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Host Pathogen Dynamics

Alessandro Catenazzi, Andrea Swei, Jacob Finkle, Emily Foreyt, Lauren Wyman, Vance T Vredenburg
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to catastrophic amphibian declines throughout the world. Amphibians differ in their vulnerability to chytridiomycosis; some species experience epizootics followed by collapse while others exhibit stable host/pathogen dynamics where most amphibian hosts survive in the presence of Bd (e.g., in the enzootic state). Little is known about the factors that drive the transition between the two disease states within a community, or whether populations of species that survived the initial epizootic are stable, yet this information is essential for conservation and theory...
2017: PloS One
Bushra Ilyas, Caressa N Tsai, Brian K Coombes
Salmonella Typhimurium has a broad arsenal of genes that are tightly regulated and coordinated to facilitate adaptation to the various host environments it colonizes. The genome of Salmonella Typhimurium has undergone multiple gene acquisition events and has accrued changes in non-coding DNA that have undergone selection by regulatory evolution. Together, at least 17 horizontally acquired pathogenicity islands (SPIs), prophage-associated genes, and changes in core genome regulation contribute to the virulence program of Salmonella...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Zeinab Mamouei, Guisheng Zeng, Yan-Ming Wang, Yue Wang
Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all organisms, but iron overdose is toxic. The human commensal-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans traverses host niches with markedly different iron availability. During systemic infection, C. albicans must activate the high-affinity iron permease Ftr1 to acquire iron sequestered by the host's iron-withholding defense and suppresses iron uptake while residing in the iron-rich gut to avoid toxicity. Ftr1 associates with a ferroxidase to form an iron transporter. C. albicans contains four permease and five ferroxidase homologs, suggesting 20 possible subunit combinations...
October 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Yinghui Li, Yanwen Li, Roberto Fernandez Crespo, Leon G Leanse, Paul R Langford, Janine T Bossé
Objectives: To characterize ICEApl2, an SXT-related integrative and conjugative element (ICE) found in a clinical isolate of the porcine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and analyse the functional nature of the encoded FloR. Methods: ICEApl2 was identified in the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae MIDG3553. Functional analysis was done using conjugal transfer experiments. MIDG3553 was tested for susceptibility to the antimicrobials for which resistance genes are present in ICEApl2...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sovan Saha, Kaustav Sengupta, Piyali Chatterjee, Subhadip Basu, Mita Nasipuri
Infection and disease progression is the outcome of protein interactions between pathogen and host. Pathogen, the role player of Infection, is becoming a severe threat to life as because of its adaptability toward drugs and evolutionary dynamism in nature. Identifying protein targets by analyzing protein interactions between host and pathogen is the key point. Proteins with higher degree and possessing some topologically significant graph theoretical measures are found to be drug targets. On the other hand, exceptional nodes may be involved in infection mechanism because of some pathway process and biologically unknown factors...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Ksenia Arkhipova, Timofey Skvortsov, John P Quinn, John W McGrath, Christopher Cr Allen, Bas E Dutilh, Yvonne McElarney, Leonid A Kulakov
Recent work has vastly expanded the known viral genomic sequence space, but the seasonal dynamics of viral populations at the genome level remain unexplored. Here we followed the viral community in a freshwater lake for 1 year using genome-resolved viral metagenomics, combined with detailed analyses of the viral community structure, associated bacterial populations and environmental variables. We reconstructed 8950 complete and partial viral genomes, the majority of which were not persistent in the lake throughout the year, but instead continuously succeeded each other...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
Ioannis A Stringlis, Silvia Proietti, Richard Hickman, Marcel C Van Verk, Christos Zamioudis, Corné M J Pieterse
Belowground, microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) of root-associated microbiota can trigger costly defenses at the expense of plant growth. However, beneficial rhizobacteria, such as Pseudomonas simiae WCS417, promote plant growth and induce systemic resistance without being warded off by local root immune responses. To investigate early root responses that facilitate WCS417 to exert its plant-beneficial functions, we performed time-series RNA-Seq of Arabidopsis roots in response to live WCS417 and compared it to MAMPs flg22(417) (from WCS417), flg22(Pa) (from pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and fungal chitin...
