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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330314/bioremediation-of-heavy-metals-using-an-endophytic-bacterium-paenibacillus-sp-rm-isolated-from-the-roots-of-tridax-procumbens
#1
M Govarthanan, R Mythili, T Selvankumar, S Kamala-Kannan, A Rajasekar, Young-Cheol Chang
The aim of the present study was to assess the bioremediation potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from roots of Tridax procumbens plant. Five bacterial endophytes were isolated and subsequently tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against different heavy metals. Amongst the five isolates, strain RM exhibited the highest resistance to copper (750 mg/l), followed by zinc (500 mg/l), lead (450 mg/l), and arsenic (400 mg/l). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence suggested that strain RM was a member of genus Paneibacillus...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330244/elucidation-of-impact-of-heavy-metal-pollution-on-soil-bacterial-growth-and-extracellular-polymeric-substances-flexibility
#2
Muniswamy David, Paidi Murali Krishna, Jeybalan Sangeetha
Metal bioaccessibility is an alarming issue in croplands of mining sites due to overloading of toxic metals. Hence, the present study is aimed to determine the overloading of toxic metal in croplands across the Tawag village, Hutti, Raichur, India. Correspondingly, to identify the soil bacterial growth, physiological oxidative stress enzyme activity and surface macromolecular functional group evolution were analysed in and around the toxic metal contaminated sites through FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrometry. The evaluated results attribute that the study area is heavily polluted with the toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330238/isolation-of-antimicrobial-resistant-bacteria-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-of-patients
#3
Li-Min Wang, Xiao-Liang Qiao, Liang Ai, Jing-Jing Zhai, Xue-Xia Wang
Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are usual cause of upper respiratory tract infection cases. The present study aims the isolation of bacterial strains which are resistant to the commonly prescribed antibiotics. In total, 900 throat swabs were obtained from the patients suffering from upper respiratory tract infections residing in three different localities. The maximum number of isolates (64 %) were obtained from locality-1 (L-1), whereas lowest isolates were found in second locality (L-2)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330201/dual-action-of-chromium-reducing-and-nitrogen-fixing-bacillus-megaterium-asnf3-for-improved-agro-rehabilitation-of-chromium-stressed-soils
#4
Sumaira Aslam, Ali Hussain, Javed Iqbal Qazi
We conducted a study for enhanced biological rehabilitation of chromium-contaminated soils using a chromium-reducing and nitrogen-fixing bacterial species (Bacillus megaterium-ASNF3). The bacterial species was isolated from a chromium-rich land area, characterized, and employed under optimum conditions for the treatment of artificially prepared chromium-rich soil. The bacterium reduced Cr(VI) up to 86 % in a 60-day trial of incubation in the soil bioreactor. The nitrogenase activity of the bacterium yielded up to 486 nmol of ethylene/mL/h after an incubation period of 40 days when it was optimally cultured in growth medium at neutral pH and 30 °C...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330130/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacterial-endophytes-of-curcuma-longa-l
#5
Ajay Kumar, Ritu Singh, Akhilesh Yadav, D D Giri, P K Singh, Kapil D Pandey
Fourteen endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. were characterized on the basis of morphology, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates were identified to six strains namely Bacillus cereus (ECL1), Bacillus thuringiensis (ECL2), Bacillus sp. (ECL3), Bacillus pumilis (ECL4), Pseudomonas putida (ECL5), and Clavibacter michiganensis (ECL6). All the strains produced IAA and solubilized phosphate and only two strains produced siderophore (ECL3 and ECL5) during plant growth promoting trait analysis...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330102/biodegradation-of-flubendiamide-by-a-newly-isolated-chryseobacterium-sp-strain-ssj1
#6
Shrinivas S Jadhav, M David
Flubendiamide, as a new class (Phthalic acid diamide) of pesticide with a wide spectrum of activity against lepidopteran pests extensively used alone or in combination with other insecticides in agriculture system to get protection from insect pests. Due to high specificity and limited approach towards non-target organism, the extensive use of this pesticide as an alternate for organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides, causing an eventual increase in environmental pollution. Five flubendiamide-resistant bacterial strains were isolated during the present study from agriculture soil considering previous history of pesticide application...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330094/characterization-of-antibiotic-resistant-and-enzyme-producing-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-the-arabian-sea
#7
Preeti N Tallur, Dayanand B Sajjan, Sikandar I Mulla, Manjunatha P Talwar, A Pragasam, Vinayak M Nayak, Harichandra Z Ninnekar, Shivanand S Bhat
