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Theory of mind child*

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209258/syntactic-and-story-structure-complexity-in-the-narratives-of-high-and-low-language-ability-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Eleni Peristeri, Maria Andreou, Ianthi M Tsimpli
Although language impairment is commonly associated with the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the Diagnostic Statistical Manual no longer includes language impairment as a necessary component of an ASD diagnosis (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, children with ASD and no comorbid intellectual disability struggle with some aspects of language whose precise nature is still outstanding. Narratives have been extensively used as a tool to examine lexical and syntactic abilities, as well as pragmatic skills in children with ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172568/tone-series-and-the-nature-of-working-memory-capacity-development
#2
Katherine M Clark, Kyle O Hardman, Todd R Schachtman, J Scott Saults, Bret A Glass, Nelson Cowan
Recent advances in understanding visual working memory, the limited information held in mind for use in ongoing processing, are extended here to examine auditory working memory development. Research with arrays of visual objects has shown how to distinguish the capacity, in terms of the number of objects retained, from the precision of the object representations. We adapt the technique to sequences of nonmusical tones, in an investigation including children (6-13 years, N = 84) and adults (26-50 years, N = 31)...
November 27, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161137/pragmatic-competence-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-impact-of-theory-of-mind-verbal-working-memory-adhd-symptoms-and-structural-language
#3
Inmaculada Baixauli-Fortea, Ana Miranda Casas, Carmen Berenguer-Forner, Carla Colomer-Diago, Belén Roselló-Miranda
The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence)...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159579/examining-the-effectiveness-of-naturalistic-social-skills-training-in-developing-social-skills-and-theory-of-mind-in-preschoolers-with-asd
#4
Grzegorz Szumski, Joanna Smogorzewska, Paweł Grygiel, Ann-Marie Orlando
We compared the effectiveness of two programs for developing social skills, 'Play Time/Social Time' (PT/ST) and 'I Can Problem Solve' (ICPS), in improving the social skills and theory of mind (ToM) of preschoolers with ASD. The experiment took place in a classroom setting. Fifty-two children attended and data were analyzed with latent growth curve models. Comparison with a control group indicated that both programs were effective in developing social skills. The PT/ST program was more effective than ICPS in developing interaction skills; both programs improved children's ability to cope with difficult social situations...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156240/mental-files-theory-of-mind-when-do-children-consider-agents-acquainted-with-different-object-identities
#5
Michael Huemer, Josef Perner, Brian Leahy
Mental files theory explains why children pass many perspective taking tasks like the false belief test around age 4 (Perner & Leahy, 2016). It also explains why older children struggle to understand that beliefs about an object depend on how one is acquainted with it (intensionality or aspectuality). If Heinz looks at an object that is both a die and an eraser, but cannot tell by looking that it is an eraser, he will not reach for it if he needs an eraser. Four- to 6-year olds find this difficult (Apperly & Robinson, 1998)...
November 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154654/variety-in-parental-use-of-want-relates-to-subsequent-growth-in-children-s-theory-of-mind
#6
Ted Ruffman, Aastha Puri, Olivia Galloway, Japher Su, Mele Taumoepeau
In 2 cross-lagged, longitudinal studies we contrasted parental talk about want in a single context versus multiple contexts. Study 1 examined thirty-two 2 year olds, with mothers describing pictures to children. Mothers could use want in zero, one, or multiple contexts. Children whose mothers used want in multiple contexts experienced a significantly larger gain in mental state terms over a 6-month period. Study 2 examined 50 preschoolers, measuring theory of mind (ToM) with tasks and mental state terms, then had parents intervene by reading booklets in which want was used in 1 or multiple contexts...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154651/reducing-the-language-content-in-tom-tests-a-developmental-scale
#7
Morgane Burnel, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Anne Reboul, Monica Baciu, Stephanie Durrleman
The goal of the current study was to statistically evaluate the reliable scalability of a set of tasks designed to assess Theory of Mind (ToM) without language as a confounding variable. This tool might be useful to study ToM in populations where language is impaired or to study links between language and ToM. Low verbal versions of the ToM tasks proposed by Wellman and Liu (2004) for their scale were tested in 234 children (2.5 years to 11.9 years). Results showed that 5 of the tasks formed a scale according to both Guttman and Rasch models whereas all 6 tasks could form a scale according to the Rasch model only...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154648/nimble-negotiators-how-theory-of-mind-tom-interconnects-with-persuasion-skills-in-children-with-and-without-tom-delay
#8
Candida C Peterson, Virginia Slaughter, Henry M Wellman