October 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jose Abel Lopez-Buenfil, Jose Abrahan Ramirez-Pool, Roberto Ruiz-Medrano, Maria Del Carmen Montes-Horcasitas, Claudio Chavarin-Palacio, Jesus Moya-Hinojosa, Francisco Javier Trujillo-Arriaga, Rosalia Lira Carmona, Beatriz Xoconostle-Cazares
BACKGROUND: The bacterial disease citrus huanglongbing (HLB), associated with "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (C.Las) has severely impacted the citrus industry, causing a significant reduction in production and fruit quality. In the present study, it was monitored the C.Las population dynamics in symptomatic, HLB-positive Mexican lime trees (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) in a tropical, citrus-producing area of Mexico. The objective of this study was to identify the dynamics of the population of huanglongbing-associated bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and its insect vector in Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Mexican lime)...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
David Duneau, Jean-Baptiste Ferdy, Jonathan Revah, Hannah Kondolf, Gerardo A Ortiz, Brian P Lazzaro, Nicolas Buchon
A central problem in infection biology is understanding why two individuals exposed to identical infections have different outcomes. We have developed an experimental model where genetically identical, co-housed Drosophila given identical systemic infections experience different outcomes, with some individuals succumbing to acute infection while others control the pathogen as an asymptomatic persistent infection. We found that differences in bacterial burden at the time of death did not explain the two outcomes of infection...
October 12, 2017: ELife
Patrick König, Nicole Büscher, Mirjam Steingruber, Eileen Socher, Heinrich Sticht, Stefan Tenzer, Bodo Plachter, Manfred Marschall
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen of considerable clinical importance. Understanding the processes that are important for viral replication is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies against HCMV infection. The HCMV-encoded protein kinase pUL97 is an important multifunctional regulator of viral replication. Several viral and cellular proteins are phosphorylated by pUL97. The phosphoprotein pp65 is one important substrate of pUL97. It is the most abundant tegument protein of HCMV virions, mediating the upload of other virion constituents and contributing to particle integrity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Xiao L Tan, Ju L Chen, Giovanni Benelli, Nicolas Desneux, Xue Q Yang, Tong X Liu, Feng Ge
Herbivory defense systems in plants are largely regulated by jasmonate-(JA) and salicylate-(SA) signaling pathways. Such defense mechanisms may impact insect feeding dynamic, may also affect the transmission-acquisition relationship among virus, plants and vectoring insects. In the context of the tomato - whitefly - Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) biological model, we tested the impact of pre-infesting plants with a non-vector insect (aphid Myzus persicae) on feeding dynamics of a vector insect (whitefly Bemisia tabaci) as well as virus transmission-acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
M Fernanda Palominos, Lidia Verdugo, Carolaing Gabaldon, Bernardo Pollak, Javiera Ortíz-Severín, Macarena A Varas, Francisco P Chávez, Andrea Calixto
The dynamic response of organisms exposed to environmental pathogens determines their survival or demise, and the outcome of this interaction depends on the host's susceptibility and pathogen-dependent virulence factors. The transmission of acquired information about the nature of a pathogen to progeny may ensure effective defensive strategies for the progeny's survival in adverse environments. Environmental RNA interference (RNAi) is a systemic and heritable mechanism and has recently been linked to antibacterial and antifungal defenses in both plants and animals...
October 10, 2017: MBio
Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Oscar Cabezón, Joachim Frey, Roser Velarde, Emmanuel Serrano, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Giuseppina Gelormini, Ignasi Marco, Gregorio Mentaberre, Santiago Lavín, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
Functional roles of domestic and wild host populations in infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) epidemiology have been extensively discussed claiming a domestic reservoir for the more susceptible wild hosts, however, based on limited data. With the aim to better assess IKC epidemiology in complex host-pathogen alpine systems, the long-term infectious dynamics and molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma conjunctivae was investigated in all host populations from six study areas in the Pyrenees and one in the Cantabrian Mountains (Northern Spain)...
