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Host Pathogen Dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327617/the-cell-surface-mucin-muc1-limits-the-severity-of-influenza-a-virus-infection
#1
J L McAuley, L Corcilius, H-X Tan, R J Payne, M A McGuckin, L E Brown
Cell surface mucin (cs-mucin) glycoproteins are constitutively expressed at the surface of respiratory epithelia where pathogens such as influenza A virus (IAV) gain entry into cells. Different members of the cs-mucin family each express a large and heavily glycosylated extracellular domain that towers above other receptors on the epithelial cell surface, a transmembrane domain that enables shedding of the extracellular domain, and a cytoplasmic tail capable of triggering signaling cascades. We hypothesized that IAV can interact with the terminal sialic acids presented on the extracellular domain of cs-mucins, resulting in modulation of infection efficiency...
March 22, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325914/exploring-the-diversity-of-blood-sucking-diptera-in-caves-of-central-africa
#2
Judicaël Obame-Nkoghe, Nil Rahola, Diego Ayala, Patrick Yangari, Davy Jiolle, Xavier Allene, Mathieu Bourgarel, Gael Darren Maganga, Nicolas Berthet, Eric-Maurice Leroy, Christophe Paupy
Caves house pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In Africa, previous studies identified mosquitoes, sand flies and biting midges as the main potential vectors of cave-dwelling pathogens. However, to understand their involvement in pathogen spillover, it is crucial to characterize their diversity, community composition and dynamics. Using CDC light traps, we collected hematophagous Diptera in six caves of Gabon during one-shot or longitudinal sampling, and investigated their species diversity and dynamics in relation with external rainfall...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323070/urbanization-and-the-dynamics-of-rna-viruses-in-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos
#3
Michelle Wille, Kristine Lindqvist, Shaman Muradrasoli, Björn Olsen, Josef D Järhult
Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, the effect of urbanization on natural host-pathogen systems remains poorly understood. Urban ducks occupy an interesting niche in that they directly interact with both humans and wild migratory birds, and either directly or indirectly with food production birds. Here we have collected samples from Mallards residing in a pond in central Uppsala, Sweden, from January 2013 to January 2014. This artificial pond is kept ice-free during the winter months, and is a popular location where the ducks are fed, resulting in a resident population of ducks year-round...
March 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323067/evaluation-of-a-real-time-impedance-analysis-platform-on-fungal-infection
#4
Jiufeng Sun, Dan Ning, Wenying Cai, Huiqiong Zhou, Huan Zhang, Dawei Guan, De Wu
End-point assays of in vitro cell proliferation and death have been employed to study the mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis and have shown the responses of host cells at individual time points. A new cell analysis technology has been developed that allows for the continuous measurement and quantification of cell activities, thus enabling the dynamic assessment of electrical impedance when various pathogens are cultured in vitro. In this study, this system was evaluated to determine the response of the cell line RAW264...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319831/structure-based-prediction-of-host-pathogen-protein-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Rachelle Mariano, Stefan Wuchty
The discovery, validation, and characterization of protein-based interactions from different species are crucial for translational research regarding a variety of pathogens, ranging from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to HIV-1. Here, we review recent advances in the prediction of host-pathogen protein interfaces using structural information. In particular, we observe that current methods chiefly perform machine learning on sequence and domain information to produce large sets of candidate interactions that are further assessed and pruned to generate final, highly probable sets...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306733/hypervirulent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strain-triggers-necrotic-lung-pathology-associated-with-enhanced-recruitment-of-neutrophils-in-resistant-c57bl-6-mice
#6
Fabrício M Almeida, Thatiana L B Ventura, Eduardo P Amaral, Simone C M Ribeiro, Sanderson D Calixto, Marcelle R Manhães, Andreza L Rezende, Giliane S Souzal, Igor S de Carvalho, Elisangela C Silva, Juliana Azevedo da Silva, Eulógio C Q Carvalho, Afranio L Kritski, Elena B Lasunskaia
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that in most cases induces irreversible necrosis of lung tissue as a result of excessive inflammatory reactions. The murine model of TB in resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with reference Mtb strains is widely used in TB studies; however, these mice do not show a necrotic pathology, which restricts their use in studies of irreversible tissue damage. Recently, we demonstrated that necrotic lung lesions could be induced in the C57BL/6 mice by highly virulent Mtb strains belonging to the modern Beijing sublineage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303104/mathematical-modeling-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-invasive-infection-and-treatment
#7
Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Neville J Boon, Thomas B Clarke, Reiko J Tanaka
