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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867683/the-relation-between-emotion-understanding-and-theory-of-mind-in-children-aged-3-to-8-the-key-role-of-language
#1
Ilaria Grazzani, Veronica Ornaghi, Elisabetta Conte, Alessandro Pepe, Claudia Caprin
Although a significant body of research has investigated the relationships among children's emotion understanding (EU), theory of mind (ToM), and language abilities. As far as we know, no study to date has been conducted with a sizeable sample of both preschool and school-age children exploring the direct effect of EU on ToM when the role of language was evaluated as a potential exogenous factor in a single comprehensive model. Participants in the current study were 389 children (age range: 37-97 months, M = 60...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864614/associations-between-olfactory-identification-and-social-cognitive-functioning-a-cross-sectional-study-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-healthy-controls
#2
Jessica de Nijs, Julia H Meijer, Lieuwe de Haan, Carin J Meijer, Richard Bruggeman, Neeltje E M van Haren, René S Kahn, Wiepke Cahn
Schizophrenia patients have difficulties identifying odors, possibly a marker of cognitive and social impairment. This study investigated olfactory identification (OI) differences between patients and controls, related to cognitive and social functioning in childhood and adolescence, to present state cognition and to present state social cognition. 132 schizophrenia patients and 128 healthy controls were assessed on OI performance with the Sniffin' Sticks task. Multiple regression analyses were conducted investigating OI in association with cognitive and social functioning measures in childhood/adolescence and in association with IQ, memory, processing speed, attention, executive functioning, face recognition, emotion recognition and theory of mind...
May 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862502/children-s-developing-descriptions-and-judgments-of-pretending
#3
David M Sobel, Susan M Letourneau
Two studies investigated 4- to 7-year-olds' knowledge about pretending. In Study 1, children (N = 66) defined pretending and described examples of own and others' pretending. In Study 2, children (N = 52) defined pretending and then completed a battery of measures that examined their understanding that pretending involved mental states. In Study 1, older children articulated more defining features of pretending than younger children. When describing how they or others pretended, children focused on action or appearance, regardless of whether they had included more defining features in their definitions of pretending...
June 4, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851026/explaining-the-unpredictable-the-development-of-causal-theories-of-mind-in-deaf-and-hearing-children
#4
Candida C Peterson, Henry M Wellman
Two studies of 100 children aged 3-12 years examined theory of mind (ToM) understanding via explanations and predictions in hearing preschoolers and ToM-delayed deaf children. Study 1's 75 children (31 deaf; 44 hearing) displayed an "explanation advantage," devising valid epistemic ToM explanations despite failing simpler forced-choice false-belief (FB) prediction tests. This novel discovery for deaf children extended to unexpectedly frequent cognitive ("think" or "know") explanations...
May 30, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778717/first-time-mothers-expectations-of-the-unknown-territory-of-childbirth-uncertainties-coping-strategies-and-going-with-the-flow
#5
Sara E Borrelli, Denis Walsh, Helen Spiby
OBJECTIVE: To explore first-time mothers' expectations of labour and birth, coping strategies they adopt during pregnancy towards childbirth and coping strategies they expect to use during labour and birth. DESIGN: A qualitative Straussian grounded theory methodology was adopted, with data collected through semi-structured interviews in the third trimester of pregnancy. Ethical approval was gained. Data analysis included the processes of coding and conceptualising data, with constant comparison between data, literature and memos...
May 7, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745293/mothers-insightfulness-regarding-their-children-s-inner-world-associations-with-mothers-history-of-sexual-abuse-and-lack-of-resolution-of-the-trauma
#6
Nina Koren-Karie, Rachel Getzler-Yosef
The study examined the insightfulness of mothers who experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA). Based on attachment theory, we hypothesized that mothers who experienced CSA will be less insightful than those who did not experience CSA, and that state of mind with no marked signs of lack of resolution of the trauma can buffer against its negative effects. The insightfulness of 30 mothers who experienced CSA and 30 demographically matched mothers but with no CSA was assessed using the Insightfulness Assessment...
