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H Isabel Hubbard, Sara K Mamo, Tammy Hopper
Hearing loss is common among typically aging older adults and those with dementia. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the relationship between hearing and cognition among older adults, and in hearing loss as a modifiable risk factor for dementia. However, relatively less attention has been focused on the management of hearing loss among individuals with dementia and the key roles of speech-language pathologists and audiologists in providing such care. In this article, the authors review the literature on hearing loss and dementia, and analyze the research evidence for treatment of hearing loss in the context of major neurocognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Ana Cleide Silva Rabelo, Fabíola Vládia Feire Silva Souza, Lúcia de Fátima da Silva
OBJECTIVE: To know the contribution of Watson's theory to nursing care for cardiac patients in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. METHODS: This is a qualitative study based on the research-care method conducted with ten patients who underwent cardiac surgery in a specialised hospital from June to August 2013, in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Data were submitted to content analysis based on the Clinical Caritas Process. RESULTS: The results led to four thematic categories: Awareness of being cared for by another being, System of beliefs and subjectivity, Relation of support and trust, and Expression of feelings...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Eugene H C Wong, You Yi Dong, Mali Coray, Maurizio Cortada, Soledad Levano, Alexander Schmidt, Yves Brand, Daniel Bodmer, Laurent Muller
Exosomes are nanovesicles involved in intercellular communications. They are released by a variety of cell types; however, their presence in the inner ear has not been described in the literature. The aims of this study were to determine if exosomes are present in the inner ear and, if present, characterize the changes in their protein content in response to ototoxic stress. In this laboratory investigation, inner ear explants of 5-day-old Wistar rats were cultured and treated with either cisplatin or gentamicin...
2018: PloS One
Viktorija Grajevskaja, Diana Camerota, Gianfranco Bellipanni, Jorune Balciuniene, Darius Balciunas
The ability to conditionally inactivate genes is instrumental for fine genetic analysis of all biological processes, but is especially important for studies of biological events, such as regeneration, which occur late in ontogenesis or in adult life. We have constructed and tested a fully conditional gene trap vector, and used it to inactivate tbx5a in the cardiomyocytes of larval and adult zebrafish. We observe that loss of tbx5a function significantly impairs the ability of zebrafish hearts to regenerate after ventricular resection, indicating that Tbx5a plays an essential role in the transcriptional program of heart regeneration...
2018: PloS One
Encarnación Castillo, Diego P Morales, Antonio García, Luis Parrilla, Víctor U Ruiz, José A Álvarez-Bermejo
Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography (ECG) is based on the acquisition of signals from abdominal surface electrodes. The composite abdominal signal consists of the maternal electrocardiogram along with the fetal electrocardiogram and other electrical interferences. These recordings allow for the acquisition of valuable and reliable information that helps ensure fetal well-being during pregnancy. This paper introduces a procedure for fetal heart rate extraction from a single-channel abdominal ECG signal. The procedure is composed of three main stages: a method based on wavelet for signal denoising, a new clustering-based methodology for detecting fetal QRS complexes, and a final stage to correct false positives and false negatives...
2018: PloS One
Serdar Tok, Nİhal Dal, Aylİn Zekioğlu, Fatİh Çatıkkaş, İlker Balıkçı, Erman Doğan
Tok, S, Dal, N, Zekioğlu, A, Çatıkkaş, F, Balıkçı, İ, and Doğan, E. Autonomic cardiac activity among novice archers during baseline, shooting and recovery. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether heart rate variability (HRV) of novice archers may vary during baseline, shooting, and recovery periods. In addition, we aimed to explore whether HRV may have different patterns between successful and less successful archers and man and woman archers. The sample consisted of 39 (12 woman) novice archers ranging in age from 21 to 27...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Johan A Snoek, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, Arnoud W J van 't Hof, Eva Prescott, Maria T Hopman, Evelien Kolkman, Ed P de Kluiver
INTRODUCTION: Although exercise therapy has the potential to improve health outcomes of patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), less than 50% of patients adhere to prescribed physical activity guidelines one year after Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR). We aimed to assess the effects of an extended CR program with 12-months of Graded Exercise Therapy (GET) and resistance exercise training (RT) on exercise capacity and long-term survival in patients with CHF. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included sixty CHF patients between 2009 and 2010...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
George A Dumas, Ayesha S Bryant, Justin Ibey, John A Long, Matthew G Vicinanzo, Gwendolyn L Boyd
PURPOSE: This study will determine the safety of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) compared with endotracheal tube (ETT) in patients undergoing general anesthesia for dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, intraoperative and postoperative outcomes of patients who underwent DCR at UAB Callahan Eye Hospital using either LMA or ETT were compared. RESULTS: Over a period of 52 months, 429 patients underwent external DCR surgery...
