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CMV guidelines

S Heldenbrand, C Li, R P Cross, K A DePiero, T B Dick, K Ferguson, M Kim, E Newkirk, J M Park, J Sudaria-Kerr, E M Tichy, K R Ueda, R Weng, J Wisniewski, S Gabardi
BACKGROUND: The cytomegalovirus (CMV) donor-positive/recipient-positive (D+/R+) population is the largest proportion of renal transplant recipients (RTR). Guidelines for prevention of CMV in the intermediate-risk D+/R+ population include prophylaxis with valganciclovir (VGCV) 900 mg/day for 3 months. This study is the first head-to-head analysis comparing the efficacy and safety CMV prophylaxis of VGCV 450 vs. 900 mg/day for 3-months in D+/R+ RTR. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective analysis evaluated 478 adult RTR between 01/2008 and 10/2011...
September 17, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Dorota Pytka, Bożena Czarkowska-Pączek
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects approximately 40-90% of the world population. The infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent persons. However, it may have negative impact on physiological status or accompanying diseases especially in the elderly. In particular, increasing number of data suggests that persistent infection with CMV is associated with accelerated aging of the immune system accompanying by the decrease in the number of naïve T cells, the increase in in the number of late-differentiated T cells, and reduced TCD4/ TCD8 ratio...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Maryam Mozaffar, Shahrzad Shahidi, Shirinsadat Badri
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated certain aspects of the usage and administration of one lifesaving, high-cost medication, i.e., Ganciclovir for the prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in transplant patients. METHODS: This study was performed from 2013 to 2015 by conducting a medication use evaluation (MUE) program in the kidney transplantation departments of two tertiary care hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The MUE criteria for the drug were developed by applying drug information references...
July 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
Lopes Anne-Aurélie, Belhabri Souad, Karaoui Leila
Background Nonpasteurized, nonfrozen, fresh breast milk from mothers with positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology was initially contraindicated to very low-birth-weight infants because of the risk of milk-acquired CMV infection. Recently, the severity of this infection was increasingly discussed and the international guidelines now differ. Since 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended nutrition through raw breast milk for all preterm infants. Case We report the case of an infant born prematurely at 27 weeks and 4 days and fed with raw breastmilk from day 12 of life (D12)...
April 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Johanna Stranzinger, Agnessa Kozak, Benjamin Schilgen, Diana Paris, Thomas Nießen, Lutz Schmidt, Andreas Wille, Norbert L Wagner, Albert Nienhaus
BACKGROUND: Close contact with asymptomatic children younger than three years is a risk factor for a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. In pregnant women, such primary infection increases the risk of CMV-induced feto- or embryopathy. Daycare providers have therefore implemented working restrictions for pregnant daycare workers (DCWs) in accordance with legislation and guidelines for maternity protection. However, little is known about the infection risk for DCWs. We therefore compared the prevalence of CMV antibodies of pregnant DCWs to that of female blood donors (BDs)...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
J Torre-Cisneros, J M Aguado, J J Caston, L Almenar, A Alonso, S Cantisán, J Carratalá, C Cervera, E Cordero, M C Fariñas, M Fernández-Ruiz, J Fortún, E Frauca, J Gavaldá, D Hernández, I Herrero, O Len, F Lopez-Medrano, N Manito, M A Marcos, P Martín-Dávila, V Monforte, M Montejo, A Moreno, P Muñoz, D Navarro, P Pérez-Romero, A Rodriguez-Bernot, J Rumbao, R San Juan, J M Vaquero, E Vidal
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major complication of solid organ transplantation. Because of management of CMV is variable among transplant centers, in 2011 the Spanish Transplantation Infection Study Group (GESITRA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) developed consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Since then, new publications have clarified or questioned the aspects covered in the previous document...