May 10, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674170/theory-of-mind-as-a-link-between-oxytocin-and-maternal-behavior
#7
Anna L MacKinnon, C Sue Carter, Nancy Feeley, Ian Gold, Barbara Hayton, Sangeetha Santhakumaran, Phyllis Zelkowitz
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a neuropeptide associated with maternal behavior. However the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. In a previous study we observed an indirect effect of increased plasma oxytocin during late pregnancy on early postpartum maternal interactive behavior via theory of mind, as assessed by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). The current study aimed to extend these findings by testing whether this indirect effect would hold longitudinally for maternal behavior at 2-3 years postpartum, as well as for an additional observational measure of maternal mind-mindedness...
June 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671641/theory-of-mind-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-associations-with-the-sibling-constellation
#8
Nicole L Matthews, Wendy A Goldberg
The two prior studies that have examined associations between the sibling constellation and theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder yielded discrepant findings. Thus, efforts to better understand the sibling-theory of mind link in autism spectrum disorder are necessary. This study examined a sample of prekindergarten- and kindergarten-aged (i.e. 4-6 years) typically developing children ( n = 39) and verbal children with autism spectrum disorder ( n = 61). Sibling presence, number of siblings, and having younger and older siblings were positively associated with theory of mind in typically developing children, but not in the full sample of children with autism spectrum disorder...
April 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669270/eye-movements-provide-insight-into-individual-differences-in-children-s-analogical-reasoning-strategies
#9
Ariel Starr, Michael S Vendetti, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning is considered a key driver of cognitive development and is a strong predictor of academic achievement. However, it is difficult for young children, who are prone to focusing on perceptual and semantic similarities among items rather than relational commonalities. For example, in a classic A:B::C:? propositional analogy task, children must inhibit attention towards items that are visually or semantically similar to C, and instead focus on finding a relational match to the A:B pair. Competing theories of reasoning development attribute improvements in children's performance to gains in either executive functioning or semantic knowledge...
May 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660808/longitudinal-theory-of-mind-tom-development-from-preschool-to-adolescence-with-and-without-tom-delay
#10
Candida C Peterson, Henry M Wellman
Longitudinal tracking of 107 three- to-thirteen-year-olds in a cross-sequential design showed a 6-step theory of mind (ToM) sequence identified by a few past cross-sectional studies validly depicted longitudinal ToM development from early to middle childhood for typically developing (TD) children and those with ToM delays owing to deafness or autism. Substantively, all groups showed ToM progress throughout middle childhood. Atypical development was more extended and began and ended at lower levels than for TD children...
April 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644583/construction-of-past-and-future-events-in-children-and-adolescents-with-asd-role-of-self-relatedness-and-relevance-to-decision-making
#11
Elisa Ciaramelli, Silvia Spoglianti, Elena Bertossi, Nadia Generali, Francesca Telarucci, Raffaella Tancredi, Filippo Muratori, Roberta Igliozzi
We studied episodic memory and future thinking for self-relevant and other-relevant events at different levels of retrieval support, theory of mind, and delay discounting in ASD children and adolescents (ASDs). Compared to typically developing controls, ASDs produced fewer internal (episodic) but a similar number of external (semantic) details while remembering past events, imagining future events, and imagining future events happening to others, indicating a general impairment of event construction. This deficit was driven by group differences under high retrieval support, and therefore unlikely to depend on self-initiated retrieval/construction deficits...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619648/on-the-relation-between-theory-of-mind-and-executive-functioning-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#12
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Jennifer M Jenkins, Keith O Yeates, Tricia Williams, Kang Lee
Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) show marked interrelatedness across childhood, and developmental psychologists have long been interested in understanding the nature of this association. The present review addresses this issue from a cognitive neuroscience perspective by exploring three hypotheses regarding their functional overlap: (1) ToM relies on EF (EF→ToM); (2) EF relies on ToM (ToM→EF); and (3) ToM and EF are mutually related, owing to shared neural structures or networks (ToM↔EF)...
