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Host Pathogen Dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#1
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914070/analysis-of-bacterial-surface-interactions-with-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#2
Christofer Karlsson, Johan Teleman, Johan Malmström
Host-pathogen protein-protein interaction networks are highly complex and dynamic. In this experimental protocol we describe a method to isolate host proteins attached to the bacterial surface followed by quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics analysis. This technique provides an overview of the host-pathogen interaction network, which can be used to guide directed perturbations of the system, and to select target of specific interest for further studies.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906974/in-silico-knockout-studies-of-xenophagic-capturing-of-salmonella
#3
Jennifer Scheidel, Leonie Amstein, Jörg Ackermann, Ivan Dikic, Ina Koch
The degradation of cytosol-invading pathogens by autophagy, a process known as xenophagy, is an important mechanism of the innate immune system. Inside the host, Salmonella Typhimurium invades epithelial cells and resides within a specialized intracellular compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole. A fraction of these bacteria does not persist inside the vacuole and enters the host cytosol. Salmonella Typhimurium that invades the host cytosol becomes a target of the autophagy machinery for degradation...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903055/local-landscape-effects-on-population-dynamics-of-ixodes-ricinus
#4
Naveed Asghar, Mona Petersson, Magnus Johansson, Patrik Dinnetz
Ixodes ricinus, a common tick in Europe, transmits severe tickborne pathogens (TBPs). In Sweden, both prevalence and incidence of tick-borne infections have increased during the last few decades, and a majority of the cases is reported from the area around Stockholm. Among ticks, transmission of TBPs involves co-feeding of susceptible larvae or nymphs with infected ticks on the same host. Seasonal synchrony of immature stages and total tick abundance are important factors for the probability of horizontal transmission of TBPs...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902345/advances-in-canine-distemper-virus-cdv-pathogenesis-research-a-wildlife-perspective
#5
Angelika Katrin Loots, Emily Mitchell, Desiré Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Estelle H Venter
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has emerged as a significant disease of wildlife, is highly contagious and readily transmitted between susceptible hosts. Initially described as an infectious disease of domestic dogs, it is now recognised as a global multi-host pathogen, infecting and causing mass mortalities in a wide range of carnivore species. The last decade has seen the effect of numerous CDV outbreaks in various wildlife populations. Prevention of CDV requires a clear understanding of the potential hosts in danger of infection as well as the dynamic pathways CDV uses to gain entry to its host cells and its ability to initiate viral shedding and disease transmission...
November 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900825/fungal-infection-dynamics-in-response-to-temperature-in-the-lepidopteran-insect-galleria-mellonella
#6
Vadim Y Kryukov, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Miranda M A Whitten, Maksim V Tyurin, Katherine J Ficken, Carolyn Greig, Nadja R Melo, Viktor V Glupov, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Tariq M Butt
This study examines how the dynamics of fungus - insect interactions can be modulated by temperature. The wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is a well-studied and important model insect whose larvae in the wild develop optimally at around 34°C in beehives. However, surprisingly little research on wax moths has been conducted at relevant temperatures. In this study, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii inflicted rapid and substantial mortality on wax moth larvae maintained at a constant temperature of 24°C, but at 34°C a ten-fold higher dose was required to achieve an equivalent mortality...
November 29, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894984/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-methicillin-resistant-and-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-incidence-in-respect-to-specimen-source-patient-location-and-temperature-variation
#7
T Delorme, A Garcia, P Nasr
OBJECTIVE: Seasonal variations in temperature exert strong selective pressure on microorganism population dynamics and should be taken into account in epidemiological studies. The objective of current study was to characterize the seasonal variation of Staphylococcal infections in respect to patient location, specimen source, month of year, and temperature variation. METHOD: A retrospective longitudinal time series analysis of methicillin-resistant and sensitive S...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891501/septins-and-bacterial-infection
#8
REVIEW
Vincenzo Torraca, Serge Mostowy
Septins, a unique cytoskeletal component associated with cellular membranes, are increasingly recognized as having important roles in host defense against bacterial infection. A role for septins during invasion of Listeria monocytogenes into host cells was first proposed in 2002. Since then, work has shown that septins assemble in response to a wide variety of invasive bacterial pathogens, and septin assemblies can have different roles during the bacterial infection process. Here we review the interplay between septins and bacterial pathogens, highlighting septins as a structural determinant of host defense...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890626/the-appressorium-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae-remains-mitotically-active-during-post-penetration-hyphal-growth
#9
Cory B Jenkinson, Kiersun Jones, Jie Zhu, Sara Dorhmi, Chang Hyun Khang
To investigate the mitotic dynamics of an appressorium, we used live-cell confocal imaging of a fluorescence-based mitotic reporter strain of Magnaporthe oryzae. We present evidence that the M. oryzae appressorium remains viable and mitotically active well after host penetration. These results suggest the potential roles of the appressorium during post-penetration proliferation of invasive hyphae. Our studies also revealed that a mitotic appressorial nucleus undergoes extreme constriction and elongation as it migrates through the penetration peg in a manner analogous to mitosis during cell-to-cell movement of invasive hyphae...
