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Host Pathogen Dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457297/the-impact-of-bacteriophages-on-phyllosphere-bacterial-abundance-and-composition
#1
Norma M Morella, Annika L Gomez, Grant Wang, Michelle S Leung, Britt Koskella
Interactions between bacteria and bacteriophage viruses (phages) are known to influence pathogen growth and virulence, microbial diversity, and even biogeochemical cycling. Lytic phages in particular infect and lyse their host cells, and can therefore have significant effects on cell densities as well as competitive dynamics within microbial communities. Despite the known impacts of lytic phages on the ecology and evolution of bacteria in free-living communities, little is known about the role of lytic phages in host-associated microbiomes...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455279/divergent-selection-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-mammals-with-different-ecological-characteristics
#2
Ran Tian, Meixiu Chen, Simin Chai, Xinghua Rong, Bingyao Chen, Wenhua Ren, Shixia Xu, Guang Yang
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are specialized receptors that represent a key component of the host innate immune system. Whether molecular evolutionary history of different PRR classes have involved different genetic mechanisms underlying diverse pathogen environment in mammals, and whether distinct ecology of mammals may have imposed divergent selective pressures on the evolution of the PRRs, remained unknown. To test these hypotheses, we investigated the characterization of 20 genes belonging to four PRR classes in mammals...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#3
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454734/management-of-arthropod-vector-data-social-and-ecological-dynamics-facing-the-one-health-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli, Mary Frances Duggan
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are spread by direct and/or indirect contacts between a pathogen or parasite and their hosts. Arthropod vectors have evolved as excellent bloodsuckers, providing an elegant transportation mode for a wide number of infectious agents. The nature of pathogen and parasite transfer and the models used to predict how a disease might spread are magnified in complexity when an arthropod vector is part of the disease cycle. One Health is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment...
February 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453267/plant-microbe-and-abiotic-factors-influencing-salmonella-survival-and-growth-on-alfalfa-sprouts-and-swiss-chard-microgreens
#5
Elizabeth Reed, Christina M Ferreira, Rebecca Bell, Eric W Brown, Jie Zheng
Microgreens, like sprouts, are relatively fast growing, and generally consumed raw. Moreover, as observed in sprouts, microbial contamination from preharvest sources could also be present in the production of microgreens. In this study, two Salmonella enterica serovars (Hartford and Cubana) applied, at multiple inoculation levels, were evaluated for survival and growth on alfalfa sprouts and Swiss chard microgreens using the most probable number (MPN) method. Various abiotic factors were also examined for their effects on Salmonella survival and growth on sprouts and microgreens...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452950/dynamic-fungal-cell-wall-architecture-in-stress-adaptation-and-immune-evasion
#6
REVIEW
Alex Hopke, Alistair J P Brown, Rebecca A Hall, Robert T Wheeler
Deadly infections from opportunistic fungi have risen in frequency, largely because of the at-risk immunocompromised population created by advances in modern medicine and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This review focuses on dynamics of the fungal polysaccharide cell wall, which plays an outsized role in fungal pathogenesis and therapy because it acts as both an environmental barrier and as the major interface with the host immune system. Human fungal pathogens use architectural strategies to mask epitopes from the host and prevent immune surveillance, and recent work elucidates how biotic and abiotic stresses present during infection can either block or enhance masking...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449565/amphibian-chytridiomycosis-outbreak-dynamics-are-linked-with-host-skin-bacterial-community-structure
#7
Kieran A Bates, Frances C Clare, Simon O'Hanlon, Jaime Bosch, Lola Brookes, Kevin Hopkins, Emilia J McLaughlin, Olivia Daniel, Trenton W J Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Xavier A Harrison
Host-associated microbes are vital for combatting infections and maintaining health. In amphibians, certain skin-associated bacteria inhibit the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), yet our understanding of host microbial ecology and its role in disease outbreaks is limited. We sampled skin-associated bacteria and Bd from Pyrenean midwife toad populations exhibiting enzootic or epizootic disease dynamics. We demonstrate that bacterial communities differ between life stages with few shared taxa, indicative of restructuring at metamorphosis...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447695/cervicovaginal-microbiota-and-reproductive-health-the-virtue-of-simplicity
#8
REVIEW
Melis N Anahtar, David B Gootenberg, Caroline M Mitchell, Douglas S Kwon
