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Bacterial resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106771/independent-effects-of-a-herbivore-s-bacterial-symbionts-on-its-performance-and-induced-plant-defences
#1
Heike Staudacher, Bernardus C J Schimmel, Mart M Lamers, Nicky Wybouw, Astrid T Groot, Merijn R Kant
It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant's response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant's defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106753/naphthalimides-selectively-inhibit-the-activity-of-bacterial-replicative-dna-ligases-and-display-bactericidal-effects-against-tubercle-bacilli
#2
Malgorzata Korycka-Machala, Marcin Nowosielski, Aneta Kuron, Sebastian Rykowski, Agnieszka Olejniczak, Marcin Hoffmann, Jaroslaw Dziadek
The DNA ligases, enzymes that seal breaks in the backbones of DNA, are essential for all organisms, however bacterial ligases essential for DNA replication use β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as their co-factor, whereas those that are essential in eukaryotes and viruses use adenosine-5'-triphosphate. This fact leads to the conclusion that NAD⁺-dependent DNA ligases in bacteria could be targeted by their co-factor specific inhibitors. The development of novel alternative medical strategies, including new drugs, are a top priority focus areas for tuberculosis research due to an increase in the number of multi-drug resistant as well as totally drug resistant tubercle bacilli strains...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106348/a-biosurfactant-inspired-heptapeptide-with-improved-specificity-to-kill-mrsa
#3
Yuan Liu, Shuangyang Ding, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kui Zhu
The emergence and rapid spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to public health. New antibiotics and strategies are urgently needed to combat S. aureus associated infections. Bacaucin, a novel cyclic lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis CAU21, is reported. Bacaucin shows broad antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but is also hemolytic and cytotoxic. However, bacaucin-1, a bacaucin-inspired ring-opened heptapeptide, shows specific antibacterial activity against MRSA by a membrane-disruptive mechanism without detectable toxicity to mammalian cells or induction of bacterial resistance...
February 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106148/complete-genome-sequencing-elucidates-outbreak-dynamics-of-ca-mrsa-usa300-st8-spa-t008-in-an-academic-hospital-of-paramaribo-republic-of-suriname
#4
Artur J Sabat, Sandra M Hermelijn, Viktoria Akkerboom, Amadu Juliana, John E Degener, Hajo Grundmann, Alexander W Friedrich
We report the investigation of an outbreak situation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that occurred at the Academic Hospital Paramaribo (AZP) in the Republic of Suriname from April to May 2013. We performed whole genome sequencing with complete gap closure for chromosomes and plasmids on all isolates. The outbreak involved 12 patients and 1 healthcare worker/nurse at the AZP. In total 24 isolates were investigated. spa typing, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, ad hoc whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST), stable core genome MLST (cgMLST) and in silico PFGE were used to determine phylogenetic relatedness and to identify transmission...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106116/overexpression-of-mosm1-encoding-for-an-immunity-inducing-protein-from-magnaporthe-oryzae-in-rice-confers-broad-spectrum-resistance-against-fungal-and-bacterial-diseases
#5
Yongbo Hong, Yayun Yang, Huijuan Zhang, Lei Huang, Dayong Li, Fengming Song
Potential of MoSM1, encoding for a cerato-platanin protein from Magnaporthe oryzae, in improvement of rice disease resistance was examined. Transient expression of MoSM1 in rice leaves initiated hypersensitive response and upregulated expression of defense genes. When transiently expressed in tobacco leaves, MoSM1 targeted to plasma membrane. The MoSM1-overexpressing (MoSM1-OE) transgenic rice lines showed an improved resistance, as revealed by the reduced disease severity and decreased in planta pathogen growth, against 2 strains belonging to two different races of M...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106081/shigatoxin-encoding-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-24b-modulates-bacterial-metabolism-to-raise-antimicrobial-tolerance
#6
G S Holt, J K Lodge, A J McCarthy, A K Graham, G Young, S H Bridge, A K Brown, M Veses-Garcia, C V Lanyon, A Sails, H E Allison, D L Smith
How temperate bacteriophages play a role in microbial infection and disease progression is not fully understood. They do this in part by carrying genes that promote positive evolutionary selection for the lysogen. Using Biolog phenotype microarrays and comparative metabolite profiling we demonstrate the impact of the well-characterised Shiga toxin-prophage ϕ24B on its Escherichia coli host MC1061. As a lysogen, the prophage alters the bacterial physiology by increasing the rates of respiration and cell proliferation...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105572/proteome-wide-identification-of-iron-binding-proteins-of-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-undulosa-focus-on-secretory-virulent-proteins
#7
Ankita Sharma, Dixit Sharma, Shailender Kumar Verma
Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) causes Bacterial Leaf Streak disease in the staple food crops such as wheat and barley. The survival strategies of pathogen and host are determined by the complex interactions occurring between the host plants and the pathogenic microbes. Iron binding proteins are important in the plant-microbe interactions as they are indulged in enzyme catalysis, virulence, metabolic and transport activities. In the presented study, we have identified that ~9.8% of Xtu proteome possess iron binding sequence motifs...