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is a commensal bacterium that normally resides on the upper airway epithelium without causing infection. However, factors such as co-infection with influenza virus can impair the complex Sp-host interactions and the subsequent development of many life-threatening infectious and inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis or even sepsis. With the increased threat of Sp infection due to the emergence of new antibiotic resistant Sp strains, there is an urgent need for better treatment strategies that effectively prevent progression of disease triggered by Sp infection, minimizing the use of antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302859/inflammation-boosts-bacteriophage-transfer-between-salmonella-spp
#8
Médéric Diard, Erik Bakkeren, Jeffrey K Cornuault, Kathrin Moor, Annika Hausmann, Mikael E Sellin, Claude Loverdo, Abram Aertsen, Martin Ackermann, Marianne De Paepe, Emma Slack, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Bacteriophage transfer (lysogenic conversion) promotes bacterial virulence evolution. There is limited understanding of the factors that determine lysogenic conversion dynamics within infected hosts. A murine Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) diarrhea model was used to study the transfer of SopEΦ, a prophage from STm SL1344, to STm ATCC14028S. Gut inflammation and enteric disease triggered >55% lysogenic conversion of ATCC14028S within 3 days. Without inflammation, SopEΦ transfer was reduced by up to 10(5)-fold...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298479/cyst-nematode-parasitism-induces-dynamic-changes-in-the-root-epigenome
#9
Tarek Hewezi, Thomas Lane, Sarbottam Piya, Aditi Rambani, J Hollis Rice, Meg Staton
A growing body of evidence indicates that epigenetic modifications can provide efficient, dynamic, and reversible cellular responses to a wide range of environmental stimuli. However, the significance of epigenetic modifications in plant-pathogen interactions remains largely unexplored. In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of epigenome changes during the compatible interaction between the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing was conducted to assess the dynamic changes in the methylome of Arabidopsis roots in response to H schachtii infection...
March 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298355/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-human-health-and-disease-an-introduction-for-clinicians
#10
REVIEW
Vincent B Young
Research into the microbiome-the indigenous microbial communities (microbiota) and the host environment that they inhabit-has changed clinicians' ideas about microbes in human health and disease. Perhaps the most radical change is the realization that most of the microbes that inhabit our body supply crucial ecosystem services that benefit the entire host-microbe system. These services include the production of important resources, bioconversion of nutrients, and protection against pathogenic microbes. Thus disease can result from a loss of beneficial functions or the introduction of maladaptive functions by invading microbes...
March 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295769/hill-robertson-interference-maintained-by-red-queen-dynamics-favours-the-evolution-of-sex
#11
Jack da Silva, James D Galbraith
Although it is well established theoretically that selective interference among mutations (Hill-Robertson interference) favours meiotic recombination, genome-wide mean rates of mutation and strengths of selection appear too low to support this as the mechanism favouring recombination in nature. A possible solution to this discrepancy between theory and observation is that selection is at least intermittently very strong due to the antagonistic coevolution between a host and its parasites. The Red Queen theory posits that such coevolution generates fitness epistasis among loci, which generates negative linkage disequilibrium among beneficial mutations, which in turn favours recombination...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293696/intestinal-microbial-community-dynamics-of-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-an-agroecosystem
#12
M Lisette Delgado, Pallavi Singh, Julie A Funk, Jennifer A Moore, Emily M Cannell, Jeannette Kanesfsky, Shannon D Manning, Kim T Scribner
The intestinal microbiota has important functions that contribute to host health. The compositional dynamics of microbial communities are affected by many factors, including diet and presence of pathogens. In contrast to humans and domestic mammals, the composition and seasonal dynamics of intestinal microbiota of wildlife species remain comparatively understudied. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important wildlife species that inhabits agricultural ecosystems and is known to be a reservoir of enteric pathogens...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289259/who-acquires-infection-from-whom-and-how-disentangling-multi-host-and-multi-mode-transmission-dynamics-in-the-elimination-era
#13
REVIEW
Joanne P Webster, Anna Borlase, James W Rudge
Multi-host infectious agents challenge our abilities to understand, predict and manage disease dynamics. Within this, many infectious agents are also able to use, simultaneously or sequentially, multiple modes of transmission. Furthermore, the relative importance of different host species and modes can itself be dynamic, with potential for switches and shifts in host range and/or transmission mode in response to changing selective pressures, such as those imposed by disease control interventions. The epidemiology of such multi-host, multi-mode infectious agents thereby can involve a multi-faceted community of definitive and intermediate/secondary hosts or vectors, often together with infectious stages in the environment, all of which may represent potential targets, as well as specific challenges, particularly where disease elimination is proposed...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289255/transmission-dynamics-critical-questions-and-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Janis Antonovics
