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Host Pathogen Dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#1
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080987/ploidy-dynamics-and-evolvability-in-fungi
#2
REVIEW
Noa Blutraich Wertheimer, Neil Stone, Judith Berman
Rapid responses to acute stresses are essential for stress survival and are critical to the ability of fungal pathogens to adapt to new environments or hosts. The rapid emergence of drug resistance is used as a model for how fungi adapt and survive stress conditions that inhibit the growth of progenitor cells. Aneuploidy and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which are large-scale genome shifts involving whole chromosomes or chromosome arms, occur at higher frequency than point mutations and have the potential to mediate stress survival...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080980/climate-forcing-of-an-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-across-a-montane-multi-host-community
#3
Frances C Clare, Julia B Halder, Olivia Daniel, Jon Bielby, Mikhail A Semenov, Thibaut Jombart, Adeline Loyau, Dirk S Schmeller, Andrew A Cunningham, Marcus Rowcliffe, Trenton W J Garner, Jaime Bosch, Matthew C Fisher
Changes in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines and extirpations as a consequence of this infection...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079455/emergence-of-resistance-to-fungicides-the-role-of-fungicide-dose
#4
Alexey Mikaberidze, Neil Paveley, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Frank van den Bosch
Resistance to antimicrobial drugs allows pathogens to survive drug treatment. The time taken for a new resistant mutant to reach a population size which is unlikely to die out by chance is called "emergence time". Prolonging emergence time would delay loss of control. We investigate the effect of fungicide dose on the emergence time in fungal plant pathogens. A population dynamical model is combined with dose-response data for Zymoseptoria tritici, an important wheat pathogen. Fungicides suppress sensitive pathogen population...
January 12, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074026/promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-pml-controls-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#5
David Ribet, Valérie Lallemand-Breitenbach, Omar Ferhi, Marie-Anne Nahori, Hugo Varet, Hugues de Thé, Pascale Cossart
: The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is the main organizer of stress-responsive subnuclear structures called PML nuclear bodies. These structures recruit multiple interactors and modulate their abundance or their posttranslational modifications, notably by the SUMO ubiquitin-like modifiers. The involvement of PML in antiviral responses is well established. In contrast, the role of PML in bacterial infection remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that PML restricts infection by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes but not by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065923/reduced-susceptibility-of-tomato-stem-to-the-necrotrophic-fungus-botrytis-cinerea-is-associated-with-a-specific-adjustment-of-fructose-content-in-the-host-sugar-pool
#6
François Lecompte, Philippe C Nicot, Julie Ripoll, Manzoor A Abro, Astrid K Raimbault, Félicie Lopez-Lauri, Nadia Bertin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plant soluble sugars, as main components of primary metabolism, are thought to be implicated in defence against pathogenic fungi. However, the function of sucrose and hexoses remains unclear. This study aimed to identify robust patterns in the dynamics of soluble sugars in sink tissues of tomato plants during the course of infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea Distinct roles for glucose and fructose in defence against B. cinerea were hypothesized. METHODS: We examined sugar contents and defence hormonal markers in tomato stem tissues before and after infection by B...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065508/kobuviral-non-structural-3a-proteins-act-as-molecular-harnesses-to-hijack-the-host-acbd3-protein
#7
Martin Klima, Dominika Chalupska, Bartosz Różycki, Jana Humpolickova, Lenka Rezabkova, Jan Silhan, Adriana Baumlova, Anna Dubankova, Evzen Boura
Picornaviruses are small positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that include many important human pathogens. Within the host cell, they replicate at specific replication sites called replication organelles. To create this membrane platform, they hijack several host factors including the acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein-3 (ACBD3). Here, we present a structural characterization of the molecular complexes formed by the non-structural 3A proteins from two species of the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family and the 3A-binding domain of the host ACBD3 protein...
December 21, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063347/disruption-of-redox-catalytic-functions-of-peroxiredoxin-thioredoxin-complex-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37rv-using-small-interface-binding-molecules
#8
Arun Bahadur Gurung, Amit Kumar Das, Atanu Bhattacharjee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has distinctive ability to detoxify various microbicidal superoxides and hydroperoxides via a redox catalytic cycle involving thiol reductants of peroxiredoxin (Prx) and thioredoxin (Trx) systems which has conferred on it resistance against oxidative killing and survivability within host. We have used computational approach to disrupt catalytic functions of Prx-Trx complex which can possibly render the pathogen vulnerable to oxidative killing in the host. Using protein-protein docking method, we have successfully constructed the Prx-Trx complex...
