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Host Pathogen Dynamics

Mustafa O Jibrin, Neha Potnis, Sujan Timilsina, Gerald V Minsavage, Gary E Vallad, Pamela D Roberts, Jeffrey B Jones, Erica M Goss
Recombination is a major driver of evolution in bacterial populations because it can spread and combine independently evolved beneficial mutations. Recombinant lineages of plant bacterial pathogens are typically associated with colonization of novel hosts and emergence of new diseases. Here, we show that recombination between evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct plant pathogenic lineages generated recombinant lineages with unique combinations of pathogenicity and virulence factors. X. euvesicatoria ( Xe ) and X...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
E Gibbin, A Gavish, I Domart-Coulon, E Kramarsky-Winter, O Shapiro, A Meibom, A Vardi
BACKGROUND: Global warming has triggered an increase in the prevalence and severity of coral disease, yet little is known about coral/pathogen interactions in the early stages of infection. The point of entry of the pathogen and the route that they take once inside the polyp is currently unknown, as is the coral's capacity to respond to infection. To address these questions, we developed a novel method that combines stable isotope labelling and microfluidics with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), to monitor the infection process between Pocillopora damicornis and Vibrio coralliilyticus under elevated temperature...
April 20, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Xiaobo Zhong, Hua Xiang, Tiedong Wang, Ling Zhong, Di Ming, Linyan Nie, Fengjiao Cao, Bangbang Li, Junjie Cao, Dan Mu, Ke Ruan, Lin Wang, Dacheng Wang
The antibiotic resistance (ARE) subfamily of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) proteins confers resistance to a variety of clinically important ribosome-targeting antibiotics and plays an important role in infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. However, inhibitors of ARE proteins have rarely been reported. Here, OptrA, a new member of the ARE proteins, was used to study inhibitors of these types of proteins. We first confirmed that destroying the catalytic activity of OptrA could restore the sensitivity of host cells to antibiotics...
April 19, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Nicola De Maio, Colin J Worby, Daniel J Wilson, Nicole Stoesser
Pathogen genome sequencing can reveal details of transmission histories and is a powerful tool in the fight against infectious disease. In particular, within-host pathogen genomic variants identified through heterozygous nucleotide base calls are a potential source of information to identify linked cases and infer direction and time of transmission. However, using such data effectively to model disease transmission presents a number of challenges, including differentiating genuine variants from those observed due to sequencing error, as well as the specification of a realistic model for within-host pathogen population dynamics...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Tiffany A Yap, Michelle S Koo, Richard F Ambrose, Vance T Vredenburg
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a causal agent of the amphibian fungal skin disease chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in the decline and extinction of over 200 species worldwide since the 1970s. Despite almost two decades of research, the history of Bd and its global spread is not well understood. However, the spread of the Global Panzootic Lineage of Bd (Bd-GPL), the lineage associated with amphibian die-offs, has been linked with the American bullfrog (Rana [Aqurana] catesbeiana) and global trade...
2018: PloS One
Andrea Rinaldo, Marino Gatto, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe
This paper draws together several lines of argument to suggest that an ecohydrological framework, i.e. laboratory, field and theoretical approaches focused on hydrologic controls on biota, has contributed substantially to our understanding of the function of river networks as ecological corridors. Such function proves relevant to: the spatial ecology of species; population dynamics and biological invasions; the spread of waterborne disease. As examples, we describe metacommunity predictions of fish diversity patterns in the Mississippi-Missouri basin, geomorphic controls imposed by the fluvial landscape on elevational gradients of species' richness, the zebra mussel invasion of the same Mississippi-Missouri river system, and the spread of proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish...
