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CMV pneumonitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918839/clinical-utility-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-cytomegalovirus-viral-loads-in-the-diagnosis-of-cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis-in-infants
#1
Kerusha Govender, Prakash Jeena, Raveen Parboosing
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality of children in Africa. The current practice for diagnosing CMV pneumonitis in this setting is based on interpretation of clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings. There is a need for a sensitive and specific laboratory test to objectively distinguish between patients with CMV pneumonitis and those with CMV infection, and non-CMV pneumonia. In this study, we compared plasma and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (NBBAL) CMV viral loads in patients with CMV pneumonitis and those with CMV infection and non-CMV pneumonia...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751206/-research-advances-in-breast-milk-acquired-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-premature-infants
#2
Li-Hong Ran, Lei Bao
Breast milk is considered ideal food for premature infants, but it can also be the main source of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in premature infants. CMV infection may cause serious clinical symptoms, such as sepsis-like syndrome, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, jaundice, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. This article reviews the research advances in symptoms, treatment strategies, prognosis and the prevention of breast milk-acquired CMV infection in premature infants.
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714898/review-of-cytomegalovirus-coinfection-in-hiv-infected-individuals-in-africa
#3
Helene Ladefoged Grønborg, Sanne Jespersen, Bo Langhoff Hønge, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Christian Wejse
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. METHODS: Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. RESULTS: High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations...
October 7, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379765/severe-early-onset-combined-immunodeficiency-due-to-heterozygous-gain-of-function-mutations-in-stat1
#4
Safa Baris, Fayhan Alroqi, Ayca Kiykim, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Ismail Ogulur, Ahmet Ozen, Louis-Marie Charbonnier, Mustafa Bakır, Kaan Boztug, Talal A Chatila, Isil B Barlan
PURPOSE: Loss and gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) lead to distinct phenotypes. Although recurrent infections are common to both types of STAT1 mutations, GOF mutations are distinguished by chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity. However, the clinical spectra of STAT1 GOF mutations continue to expand. We here describe two patients with STAT1 GOF mutations presenting early in life with combined immunodeficiency (CID)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328166/current-views-of-cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection-in-preterm-infants-a-review
#5
Gang Liu, Qiuli Zhang, Wei Wang
Preterm infants (< 32 weeks), who are unable to breastfeed, are fed with expressed maternal milk via a nasogastric tube. Mothers of these infants often experience difficulties in establishing and maintaining lactation. The majority of women excrete cytomegalovirus (CMV) in their breast milk. CMV transmitted through maternal milk could cause symptomatic infection in preterm infants presenting as a sepsis like syndrome, pneumonitis, hepatopathy or enterocolitis. Routine freezing of maternal milk decreases the CMV load in breast milk and is used in some neonatal centers to reduce CMV transmission to preterm infants...
June 21, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097869/pulmonary-cytomegalovirus-replication-in-renal-transplant-patients-with-late-onset-pneumonitis
#6
Eva Königshausen, Hartmut Hengel, Ortwin Adams, Heinz Bry, Stephan Steiner, Christina Priegnitz, Anita Hansen, Lorenz Sellin, Lars C Rump, Adina Voiculescu
BACKGROUND: In renal transplant patients, pneumonitis may be caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV pneumonitis). This condition is usually accompanied by CMV viremia. However, CMV may also reactivate locally in the lungs of renal transplant patients with pneumonitis due to other pathogens. The impact of local CMV replication/reactivation in the lungs is unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All renal transplant patients at the Duesseldorf transplant center in the time from 01/2004 to 1/2008 were analyzed concerning pulmonary CMV replication in the setting of pneumonitis...
April 21, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910136/when-polymerase-chain-reaction-does-not-help-cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis-associated-with-very-low-or-undetectable-viral-load-in-both-blood-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples-after-lung-transplantation
#7
J Coussement, D Steensels, M-C Nollevaux, P Bogaerts, M Dumonceaux, B Delaere, A Froidure
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis occurs frequently among solid organ transplant recipients and is classically associated with significant viral replication in both blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. We present a case of a 64-year-old lung transplant recipient who presented with CMV pneumonitis that was diagnosed based on the association of viral inclusion in the BAL sample, rapid response to ganciclovir, and absence of other infectious etiology. Surprisingly, we observed very low or undetectable viral load both in blood and BAL samples...
