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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353367/surveillance-for-cancer-recurrence-in-long-term-young-breast-cancer-survivors-randomly-selected-from-a-statewide-cancer-registry
#1
Tarsha Jones, Debra Duquette, Meghan Underhill, Chang Ming, Kari E Mendelsohn-Victor, Beth Anderson, Kara J Milliron, Glenn Copeland, Nancy K Janz, Laurel L Northouse, Sonia M Duffy, Sofia D Merajver, Maria C Katapodi
PURPOSE: This study examined clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammography surveillance in long-term young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) and identified barriers and facilitators to cancer surveillance practices. METHODS: Data collected with a self-administered survey from a statewide, randomly selected sample of YBCS diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ younger than 45 years old, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other). Multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of annual CBEs and mammograms...
January 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353251/cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-the-science-behind-the-hands
#2
REVIEW
Andrew W Harris, Peter J Kudenchuk
Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite significant advances in resuscitation science since the initial use of external chest compressions in humans nearly 60 years ago, there continues to be wide variability in rates of successful resuscitation across communities. The American Heart Association (AHA) and European Resuscitation Council emphasise the importance of high-quality chest compressions as the foundation of resuscitation care. We review the physiological basis for the association between chest compression quality and clinical outcomes and the scientific basis for the AHA's key metrics for high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
January 20, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352365/-anesthesia-problem-cards-indispensable-yet-problematic-nationwide-survey-on-experiences-from-clinical-practice
#3
M Schieren, A Böhmer, W Golbeck, J Defosse, F Wappler, H E Marcus
BACKGROUND: Anesthetic procedures may lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications (e. g. difficult airway, allergic reactions, malignant hyperthermia). Most complications can be avoided in future anesthetic procedures with adequate preparation (e. g. awake intubation, trigger-free anesthesia). In Germany, anesthesia problem cards were introduced two decades ago to identify patients at risk and to increase patient safety by creating a standardized documentation system for anesthesia-related complications...
January 19, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352132/design-of-non-equiatomic-medium-entropy-alloys
#4
Yang Zhou, Dong Zhou, Xi Jin, Lu Zhang, Xingyu Du, Bangsheng Li
High-entropy alloys have attracted much attention due to their unique microstructures and excellent properties. Since their invention more than ten years ago, research attention has been mainly focused on the study of multicomponent alloys with equiatomic or near-equiatomic compositions. Here we propose a novel design of non-equiatomic medium-entropy alloys that contain one matrix element and several equiatomic alloying elements. To verify the utility of this new design, a series of Co-free Fex(CrNiAl)100-x (at...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352026/addictive-behaviour-in-experimental-animals-prospects-for-translation
#5
REVIEW
Barry J Everitt, Chiara Giuliano, David Belin
Since the introduction of intravenous drug self-administration methodology over 50 years ago, experimental investigation of addictive behaviour has delivered an enormous body of data on the neural, psychological and molecular mechanisms of drug reward and reinforcement and the neuroadaptations to chronic use. Whether or not these behavioural and molecular studies are viewed as modelling the underpinnings of addiction in humans, the discussion presented here highlights two areas-the impact of drug-associated conditioned stimuli-or drug cues-on drug seeking and relapse, and compulsive cocaine seeking...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351740/population-size-may-shape-the-accumulation-of-functional-mutations-following-domestication
#6
Jianhai Chen, Pan Ni, Xinyun Li, Jianlin Han, Ivan Jakovlić, Chengjun Zhang, Shuhong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Population genetics theory predicts an important role of differences in the effective population size (N e ) among species on shaping the accumulation of functional mutations by regulating the selection efficiency. However, this correlation has never been tested in domesticated animals. RESULTS: Here, we synthesized 62 whole genome data in eight domesticated species (cat, dog, pig, goat, sheep, chicken, cattle and horse) and compared domesticates with their wild (or ancient) relatives...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351314/species-richness-of-eurasian-zephyrus-hairstreaks-lepidoptera-lycaenidae-theclini-with-implications-on-historical-biogeography-an-ndm-vndm-approach