July 2016: Transplantation Reviews
Martina Loibner, Walter Buzina, Christian Viertler, Daniel Groelz, Anja Hausleitner, Gintare Siaulyte, Iris Kufferath, Bettina Kölli, Kurt Zatloukal
BACKGROUND: Requirements on tissue fixatives are getting more demanding as molecular analysis becomes increasingly relevant for routine diagnostics. Buffered formaldehyde in pathology laboratories for tissue fixation is known to cause chemical modifications of biomolecules which affect molecular testing. A novel non-crosslinking tissue preservation technology, PAXgene Tissue (PAXgene), was developed to preserve the integrity of nucleic acids in a comparable way to cryopreservation and also to preserve morphological features comparable to those of formalin fixed samples...
2016: PloS One
Nancy M Heddle, Michael Boeckh, Brenda Grossman, Jessica Jacobson, Steven Kleinman, Aaron A R Tobian, Kathryn Webert, Edward C C Wong, John D Roback
Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (TT-CMV) is often asymptomatic, but certain patient populations, such as very low birth weight neonates, fetuses requiring intrauterine transfusion, pregnant women, patients with primary immunodeficiencies, transplant recipients, and patients receiving chemotherapy or transplantation for malignant disease, may be at risk of life-threatening CMV infection. It is unclear whether leukoreduction of cellular blood components is sufficient to reduce TT-CMV or whether CMV serological testing adds additional benefit to leukoreduction...
June 2016: Transfusion
Anders Åsberg, Atul Humar, Halvor Rollag, Alan G Jardine, Deepali Kumar, Pål Aukrust, Thor Ueland, Angelo A Bignamini, Anders Hartmann
The VICTOR study showed comparable efficacy of treatment with intravenous ganciclovir and oral valganciclovir for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Oral therapy is now recommended treatment in clinical practice and guidelines. The VICTOR biobank was used in a series of post hoc analyses that yielded unique and clinically valuable insights into CMV treatment and pathogenesis. For example, the importance of tailoring therapy to initial viral load, the effect of immunosuppression on outcomes, and the need to continue therapy until undetectable viral load to prevent recurrence and emergence of resistant strains...
May 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ellen Brisse, Maya Imbrechts, Karen Put, Anneleen Avau, Tania Mitera, Nele Berghmans, Omer Rutgeerts, Mark Waer, Marisa Ninivaggi, Hilde Kelchtermans, Louis Boon, Robert Snoeck, Carine H Wouters, Graciela Andrei, Patrick Matthys
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immunological disorder that is characterized by systemic inflammation, widespread organ damage, and hypercytokinemia. Primary HLH is caused by mutations in granule-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas secondary HLH occurs, without a known genetic background, in a context of infections, malignancies, or autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders. Clinical manifestations of both HLH subtypes are often precipitated by a viral infection, predominantly with Herpesviridae...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
L Deconinck, C Flateau, M Pichenot, S Morell-Dubois, H Maillard, P-Y Hatron, B Guery, K Faure
BACKGROUND: Vascular thromboembolism (VTE) complicating cytomegalovirus (CMV) primary infection is increasingly reported in immunocompetent adults. No guideline is, however, currently available for the management of these infections and particularly for the antiviral therapy indication. METHODS: We performed a literature review of VTE complicating CMV primary infection in immunocompetent adults using PubMed. RESULTS: Sixty-nine case patients of VTE complicating CMV primary infection were reported...
March 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Juthaporn Cowan, D W Cameron, Greg Knoll, Jason Tay
INTRODUCTION: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is commonly employed in the management of haematological malignancies. This intervention results in an increased risk of infectious and immune-related complications. Prophylactic immunoglobulin therapy has been used to prevent post-HSCT complications, including infections, with varying efficacy. We sought to update the current evidence supporting the use of immunoglobulins in the modern HSCT era. METHODS/ANALYSIS: Using a structured search strategy, we will perform a systematic review of the literature from MEDLINE, EMBASE and all EBM Reviews databases...