November 23, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885799/the-c-terminal-extension-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-hsp16-3-regulates-its-oligomerization-subunit-exchange-dynamics-and-chaperone-function
#10
Alok Kumar Panda, Ayon Chakraborty, Sandip Kumar Nandi, Abhishek Kaushik, Ashis Biswas
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a human pathogen that secretes a major immunodominant antigen namely Hsp16.3 throughout the course of infection. It belongs to small heat shock protein family and exhibits molecular chaperone function which is important for the growth and survival of M. tuberculosis in host cell macrophages. The importance of the N-terminal region on the structure and chaperone function of Hsp16.3 is well understood. However, the effect of the C-terminal region on these properties is far from clear...
November 25, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876851/the-genome-transcriptome-and-proteome-of-the-nematode-steinernema-carpocapsae-evolutionary-signatures-of-a-pathogenic-lifestyle
#11
Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso, Mitzi Flores-Ponce, Hilda Eréndira Ramos-Aboites, Christian Eduardo Martínez-Guerrero, You-Jin Hao, Luis Cunha, Jonathan Alejandro Rodríguez-Martínez, Cesaré Ovando-Vázquez, José Roberto Bermúdez-Barrientos, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Norberto Chavarría-Hernández, Nelson Simões, Rafael Montiel
The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae has been widely used for the biological control of insect pests. It shares a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, and is emerging as a genetic model to study symbiosis and pathogenesis. We obtained a high-quality draft of the nematode's genome comprising 84,613,633 bp in 347 scaffolds, with an N50 of 1.24 Mb. To improve annotation, we sequenced both short and long RNA and conducted shotgun proteomic analyses. S. carpocapsae shares orthologous genes with other parasitic nematodes that are absent in the free-living nematode C...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876087/heterogeneity-in-the-abundance-and-distribution-of-ixodes-ricinus-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-in-scotland-implications-for-risk-prediction
#12
Caroline Millins, Lucy Gilbert, Paul Johnson, Marianne James, Elizabeth Kilbride, Richard Birtles, Roman Biek
BACKGROUND: Cases of Lyme borreliosis, a vector-borne zoonosis caused by bacteria in the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) species group, have increased in recent years in Europe. Knowledge of environmental factors associated with abundance of the tick vector Ixodes ricinus and the pathogen B. burgdorferi (s.l.) is of interest to understand responses to environmental changes, predict variation in risk and to inform management interventions. METHODS: Nineteen woodland sites across Scotland were surveyed in 2012 for B...