This article overviews the dynamics of disease transmission in one-host-one-parasite systems. Transmission is the result of interacting host and pathogen processes, encapsulated with the environment in a 'transmission triangle'. Multiple transmission modes and their epidemiological consequences are often not understood because the direct measurement of transmission is difficult. However, its different components can be analysed using nonlinear transmission functions, contact matrices and networks. A particular challenge is to develop such functions for spatially extended systems...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289253/what-is-a-vector
#15
REVIEW
Anthony James Wilson, Eric René Morgan, Mark Booth, Rachel Norman, Sarah Elizabeth Perkins, Heidi Christine Hauffe, Nicole Mideo, Janis Antonovics, Hamish McCallum, Andy Fenton
Many important and rapidly emerging pathogens of humans, livestock and wildlife are 'vector-borne'. However, the term 'vector' has been applied to diverse agents in a broad range of epidemiological systems. In this perspective, we briefly review some common definitions, identify the strengths and weaknesses of each and consider the functional differences between vectors and other hosts from a range of ecological, evolutionary and public health perspectives. We then consider how the use of designations can afford insights into our understanding of epidemiological and evolutionary processes that are not otherwise apparent...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288751/differences-in-fecundity-of-eimeria-maxima-strains-exhibiting-different-levels-of-pathogenicity-in-its-avian-host
#16
Mark C Jenkins, J P Dubey, Katarzyna Miska, Raymond Fetterer
Eimeria maxima is one of the most pathogenic species of avian coccidia, yet it is unknown why different E. maxima strains differ in the pathogenic effects they cause in chickens. The purpose of this study was to determine if a more pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU1) was also more fecund than a less pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU2). At identical doses, E. maxima APU1 always produces greater intestinal lesions and lower weight gain compared to E. maxima APU2. Using a dose response study, median and mean intestinal lesion scores in E...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288561/coinfection-outcome-in-an-opportunistic-pathogen-depends-on-the-inter-strain-interactions
#17
Hanna Kinnula, Johanna Mappes, Lotta-Riina Sundberg
BACKGROUND: In nature, organisms are commonly coinfected by two or more parasite strains, which has been shown to influence disease virulence. Yet, the effects of coinfections of environmental opportunistic pathogens on disease outcome are still poorly known, although as host-generalists they are highly likely to participate in coinfections. We asked whether coinfection with conspecific opportunistic strains leads to changes in virulence, and if these changes are associated with bacterial growth or interference competition...
March 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288099/nlrp12-attenuates-colon-inflammation-by-maintaining-colonic-microbial-diversity-and-promoting-protective-commensal-bacterial-growth
#18
Liang Chen, Justin E Wilson, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Wei-Chun Chou, Stephanie A Montgomery, Agnieszka D Truax, W June Brickey, Christopher D Packey, Nitsan Maharshak, Glenn K Matsushima, Scott E Plevy, Vincent B Young, R Balfour Sartor, Jenny P-Y Ting
Inflammatory bowel diseases involve the dynamic interaction of host genetics, the microbiome and inflammatory responses. Here we found lower expression of NLRP12 (which encodes a negative regulator of innate immunity) in human ulcerative colitis, by comparing monozygotic twins and other patient cohorts. In parallel, Nlrp12 deficiency in mice caused increased basal colonic inflammation, which led to a less-diverse microbiome and loss of protective gut commensal strains (of the family Lachnospiraceae) and a greater abundance of colitogenic strains (of the family Erysipelotrichaceae)...
March 13, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285587/serological-association-between-leishmania-infantum-and-sand-fly-fever-sicilian-but-not-toscana-virus-in-sheltered-dogs-from-southern-portugal
#19
Carla Maia, Sulaf Alwassouf, José Manuel Cristóvão, Nazli Ayhan, André Pereira, Remi N Charrel, Lenea Campino
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand fly-borne diseases such as leishmanioses and phleboviruses are emerging threats to animal and public health. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis in Portugal. Antibodies to Toscana virus (TOSV) and sand fly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) were also reported in dogs from the south of the country. The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible association between exposure to L. infantum, TOSV and SFSV in sheltered dogs from the south of Portugal...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275681/gastrointestinal-organoids-understanding-the-molecular-basis-of-the-host-microbe-interface
#20
REVIEW
David R Hill, Jason R Spence
In recent years, increasing attention has been devoted to the concept that microorganisms play an integral role in human physiology and pathophysiology. Despite this, the molecular basis of host-pathogen and host-symbiont interactions in the human intestine remains poorly understood owing to the limited availability of human tissue, and the biological complexity of host-microbe interactions. Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled long-term culture of organotypic intestinal tissue derived from human subjects and from human pluripotent stem cells, and these in vitro culture systems already have shown the potential to inform our understanding significantly of host-microbe interactions...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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