January 19, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105534/construction-of-a-novel-lipolytic-fusion-biocatalyst-gdest-lip-for-industrial-application
#8
Renata Gudiukaite, Mikas Sadauskas, Audrius Gegeckas, Vilius Malunavicius, Donaldas Citavicius
The gene encoding esterase (GDEst-95) from Geobacillus sp. 95 was cloned and sequenced. The resulting open reading frame of 1497 nucleotides encoded a protein with calculated molecular weight of 54.7 kDa, which was classified as a carboxylesterase with an identity of 93-97% to carboxylesterases from Geobacillus bacteria. This esterase can be grouped into family VII of bacterial lipolytic enzymes, was active at broad pH (7-12) and temperature (5-85 °C) range and displayed maximum activity toward short acyl chain p-nitrophenyl (p-NP) esters...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105270/1-2-4-triazolidine-3-thiones-as-narrow-spectrum-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#9
William M Huggins, Bradley M Minrovic, Brendan W Corey, Anna C Jacobs, Roberta J Melander, Roger D Sommer, Daniel V Zurawski, Christian Melander
With only two new classes of antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, novel antibiotics are desperately needed to combat the growing problem of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug resistant bacteria, particularly Gram-negative bacteria. Described in this letter is the synthesis and antibiotic activity of 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thiones as narrow spectrum antibiotics. Optimization of the 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thione scaffold identified a small molecule with potent antibiotic activity against multiple strains of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104655/first-complete-providencia-rettgeri-genome-sequence-the-ndm-1-producing-clinical-strain-rb151
#10
R Alejandro Marquez-Ortiz, Leanne Haggerty, Eby M Sim, Carolina Duarte, Betsy E Castro-Cardozo, Mauricio Beltran, Sandra Saavedra, Natasha Vanegas, Javier Escobar-Perez, Nicola K Petty
Providencia rettgeri is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen of clinical significance due to its association with urinary tract infections and multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of P. rettgeri The genome of strain RB151 consists of a 4.8-Mbp chromosome and a 108-kbp blaNDM-1-positive plasmid.
January 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104524/the-role-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-the-clean-neurosurgery
#11
YiYao Cao, Ke Pu, Quodong Li, XueJiang Yan, Yue Ma, Kai Xue, ZhiMing Sun, QingGuo Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) and the risk factors for postoperative infections in clean neurosurgery. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on all patients who had undergone clean neurosurgical operation at our institution between January 2009 and December 2014.From January 2009 until October 2011, antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to every clean neurosurgical patient. From November 2011 to December 2014, no antibiotic prophylaxis (n-AP) was prescribed for all clean neurosurgical operations...
January 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104513/a-multi-center-study-of-bacterial-blood-stream-infections-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-the-role-of-acute-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease
#12
Prakash Satwani, Jason L Freedman, Sonali Chaudhury, Zhezhen Jin, Anya Levinson, Marc D Foca, Jennifer Krajewski, Indira Sahdev, Mala Kiran Talekar, Aliza Gardenswartz, Justin Silverman, Meghan Hayes, Christopher C Dvorak
Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by enteric organisms are associated with a particularly high mortality rate in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AlloHCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study aiming to analyze the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistance and impact of BSI on transplant related mortality (TRM) in children following alloHCT. During the study period from 2004 to 2014, 395 children (mean age 9.4 years) with at least one BSI were included. The incidences of resistant gram-negative rods (GNR) were 20...
January 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104347/bacterial-resistance-to-antibodies-a-model-evolutionary-study
#13
Lawrence S Schulman
The tangled nature model of evolution (reviewed in the main text) is adapted for use in the study of antibody resistance acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Exchanges of DNA and the acquisition of resistant gene sequences are considered. For the parameters used, resistant strains rapidly proliferate and dominate, although initial intense antibiotic treatment can occasionally prevent this. Variation in genome distribution appears to be long tailed. If this is reflected in nature, the occurrence of resistant bacterial strains can be expected, as well as considerable variation in patient outcomes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103779/flavone-analogues-as-antimicrobial-agents
#14
Kamlesh Kumar Naik, Sivakumar Thangavel, Afroze Alam
BACKGROUND: Most of the available antimicrobial drugs have developed resistance, some of them suffer from severe toxicity, side effects. So, there is a need to discover novel compound(s) which should not only be potent, but also less toxic and cost effective. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to develop new synthetic antimicrobial agents (Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal) such as 3-substituted flavone/flavanone derivatives, which should be significantly potent with low toxicity...
