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CMV pneumonitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879093/refractory-acute-respiratory-failure-due-to-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pcp-and-cytomegalovirus-cmv-pneumonitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#1
Kairav Shah, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Stacy G Beal, Gautam Kalyatanda
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) are common in patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and are encountered once the CD4 count decreases below 200 cells/mm3. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) tends to cause disease once the CD4 count drops below 50 cells/mm3. CMV pneumonitis is not common in this population. However, detecting its presence in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The role of antiviral therapy against CMV remains unclear...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748879/early-clinical-manifestations-and-laboratory-findings-before-and-after-treatment-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#2
Wasim Ahmed Siddiqui, Issa Al Salmi, Amitabh Jha, Abbas Pakkyara, Mohammad Yasir, Faissal A M Shaheen
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most frequently encountered opportunistic viral pathogens in kidney transplant recipients. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all living related and unrelated kidney transplant recipients on regular follow-up from January 2006 to June 2015, who were suspected to have CMV clinically and confirmed by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CMV PCR was detected in 102 kidney transplant recipients. The median time of detection after kidney transplant was 21 months, ranging from 15 days to 84 months...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742877/predictors-of-mortality-in-autoimmune-disease-patients-with-concurrent-cytomegalovirus-infections-detected-by-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#3
Kyoung Yong Lee, Byung-Woo Yoo, Sung Soo Ahn, William Han Bae, Hyukmin Lee, Seung Min Jung, Sang-Won Lee, Yong-Beom Park, Jason Jungsik Song
OBJECTIVE: Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) can have a significant impact on the prognosis of immunocompromised patients. Unlike in the transplantation and AIDS fields, only a few studies on CMV infections have been published in the field of autoimmunity. In this study, we examined the clinical outcomes of CMV infections in patients with autoimmune diseases at a single tertiary medical institution. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed to identify the mortality risk factors associated with CMV infections in patients with autoimmune diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734808/-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-manifesting-as-neonatal-respiratory-distress-in-an-hiv-exposed-uninfected-newborn
#4
A Pham, H El Mjati, N Nathan, F Kieffer, D Mitanchez
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common intrauterine infections, affecting approximately 1% of all live births. There are few reports on congenital CMV infections manifesting as isolated pneumonitis. CASE REPORT: We report a case of congenital CMV with neonatal respiratory distress affecting an HIV-exposed uninfected infant. This infant required noninvasive ventilation beginning within the first 15min of life. The initial chest X-ray showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacifications...
July 19, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476145/disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-infections-in-infants-with-immunodeficiency
#5
Suleiman Al-Hammadi, Ahmed R Alsuwaidi, Eman T Alshamsi, Ghassan A Ghatasheh, Abdul-Kader Souid
BACKGROUND: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) preparations are live-attenuated derivatives of Mycobacterium bovis. These products are used to vaccinate infants at birth, a practice that may result in a disseminated infection in those patients who have an unidentified immunodeficiency. CASE PRESENTATION: Patients who were immunized at birth with BCG and who developed a disseminated infection are reported here to emphasize the importance of taking an extensive medical history before ‎giving the BCG vaccine...
May 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423469/cytomegalovirus-peritonitis-after-kidney-transplantation-diagnosed-through-histopathological-examination
#6
Kiyohiko Hotta, Yuichiro Fukasawa, Yoshiki Wada, Nobuyuki Fukuzawa, Toshimori Seki, Hiroshi Harada
Among organ transplant recipients, cytomegalovirus (CMV) commonly results in various types of infection such as pneumonitis, hepatitis, and enterocolitis. However, CMV peritonitis is very rare and difficult to diagnose owing to lack of visible clinical signs. We present a case of a 35-year-old female kidney recipient who developed abdominal pain and urinary retention caused by CMV peritonitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of CMV peritonitis after organ transplantation to be diagnosed through histopathological examination...
