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Bacterial resistence

Vita Wonoputri, Cindy Gunawan, Sanly Liu, Nicolas Barraud, Lachlan Hartley Yee, May Lim, Rose Amal
In this study, we developed a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-solvent casted mixed metal copper and iron complexes capable of catalytic generation of the antibiofilm nitric oxide (NO) from endogenous nitrite. In the absence of additional reducing agent, we demonstrated that the presence of iron complex facilitates a redox cycling, converting the copper(II) complex to active copper(I) species, which catalyzes the generation of NO from nitrite. Assessed by protein assay and surface coverage analyses, the presence of the mixed metal complexes in systems containing water industry-relevant nitrite-producing nitrifying biofilms was shown to result in a 'non-toxic mode' of biofilm suppression, while confining the bacterial growth to the free-floating planktonic phase...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S S Garcia, Q Du, H Wu
The oral cavity is a dynamic environment characterized by hundreds of bacterial species, saliva, and an influx of nutrients and metal ions such as copper. Although there is a physiologic level of copper in the saliva, the oral cavity is often challenged with an influx of copper ions. At high concentrations copper is toxic and must therefore be strictly regulated by pathogens for them to persist and cause disease. The cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans manages excess copper using the copYAZ operon that encodes a negative DNA-binding repressor (CopY), the P1-ATPase copper exporter (CopA), and the copper chaperone (CopZ)...
December 21, 2015: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Lidia Araújo-Bazán, Laura B Ruiz-Avila, David Andreu, Sonia Huecas, José M Andreu
Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mélanie V Trudel, Antony T Vincent, Sabrina A Attéré, Myriam Labbé, Nicolas Derome, Alexander I Culley, Steve J Charette
The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a common pathogen in fish farms worldwide. Since the antibiotic resistance of this bacterial species is on the increase, it is important to have a broader view on this issue. In the present study, we tested the presence of known plasmids conferring multi-drug resistance as well as antibiotic resistance genes by a PCR approach in 100 Canadian A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates. Our study highlighted the dominance of the conjugative pSN254b plasmid, which confers multi-drug resistance...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhong-Guo Shan, Ke-Xin Zhu, Fang-Yi Chen, Jie Liu, Bei Chen, Kun Qiao, Hui Peng, Ke-Jian Wang
A new gene homologous to the reported antimicrobial peptide (AMP) hyastatin from Hyas araneus was screened in the SSH library constructed from the hemocytes of Scylla paramamosain, and named SpHyastatin. In vivo study showed that SpHyastatin was predominantly expressed in hemocytes of S. paramamosain. With the challenge of either Vibrio parahaemolyticus or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), SpHyastatin showed a positive response, meaning that it was probably involved in the immune reaction against bacterial infection in vivo...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rong-Wei Si, Yuan Yang, Yangyang Yu, Song Han, Chun-Lian Zhang, De-Zhen Sun, Dan-Dan Zhai, Xiang Liu, Yang-Chun Yong
A whole-cell bioelectrochemical biosensing system for amperometric detection of riboflavin was developed. A "bioelectrochemical wire" (BW) consists of riboflavin and cytochrome C between S. oneidensis MR-1 and electrode was characterized. Typically, strong electrochemical response was observed when riboflavin was added to reinforce this BW. Impressively, the electrochemical response of riboflavin with this BW was over 200 times higher than that without bacteria. Uniquely, this electron rewiring process enabled the development of a biosensing system for amperometric detection of riboflavin...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi, David R Peaper, Dana Towle, María Araque
Enterobacter spp. have emerged as an important group of pathogens linked to outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), usually involving strains expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to describe the first nosocomial bloodstream infection outbreak caused by Enterobacter ludwigii co-harbouring CTX-M-8, SHV-12 and TEM-15 in a NICU in a Venezuelan hospital. Initial bacterial identification was achieved by VITEK(®)2 system and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VITEK(®) MS) and was subsequently confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and hsp60 genotyping...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Adrian Low, Charmaine Ng, Jianzhong He
Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim)...
September 20, 2016: Water Research
John Chu, Xavier Vila-Farres, Daigo Inoyama, Melinda Ternei, Louis J Cohen, Emma A Gordon, Boojala Vijay B Reddy, Zachary Charlop-Powers, Henry A Zebroski, Ricardo Gallardo-Macias, Mark Jaskowski, Shruthi Satish, Steven Park, David S Perlin, Joel S Freundlich, Sean F Brady
Here we present a natural product discovery approach, whereby structures are bioinformatically predicted from primary sequence and produced by chemical synthesis (synthetic-bioinformatic natural products, syn-BNPs), circumventing the need for bacterial culture and gene expression. When we applied the approach to nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters from human-associated bacteria, we identified the humimycins. These antibiotics inhibit lipid II flippase and potentiate β-lactam activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in mice, potentially providing a new treatment regimen...
October 17, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Steven Silverman, John Moses, K Barry Sharpless
Vancomycin has long been considered a drug of last resort. Its efficiency in treating multiple drug-resistant bacterial infections, particularly methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has had a profound effect on the treatment of life-threatening infections. However, the emergence of resistance to vancomycin is a cause for significant world-wide concern, prompting the urgent development of new effective treatments for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. Harnessing the benefits of multivalency and cooperativity against vancomycin-resistant strains, we report a Click Chemistry approach towards reengineered vancomycin derivatives and the synthesis of a number of dimers with increased potency against MRSA and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)...