January 18, 2017: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103306/a-superoxide-dismutase-capable-of-functioning-with-iron-or-manganese-promotes-the-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-calprotectin-and-nutritional-immunity
#15
Yuritzi M Garcia, Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Emma Tarrant, Eric P Skaar, Kevin J Waldron, Thomas E Kehl-Fie
Staphylococcus aureus is a devastating mammalian pathogen for which the development of new therapeutic approaches is urgently needed due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. During infection pathogens must overcome the dual threats of host-imposed manganese starvation, termed nutritional immunity, and the oxidative burst of immune cells. These defenses function synergistically, as host-imposed manganese starvation reduces activity of the manganese-dependent enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). S. aureus expresses two SODs, denoted SodA and SodM...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103015/antimicrobial-activity-ame-resistance-and-translation-inhibition-studies-of-anthraquinone-neomycin-conjugates
#16
Natalya N Degtyareva, Changjun Gong, Sandra Story, Nathanael Levinson, Adegboyega K Oyelere, Keith D Green, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Dev Priya Arya
The antibacterial effects of aminoglycosides are based on their association with the A-site of bacterial ribosomal RNA and interference with the translational process in the bacterial cell, causing cell death. The clinical use of aminoglycosides is complicated by resistance and side effects, some of which arise from their interactions with the human mitochondrial 12S rRNA and its deafness-associated mutations, C1494U and A1555G. We report a rapid assay that allows screening of aminoglycoside compounds to these classes of rRNAs...
January 19, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102347/low-level-predation-by-lytic-phage-phiipla-rodi-promotes-biofilm-formation-and-triggers-the-stringent-response-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Lucía Fernández, Silvia González, Ana Belén Campelo, Beatriz Martínez, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
An important lesson from the war on pathogenic bacteria has been the need to understand the physiological responses and evolution of natural microbial communities. Bacterial populations in the environment are generally forming biofilms subject to some level of phage predation. These multicellular communities are notoriously resistant to antimicrobials and, consequently, very difficult to eradicate. This has sparked the search for new therapeutic alternatives, including phage therapy. This study demonstrates that S...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102223/global-and-local-selection-acting-on-the-pathogen-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-the-human-lung
#18
Hattie Chung, Tami D Lieberman, Sara O Vargas, Kelly B Flett, Alexander J McAdam, Gregory P Priebe, Roy Kishony
Bacterial populations diversify during infection into distinct subpopulations that coexist within the human body. Yet, it is unknown to what extent subpopulations adapt to location-specific selective pressures as they migrate and evolve across space. Here we identify bacterial genes under local and global selection by testing for spatial co-occurrence of adaptive mutations. We sequence 552 genomes of the pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia across 23 sites of the lungs from a patient with cystic fibrosis. We show that although genetically close isolates colocalize in space, distant lineages with distinct phenotypes separated by adaptive mutations spread throughout the lung, suggesting global selective pressures...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102028/the-involvement-of-msmk-in-pathogenesis-of-the-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#19
Mei-Fang Tan, Wan-Quan Liu, Chun-Yan Zhang, Ting Gao, Lin-Lin Zheng, De-Xin Qiu, Lu Li, Rui Zhou
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important swine and human pathogen that causes global economic and public health problems. Virulent S. suis strains successfully maintain high bacterial concentrations in host blood and rapidly adapt to challenging environments within hosts. Successful survival in hosts is a major factor influencing the pathogenesis of SS2. We have previously identified that SS2 colonization in mouse brain is possibly affected by the ATPase, MsmK of carbohydrate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters because of carbohydrate utilization...
January 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101896/adaptation-of-genetically-monomorphic-bacteria-evolution-of-copper-resistance-through-multiple-horizontal-gene-transfers-of-complex-and-versatile-mobile-genetic-elements
#20
D Richard, V Ravigné, A Rieux, B Facon, C Boyer, K Boyer, P Grygiel, S Javegny, M Terville, B I Canteros, I Robène, C Vernière, A Chabirand, O Pruvost, P Lefeuvre
Copper-based antimicrobial compounds are widely used to control plant bacterial pathogens. Pathogens have adapted in response to this selective pressure. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, a major citrus pathogen causing Asiatic citrus canker, was first reported to carry plasmid-encoded copper resistance in Argentina. This phenotype was conferred by the copLAB gene system. The emergence of resistant strains has since been reported in Réunion and Martinique. Using microsatellite-based genotyping and copLAB PCR, we demonstrated that the genetic structure of the copper-resistant strains from these three regions was made up of two distant clusters and varied for the detection of copLAB amplicons...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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