December 31, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060376/induction-of-necroptotic-cell-death-by-viral-activation-of-the-rig-i-or-sting-pathway
#9
Suruchi N Schock, Neha V Chandra, Yuefang Sun, Takashi Irie, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Bin Gotoh, Laurent Coscoy, Astar Winoto
Necroptosis is a form of necrotic cell death that requires the activity of the death domain-containing kinase RIP1 and its family member RIP3. Necroptosis occurs when RIP1 is deubiquitinated to form a complex with RIP3 in cells deficient in the death receptor adapter molecule FADD or caspase-8. Necroptosis may play a role in host defense during viral infection as viruses like vaccinia can induce necroptosis while murine cytomegalovirus encodes a viral inhibitor of necroptosis. To see how general the interplay between viruses and necroptosis is, we surveyed seven different viruses...
January 6, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056496/chloroplast-the-trojan-horse-in-plant-virus-interaction
#10
REVIEW
Dhriti Bhattacharyya, Supriya Chakraborty
Chloroplast is one of the most dynamic organelle of a plant cell. It carries out photosynthesis, synthesizes major phytohormones, takes active part in defence response, and is crucial for inter-organelle signaling. Viruses, on the other hand, are extremely strategic in manipulating the internal environment of the host cell. Chloroplast, a prime target for viruses, undergoes enormous structural and functional damage during viral infection. In fact, large proportions of affected gene products in a virus infected plant are closely associated to chloroplast and photosynthesis process...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051086/neutrophilic-nlrp3-inflammasome-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-regulates-the-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t17-cell-response-in-respiratory-bacterial-infections
#11
M Hassane, D Demon, D Soulard, J Fontaine, L E Keller, E C Patin, R Porte, I Prinz, B Ryffel, A Kadioglu, J-W Veening, J-C Sirard, C Faveeuw, M Lamkanfi, F Trottein, C Paget
Traditionally regarded as simple foot soldiers of the innate immune response limited to the eradication of pathogens, neutrophils recently emerged as more complex cells endowed with a set of immunoregulatory functions. Using a model of invasive pneumococcal disease, we highlighted an unexpected key role for neutrophils as accessory cells in innate interleukin (IL)-17A production by lung resident Vγ6Vδ1(+) T cells via nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor, pyrin-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion...
January 4, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043017/evolution-and-structural-dynamics-of-bacterial-glycan-binding-adhesins
#12
REVIEW
Kristof Moonens, Han Remaut
Infectious disease processes like bacterial adherence or the activity of secreted toxins frequently gain host and tissue specificity by glycan binding interactions with the host glycome. Recent functional and structural studies highlight the high niche specialization of bacterial lectins, but also reveal a remarkable plasticity in their glycan binding sites and mechanisms, to adapt to host glycome dynamics or changing environmental conditions at the site of infection. In this review we put emphasis on new structural insights in host adaptation and dynamics of bacterial carbohydrate binding adhesins and toxins in human pathogens like uropathogenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Yersinia pestis or Vibrio cholera...
December 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#13
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042886/spatial-variation-in-soil-biota-mediates-plant-adaptation-to-a-foliar-pathogen
#14
Sini Mursinoff, Ayco J M Tack
Theory suggests that below-ground spatial heterogeneity may mediate host-parasite evolutionary dynamics and patterns of local adaptation, but this has rarely been tested in natural systems. Here, we test experimentally for the impact of spatial variation in the abiotic and biotic soil environment on the evolutionary outcome of the interaction between the host plant Plantago lanceolata and its specialist foliar pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis. Plants showed no adaptation to the local soil environment in the absence of natural enemies...