August 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316929/cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis-complicated-by-a-central-peribronchial-pattern-of-organising-pneumonia
#7
Maria M Cuadrado, Asia Ahmed, Ben Carpenter, Jeremy S Brown
We present five cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis occurring in patients after recent T cell deplete allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AlloHSCT). These cases were complicated by an organising pneumonia (during the recovery period) with a predominantly central peribronchial pattern. All patients presented with evidence of active CMV pneumonitis which was treated successfully with anti-viral therapy but was followed by persistent severe dyspnoea, cough and hypoxia. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging showed widespread central peribronchial consolidation with traction bronchiectasis...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918839/clinical-utility-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-cytomegalovirus-viral-loads-in-the-diagnosis-of-cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis-in-infants
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kerusha Govender, Prakash Jeena, Raveen Parboosing
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality of children in Africa. The current practice for diagnosing CMV pneumonitis in this setting is based on interpretation of clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings. There is a need for a sensitive and specific laboratory test to objectively distinguish between patients with CMV pneumonitis and those with CMV infection, and non-CMV pneumonia. In this study, we compared plasma and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (NBBAL) CMV viral loads in patients with CMV pneumonitis and those with CMV infection and non-CMV pneumonia...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751206/-research-advances-in-breast-milk-acquired-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-premature-infants
#9
REVIEW
Li-Hong Ran, Lei Bao
Breast milk is considered ideal food for premature infants, but it can also be the main source of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in premature infants. CMV infection may cause serious clinical symptoms, such as sepsis-like syndrome, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, jaundice, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. This article reviews the research advances in symptoms, treatment strategies, prognosis and the prevention of breast milk-acquired CMV infection in premature infants.
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714898/review-of-cytomegalovirus-coinfection-in-hiv-infected-individuals-in-africa
#10
REVIEW
Helene Ladefoged Grønborg, Sanne Jespersen, Bo Langhoff Hønge, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Christian Wejse
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. METHODS: Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. RESULTS: High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations...
January 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379765/severe-early-onset-combined-immunodeficiency-due-to-heterozygous-gain-of-function-mutations-in-stat1
#11
Safa Baris, Fayhan Alroqi, Ayca Kiykim, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Ismail Ogulur, Ahmet Ozen, Louis-Marie Charbonnier, Mustafa Bakır, Kaan Boztug, Talal A Chatila, Isil B Barlan
PURPOSE: Loss and gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) lead to distinct phenotypes. Although recurrent infections are common to both types of STAT1 mutations, GOF mutations are distinguished by chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity. However, the clinical spectra of STAT1 GOF mutations continue to expand. We here describe two patients with STAT1 GOF mutations presenting early in life with combined immunodeficiency (CID)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328166/current-views-on-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-preterm-infants
#12
Gang Liu, Qiuli Zhang, Wei Wang
Preterm infants (<32 weeks), who are unable to breastfeed, are fed with expressed maternal milk via a nasogastric tube. Mothers of these infants often experience difficulties in establishing and maintaining lactation. The majority of women excrete cytomegalovirus (CMV) in their breast milk. CMV transmitted through maternal milk could cause symptomatic infection in preterm infants presenting as a sepsis like syndrome, pneumonitis, hepatopathy or enterocolitis. Routine freezing of maternal milk decreases the CMV load in breast milk and is used in some neonatal centers to reduce CMV transmission to preterm infants...
February 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097869/pulmonary-cytomegalovirus-replication-in-renal-transplant-patients-with-late-onset-pneumonitis
#13
Eva Königshausen, Hartmut Hengel, Ortwin Adams, Heinz Bry, Stephan Steiner, Christina Priegnitz, Anita Hansen, Lorenz Sellin, Lars C Rump, Adina Voiculescu
BACKGROUND: In renal transplant patients, pneumonitis may be caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV pneumonitis). This condition is usually accompanied by CMV viremia. However, CMV may also reactivate locally in the lungs of renal transplant patients with pneumonitis due to other pathogens. The impact of local CMV replication/reactivation in the lungs is unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All renal transplant patients at the Duesseldorf transplant center in the time from 01/2004 to 1/2008 were analyzed concerning pulmonary CMV replication in the setting of pneumonitis...
