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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532138/a-case-based-shared-teaching-approach-in-undergraduate-medical-curriculum-a-way-for-integration-in-basic-and-clinical-sciences
#1
Soheil Peiman, Azim Mirzazadeh, Maryam Alizadeh, Sara Mortaz Hejri, Mohammad-Taghi Najafi, Abbas Tafakhori, Farnoosh Larti, Besharat Rahimi, Babak Geraiely, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Mohammad Ansari, Seyed Farshad Allameh
To present a multiple-instructor, active-learning strategy in the undergraduate medical curriculum. This educational research is a descriptive one. Shared teaching sessions, were designed for undergraduate medical students in six organ-system based courses. Sessions that involved in-class discussions of integrated clinical cases were designed implemented and moderated by at least 3 faculties (clinicians and basic scientists). The participants in this study include the basic sciences medical students of The Tehran University of Medical Sciences...
April 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530717/sparse-coding-with-memristor-networks
#2
Patrick M Sheridan, Fuxi Cai, Chao Du, Wen Ma, Zhengya Zhang, Wei D Lu
Sparse representation of information provides a powerful means to perform feature extraction on high-dimensional data and is of broad interest for applications in signal processing, computer vision, object recognition and neurobiology. Sparse coding is also believed to be a key mechanism by which biological neural systems can efficiently process a large amount of complex sensory data while consuming very little power. Here, we report the experimental implementation of sparse coding algorithms in a bio-inspired approach using a 32 × 32 crossbar array of analog memristors...
May 22, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530229/deep-sleep-maintains-learning-efficiency-of-the-human-brain
#3
Sara Fattinger, Toon T de Beukelaar, Kathy L Ruddy, Carina Volk, Natalie C Heyse, Joshua A Herbst, Richard H R Hahnloser, Nicole Wenderoth, Reto Huber
It is hypothesized that deep sleep is essential for restoring the brain's capacity to learn efficiently, especially in regions heavily activated during the day. However, causal evidence in humans has been lacking due to the inability to sleep deprive one target area while keeping the natural sleep pattern intact. Here we introduce a novel approach to focally perturb deep sleep in motor cortex, and investigate the consequences on behavioural and neurophysiological markers of neuroplasticity arising from dedicated motor practice...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530225/a-canonical-neural-mechanism-for-behavioral-variability
#4
Ran Darshan, William E Wood, Susan Peters, Arthur Leblois, David Hansel
The ability to generate variable movements is essential for learning and adjusting complex behaviours. This variability has been linked to the temporal irregularity of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. However, how neuronal irregularity actually translates into behavioural variability is unclear. Here we combine modelling, electrophysiological and behavioural studies to address this issue. We demonstrate that a model circuit comprising topographically organized and strongly recurrent neural networks can autonomously generate irregular motor behaviours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530089/use-of-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-reduce-context-dependent-learning-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Ya-Yun Lee, Beth E Fisher
BACKGROUND: Compared with age-matched non-disabled adults, people with Parkinson's disease (PD) demonstrated greater context-dependent learning, a phenomenon in which an individual shows inferior motor performance when the testing environmental context is different from the original practice context. Additionally, enhanced context- dependency has been shown to be associated with an increased activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). AIM: This study aimed to determine whether context-dependent learning in people with PD could be reduced by decreasing DLPFC activation with low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529954/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-stimulation-attenuates-neuroinflammation-through-jak2-stat3-activation-in-murine-models-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Paul R Krafft, Devin McBride, William B Rolland, Tim Lekic, Jerry J Flores, John H Zhang
Accounting for high mortality and morbidity rates, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains one of the most detrimental stroke subtypes lacking a specific therapy. Neuroinflammation contributes to ICH-induced brain injury and is associated with unfavorable outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate whether α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) stimulation ameliorates neuroinflammation after ICH. Male CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley were subjected to intracerebral injection of autologous blood or bacterial collagenase...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528968/amylin-and-its-g-protein-coupled-receptor-a-probable-pathological-process-and-drug-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Wei Qiao Qiu
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are shown to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, because GPCRs include a large family of membrane receptors, it is unclear which specific GPCR or pathway with rational ligands can become effective therapeutic targets for AD. Amylin receptor (AmR) is a GPCR that mediates several activities, such as improving glucose metabolism, relaxing cerebrovascular structure, modulating inflammatory reactions and potentially enhancing neural regeneration. Recent studies show that peripheral treatments with amylin or its clinical analog, pramlintide, reduced several components of AD pathology, including amyloid plaques, tauopathy, neuroinflammation and other components in the brain, corresponding with improved learning and memory in AD mouse models...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528123/quantitative-biology-of-hydrogen-peroxide-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Fernando Antunes, Paula Matos Brito
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) controls signaling pathways in cells by oxidative modulation of the activity of redox sensitive proteins denominated redox switches. Here, quantitative biology concepts are applied to review how H2O2 fulfills a key role in information transmission. Equations described lay the foundation of H2O2 signaling, give new insights on H2O2 signaling mechanisms, and help to learn new information from common redox signaling experiments. A key characteristic of H2O2 signaling is that the ratio between reduction and oxidation of redox switches determines the range of H2O2 concentrations to which they respond...