April 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602030/children-s-referential-communication-skills-the-role-of-cognitive-abilities-and-adult-models-of-speech
#13
Berna A Uzundag, Aylin C Küntay
Referential communication is effective when speakers describe a specific entity in a way that leads to accurate identification of that referent among competitors. Young children's initial referential expressions are often inadequate, and this state of miscommunication needs to be repaired in subsequent communicative attempts. Exposure to adults' effective descriptions of referents is beneficial for children to develop referentially clear initial descriptions. Here, we examined whether adult models of speech also provide benefits for children's communicative repair behavior...
August 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593053/functional-organization-of-the-temporal-parietal-junction-for-theory-of-mind-in-preverbal-infants-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#14
Daniel C Hyde, Charline E Simon, Fransisca Ting, Julia I Nikolaeva
Successful human social life requires imagining what others believe or think to understand and predict behavior. This ability, often referred to as theory of mind (ToM), reliably engages a specialized network of temporal and prefrontal brain regions in older children and adults, including selective recruitment of the temporal-parietal junction (TPJ). To date, how and when this specialized brain organization for ToM arises is unknown due to limitations in functional neuroimaging at younger ages. Here, we used the emerging technique of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure the functional brain response across parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions in 7-month-old male and female infants as they viewed different video scenarios of a person searching for a hidden object...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576384/assessing-social-pragmatic-inferencing-skills-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Soile Loukusa, Leena Mäkinen, Sanna Kuusikko-Gauffin, Hanna Ebeling, Eeva Leinonen
By utilizing the Pragma test this study investigated how sixteen five- to ten-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and sixteen typically developing (TD) children comprehended contextually challenging scenarios demanding 1) contextual inference with theory of mind (ToM), 2) contextual inference without ToM, 3) relevant use of language, 4) recognition of feelings, and 5) understanding false beliefs. The study also compared children's ability to explain their own correct answers. In addition, this study evaluated the sensitivity of three different methods for discriminating the children with ASD from the TD children: 1) the Pragma test, 2) the Social Interaction Deviance Composite (SIDC) of Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2), and 3) the Theory of Mind subtest of the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second edition (NEPSY-II)...
May 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576026/developmental-trends-of-hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-school-aged-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-links-with-theory-of-mind
#16
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been investigated using only "cool"-cognitive EF tasks while there is limited knowledge regarding the development of "hot"-affective EF. Although cool EF development and its links to theory of mind (ToM) have been widely examined, understanding of the influence of hot EF to ToM mechanisms is minimal. The present study introduced a longitudinal design to examine the developmental changes in cool and hot EF of children with ASD (n = 45) and matched (to age and IQ) controls (n = 37) as well as the impact of EF on ToM development over a school year...
March 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568160/learning-about-parenting-together-a-programme-to-support-parents-with-inter-generational-concerns-in-pune-india
#17
Emma E de Wit, Adithy, Cheryl Chakranarayan, Joske F G Bunders-Aelen, Barbara J Regeer
Rapid developments in the last few decades have brought about dramatic changes in Indian social life, particularly affecting new middle-class families. Inter-generational conflicts, high academic pressures, and modern anxieties lead to stress both in parents and in children. There is a need for parenting programmes that respond to these specific concerns, in order to reduce parenting stress and improve family well-being. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a parenting programme in Pune, India, based on a 'theory of change'...
2018: Contemporary Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558768/using-story-based-interventions-to-improve-episodic-memory-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551956/theory-of-mind-development-and-early-sibling-relationships-after-the-birth-of-a-sibling-parental-discipline-matters
#19
Ju-Hyun Song, Brenda Volling
This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and sibling interactions (i.e., positive engagement and antagonism) and parental discipline strategies (i.e., child-centred and parent-centred discipline) at 4 and 8 months in the first year of siblinghood...
January 2018: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547763/executive-function-predicts-theory-of-mind-but-not-social-verbal-communication-in-school-aged-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Bonnie Auyeung
BACKGROUND: The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls...
May 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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