April 21, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910136/when-polymerase-chain-reaction-does-not-help-cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis-associated-with-very-low-or-undetectable-viral-load-in-both-blood-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples-after-lung-transplantation
#14
J Coussement, D Steensels, M-C Nollevaux, P Bogaerts, M Dumonceaux, B Delaere, A Froidure
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis occurs frequently among solid organ transplant recipients and is classically associated with significant viral replication in both blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. We present a case of a 64-year-old lung transplant recipient who presented with CMV pneumonitis that was diagnosed based on the association of viral inclusion in the BAL sample, rapid response to ganciclovir, and absence of other infectious etiology. Surprisingly, we observed very low or undetectable viral load both in blood and BAL samples...
April 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900992/cmv-immunoglobulins-for-the-treatment-of-cmv-infections-in-thoracic-transplant-recipients
#15
REVIEW
Uwe Schulz, Paolo Solidoro, Veronika Müller, Attila Szabo, Jens Gottlieb, Heinrike Wilkens, Frank Enseleit
Intravenous ganciclovir and, increasingly, oral valganciclovir are now considered the mainstay of treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or CMV disease. Under certain circumstances, CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) may be an appropriate addition or, indeed, alternative. Data on monotherapy with CMVIG are limited, but encouraging, for example in cases of ganciclovir intolerance. In cases of recurrent CMV in thoracic transplant patients after a disease- and drug-free period, adjunctive CMVIG can be considered in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia...
March 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26885542/molecular-and-culture-based-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-testing-for-the-diagnosis-of-cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis
#16
Susanna K Tan, Elizabeth B Burgener, Jesse J Waggoner, Kiran Gajurel, Sarah Gonzalez, Sharon F Chen, Benjamin A Pinsky
Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed...
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26885432/treatment-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-cidofovir-and-cmv-immune-globulin-in-a-lung-transplant-recipient
#17
Heinrike Wilkens, Martina Sester
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after lung transplantation is associated with increased risk for pneumonitis and bronchiolitis obliterans as well as allograft rejection and opportunistic infections. Ganciclovir is the mainstay of prophylaxis and treatment but CMV infections can be unresponsive. Apart from direct antiviral drugs, CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) preparations may be considered but are only licensed for prophylaxis. A CMV-seronegative 42-year-old man with cystic fibrosis received a lung from a CMV-seropositive donor...
2016: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26642118/postnatal-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-the-risk-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Matthew S Kelly, Daniel K Benjamin, Karen M Puopolo, Matthew M Laughon, Reese H Clark, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith, Sallie R Permar
IMPORTANCE: Postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) is typically benign in term infants but in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants can cause pneumonitis and sepsislike illness. Whether postnatal CMV infection results in long-term pulmonary sequelae in these infants is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between postnatal CMV infection and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality in a large multicenter cohort of VLBW infants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Conducted between October 2014 and June 2015, this propensity-matched retrospective cohort study involved 101,111 hospitalized VLBW (<1500 g) infants at 348 neonatal intensive care units in the United States from 1997 to 2012...
December 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537426/cytomegalovirus-immunoglobulin-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-the-val-ganciclovir-era-a-single-center-experience
#19
Cristina Lopez Garcia-Gallo, Christian García Fadul, Rosalia Laporta, Francisca Portero, Isabel Millan, Piedad Ussetti
BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the effectiveness of anti-cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin (CMVIg) following lung transplantation in the era of new antiviral agents is limited and controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At-risk patients (donor seropositive/recipient seronegative [D+/R-] and R+) received valganciclovir for 3 months (R+) or 6 months (D+/R). CMVIg (2 mg/kg) was given to D+/R- patients on days 1, 4, 8, 15, and 30 post-transplant, then monthly for a further year...
November 5, 2015: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26346369/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-cytomegalovirus-viremia-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-patients
#20
Jhong-Lin Wu, Hsuan-Yin Ma, Chun-Yi Lu, Jong-Min Chen, Ping-Ing Lee, Shiann-Tarng Jou, Yung-Lin Yang, Hsiu-Hao Chang, Meng-Yao Lu, Luan-Ying Chang, Li-Min Huang
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major pathogen causing significant mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised hosts. It is important to find risk factors associated with CMV viremia and its outcome. METHODS: We investigated the incidence, time of onset, risk factors for CMV viremia, and characteristics of CMV diseases in 57 pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between August 2011 and March 2014, cases of pediatric HSCT patients at the National Taiwan University Children's Hospital were reviewed...
June 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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