May 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527739/local-people-s-knowledge-with-regard-to-land-use-activities-in-southwest-madagascar-conceptual-insights-for-sustainable-land-management
#9
Nadine V M Fritz-Vietta, H Stone Tahirindraza, Susanne Stoll-Kleemann
Environmental conditions in the Mahafaly Plateau region in southwest Madagascar are harsh, with a long dry season and a short rainy season. The local people's land use capabilities and skills are adapted to these conditions. Nevertheless, they are currently confronted by drastic climatic changes, including longer dry seasons, which have resulted in food and water scarcities. It is therefore essential to ensure sustainable land management in the region. At present, the main land use activities are agriculture, livestock farming, natural resource collection including timber and non-timber forest products, and the practice of local customs...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527474/fifteen-years-of-experience-from-a-medical-school-clinical-skills-laboratory
#10
José Miguel Pêgo, João José Cerqueira, João Bessa, Vitor Hugo Pereira, Sara Gomes, José Mariz, Rita Sousa, Pedro Morgado, Nuno Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Medical Education has evolved being defined as a continuum of the medical training from the pre- to the post-graduate period and through a lifetime of medical practice that is mirrored in the competencies framework that several international institutions have established. This creates a challenge to educational institutions (pre- and post-graduate) that traditionally take separate pathways. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present report is a description of the efforts carried by the School of Medicine of the University of Minho to implement a strategy of teaching/learning methods that follows modern standards towards constructive alignment of the medical curriculum, from the pre- to the post-graduate...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527223/muscle-co-contraction-patterns-in-robot-mediated-force-field-learning-to-guide-specific-muscle-group-training
#11
Sara Pizzamiglio, Adela Desowska, Pegah Shojaii, Myriam Taga, Duncan L Turner
BACKGROUND: Muscle co-contraction is a strategy of increasing movement accuracy and stability employed in dealing with perturbation of movement. It is often seen in neuropathological populations. The direction of movement influences the pattern of co-contraction, but not all movements are easily achievable for populations with motor deficits. Manipulating the direction of the force instead, may be a promising rehabilitation protocol to train movement with use of a co-contraction reduction strategy...
May 19, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526918/effect-of-problem-and-scripting-based-learning-on-spine-surgical-trainees-learning-outcomes
#12
Lin Cong, Qi Yan, Chenjing Sun, Yue Zhu, Guanjun Tu
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of problem and scripting-based learning (PSBL) on spine surgical trainees' learning outcomes. METHODS: 30 spine surgery postgraduate-year-1 residents (PGY-1s) from the First Hospital of China Medical University were randomly divided into two groups. The first group studied spine surgical skills and developed individual judgment under a conventional didactic model, whereas the PSBL group used PBL and Scripted model. A feedback questionnaire and the satisfaction of residents were evaluated by the first assistant surgeon immediately following each procedure...
