral-narratives-a-study-in-6-to-10-year-old-italian-children
#14
Giuliana Pinto, Christian Tarchi, Lucia Bigozzi
Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind (ToM), thus they represent an ideal means to explore children's use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children's ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children's mental state talk...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821294/development-of-constructivist-theory-of-mind-from-middle-childhood-to-early-adulthood-and-its-relation-to-social-cognition-and-behavior
#15
Amy A Weimer, Susan J Parault Dowds, William V Fabricius, Paula J Schwanenflugel, Go Woon Suh
Two studies examined the development of constructivist theory of mind (ToM) during late childhood and early adolescence. In Study 1, a new measure was developed to assess participants' understanding of the interpretive and constructive processes embedded in memory, comprehension, attention, comparison, planning, and inference. Using this measure, Study 2 tested a mediational model in which prosocial reasoning about conflict mediated the relation between constructivist ToM and behavior problems in high school...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818637/social-competence-in-children-with-borderline-intellectual-functioning-delayed-development-of-theory-of-mind-across-all-complexity-levels
#16
Gisella Baglio, Valeria Blasi, Francesca Sangiuliano Intra, Ilaria Castelli, Davide Massaro, Francesca Baglio, Annalisa Valle, Michela Zanette, Antonella Marchetti
Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that this population still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study children with BIF investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) as a pillar of social competence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812344/beyond-conceptual-knowledge-the-impact-of-children-s-theory-of-mind-on-dyadic-spatial-tasks
#17
Karine M P Viana, Imac M Zambrana, Evalill B Karevold, Francisco Pons
Recent studies show that Theory of Mind (ToM) has implications for children's social competences and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, although it is well documented that children overall take advantage when they have to resolve cognitive problems together with a partner, whether individual difference in ToM is one of the mechanisms that could explain cognitive performances produced in social interaction has received little attention. This study examines to what extent ToM explains children's spatial performances in a dyadic situation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790175/predictors-and-moderators-of-spontaneous-pretend-play-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Erin Kang, Eliana F Klein, Angeline S Lillard, Matthew D Lerner
Although pretend play has long been linked to children's normative cognitive development, inconsistent findings call for greater rigor in examining this relation (Lillard et al., 2013). Spontaneous pretend play is often impacted in atypical development, notably in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since ASD traits exist along a continuum in the general population, investigating how pretend play varies across the range of ASD symptoms by indexing variations in ASD traits in both typically developing and ASD populations may provide insight into how ASD symptoms may influence the relation between pretend play and associated processes in cognitive development...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780091/gender-differentiated-effects-of-theory-of-mind-emotion-understanding-and-social-preference-on-prosocial-behavior-development-a-longitudinal-study
#19
Rebecca-Lee Kuhnert, Sander Begeer, Elian Fink, Marc de Rosnay
Although key differences have been found in boys' and girls' prosocial behavior toward peers, few studies have systematically examined gender differences in how intrinsic perspective-taking abilities-theory of mind (ToM) and emotion understanding (EU)-and the extrinsic peer environment relate to prosocial behavior. In this prospective longitudinal study, we studied gender differences in the relations between children's observed prosocial behavior and their ToM, EU, and social preference ratings in 114 children (58 boys and 56 girls)...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774075/false-belief-understanding-and-language-ability-mediate-the-relationship-between-emotion-comprehension-and-prosocial-orientation-in-preschoolers
#20
Veronica Ornaghi, Alessandro Pepe, Ilaria Grazzani
Emotion comprehension (EC) is known to be a key correlate and predictor of prosociality from early childhood. In the present study, we examined this relationship within the broad theoretical construct of social understanding which includes a number of socio-emotional skills, as well as cognitive and linguistic abilities. Theory of mind, especially false-belief understanding, has been found to be positively correlated with both EC and prosocial orientation. Similarly, language ability is known to play a key role in children's socio-emotional development...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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