April 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900992/cmv-immunoglobulins-for-the-treatment-of-cmv-infections-in-thoracic-transplant-recipients
#8
REVIEW
Uwe Schulz, Paolo Solidoro, Veronika Müller, Attila Szabo, Jens Gottlieb, Heinrike Wilkens, Frank Enseleit
Intravenous ganciclovir and, increasingly, oral valganciclovir are now considered the mainstay of treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or CMV disease. Under certain circumstances, CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) may be an appropriate addition or, indeed, alternative. Data on monotherapy with CMVIG are limited, but encouraging, for example in cases of ganciclovir intolerance. In cases of recurrent CMV in thoracic transplant patients after a disease- and drug-free period, adjunctive CMVIG can be considered in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia...
March 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26885542/molecular-and-culture-based-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-testing-for-the-diagnosis-of-cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis
#9
Susanna K Tan, Elizabeth B Burgener, Jesse J Waggoner, Kiran Gajurel, Sarah Gonzalez, Sharon F Chen, Benjamin A Pinsky
Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed...
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26885432/treatment-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-cidofovir-and-cmv-immune-globulin-in-a-lung-transplant-recipient
#10
Heinrike Wilkens, Martina Sester
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after lung transplantation is associated with increased risk for pneumonitis and bronchiolitis obliterans as well as allograft rejection and opportunistic infections. Ganciclovir is the mainstay of prophylaxis and treatment but CMV infections can be unresponsive. Apart from direct antiviral drugs, CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) preparations may be considered but are only licensed for prophylaxis. A CMV-seronegative 42-year-old man with cystic fibrosis received a lung from a CMV-seropositive donor...
2016: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26642118/postnatal-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-the-risk-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#11
MULTICENTER STUDY
Matthew S Kelly, Daniel K Benjamin, Karen M Puopolo, Matthew M Laughon, Reese H Clark, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith, Sallie R Permar
IMPORTANCE: Postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) is typically benign in term infants but in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants can cause pneumonitis and sepsislike illness. Whether postnatal CMV infection results in long-term pulmonary sequelae in these infants is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between postnatal CMV infection and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality in a large multicenter cohort of VLBW infants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Conducted between October 2014 and June 2015, this propensity-matched retrospective cohort study involved 101,111 hospitalized VLBW (<1500 g) infants at 348 neonatal intensive care units in the United States from 1997 to 2012...
December 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537426/cytomegalovirus-immunoglobulin-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-the-val-ganciclovir-era-a-single-center-experience
#12
Cristina Lopez Garcia-Gallo, Christian García Fadul, Rosalia Laporta, Francisca Portero, Isabel Millan, Piedad Ussetti
BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the effectiveness of anti-cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin (CMVIg) following lung transplantation in the era of new antiviral agents is limited and controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At-risk patients (donor seropositive/recipient seronegative [D+/R-] and R+) received valganciclovir for 3 months (R+) or 6 months (D+/R). CMVIg (2 mg/kg) was given to D+/R- patients on days 1, 4, 8, 15, and 30 post-transplant, then monthly for a further year...
November 5, 2015: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26346369/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-cytomegalovirus-viremia-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-patients
#13
Jhong-Lin Wu, Hsuan-Yin Ma, Chun-Yi Lu, Jong-Min Chen, Ping-Ing Lee, Shiann-Tarng Jou, Yung-Lin Yang, Hsiu-Hao Chang, Meng-Yao Lu, Luan-Ying Chang, Li-Min Huang
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major pathogen causing significant mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised hosts. It is important to find risk factors associated with CMV viremia and its outcome. METHODS: We investigated the incidence, time of onset, risk factors for CMV viremia, and characteristics of CMV diseases in 57 pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between August 2011 and March 2014, cases of pediatric HSCT patients at the National Taiwan University Children's Hospital were reviewed...
August 14, 2015: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26297369/protocol-for-updating-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials-on-the-prophylactic-use-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-for-patients-undergoing-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Juthaporn Cowan, D W Cameron, Greg Knoll, Jason Tay
INTRODUCTION: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is commonly employed in the management of haematological malignancies. This intervention results in an increased risk of infectious and immune-related complications. Prophylactic immunoglobulin therapy has been used to prevent post-HSCT complications, including infections, with varying efficacy. We sought to update the current evidence supporting the use of immunoglobulins in the modern HSCT era. METHODS/ANALYSIS: Using a structured search strategy, we will perform a systematic review of the literature from MEDLINE, EMBASE and all EBM Reviews databases...