May 19, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526820/multi-label-learning-for-predicting-the-activities-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#13
Pu Wang, Ruiquan Ge, Liming Liu, Xuan Xiao, Ye Li, Yunpeng Cai
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are peptide antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Activity prediction of AMPs from their amino acid sequences is of great therapeutic importance but imposes challenges on prediction methods due to label interactions. In this paper we propose a novel multi-label learning model to address this problem. A weighted K-nearest neighbor classifier is adopted for efficient representation learning of the sequence data. A multiple linear regression model is then employed to learn a mapping from the classifier score vectors to the target labels, with label correlations considered...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526693/a-simple-laboratory-exercise-with-rat-isolated-esophagus-and-stomach-fundus-to-reveal-functional-differences-between-striated-and-smooth-muscle-cells
#14
Francisco José Batista-Lima, Kalinne Kelly Lima Gadelha, Daniel Maia Oliveira, Thiago Brasileiro Vasconcelos, Teresinha Silva Brito, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
This study describes an undergraduate student laboratory activity using isolated preparations from rat gastrointestinal tissues that possess contractile profiles typically exhibited by striated and smooth muscle cells. While students are introduced to an ex vivo methodology, they can compare differences in trace experiments, twitch aspects, phasic and tonic properties, force-frequency relationships, and pharmacological responsiveness of esophageal (striated) and fundic (smooth muscle) segments. Muscle strips were subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) applied by platinum electrodes immersed in the physiological solution...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526674/development-of-a-web-based-health-care-intervention-for-patients-with-heart-disease-lessons-learned-from-a-participatory-design-study
#15
Birgitte Noergaard, Marianne Sandvei, Nina Rottmann, Helle Johannessen, Uffe Wiil, Thomas Schmidt, Susanne S Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The use of telemedicine technologies in health care has increased substantially, together with a growing interest in participatory design methods when developing telemedicine approaches. OBJECTIVE: We present lessons learned from a case study involving patients with heart disease and health care professionals in the development of a personalized Web-based health care intervention. METHODS: We used a participatory design approach inspired by the method for feasibility studies in software development...
May 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526578/barrel-cortex-what-is-it-good-for
#16
REVIEW
Maik C Stüttgen, Cornelius Schwarz
The rodent whisker system, with barrel cortex as its most prominent structure, has evolved into a powerful model system to study sensory processing. However, despite the vast amount of data collected on barrel cortex neural activity patterns, as well as its circuitry and plasticity, the precise behavioral and cognitive operations for which this structure is needed are still elusive. Proposed functions of barrel cortex include detection, discrimination, coordination of whisker movements during exploratory locomotion or active touch, and associative learning...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526436/intracranial-il-17a-overexpression-decreases-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-by-upregulation-of-abca1-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Junling Yang, Jinghong Kou, Robert Lalonde, Ken-Ichiro Fukuchi
Neuroinflammation is a pervasive feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized by activated microglia, increased proinflammatory cytokines and/or infiltrating immune cells. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are found in AD brain parenchyma and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is identified around deposits of aggregated amyloid β protein (Aβ). However, the role of IL-17A in AD pathogenesis remains elusive. We overexpressed IL-17A in an AD mouse model via recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-mediated intracranial gene delivery...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526411/jnj10181457-a-histamine-h3-receptor-inverse-agonist-regulates-in-vivo-microglial-functions-and-improves-depression-like-behaviours-in-mice
#18
Tomomitsu Iida, Takeo Yoshikawa, Anikó Kárpáti, Takuro Matsuzawa, Haruna Kitano, Asuka Mogi, Ryuichi Harada, Fumito Naganuma, Tadaho Nakamura, Kazuhiko Yanai
Brain histamine acts as a neurotransmitter and regulates various physiological functions, such as learning and memory, sleep-wake cycles, and appetite regulation. We have recently shown that histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is expressed in primary mouse microglia and has a strong influence on critical functions in microglia, including chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion in vitro. However, the importance of H3R in microglial activity in vivo remains unknown. Here, we examined the effects of JNJ10181457 (JNJ), a selective and potent H3R inverse agonist, on microglial functions ex vivo and in vivo...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526031/breast-cancer-relatives-physical-activity-intervention-needs-and-preferences-qualitative-results
#19
Sheri J Hartman, Rochelle K Rosen
BACKGROUND: While many risk factors for breast cancer, such as family history, are not modifiable, some, however, can be modified. The study used formative qualitative research to learn about the physical activity intervention preferences and needs of first-degree female relatives (FDFRs) of breast cancer patients; that information was then used to develop a targeted physical activity intervention. METHODS: Twenty FDFRs first completed a 12-week physical activity intervention and then attended two sequential focus groups (7 groups total)...
May 19, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526022/a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study-of-medical-student-preferences-for-vodcast-design-format-and-pedagogical-approach
#20
Robin K Pettit, Marjorie Kinney, Lise McCoy
BACKGROUND: Vodcasts (video podcasts) are becoming increasingly popular in medical education. At A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (ATSU SOMA), vodcasts are an essential component of our blended learning environment, where year 2-4 students train in a contextual setting at community health centers across the U.S. Vodcasts are used far less frequently in our year 1 residential learning environment at the main campus in Arizona, but we are considering moving to significantly more interactive educational experiences with on-demand videos followed by in-class activities...
May 19, 2017: BMC Medical Education
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