2015: BMJ Open
A Reitter, H Buxmann, A E Haberl, R Schlösser, M Kreibich, O T Keppler, A Berger
Co-infection with CMV in HIV-positive pregnant women is associated with perinatal mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of both viruses. This retrospective study reports on the incidence of maternal and neonatal CMV (presence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM, CMV DNA PCR and/or CMV virus isolation) in high-risk pregnancies due to maternal HIV infection, MTCT of HIV and/or CMV. One hundred and eleven maternal samples and 75 matched neonatal samples were available for HIV and subsequent CMV testing. In this cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women, 96 (86...
February 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Omar Alsuhaibani, Winston Costa Pereira, Mohammed Tareeqanwar, Nora El Khizzi, Saadia Bakheswain, Amira Shaker, Ghaleb Elyamany
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) involves the infusion of hematopoietic stem cells from a suitable donor to a patient who has undergone chemotherapy. Stem Cell transplantation is used for the treatment for a wide variety of diseases, including leukemia and lymphoma. PURPOSE: This study highlights prevention strategies of infectious diseases among HSCT donors and recipients in our institute as guided by International guidelines. We aim to highlight the strategy for extensive screening of HIV, Hepatitis B and C, CMV infection and syphilis cases in all the stem cell units stored in our facility...
April 2015: Annals of Neurosciences
Julie Carrara, Dieynaba S N'Diaye, Elie Azria, Odile Launay, Flore Rozenberg, Yazdan Yazpandanah, Vassilis Tsatsaris, Jean-Marc Ayoubi, Olivier Picone
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines for the management of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the fetus are rare. Our main objective was to evaluate how health care practitioners in France manage cases of CMV seroconversion during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was e-mailed to health care practitioners potentially concerned by CMV seroconversion during pregnancy. They were asked if they would recommend amniocentesis, fetal cerebral MRI examination and fetal blood analysis (FBA), depending on the ultrasound results...
2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Justin W Tenney, Samir Mokaddem, Vipul Shah, Ayoola Adekile
BACKGROUND: Antithymocyte globulin (rATG) is a polyclonal antibody commonly used as induction therapy in kidney transplantation to reduce risk of allograft rejection. Currently there is no consensus on the optimal dosing. rATG is not FDA approved for induction therapy, so no dosing recommendations are provided by the manufacturer. Current kidney transplant guidelines do not provide dosing recommendations. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different cumulative doses of rATG on rejections and infection rates...
2015: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Susan J Brunskill, Kirstin L Wilkinson, Carolyn Doree, Marialena Trivella, Simon Stanworth
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell transfusion is a common treatment for anaemia in many clinical conditions. One current concern is uncertainty as to the clinical consequences (notably efficacy and safety) of transfusing red blood cell units that have been stored for different durations of time before a transfusion. If evidence from randomised controlled trials were to indicate that clinical outcomes are affected by storage age, the implications for inventory management and clinical practice would be significant...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Horng-Jyh Tsai
Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV), a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide...
April 2015: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
A S Puri, C C Chaubal, Vandana Midha
Ulcerative colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation of a variable length of the colon starting from the rectum. The precise etiopathogenesis is unknown but it occurs in genetically susceptible individuals who manifest an abnormal immunological response against gut commensal bacteria. The disease course is-characterized by multiple spontaneous relapses and remissions. Two pathogens namely CMV and C. difficile have been associated with disease exacerbation in specific clinical situations. Whereas C. difficile may produce worsening of the disease in those exposed to broad spectrum antibiotics, CMV reactivation is seen only in patients with moderate to severe steroid refractory disease...
August 2014: Tropical Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
Talal Hilal
The association of cytomegalovirus (CMV) with autoimmune disease is poorly understood with suggested causality and reported viral reactivation coinciding with active inflammation. We report a case of a patient who presented with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and acute renal failure from rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis ultimately diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). She was acutely managed with plasmapheresis to reduce antibody-mediated end-organ damage, hemodialysis for worsening hyperkalemia and acidosis, and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone...
2015: Case Reports in Rheumatology
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