Marine bacteria are known to produce many bioactive molecules and extracellular enzymes of commercial importance. We have investigated the bacterial diversity of the coastal area of Karwar, Karnataka State, India. Among these bacterial isolates, five bacterial strains were selected and identified by their morphological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The identified bacterial isolates, Bacillus toyonensis PNTB1, Lysinibacillus sphaericus PTB, Vibrio vulnificus PMD, Shewanella MPTDBS, and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PNTB were characterized for their tolerance to salt and antibiotics...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329706/exposure-to-bacterial-cpg-dna-protects-from-airway-allergic-inflammation-by-expanding-regulatory-lung-interstitial-macrophages
#8
Catherine Sabatel, Coraline Radermecker, Laurence Fievez, Genevieve Paulissen, Svetoslav Chakarov, Claudia Fernandes, Sabine Olivier, Marie Toussaint, Dimitri Pirottin, Xue Xiao, Pascale Quatresooz, Jean-Claude Sirard, Didier Cataldo, Laurent Gillet, Hicham Bouabe, Christophe J Desmet, Florent Ginhoux, Thomas Marichal, Fabrice Bureau
Living in a microbe-rich environment reduces the risk of developing asthma. Exposure of humans or mice to unmethylated CpG DNA (CpG) from bacteria reproduces these protective effects, suggesting a major contribution of CpG to microbe-induced asthma resistance. However, how CpG confers protection remains elusive. We found that exposure to CpG expanded regulatory lung interstitial macrophages (IMs) from monocytes infiltrating the lung or mobilized from the spleen. Trafficking of IM precursors to the lung was independent of CCR2, a chemokine receptor required for monocyte mobilization from the bone marrow...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329303/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-mortality-among-adults-and-children-with-community-onset-bacterial-infections-in-india
#9
Vidya Mave, Ajay Chandanwale, Anju Kagal, Sandhya Khadse, Dileep Kadam, Renu Bharadwaj, Vaishali Dohe, Matthew Robinson, Aarti Kinikar, Samir Joshi, Priyanka Raichur, Katie McIntire, Savita Kanade, Jonathan Sachs, Chhaya Valvi, Usha Balasubramanian, Vandana Kulkarni, Aaron M Milstone, Ivan Marbaniang, Jonathan Zenilman, Amita Gupta
Background.: In India, antimicrobial consumption is high, yet systematically collected data on the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) infections are limited. Methods.: A prospective study of adults and children hospitalized for acute febrile illness (AFI) was conducted between August 2013 and December 2015. In-hospital outcomes were recorded, and logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of AMR community-onset infections...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#10
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329127/listeria-monocytogenes-cadc-regulates-cadmium-efflux-and-fine-tunes-lipoprotein-localization-to-escape-the-host-immune-response-and-promote-infection
#11
Rita Pombinho, Ana Camejo, Ana Vieira, Olga Reis, Filipe Carvalho, Maria Teresa Almeida, Jorge Campos Pinheiro, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a major intracellular human foodborne bacterial pathogen. We previously revealed Lm-cadC as highly expressed during mouse infection. Here we show that Lm-CadC is a sequence-specific, DNA-binding and cadmium-dependent regulator of CadA, an efflux pump conferring cadmium resistance. CadC, but not CadA, is required for Lm infection in vivo. Interestingly, CadC also directly represses lspB, a gene encoding a lipoprotein signal peptidase whose expression appears detrimental for infection...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328947/a-spontaneous-mutation-in-kdsd-a-biosynthesis-gene-for-3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic-acid-occurred-in-a-ciprofloxacin-resistant-strain-of-francisella-tularensis-and-caused-a-high-level-of-attenuation-in-murine-models-of-tularemia
#12
Taylor Chance, Jennifer Chua, Ronald G Toothman, Jason T Ladner, Jonathan E Nuss, Jo Lynne Raymond, Fabrice V Biot, Samandra Demons, Lynda Miller, Stephanie Halasohoris, Sherry Mou, Galina Koroleva, Sean Lovett, Gustavo Palacios, Nicholas J Vietri, Patricia L Worsham, Christopher K Cote, Todd M Kijek, Joel A Bozue
Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the causative agent of tularemia and able to infect many mammalian species, including humans. Because of its ability to cause a lethal infection, low infectious dose, and aerosolizable nature, F. tularensis subspecies tularensis is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Due to its in vitro efficacy, ciprofloxacin is one of the antibiotics recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis of tularemia. In order to identify therapeutics that will be efficacious against infections caused by drug resistant select-agents and to better understand the threat, we sought to characterize an existing ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) mutant in the Schu S4 strain of F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328161/synthesis-in-vitro-evaluation-and-68-ga-radiolabeling-of-cdp1-towards-pet-ct-imaging-of-bacterial-infection
#13
Jyotibon Dutta, Sooraj Baijnath, Anou M Somboro, Savania Nagiah, Fernando Albericio, Beatriz G de la Torre, Biljana Marjanovic-Painter, Jan Rijn Zeevaart, Mike Sathekge, Hendrik G Kruger, Anil Chuturgoon, Tricia Naicker, Thomas Ebenhan, Thavendran Govender
Bacterial infections are a major concern in the human health sector due to poor diagnosis and development of multi drug resistant strains. PET/CT provides a means for the noninvasive detection and localization of the infectious foci; however, the radiotracers available are either cumbersome to prepare or their exact contribution towards the imaging is not yet established. Human antimicrobial peptides are of interest for development as PET radiotracers as they are an integral component of the immune system, non-immunogenic towards the recipient and show selectivity towards pathogens such as bacteria...