Cervicovaginal microbiota play a critical role in women's health and reproductive outcomes. Despite being one of the simplest commensal bacterial communities in the human body, we are only beginning to appreciate its complex dynamic nature and important role in host immune modulation. In this review, we discuss the "optimal" cervicovaginal bacterial community composition, the impact of microbiota on gynecologic and obstetric outcomes, and the hurdles to developing a deeper mechanistic understanding of the function of the cervicovaginal microbiome...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447265/dynamic-remodeling-of-lipids-coincides-with-dengue-virus-replication-in-the-midgut-of-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#9
Nunya Chotiwan, Barbara G Andre, Irma Sanchez-Vargas, M Nurul Islam, Jeffrey M Grabowski, Amber Hopf-Jannasch, Erik Gough, Ernesto Nakayasu, Carol D Blair, John T Belisle, Catherine A Hill, Richard J Kuhn, Rushika Perera
We describe the first comprehensive analysis of the midgut metabolome of Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Transmission of these viruses depends on their ability to infect, replicate and disseminate from several tissues in the mosquito vector. The metabolic environments within these tissues play crucial roles in these processes. Since these viruses are enveloped, viral replication, assembly and release occur on cellular membranes primed through the manipulation of host metabolism...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446237/going-through-the-motions-incorporating-movement-analyses-into-disease-research
#10
REVIEW
Eric R Dougherty, Dana P Seidel, Colin J Carlson, Orr Spiegel, Wayne M Getz
Though epidemiology dates back to the 1700s, most mathematical representations of epidemics still use transmission rates averaged at the population scale, especially for wildlife diseases. In simplifying the contact process, we ignore the heterogeneities in host movements that complicate the real world, and overlook their impact on spatiotemporal patterns of disease burden. Movement ecology offers a set of tools that help unpack the transmission process, letting researchers more accurately model how animals within a population interact and spread pathogens...
February 14, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444943/vaccinia-virus-c9-ankyrin-repeat-f-box-protein-is-a-newly-identified-antagonist-of-the-type-i-interferon-induced-antiviral-state
#11
Ruikang Liu, Bernard Moss
Type I interferons (IFNs) induce expression of more than 300 cellular genes that provide protection against viruses and other pathogens. For survival, viruses evolved defenses to prevent the IFN response or counteract the IFN-induced antiviral state. However, because viruses and cells co-evolved, the dynamic relationship between virus and host is difficult to discern. In the present study, we demonstrated that vaccinia virus with a large deletion near the left end of the genome had a diminished ability to replicate in cells that had been pre-treated with IFNβ, suggesting that one or more of the missing 17 open reading frames (ORFs) encodes an antagonist of the IFN-induced antiviral state...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444134/effect-of-antibiotic-withdrawal-in-feed-on-chicken-gut-microbial-dynamics-immunity-growth-performance-and-prevalence-of-foodborne-pathogens
#12
Sanjay Kumar, Chongxiao Chen, Nagaraju Indugu, Gabriela Orosco Werlang, Manpreet Singh, Woo Kyun Kim, Harshavardhan Thippareddi
Development of antibiotic resistance in foodborne pathogens, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter, is a public health concern. Public demand to reduce the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry feeding has resulted in greater adoption of antibiotic-free poultry production systems. There is a need to understand the effects of AGP removal from poultry feed on gut microbiota and its impact on prevalence of foodborne pathogens. The effect of antibiotic withdrawal from poultry feed on gut microbial community, host performance and immunity, and prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter was evaluated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434356/stress-and-sexual-reproduction-affect-the-dynamics-of-the-wheat-pathogen-effector-avrstb6-and-strobilurin-resistance
#13
Gerrit H J Kema, Amir Mirzadi Gohari, Lamia Aouini, Hesham A Y Gibriel, Sarah B Ware, Frank van den Bosch, Robbie Manning-Smith, Vasthi Alonso-Chavez, Joe Helps, Sarrah Ben M'Barek, Rahim Mehrabi, Caucasella Diaz-Trujillo, Elham Zamani, Henk J Schouten, Theo A J van der Lee, Cees Waalwijk, Maarten A de Waard, Pierre J G M de Wit, Els C P Verstappen, Bart P H J Thomma, Harold J G Meijer, Michael F Seidl
Host resistance and fungicide treatments are cornerstones of plant-disease control. Here, we show that these treatments allow sex and modulate parenthood in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We demonstrate that the Z. tritici-wheat interaction complies with the gene-for-gene model by identifying the effector AvrStb6, which is recognized by the wheat resistance protein Stb6. Recognition triggers host resistance, thus implying removal of avirulent strains from pathogen populations. However, Z. tritici crosses on wheat show that sex occurs even with an avirulent parent, and avirulence alleles are thereby retained in subsequent populations...