October 16, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Anatoliy Kubyshkin, Denis Chegodar, Andrew Katsev, Armen Petrosyan, Yuri Krivorutchenko, Olga Postnikova
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of nanosilver particles in solution stabilized in a matrix of sodium alginate on the growth and development of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter cloacae, the antibiotic-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans, and the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1. METHODS: Isolates of pathogenic bacteria obtained from bronchoalveolar and peritoneal lavage samples from Wistar rats with experimental pneumonia and peritonitis were tested for their susceptibility to silver nanoparticles in solution with an alginate stabilizer...
2016: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal
Jatinder Singh, Ryan C Johnson, Carey D Schlett, Emad M Elassal, Katrina B Crawford, Deepika Mor, Jeffrey B Lanier, Natasha N Law, William A Walters, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Jason W Bennett, Eric R Hall, Eugene V Millar, Michael W Ellis, D Scott Merrell
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group)...
September 2016: MSphere
Leonardo A Gómez, Francisco I Alvarez, Pablo A Fernández, Manuel R Flores, Raúl E Molina, Roberto F Coloma, Angel A Oñate
Immunogenicity induced by recombinant plasmids based on the BAB1_0267 and BAB1_0270 open reading frames (ORFs) of Brucella abortus 2308 was evaluated. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that the BAB1_0267 and BAB1_0270 ORFs encode a protein with a SH3 domain and a Zn-dependent metalloproteinase, respectively. Both ORFs have important effects on intracellular survival and replication of B. abortus 2308, mediated via professional and non-professional phagocytic cells. Our results show that immunization with the recombinant plasmid based on the BAB1_0267 ORF significantly increases the production of IgG1, levels of IFN-γ and the lymphoproliferative response of splenocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Seshasailam Venkateswaran, Orlando David Henrique Dos Santos, Emma Scholefield, Annamaria Lilienkampf, Peter J Gwynne, David G Swann, Kevin Dhaliwal, Maurice P Gallagher, Mark Bradley
Infections arising from contaminated medical devices are a serious global issue, contributing to antibiotic resistance and imposing significant strain on healthcare systems. Since the majority of medical device-associated infections are biofilm related, efforts are being made to generate either bacteria-repellent or antibacterial coatings aimed at preventing bacterial colonisation. Here, we utilise a nanocapsule mediated slow release of a natural antimicrobial to improve the performance of a bacteria repellent polymer coating...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Jed F Fisher, Shahriar Mobashery
The practice of medicine was profoundly transformed by the introduction of the antibiotics (compounds isolated from Nature) and the antibacterials (compounds prepared by synthesis) for the control of bacterial infection. As a result of the extraordinary success of these compounds over decades of time, a timeless biological activity for these compounds has been presumed. This presumption is no longer. The inexorable acquisition of resistance mechanisms by bacteria is retransforming medical practice. Credible answers to this dilemma are far better recognized than they are being implemented...
January 1, 2016: MedChemComm
M M Kathleen, L Samuel, C Felecia, E L Reagan, A Kasing, M Lesley, S C Toh
The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
Arianna Pompilio, Valentina Crocetta, Dipankar Ghosh, Malabika Chakrabarti, Giovanni Gherardi, Luca Agostino Vitali, Ersilia Fiscarelli, Giovanni Di Bonaventura
The present study was carried out to understand the adaptive strategies developed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for chronic colonization of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. For this purpose, 13 temporally isolated strains from a single CF patient chronically infected over a 10-year period were systematically characterized for growth rate, biofilm formation, motility, mutation frequencies, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenicity. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed over time the presence of two distinct groups, each consisting of two different pulsotypes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shanaz Ghuman, Bhekumthetho Ncube, Jeffrey F Finnie, Lyndy J McGaw, Roger M Coopoosamy, Johannes Van Staden
Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
S Combes, K Massip, O Martin, H Furbeyre, L Cauquil, G Pascal, O Bouchez, N Le Floc'h, O Zemb, I P Oswald, T Gidenne
Limiting the post-weaning intake of the young rabbit is known to improve its resistance to digestive disorders, whereas a degradation of its housing hygiene is assumed to have a negative impact on its health. This study aims at providing insights into the mechanism of digestive health preservation regarding both host (growth and immune response) and its symbiotic digestive microbiota. A 2×2 factorial design from weaning (day 28) to day 64 was set up: ad libitum intake or restricted intake at 70% of ad libitum, and high v...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
JeongWoo Kang, Md Akil Hossain, Hae-Chul Park, Yangho Jang, Seonhwa Kim, Jae Young Song, Kwang-Jick Lee, Tae-Wan Kim
Conventional antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) are very time consuming and insufficiently precise to promptly select a proper antimicrobial treatment. This difficulty disrupts the management of infections and exacerbates the development of antimicrobial resistance. Generally, antimicrobial resistance involves the chemical modification of an antimicrobial compound to an inactive form by an enzyme released by bacteria. This modification causes a structural change and is followed by a characteristic mass shift of the antimicrobials...
October 15, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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