August 8, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Robert A Egan
BACKGROUND: Susac syndrome (SS) classically presents with the clinical triad of retinal artery occlusion, sensorineural hearing loss, and encephalopathy and the neuroimaging triad of white matter lesions, deep gray matter lesions, and leptomeningeal disease. However, patients can present with an incomplete clinical or neuroimaging triads making diagnosis difficult in certain situations. A standard treatment paradigm also is lacking in this illness. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to recognize clinical and radiographic findings that are pathognomonic for this syndrome and have a basic understanding of the available treatment options...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Johan Heiberg, Colin F Royse, Alistair G Royse, David T Andrews
BACKGROUND: Desflurane and propofol are cardioprotective, but relative efficacy is unclear. The aim was to compare myocardial protection of single, simultaneous, and serial administration of desflurane and propofol. METHODS: Sixty New Zealand White rabbits and 65 isolated Sprague Dawley rat hearts randomly received desflurane, propofol, simultaneous desflurane and propofol, or sequential desflurane then propofol. Rabbits were subdivided to receive either ischemia-reperfusion with temporary occlusion of the left anterior descending artery or a time-matched, nonischemic perfusion protocol, whereas rat hearts were perfused in a Langendorff model with global ischemia-reperfusion...
June 20, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Mithila Durai, Michael Sanders, Kei Kobayashi, Grant D Searchfield
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether auditory streaming (segregation of incoming sounds into separate sound sources) and the ability to anticipate future auditory events are affected in tinnitus sufferers compared with nontinnitus controls with matched levels of hearing. It was hypothesized that tinnitus would result in abnormal electroencephalography responses to tone deviants and tone omissions compared to controls for frequencies near the pitch of tinnitus, and this should correspond with increased levels of cortical γ and θ oscillatory rhythms...
June 21, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Teruhiko Imamura, Ann Nguyen, Ben Chung, Daniel Rodgers, Nitasha Sarswat, Gene Kim, Jayant Raikhelkar, Sirtaz Adatya, Takeyoshi Ota, Tae Song, Colleen Juricek, Jerry D Estep, Daniel Burkhoff, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Gabriel Sayer, Nir Uriel
The relationship between the HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD) position and pump thrombosis has been reported. However, further clinical implications of device position are unknown. This study aimed to investigate optimal device position for better left ventricular (LV) unloading and patient prognosis. Patients undergoing a ramp test with right heart catheterization after HeartMate II LVAD implantation were enrolled to this study. Device position was quantified from the chest X-ray obtained at the time of the ramp test: (1) inflow cannula angle relative to horizontal line, (2) pump angle relative to spine, (3) pump depth, (4) angle between inflow cannula and pump, and (5) angle between pump and outflow graft...
June 19, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Steffen Schulz, Jens Haueisen, Karl-Juergen Bär, Andreas Voss

 The new interdisciplinary field of network physiology is getting more and more into the focus of interest in medicine. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is well described in schizophrenia (SZO). However, the linear and nonlinear coupling between the ANS and central nervous system (CNS) is only partly addressed until now. This coupling can be assumed as a feedback-feedforward network, reacting with flexible and adaptive responses to internal and external factors.
 For the first time, in this study, we investigated linear and nonlinear short-term central-cardiorespiratory couplings of 17 patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia (SZO) in comparison to 17 age-gender matched healthy subjects (CON) analyzing heart rate (HR), respiration (RESP) and the power of frontal EEG activity (PEEG)...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Pan Zhuang, Xinyu Chen, Jun Wang, Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) as possible cardiovascular disrupters are universally detected in humans. However, evidence from epidemiological studies appears insufficient and ambiguous. OBJECTIVES: We aim to examine the serum PFCs levels and their associations with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related outcomes in general US population. METHODS: We investigated the serum levels of 12 major PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (EPAH), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (MPAH), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHP), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFSA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDO), in 10,859 participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014...