November 22, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870855/host-parasite-interactions-and-population-dynamics-of-rock-ptarmigan
#13
Ute Stenkewitz, Ólafur K Nielsen, Karl Skírnisson, Gunnar Stefánsson
Populations of rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Iceland fluctuate in multiannual cycles with peak numbers c. every 10 years. We studied the ptarmigan-parasite community and how parasites relate to ptarmigan age, body condition, and population density. We collected 632 ptarmigan in northeast Iceland in early October from 2006 to 2012; 630 (99.7%) were infected with at least one parasite species, 616 (98%) with ectoparasites, and 536 (85%) with endoparasites. We analysed indices for the combined parasite community (16 species) and known pathogenic parasites, two coccidian protozoans Eimeria muta and Eimeria rjupa, two nematodes Capillaria caudinflata and Trichostrongylus tenuis, one chewing louse Amyrsidea lagopi, and one skin mite Metamicrolichus islandicus...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867047/assessing-the-intra-species-genetic-variability-in-the-clonal-pathogen-campylobacter-fetus-crisprs-are-highly-polymorphic-dna-markers
#14
Lucía Calleros, Laura Betancor, Gregorio Iraola, Alejandra Méndez, Claudia Morsella, Fernando Paolicchi, Silvia Silveyra, Alejandra Velilla, Ruben Pérez
Campylobacter fetus is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects animals and humans. The subspecies Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) affects a broad range of vertebrate hosts and induces abortion in cows and sheep. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) has been isolated mostly from apparently healthy reptiles belonging to different species but also from ill snakes and humans...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862515/coevolutionary-dynamics-between-a-defensive-microbe-and-a-pathogen-driven-by-fluctuating-selection
#15
Suzanne A Ford, David Williams, Steve Paterson, Kayla C King
Microbes that protect their hosts from pathogenic infection are widespread components of the microbiota of both plants and animals. It has been found that interactions between 'defensive' microbes and pathogens can be genotype-specific and even underlie the variation in host resistance to pathogenic infection. These observations suggest a dynamic coevolutionary association between pathogens and defensive microbes, but direct evidence of coevolution is lacking. We tested the hypothesis that defensive microbes and pathogens could coevolve within host populations by co-passaging a microbe with host-defensive properties (Enterococcus faecalis) and a pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) within Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860432/virus-like-particle-of-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-nodavirus-produced-in-spodoptera-frugiperda-sf9-cells-is-distinctive-from-that-produced-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Chare Li Kueh, Chean Yeah Yong, Seyedehsara Masoomi Dezfooli, Subha Bhassu, Soon Guan Tan, Wen Siang Tan
Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is a virus native to giant freshwater prawn. Recombinant MrNV capsid protein has been produced in Escherichia coli, which self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, this recombinant protein is unstable, degrading and forming heterogenous VLPs. In the current study, MrNV capsid protein was produced in insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells through a baculovirus system. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the recombinant protein produced by the insect cells self-assembled into highly stable, homogenous VLPs each of approximately 40 nm in diameter...
November 14, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859910/local-adaptation-at-higher-trophic-levels-contrasting-hyperparasite-pathogen-infection-dynamics-in-the-field-and-laboratory
#17
Steven R Parratt, Benoit Barrès, Rachel M Penczykowski, Anna-Liisa Laine
Predicting and controlling infectious disease epidemics is a major challenge facing the management of agriculture, human and wildlife health. Coevolutionarily derived patterns of local adaptation among pathogen populations have the potential to generate variation in disease epidemiology, however studies of local adaptation in disease systems have mostly focused on interactions between competing pathogens or pathogens and their hosts. In nature, parasites and pathogens are also subject to attack by hyperparasitic natural enemies that can severely impact upon their infection dynamics...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859168/sea-louse-parasites-on-juvenile-wild-salmon-in-the-broughton-archipelago-british%C3%A2-columbia-canada
#18
Stephanie J Peacock, Andrew W Bateman, Martin Krkošek, Brendan Connors, Scott Rogers, Lauren Portner, Zephyr Polk, Coady Webb, Alexandra Morton
The global expansion of aquaculture has changed the structure of fish populations in coastal environments, with implications for disease dynamics. In Pacific Canada, farmed salmon act as reservoir hosts for parasites and pathogens, including sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) that can transmit to migrating wild salmon. Assessing the impact of salmon farms on wild salmon requires regular monitoring of sea-louse infections on both farmed and wild fish. Since 2001, we have collected juvenile pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (O...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859120/disease-introduction-is-associated-with-a-phase-transition-in-bighorn-sheep-demographics
#19
Kezia Manlove, E Frances Cassirer, Paul C Cross, Raina K Plowright, Peter J Hudson
Ecological theory suggests that pathogens are capable of regulating or limiting host population dynamics, and this relationship has been empirically established in several settings. However, although studies of childhood diseases were integral to the development of disease ecology, few studies show population limitation by a disease affecting juveniles. Here, we present empirical evidence that disease in lambs constrains population growth in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) based on 45 years of population-level and 18 years of individual-level monitoring across 12 populations...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858931/tick-microbiome-and-pathogen-acquisition-altered-by-host-blood-meal
#20
Andrea Swei, Jessica Y Kwan
Lyme disease, a zoonotic disease, is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Diversity of the vector (tick) microbiome can impact pathogen transmission, yet the biotic and abiotic factors that drive microbiome diversity are largely unresolved, especially under natural, field conditions. We describe the microbiome of Ixodes pacificus ticks, the vector for Lyme disease in the western United States, and show a strong impact of host blood meal identity on tick microbiome species richness and composition...
November 18, 2016: ISME Journal
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