February 12, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430754/host-pathogen-metapopulation-dynamics-suggest-high-elevation-refugia-for-boreal-toads
#14
Brittany A Mosher, Larissa L Bailey, Erin Muths, Kathryn P Huyvaert
Emerging infectious diseases are an increasingly common threat to wildlife. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease that has been linked to amphibian declines around the world. Few studies exist that explore amphibian-Bd dynamics at the landscape scale, limiting our ability to identify which factors are associated with variation in population susceptibility and to develop effective in situ disease management. Declines of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in the Southern Rocky Mountains are largely attributed to chytridiomycosis but variation exists in local extinction of boreal toads across this metapopulation...
February 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427597/insights-into-the-homo-oligomerization-properties-of-n-terminal-coiled-coil-domain-of-ebola-virus-vp35-protein
#15
Venkata Krishnan Ramaswamy, Francesco Di Palma, Attilio V Vargiu, Angela Corona, Dario Piano, Paolo Ruggerone, Luca Zinzula, Enzo Tramontano
The multifunctional Ebola virus (EBOV) VP35 protein is a key determinant of virulence. VP35 is essential for EBOV replication, is a component of the viral RNA polymerase and participates in nucleocapsid formation. Furthermore, VP35 contributes to EBOV evasion of the host innate immune response by suppressing RNA silencing and blocking RIG-I like receptors' pathways that lead to type I interferon (IFN) production. VP35 homo-oligomerization has been reported to be critical for its replicative function and to increase its IFN-antagonism properties...
February 7, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427422/relative-abundance-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata-in-in-vitro-co-culture-biofilms-impacts-biofilm-structure-and-formation
#16
Michelle L Olson, Arul Jayaraman, Katy C Kao
Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species - Candida albicans and Candida glabrata - are often co-isolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida co-culture biofilms...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424446/diversity-and-seasonal-abundances-of-mosquitoes-at-potential-arboviral-transmission-sites-in-two-different-climate-zones-in-switzerland
#17
S Wagner, V Guidi, P R Torgerson, A Mathis, F Schaffner
Pathogens of medical or veterinary significance that are transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are (re-)emerging in Europe [e.g. West Nile virus (WNV), Dirofilaria nematodes]. Little is known about the spatiotemporal abundances of mosquito species in Switzerland. Therefore, mosquito population dynamics were investigated, focusing on areas of risk for sylvatic or synanthropic transmission, such as natural sites and suburban sites on either side of the Alpine crest. Repeated collections were made using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) traps, juvenile sampling and ovitrapping...
February 9, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420542/host-preferences-support-the-prominent-role-of-hyalomma-ticks-in-the-ecology-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever
#18
Jessica R Spengler, Agustin Estrada-Peña
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne zoonotic agent that is maintained in nature in an enzootic vertebrate-tick-vertebrate cycle. Hyalomma genus ticks have been implicated as the main CCHFV vector and are key in maintaining silent endemic foci. However, what contributes to their central role in CCHFV ecology is unclear. To assess the significance of host preferences of ticks in CCHFV ecology, we performed comparative analyses of hosts exploited by 133 species of ticks; these species represent 5 genera with reported geographical distribution over the range of CCHFV...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416569/phylogeographic-diversity-and-mosaicism-of-the-helicobacter-pylori-tfs-integrative-and-conjugative-elements
#19
Robin M Delahay, Nicola J Croxall, Amberley D Stephens
Background: The genome of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is characterised by considerable variation of both gene sequence and content, much of which is contained within three large genomic islands comprising the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) and two mobile integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) termed tfs3 and tfs4. All three islands are implicated as virulence factors, although whereas the cagPAI is well characterised, understanding of how the tfs elements influence H...
2018: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416568/the-dynamic-intein-landscape-of-eukaryotes
#20
Cathleen M Green, Olga Novikova, Marlene Belfort
Background: Inteins are mobile, self-splicing sequences that interrupt proteins and occur across all three domains of life. Scrutiny of the intein landscape in prokaryotes led to the hypothesis that some inteins are functionally important. Our focus shifts to eukaryotic inteins to assess their diversity, distribution, and dissemination, with the aim to comprehensively evaluate the eukaryotic intein landscape, understand intein maintenance, and dissect evolutionary relationships. Results: This bioinformatics study reveals that eukaryotic inteins are scarce, but present in nuclear genomes of fungi, chloroplast genomes of algae, and within some eukaryotic viruses...
2018: Mobile DNA
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