2017: PloS One
Alice Risely, Marcel Klaassen, Bethany Hoye
1.Migratory animals are widely assumed to play an important role in the long-distance dispersal of parasites, and are frequently implicated in the global spread of zoonotic pathogens such as avian influenzas in birds and ebolaviruses in bats. However, infection imposes physiological and behavioural constraints on hosts that may act to curtail parasite dispersal via changes to migratory timing ('migratory separation') and survival ('migratory culling'). 2.There remains little consensus regarding the frequency and extent to which migratory separation and migratory culling may operate, despite a growing recognition of the importance of these mechanisms in regulating transmission dynamics in migratory animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Dirk Bumann, Olivier Cunrath
Infected host tissues have complex anatomy, diverse cell types, and dynamic inflammation. Traditional infection biology approaches largely ignore this complex host environment and its impact on pathogens, but recent single-cell technologies unravel extensively heterogeneous host-pathogen interactions in vivo. Salmonella are major model pathogens in this field due to the availability of excellent mouse disease models and facile molecular biology. The results show how Salmonella stochastically vary their virulence, exploit differential nutrient availability, experience and respond to widely varying stresses, and have disparate fates ranging from vigorous proliferation to eradication within the same host tissue...
October 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, Meggan E Craft, W Chris Funk, Chris Kozakiewicz, Daryl Trumbo, Erin E Boydston, Lisa M Lyren, Kevin Crooks, Justin S Lee, Sue VandeWoude, Scott Carver
Urban expansion has widespread impacts on wildlife species globally, including the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases. However, there is almost no information about how urban landscapes shape transmission dynamics in wildlife. Using an innovative phylodynamic approach combining host and pathogen molecular data with landscape characteristics and host traits, we untangle the complex factors that drive transmission networks of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus). We found that the urban landscape played a significant role in shaping FIV transmission...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Panagiotis Sofokleous, Shanom Ali, Peter Wilson, Asma Buanz, Simon Gaisford, Dharmit Mistry, Adrian Fellows, Richard M Day
The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. Small molecule precursor compounds that produce oxidative biocides with well-established antimicrobial properties could provide a range of new therapeutic products to combat resistant infections. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel biomaterials-based approach for the manufacture, targeted delivery and controlled release of a peroxygen donor (sodium percarbonate) combined with an acetyl donor (tetraacetylethylenediamine) to deliver local antimicrobial activity via a dynamic equilibrium mixture of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid...
October 3, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Melinda K Rostal, Janice E Liang, David Zimmermann, Roy Bengis, Janusz Paweska, William B Karesh
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an emerging vector-borne pathogen that causes sporadic epizootics and epidemics with multi-year, apparently quiescent, inter-epidemic periods. The epidemiology and ecology of the virus during these inter-epidemic periods is poorly understood. There is evidence for low-level circulation of the virus in livestock and wild ruminants; however, as of yet there is no evidence to identify a specific mammalian reservoir host. Using a systematic approach, this review synthesizes results from serosurveys, attempts at viral detection, and experimental infection of wildlife...
August 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
Richard Moxon, Edo Kussell
Microbial pathogens and viruses can often maintain sufficient population diversity to evade a wide range of host immune responses. However, when populations experience bottlenecks, as occurs frequently during initiation of new infections, pathogens require specialized mechanisms to regenerate diversity. We address the evolution of such mechanisms, known as stochastic phenotype switches, which are prevalent in pathogenic bacteria. We analyze a model of pathogen diversification in a changing host environment that accounts for selective bottlenecks, wherein different phenotypes have distinct transmission probabilities between hosts...
October 5, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Stefano Canessa, An Martel, Frank Pasmans
Unravelling the multiple interacting drivers of host-pathogen coexistence is crucial in understanding how an apparently stable state of endemism may shift towards an epidemic and lead to biodiversity loss. Here, we investigate the apparent coexistence of the global amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) with Bombina variegata populations in The Netherlands over a 7-year period. We used a multi-season mark-recapture dataset and assessed potential drivers of coexistence (individual condition, environmental mediation and demographic compensation) at the individual and population levels...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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