February 2018: Advances in Water Resources
Jesús Gonzalo-Asensio, Irene Pérez, Nacho Aguiló, Santiago Uranga, Ana Picó, Carlos Lampreave, Alberto Cebollada, Isabel Otal, Sofía Samper, Carlos Martín
The insertion Sequence IS6110, only present in the pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC), has been the gold-standard epidemiological marker for TB for more than 25 years, but biological implications of IS6110 transposition during MTBC adaptation to humans remain elusive. By studying 2,236 clinical isolates typed by IS6110-RFLP and covering the MTBC, we remarked a lineage-specific content of IS6110 being higher in modern globally distributed strains. Once observed the IS6110 distribution in the MTBC, we selected representative isolates and found a correlation between the normalized expression of IS6110 and its abundance in MTBC chromosomes...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
Liang Hu, Anle Ge, Xixian Wang, Shanshan Wang, Xinpei Yue, Jie Wang, Xiaojun Feng, Wei Du, Bi-Feng Liu
Immune response to environmental pathogen invasion is a complex process to prevent host from further damage. For quantitatively understanding immune responses and revealing the pathogenic environmental information, real-time monitoring of such a whole dynamic process with single-animal resolution in well-defined environments is highly desired. In this work, an integrated microfluidic device coupled with worm-based biosensor was proposed for in vivo studies of dynamic immune responses and antibiotics interference in infected C...
March 29, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Henning Petersen, Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed A Tantawy, Azeem A Iqbal, Donata Hoffmann, Aravind Tallam, Balachandar Selvakumar, Frank Pessler, Martin Beer, Silke Rautenschlein, Stephan Pleschka
The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) has widely spread and is circulating in humans and swine together with other human and avian IAVs. This fact raises the concern that reassortment between H1N1pdm09 and co-circulating viruses might lead to an increase of H1N1pdm09 pathogenicity in different susceptible host species. Herein, we explored the potential of different NS segments to enhance the replication dynamics, pathogenicity and host range of H1N1pdm09 strain A/Giessen/06/09 (Gi-wt)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michael H Kogut, Kenneth J Genovese, Christina L Swaggerty, Haiqi He, Leon Broom
The intestinal tract harbors a diverse community of microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. Although many of these microbes execute functions that are critical for host physiology, the host immune system must control the microbial community so that the dynamics of this interdependent relationship is maintained. To facilitate host homeostasis, the immune system ensures that the microbial load is tolerated, but anatomically contained, while remaining reactive to microbial invasion. Inflammation is the most prevalent manifestation of host defense in reaction to alterations in tissue homeostasis and is elicited by innate immune receptors that recognize and detect infection, host damage, and danger signaling molecules that activate a highly regulated network of immunological and physiological events for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis and restoring functionality...
March 30, 2018: Poultry Science
Thierry Hoch, Eric Breton, Zati Vatansever
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever is a zoonotic disease which has emerged or re-emerged recently in Eastern Europe and Turkey. The causative agent is a virus, mainly transmitted by ticks of the species Hyalomma marginatum (Koch, 1844, Ixodida, Amblyommidae). To test potential scenarios for the control of pathogen spread, a dynamic mechanistic model has been developed that takes into account the major processes involved in tick population dynamics and pathogen spread. The tick population dynamics model represents both abiotic (meteorological variables) and biotic (hare and cattle densities) factors in the determination of processes (development, host finding, and mortality)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Juan S Ramirez-Prado, Sophie J M Piquerez, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Heribert Hirt, Cécile Raynaud, Moussa Benhamed
Relying on an immune system comes with a high energetic cost for plants. Defense responses in these organisms are therefore highly regulated and fine-tuned, permitting them to respond pertinently to the attack of a microbial pathogen. In recent years, the importance of the physical modification of chromatin, a highly organized structure composed of genomic DNA and its interacting proteins, has become evident in the research field of plant-pathogen interactions. Several processes, including DNA methylation, changes in histone density and variants, and various histone modifications, have been described as regulators of various developmental and defense responses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Michelle L Verant, Elizabeth A Bohuski, Katherine L D Richgels, Kevin J Olival, Jonathan H Epstein, David S Blehert
1. Fungal diseases are an emerging global problem affecting human health, food security and biodiversity. Ability of many fungal pathogens to persist within environmental reservoirs can increase extinction risks for host species and presents challenges for disease control. Understanding factors that regulate pathogen spread and persistence in these reservoirs is critical for effective disease management. 2. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), a fungus that establishes persistent environmental reservoirs within bat hibernacula, which contribute to seasonal disease transmission dynamics in bats...