#7
Hailing Zhuang, Masaya Yago, Josef Settele, Xiushan Li, Rei Ueshima, Nick V Grishin, Min Wang
AIM: A database based on distributional records of Eurasian Zephyrus hairstreaks (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclini) was compiled to analyse their areas of endemism (AoEs), species richness and distribution patterns, to explore their locations of past glacial refugia and dispersal routes. METHODS: Over 2000 Zephyrus hairstreaks occurrences are analysed using the NDM/VNDM algorithm, for the recognition of AoEs. Species richness was calculated by using the option 'Number of different classes' to count the different classes of a variable presented in each 3...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350937/light-stops-at-exceptional-points
#8
Tamar Goldzak, Alexei A Mailybaev, Nimrod Moiseyev
Almost twenty years ago, light was slowed down to less than 10^{-7} of its vacuum speed in a cloud of ultracold atoms of sodium. Upon a sudden turn-off of the coupling laser, a slow light pulse can be imprinted on cold atoms such that it can be read out and converted into a photon again. In this process, the light is stopped by absorbing it and storing its shape within the atomic ensemble. Alternatively, the light can be stopped at the band edge in photonic-crystal waveguides, where the group speed vanishes...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350805/is-this-primip-a-nullip-the-daily-abuse-of-language-in-obstetrics
#9
Geoffrey Hughes
A decade ago Opara and Zaidi1 detailed the poor understanding of the word parity in this journal, detailing different definitions, but preferring "the number of pregnancies at or above 24 weeks gestation, regardless of outcome". The reader is therefore left to wonder if an undelivered woman at 30 weeks in her first ever pregnancy (therefore having attained viability) has a parity of zero or one. They also describe the confusion regarding surrounding a twin birth; 79% of the surveyed obstetricians and midwives incorrectly assigned that single parous event to a parity of two...
January 19, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350639/dynamic-mri-in-the-evaluation-of-the-spine-state-of-the-art
#10
Giulia Michelini, Antonella Corridore, Silvia Torlone, Federico Bruno, Claudia Marsecano, Raffaella Capasso, Ferdinando Caranci, Antonio Barile, Carlo Masciocchi, Alessandra Splendiani
INTRODUCTION: Degenerative disease of the spine is a generic term encompassing a wide range of different disease processes, which leads to spinal instability; traumatic/neoplastic events can accelerate this aging process. Therefore, the dynamic nature of the spine and its mobility across multiple segments is difficult to depict with any single imaging modality. METHODS: A review of PubMed databases for articles published about kMRI in patients with cervical and lumbar spinal desease was performed...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349481/systematic-review-and-comparison-of-national-and-international-guidelines-on-diverticular-disease
#11
REVIEW
T Galetin, A Galetin, K-H Vestweber, A D Rink
PURPOSE: Diverticular disease is common and of increasing medical and economical importance. Various practice guidelines on diagnostic and treatment on this disease exist. We compared current guidelines on the disease in order to identify concordant and discordant recommendations. METHOD: Eleven national and international guidelines on diverticular disease published over the last 10 years have been identified by a systematic literature review on PubMed and compared in detail for 20 main and 51 subtopics...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348642/the-success-of-failed-homo-sapiens-dispersals-out-of-africa-and-into-asia
#12
REVIEW
Ryan J Rabett
The evidence for an early dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa into the Levant during Marine Isotope Stage 5 (MIS-5) 126-74 ka (thousand years ago) was characterized for many years as an 'abortive' expansion: a precursor to a sustained dispersal from which all extant human populations can be traced. Recent archaeological and genetic data from both western and eastern parts of Eurasia and from Australia are starting to challenge that interpretation. This Perspective reviews the current evidence for a scenario where the MIS-5 dispersal encompassed a much greater geographic distribution and temporal duration...