Persuasion is an essential social skill. Yet its development and underpinnings are poorly understood. In 2 studies, a total of 167 children aged 3 to 12 years took theory of mind (ToM) tests and participated in unscripted, seminaturalistic persuasive conversations. Children were typically developing (TD) or had deafness or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). High-level, informationally rich persuasive arguments increased with age in all groups in both studies, as did ToM. In both studies, ToM scores predicted persuasion skill over and above age, language ability, and deafness/ASD status...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152165/specificity-of-executive-function-and-theory-of-mind-performance-in-relation-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Steve Lukito, Catherine R G Jones, Andrew Pickles, Gillian Baird, Francesca Happé, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff
Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently demonstrate symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous findings in children with ASD have suggested that these symptoms are associated with an impairment in executive function (EF) abilities. However, studies rarely considered this association within a single framework that controls for other related factors such as Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and ASD symptoms. Methods: We used structural equation modeling to explore the relations among EF, ToM, and symptoms of ASD and ADHD, using data from a population-based sample of 100 adolescents with ASD and full-scale IQ ≥ 50 (the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115674/let-s-talk-parents-mental-talk-not-mind-mindedness-or-mindreading-capacity-predicts-children-s-false-belief-understanding
#10
Rory T Devine, Claire Hughes
Although one might expect parents' mind-mindedness (MM; the propensity to view children as mental agents) to relate to everyday mental-state talk (MST) and theory-of-mind capacity, evidence to support this view is lacking. In addition, both the uniqueness and the specificity of relations between parental MM, parental MST, and children's false belief understanding (FBU) are open to question. To address these three gaps, this study tracked 117 preschoolers (60 boys) and their parents across a 13-month period (Mage  = 3...
November 8, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105572/mild-adverse-childhood-experiences-increase-neural-efficacy-during-affective-theory-of-mind
#11
Benedetta Vai, Martina Riberto, Davide Ghiglino, Irene Bollettini, Andrea Falini, Francesco Benedetti, Sara Poletti
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) affect the development of social cognition (and identify a risk factor for several physical and mental disorders). Theory of Mind (ToM) is a key predictor of social functioning, mental health, and quality of life. No previous study explored the effect of mild ACEs on the neural correlates of ToM in healthy humans. In 23 healthy participants, we used brain blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI to study the effect of ACEs on the neural responses to tasks targeting affective and cognitive ToM...
November 5, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099034/the-association-between-sleep-and-theory-of-mind-in-school-aged-children-with-adhd
#12
REVIEW
Rackeb Tesfaye, Reut Gruber
Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to infer a range of internal mental states of others, including beliefs, intentions, desires, and emotions. These abilities are associated with children's ability to socialize effectively with peers. ToM impairments are associated with peer rejection and psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have found poor sleep negatively impacts executive functioning (EF) and emotional information processing, which are essential for the effective use of ToM...
August 21, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095898/brain-gray-matter-structural-network-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#13
Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Daichi Sone, Noriko Sato, Yukio Kimura, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Tomoko Maekawa, Mikako Enokizono, Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Yasushi Ohya, Satoshi Kuwabara, Hiroshi Matsuda
This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in structural covariance network constructed from gray matter volume in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients by using graph theoretical analysis for further clarification of the underlying mechanisms of central nervous system involvement. Twenty-eight DM1 patients (4 childhood onset, 10 juvenile onset, 14 adult onset), excluding three cases from 31 consecutive patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a certain period, and 28 age- and sex- matched healthy control subjects were included in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092688/reprioritizing-life-a-conceptual-model-of-how-women-with-type-1-diabetes-deal-with-main-concerns-in-early-motherhood
#14
Ing-Marie Carlsson, Marie Berg, Annsofie Adolfsson, Carina Sparud-Lundin
PURPOSE: Becoming a mother is related to increased demands for women with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and more research is needed to identify their needs for support in everyday living. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the main concerns in daily life in early motherhood for women with type 1 diabetes and how they deal with these concerns. METHOD: A grounded theory study was conducted in which 14 women with type 1 diabetes were interviewed individually 7 to 17 months after childbirth...