March 22, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327913/the-use-of-oxford-nanopore-native-barcoding-for-complete-genome-assembly
#14
Sion C Bayliss, Vicky L Hunt, Maho Yokoyama, Harry A Thorpe, Edward J Feil
Background: The Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION(TM) is a mobile DNA sequencer that can produce long read sequences with a short turn-around time. Here we report the first demonstration of single contig genome assembly using Oxford Nanopore native barcoding when applied to a multiplexed library of 12 samples and combined with existing Illumina short-read data. This paves the way for the closure of multiple bacterial genomes from a single MinION(TM) sequencing run, given the availability of existing short-read data...
February 24, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327043/handwashing
#15
Erin Dean
Essential facts Antimicrobial resistance develops when medicines are used inappropriately. Global estimates suggest that every year more than 700,000 people die from drug-resistant strains of common bacterial and viral infections, such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV. If antimicrobial resistance continues to increase, this number could rise to 10 million a year by 2050.
March 22, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326093/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-of-wild-rice-oryza-minuta-and-its-comparison-to-related-species
#16
Sajjad Asaf, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul L Khan, Muhammad A Khan, Sang-Mo Kang, Qari M Imran, Raheem Shahzad, Saqib Bilal, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
Oryza minuta, a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice (family Poaceae), possesses a BBCC genome and contains genes that confer resistance to bacterial blight (BB) and white-backed (WBPH) and brown (BPH) plant hoppers. Based on the importance of this wild species, this study aimed to understand the phylogenetic relationships of O. minuta with other Oryza species through an in-depth analysis of the composition and diversity of the chloroplast (cp) genome. The analysis revealed a cp genome size of 135,094 bp with a typical quadripartite structure and consisting of a pair of inverted repeats separated by small and large single copies, 139 representative genes, and 419 randomly distributed microsatellites...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326075/advantages-of-the-silkworm-as-an-animal-model-for-developing-novel-antimicrobial-agents
#17
REVIEW
Suresh Panthee, Atmika Paudel, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The demand for novel antibiotics to combat the global spread of multi drug-resistant pathogens continues to grow. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi that cause fatal human infections can also kill silkworms and the infected silkworms can be cured by the same antibiotics used to treat infections in the clinic. As an invertebrate model, silkworm model is characterized by its convenience, low cost, no ethical issues. The presence of conserved immune response and similar pharmacokinetics compared to mammals make silkworm infection model suitable to examine the therapeutic effectiveness of antimicrobial agents...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325635/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-inhibits-bacterial-virulence-and-invasion-of-host-cells
#18
Lun K Tsou, Jacob S Yount, Howard C Hang
Increasing antibiotic resistance and beneficial effects of host microbiota has motivated the search for anti-infective agents that attenuate bacterial virulence rather than growth. For example, we discovered that specific flavonoids such as baicalein and quercetin from traditional medicinal plant extracts could attenuate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III protein secretion and invasion of host cells. Here, we show epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea extracts also inhibits the activity of S...
March 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325304/improved-resistance-of-chemically-modified-nanocellulose-against-thermally-induced-depolymerization
#19
Melissa B Agustin, Fumiaki Nakatsubo, Hiroyuki Yano
The study demonstrated the improvement in the resistance of nanocellulose against thermally-induced depolymerization by esterification with benzoyl (BNZ) and pivaloyl (PIV). The change in the degree of polymerization (DP) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) after thermal treatment in nitrogen and in air was investigated using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography. BNZ and PIV nanocellulose esters without α-hydrogens gave higher DP and narrower MWD than pure bacterial cellulose; and the acetyl and myristoyl esters, which possess α-hydrogens...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325220/action-of-antibiotic-oxacillin-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-growth-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-previously-treated-with-homeopathic-medicines
#20
Tânia Aguiar Passeti, Leandro Ribeiro Bissoli, Ana Paula Macedo, Registila Beltrame Libame, Susana Diniz, Silvia Waisse
BACKGROUND: Resistance to antibiotics is a major public health concern worldwide. New treatment options are needed and homeopathy is one such option. We sought to assess the effect of the homeopathic medicine Belladonna (Bell) and a nosode (biotherapy) prepared from a multi-drug resistant bacterial species, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), on the same bacterium. METHODS: Bell and MRSA nosode were prepared in 6cH and 30cH potencies in 30% alcohol and sterile water, according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia and tested on MRSA National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC) 10442...
February 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
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