June 19, 2018: Environment International
Jonathan Wagner, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Ross Arena, Romualdo Belardinelli, Daniel Dumitrescu, Alfred Hager, Jonathan Myers, Rainer Rauramaa, Marshall Riley, Tim Takken, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is common in the developed world and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate risk assessment methods and prognostic variables are therefore needed to guide clinical decision making for medical therapy and surgical interventions with the ultimate goal of decreasing risk and improving health outcomes. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and its most commonly used ventilatory gas exchange variables for the purpose of risk stratification and management of HFrEF...
May 22, 2018: American Heart Journal
Ruiqi Baiyun, Siyu Li, Biying Liu, Jingjing Lu, Yueying Lv, Jianwen Xu, Jiahui Wu, Jiayi Li, Zhanjun Lv, Zhigang Zhang
Inorganic mercury is a toxic metal of worldwide concern, and causes serious cardiac injury. However, effective treatment for cardiac injury induced by mercuric chloride (HgCl2 ) has not been fully identified. Luteolin (Lut) is a novel natural antioxidant. This study aimed to investigate the role of Lut on HgCl2 -induced cardiac injury. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups, control, Lut (80 mg/kg intragastrically), HgCl2 (80 mg/L, in drinking water), and HgCl2 + Lut groups. The results indicated that Lut significantly ameliorated cardiac histopathological damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis induced by HgCl2 in the rat heart...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhong-Min Dai, Yanan Xiong, Weiran He, Yukun Fang, Ye-Qing Qian, Xiao-Jing Zhu
Wnt signaling play important roles in a variety of developmental and pathological processes. Here we show that Wntless, the main regulator for Wnt secretion, is involved in the innate immune response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of the prawn Wntless (named MrWntless) is 2173 bp in length and contains a 1602-bp open reading frame (ORF), which is conceptually translated into a 533-amino acids sequence. MrWntless protein contains a highly conserved Wnt-binding domain which is required for secretion of Wnt ligands, and exhibits 57-67% identity with known Wntless proteins of other animals...
June 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
M Shimoji, B Ramaswamy, M I Shukoor, P Benhal, A Broda, S Kulkarni, P Malik, B McCaffrey, J-F Lafond, A Nacev, I N Weinberg, B Shapiro, D A Depireux
This paper investigates the safety of a novel 'magnetic injection' method of delivering therapy to the cochlea, in a rodent model. In this method of administration, a magnetic field is employed to actively transport drug-eluting iron oxide-core nanoparticles into the cochlea, where they then release their drug payload (we delivered the steroid prednisolone). Our study design and selection of control groups was based on published regulatory guidance for safety studies that involve local drug delivery. We tested for both single and multiple delivery doses to the cochlea, and found that magnetic delivery did not harm hearing...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Arjan Boonman, Pazit Zadicario, Yael Mazon, Chen Rabi, David Eilam
A barn owl swooping down generated a quieter, almost silent, noise (acoustic impulses) compared to a louder noise generated by the owl when taking off. These acoustic impulses are at low frequencies which are below the auditory threshold to most rodents. Therefore, rodents are less likely to hear these noises of owl flight. A previous study revealed that rodents exhibit frantic response to an owl taking off (as opposed to their typical freezing response during owl attack). The frantic response could be the result of tactile reception of the air-puffs generated by the owl's wingbeats and may reduce the success in subsequent attacks...
June 19, 2018: Behavioural Processes
D N Borg, I B Stewart, J T Costello, C C Drovandi, G M Minett
PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of environmental temperature deception on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during 30 min of fixed-intensity cycling in the heat. METHODS: Eleven trained male cyclists completed an incremental cycling test and four experimental trials. Trials consisted of 30 min cycling at 50% Pmax , once in 24 °C (CON) and three times in 33 °C. In the hot trials, participants were provided with accurate temperature feedback (HOT), or were deceived to believe the temperature was 28 °C (DECLOW ) or 38 °C (DECHIGH )...
June 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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