2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
Grace Castro, Patricia A Merkel, Hannah E Giclas, Andrew Gibula, Gillian E Andersen, Laurence M Corash, Jin Sying Lin, Jennifer Green, Vijaya Knight, Adonis Stassinopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a rare complication after transfusion of components containing viable donor T cells. Gamma irradiation with doses that stop T-cell proliferation is the predominant method to prevent TA-GVHD. Treatment with pathogen inactivation methodologies has been found to also be effective against proliferating white blood cells, including T cells. In this study, T-cell inactivation was compared, between amotosalen/ultraviolet A (UVA) treatment and gamma-irradiation (2500 cGy), using a sensitive limiting dilution assay (LDA) with an enhanced dynamic range...
April 2, 2018: Transfusion
Jamie Voyles, Douglas C Woodhams, Veronica Saenz, Allison Q Byrne, Rachel Perez, Gabriela Rios-Sotelo, Mason J Ryan, Molly C Bletz, Florence Ann Sobell, Shawna McLetchie, Laura Reinert, Erica Bree Rosenblum, Louise A Rollins-Smith, Roberto Ibáñez, Julie M Ray, Edgardo J Griffith, Heidi Ross, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki
Infectious diseases rarely end in extinction. Yet the mechanisms that explain how epidemics subside are difficult to pinpoint. We investigated host-pathogen interactions after the emergence of a lethal fungal pathogen in a tropical amphibian assemblage. Some amphibian host species are recovering, but the pathogen is still present and is as pathogenic today as it was almost a decade ago. In addition, some species have defenses that are more effective now than they were before the epidemic. These results suggest that host recoveries are not caused by pathogen attenuation and may be due to shifts in host responses...
March 30, 2018: Science
Masaharu Iwasaki, Juan C de la Torre
Mammarenaviruses cause chronic infections in their natural rodent hosts. Infected rodents shed infectious virus into excreta. Humans are infected through mucosal exposure to aerosols or direct contact of abraded skin with fomites, resulting in a wide-range of manifestations from asymptomatic or mild febrile illness to severe life-threatening hemorrhagic fever. The mammarenavirus matrix Z protein has been shown to be a main driving force of virus budding and to act as a negative regulator of viral RNA synthesis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
David Kennedy, Greg Dwyer
Changes in pathogen genetic variation within hosts alter the severity and spread of infectious diseases, with important implications for clinical disease and public health. Genetic drift may play a strong role in shaping pathogen variation, but analyses of drift in pathogens have oversimplified pathogen population dynamics, either by considering dynamics only at a single scale-such as within hosts or between hosts-or by making drastic simplifying assumptions, for example, that host immune systems can be ignored or that transmission bottlenecks are complete...
March 28, 2018: PLoS Biology
Lorenzo Mari, Renato Casagrandi, Andrea Rinaldo, Marino Gatto
Determining the conditions that favor pathogen establishment in a host community is key to disease control and eradication. However, focusing on long-term dynamics alone may lead to an underestimation of the threats imposed by outbreaks triggered by short-term transient phenomena. Achieving an effective epidemiological response thus requires to look at different timescales, each of which may be endowed with specific management objectives. In this work we aim to determine epidemicity thresholds for some prototypical examples of water-borne and water-related diseases, a diverse family of infections transmitted either directly through water infested with pathogens or by vectors whose lifecycles are closely associated with water...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Mohd M Khan, Marijke Koppenol-Raab, Minna Kuriakose, Nathan P Manes, David R Goodlett, Aleksandra Nita-Lazar
The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) facilitate an organism's first line of defense against interlopers and shape the overall innate immune response through sensing and sampling pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is the prototypic PRR family. Upon recognition of PAMPs, TLRs promote MyD88 dependent and independent responses. Understanding how different PAMPs are recognized by their specific TLRs and how pathogen recognition initiates immune activation is an intense area of research...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Greetje Vande Velde, Soňa Kucharíková, Patrick Van Dijck, Uwe Himmelreich
Fungal infections are a major problem for a growing number of mostly immune-compromised patients. Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and deep tissue infections of which the majority is associated with biofilm formation on medical implants. The animal models that are currently in use to test antifungal drugs are limited to ex vivo analyses, requiring host sacrifice that excludes longitudinal monitoring of dynamic processes during biofilm formation in the live host. As a solution, we introduce non-invasive, dynamic imaging and quantification of C...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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