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348596/dynamics-of-tree-species-diversity-in-unlogged-and-selectively-logged-malaysian-forests
#13
Ken Shima, Toshihiro Yamada, Toshinori Okuda, Christine Fletcher, Abdul Rahman Kassim
Selective logging that is commonly conducted in tropical forests may change tree species diversity. In rarely disturbed tropical forests, locally rare species exhibit higher survival rates. If this non-random process occurs in a logged forest, the forest will rapidly recover its tree species diversity. Here we determined whether a forest in the Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia, which was selectively logged 40 years ago, recovered its original species diversity (species richness and composition). To explore this, we compared the dynamics of secies diversity between unlogged forest plot (18...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348464/150-000-year-palaeoclimate-record-from-northern-ethiopia-supports-early-multiple-dispersals-of-modern-humans-from-africa
#14
Henry F Lamb, C Richard Bates, Charlotte L Bryant, Sarah J Davies, Dei G Huws, Michael H Marshall, Helen M Roberts
Climatic change is widely acknowledged to have played a role in the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, but the timing is contentious. Genetic evidence links dispersal to climatic change ~60,000 years ago, despite increasing evidence for earlier modern human presence in Asia. We report a deep seismic and near-continuous core record of the last 150,000 years from Lake Tana, Ethiopia, close to early modern human fossil sites and to postulated dispersal routes. The record shows varied climate towards the end of the penultimate glacial, followed by an abrupt change to relatively stable moist climate during the last interglacial...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348307/non-mammalian-models-of-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2
#15
REVIEW
Tirtha K Das, Ross L Cagan
Twenty-five years ago, RET was identified as the primary driver of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome. MEN2 is characterized by several transformation events including pheochromocytoma, parathyroid adenoma and, especially penetrant, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Overall, MTC is a rare but aggressive type of thyroid cancer for which no effective treatment currently exists. Surgery, radiation, radioisotope treatment and chemotherapeutics have all shown limited success, and none of these approaches have proven durable in advanced disease...
February 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348292/morbid-jealousy-reactivated-by-mood-episodes
#16
Ruziana Masiran, Nik Shaliza Hussin
A middle-aged man who has been enduring financial constraint experienced a period of irritability, increased goal-directed activities and insomnia occurring along with extreme jealousy with his current wife. The episode was followed by depressed mood and non-prominent auditory hallucination. His previous history revealed a forensic psychiatry case of a murder he committed 20 years ago.
January 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348254/circulating-platelets-as-mediators-of-immunity-inflammation-and-thrombosis
#17
REVIEW
Milka Koupenova, Lauren Clancy, Heather A Corkrey, Jane E Freedman
Platelets, non-nucleated blood components first described over 130 years ago, are recognized as the primary cell regulating hemostasis and thrombosis. The vascular importance of platelets has been attributed to their essential role in thrombosis, mediating myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. Increasing knowledge on the platelets' role in the vasculature has led to many advances in understanding not only how platelets interact with the vessel wall but also how they convey changes in the environment to other circulating cells...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347589/synchronization-scenarios-in-the-winfree-model-of-coupled-oscillators
#18
Rafael Gallego, Ernest Montbrió, Diego Pazó
Fifty years ago Arthur Winfree proposed a deeply influential mean-field model for the collective synchronization of large populations of phase oscillators. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the model for some special, analytically tractable cases. Adopting the thermodynamic limit, we derive an ordinary differential equation that exactly describes the temporal evolution of the macroscopic variables in the Ott-Antonsen invariant manifold. The low-dimensional model is then thoroughly investigated for a variety of pulse types and sinusoidal phase response curves (PRCs)...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347242/multi-phase-field-model-for-surface-and-phase-boundary-diffusion
#19
Raphael Schiedung, Reza Darvishi Kamachali, Ingo Steinbach, Fathollah Varnik
The multi-phase-field approach is generalized to treat capillarity-driven diffusion parallel to the surfaces and phase boundaries, i.e., the boundaries between a condensed phase and its vapor and the boundaries between two or multiple condensed phases. The effect of capillarity is modeled via curvature dependence of the chemical potential whose gradient gives rise to diffusion. The model is used to study thermal grooving on the surface of a polycrystalline body. Decaying oscillations of the surface profile during thermal grooving, postulated by Hillert long ago but reported only in few studies so far, are observed and discussed...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347110/influence-of-a-dispersion-of-magnetic-and-nonmagnetic-nanoparticles-on-the-magnetic-fredericksz-transition-of-the-liquid-crystal-5cb
#20
Ahmed Mouhli, Habib Ayeb, Tahar Othman, Jérôme Fresnais, Vincent Dupuis, Ian R Nemitz, Joel S Pendery, Charles Rosenblatt, Olivier Sandre, Emmanuelle Lacaze
A long time ago, Brochard and de Gennes predicted the possibility of significantly decreasing the critical magnetic field of the Fredericksz transition (the magnetic Fredericksz threshold) in a mixture of nematic liquid crystals and ferromagnetic particles, the so-called ferronematics. This phenomenon is rarely measured to be large, due to soft homeotropic anchoring induced at the nanoparticle surface. Here we present an optical study of the magnetic Fredericksz transition combined with a light scattering study of the classical nematic liquid crystal: the pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB), doped with 6 nm diameter magnetic and nonmagnetic nanoparticles...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
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