January 2, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041930/a-single-legionella-effector-catalyzes-a-multistep-ubiquitination-pathway-to-rearrange-tubular-endoplasmic-reticulum-for-replication
#15
Kristin M Kotewicz, Vinay Ramabhadran, Nicole Sjoblom, Joseph P Vogel, Eva Haenssler, Mengyun Zhang, Jessica Behringer, Rebecca A Scheck, Ralph R Isberg
Intracellular pathogens manipulate host organelles to support replication within cells. For Legionella pneumophila, the bacterium translocates proteins that establish an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated replication compartment. We show here that the bacterial Sde proteins target host reticulon 4 (Rtn4) to control tubular ER dynamics, resulting in tubule rearrangements as well as alterations in Rtn4 associated with the replication compartment. These rearrangements are triggered via Sde-promoted ubiquitin transfer to Rtn4, occurring almost immediately after bacterial uptake...
December 22, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039206/endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-gp96-controls-actomyosin-dynamics-and-protects-against-pore-forming-toxins
#16
Francisco Sarmento Mesquita, Cláudia Brito, Maria J Mazon Moya, Jorge Campos Pinheiro, Serge Mostowy, Didier Cabanes, Sandra Sousa
During infection, plasma membrane (PM) blebs protect host cells against bacterial pore-forming toxins (PFTs), but were also proposed to promote pathogen dissemination. However, the details and impact of blebbing regulation during infection remained unclear. Here, we identify the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone Gp96 as a novel regulator of PFT-induced blebbing. Gp96 interacts with non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHCIIA) and controls its activity and remodelling, which is required for appropriate coordination of bleb formation and retraction...
December 30, 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032207/vector-borne-pathogen-and-host-evolution-in-a-structured-immuno-epidemiological-system
#17
Hayriye Gulbudak, Vincent L Cannataro, Necibe Tuncer, Maia Martcheva
Vector-borne disease transmission is a common dissemination mode used by many pathogens to spread in a host population. Similar to directly transmitted diseases, the within-host interaction of a vector-borne pathogen and a host's immune system influences the pathogen's transmission potential between hosts via vectors. Yet there are few theoretical studies on virulence-transmission trade-offs and evolution in vector-borne pathogen-host systems. Here, we consider an immuno-epidemiological model that links the within-host dynamics to between-host circulation of a vector-borne disease...
December 28, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029378/urbanization-and-disease-emergence-dynamics-at-the-wildlife-livestock-human-interface
#18
REVIEW
James M Hassell, Michael Begon, Melissa J Ward, Eric M Fèvre
Urbanization is characterized by rapid intensification of agriculture, socioeconomic change, and ecological fragmentation, which can have profound impacts on the epidemiology of infectious disease. Here, we review current scientific evidence for the drivers and epidemiology of emerging wildlife-borne zoonoses in urban landscapes, where anthropogenic pressures can create diverse wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. We argue that these interfaces represent a critical point for cross-species transmission and emergence of pathogens into new host populations, and thus understanding their form and function is necessary to identify suitable interventions to mitigate the risk of disease emergence...
October 28, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028452/burkholderia-pseudomallei-type-iii-secreted-protein-bipc-role-in-actin-modulation-and-translocation-activities-required-for-the-bacterial-intracellular-lifecycle
#19
Wen Tyng Kang, Kumutha Malar Vellasamy, Lakshminarayanan Rajamani, Roger W Beuerman, Jamuna Vadivelu
Melioidosis, an infection caused by the facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, has been classified as an emerging disease with the number of patients steadily increasing at an alarming rate. B. pseudomalleipossess various virulence determinants that allow them to invade the host and evade the host immune response, such as the type III secretion systems (TTSS). The products of this specialized secretion system are particularly important for the B. pseudomallei infection. Lacking in one or more components of the TTSS demonstrated different degrees of defects in the intracellular lifecycle of B...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028232/two-independent-s-phase-checkpoints-regulate-appressorium-mediated-plant-infection-by-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#20
Míriam Osés-Ruiz, Wasin Sakulkoo, George R Littlejohn, Magdalena Martin-Urdiroz, Nicholas J Talbot
To cause rice blast disease, the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae develops a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. This dome-shaped, melanin-pigmented cell generates enormous turgor and applies physical force to rupture the rice leaf cuticle using a rigid penetration peg. Appressorium-mediated infection requires septin-dependent reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the base of the infection cell, which organizes polarity determinants necessary for plant cell invasion. Here, we show that plant infection by M...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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