2015: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26046830/hyperexpansion-of-functional-viral-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-lymphopenia-associated-mcmv-pneumonitis
#15
Pali D Shah, Qiong Zhong, Elizabeth A Lendermon, Matthew R Pipeling, John F McDyer
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, many of whom undergo significant periods of lymphopenia. However, the impact of lymphopenia and subsequent immune reconstitution on T cell responses and pulmonary pathology are poorly understood. Using a model of primary murine CMV infection in mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CY), the relationship of CD8+ T cell reconstitution to pneumonitis pathology was studied. Female BALB/c mice were infected with murine CMV (MCMV) with/without CY on day 1 post-infection...
June 2015: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25675196/incidence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-delayed-onset-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-a-large-retrospective-cohort-of-lung-transplant-recipients
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Carlos A Q Santos, Daniel C Brennan, Roger D Yusen, Margaret A Olsen
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication and disease commonly occur in lung transplant recipients after stopping anti-CMV prophylaxis. The epidemiology of CMV disease is not well studied, given the difficulties in assembling representative study populations with prolonged follow-up. We hypothesized that delayed-onset CMV disease (>100 days after transplantation) occurs more commonly than early-onset CMV disease in lung transplant recipients, and is associated with an increased risk of death...
August 2015: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25645794/epidemic-varicella-zoster-virus-reactivation-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-case-report
#17
M Milinkovic, S Jovicic-Pavlovic, M Lausevic, O Durutovic, R Naumovic
Immunosuppression after transplantation renders the transplant recipient susceptible to a broad array of viral pathogens. Of 31 patients transplanted during 2012 in our center, 6 (19.3%) experienced varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. The median time from transplantation to reactivation was 6.2 months. Immunosuppression consisted of antithymocyte globulin in 5 patients and basiliximab in 1, followed by tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, and prednisolone. Two patients had T-cell-mediated rejection and were treated with pulse doses of corticosteroids...
January 2015: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25645792/severe-anemia-gastric-ulcer-pneumonitis-and-cholangitis-in-a-liver-transplant-patient-multiple-organic-dysfunction-and-one-etiology-a-case-report
#18
F García-Pajares, F Santos-Santamarta, E Fernández-Fontecha, R Sánchez-Ocaña, R Amo-Alonso, A Loza-Vargas, B Madrigal, B Pérez-Saborido, C Almohalla, G Sánchez-Antolín
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral pathogen that negatively affects the outcome of liver transplantation. CMV causes febrile illness often accompanied by bone marrow suppression, and in some cases it invades tissues, including the transplanted allograft. In addition, CMV has been significantly associated with an increased predisposition to allograft rejection, accelerated hepatitis C recurrence, and other opportunistic infections, as well as reduced overall patient and allograft survivals. We carried out a study on a Spanish adult liver transplant recipient who rapidly presented anemia and was diagnosed as having Coomb negative (nonimmune) hemolytic anemia, gastric ulcer, pneumonitis, and cholangitis associated with a CMV infection...
January 2015: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25521083/cytomegalovirus-disease-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-the-nontransplant-setting-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Mohammadali Ehsani, Maedeh Karahroudi, Armin Rashidi, Motahareh Aghajani, Alipasha Meysami, Elham Shahgholi, Azim Mehrvar, Maryam Tashvighi, Hossein Keyvani
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the nontransplant setting is very rare. We report our experience with 4 such cases, and review the literature (n=12). The median age at diagnosis was 10 years and 50% of patients were males. Among the 11 cases with available information at the time of diagnosis, CMV disease occurred during maintenance therapy in 10 patients. Fever was present in 9 cases. CMV disease manifested as retinitis in 6, hepatosplenic disease in 3, pneumonitis in 1, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in 1 patient...
August 2015: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25498094/incidence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-delayed-onset-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-a-large-retrospective-cohort-of-heart-transplant-recipients
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
C A Q Santos, D C Brennan, V J Fraser, M A Olsen
BACKGROUND: Delayed-onset cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease can occur among heart transplant recipients after stopping anti-CMV prophylaxis. We evaluated a large, retrospective cohort of heart transplant recipients in the United States through the use of billing data from 3 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) to determine the epidemiology of delayed-onset CMV disease coded during hospital readmission. METHODS: We identified 2280 adult heart transplant recipients from 2004 to 2010 through the use of the California, Florida, and New York SID...
December 2014: Transplantation Proceedings
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