2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083217/theory-of-mind-is-related-to-children-s-resource-allocations-in-gender-stereotypic-contexts
#15
Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen
The present study investigated the relations between 4- to 6-year-old children's (N = 67) gender stereotypes, resource allocations, and mental state knowledge in gender-stereotypic contexts. Participants were told vignettes about female and male characters completing gender-stereotyped activities (making dolls or trucks). Children held stereotypic expectations regarding doll- and truck-making abilities, and these expectations predicted the degree of bias in their allocations of resources to the characters. Critically, children's performance on a Theory of Mind (ToM) Scale (Diverse Desires [DD], Contents False-Belief [FB], Belief-Emotion [BE]) was significantly related to their allocations of resources to individuals whose effort did not fit existing gender stereotypes (e...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080469/when-and-how-does-labour-lead-to-love-the-ontogeny-and-mechanisms-of-the-ikea-effect
#16
Lauren E Marsh, Patricia Kanngiesser, Bruce Hood
We elevate our constructions to a special status in our minds. This 'IKEA' effect leads us to believe that our creations are more valuable than items that are identical, but constructed by another. This series of studies utilises a developmental perspective to explore why this bias exists. Study 1 elucidates the ontogeny of the IKEA effect, demonstrating an emerging bias at age 5, corresponding with key developmental milestones in self-concept formation. Study 2 assesses the role of effort, revealing that the IKEA effect is not moderated by the amount of effort invested in the task in 5-to-6-year olds...
October 25, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078315/one-to-four-year-olds-connect-diverse-positive-emotional-vocalizations-to-their-probable-causes
#17
Yang Wu, Paul Muentener, Laura E Schulz
The ability to understand why others feel the way they do is critical to human relationships. Here, we show that emotion understanding in early childhood is more sophisticated than previously believed, extending well beyond the ability to distinguish basic emotions or draw different inferences from positively and negatively valenced emotions. In a forced-choice task, 2- to 4-year-olds successfully identified probable causes of five distinct positive emotional vocalizations elicited by what adults would consider funny, delicious, exciting, sympathetic, and adorable stimuli (Experiment 1)...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078144/not-just-a-sum-of-its-parts-how-tasks-of-the-theory-of-mind-scale-relate-to-executive-function-across-time
#18
Ceymi Doenyas, H Melis Yavuz, Bilge Selcuk
There is a well-established relationship between theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF) during the preschool years. However, less is known about the concurrent and longitudinal relations between EF and specific tasks tapping different aspects of ToM. The current study investigated the ToM-EF relationship across 1 year in 3- to 5-year-old Turkish children using the ToM battery of Wellman and Liu (2004), which measures understanding of diverse desires (DD), diverse beliefs (DB), knowledge access (KA), contents false belief (CFB), explicit false belief (EFB), and hidden emotion (HE)...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058116/longitudinal-associations-of-social-cognition-and-substance-use-in-childhood-and-early-adolescence-findings-from-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children
#19
Meg E Fluharty, Jon Heron, Marcus R Munafò
Substance use is associated with impaired social cognition. Experimental studies have shown that acute intoxication of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis decreases the performance in non-verbal, social communication and theory of mind tasks. However, in epidemiological studies the temporal direction of this association has gone relatively unstudied. We investigated both directions of association within an adolescent birth cohort: the association of social cognition with subsequent substance use, and the association of early substance use with subsequent social cognition...
October 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048312/adhd-symptoms-and-peer-problems-mediation-of-executive-function-and-theory-of-mind
#20
Carmen Berenguer Forner, Belén Roselló Miranda, Inmaculada Baixauli Fortea, Rosa García Castellar, Carla Colomer Diago, Ana Miranda Casas
BACKGROUND: The social maladjustment suffered by many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is maintained over time, increasing the risk of subsequent adverse outcomes. The objectives of the study were to explore the mechanisms that operate between ADHD symptoms and social problems with peers, considering the mediation of FE and ToM. METHOD: 35 children with ADHD and 37 with typical development matched in age and IQ were compared. Parents assessed ToM skills and relationships with peers, and teachers provided EF ratings...
November 2017: Psicothema
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