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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723886/prolonged-viral-replication-and-longitudinal-viral-dynamic-differences-among-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infected-infants
#1
Monica E Brint, Joshua M Hughes, Aditya Shah, Chelsea R Miller, Lisa G Harrison, Elizabeth A Meals, Jacqueline Blanch, Charlotte R Thompson, Stephania A Cormier, John P DeVincenzo
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal RSV dynamics have not been well-studied despite existence of factors favoring prolonged RSV replication including: high mutation rates allowing rapid evolution and potential escape from immune control. We therefore measured viral load in previously RSV-naïve infants over prolonged time-spans. METHODS: During 2014-2015, quantitative nasal aspirates were collected from 51 RSV-PCR+ infants. Multiple parallel assessments of viral loads were quantified at each collected time point using a well-validated real-time qRT-PCR assay...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721190/a-case-of-fatal-internal-jugular-vein-perforation-during-nasogastric-tube-insertion
#2
Katherine A Smith, Jeffrey P Fleming, Robert D Bennett, Andrew A Taitano
Nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a routine procedure in the management of surgical patients. We report the second case of internal jugular vein perforation during NGT insertion. A 79-year-old man presented with diffuse abdominal pain secondary to a perforated viscus. Abdominal CT revealed pneumoperitoneum, necessitating emergent exploratory laparotomy. On post-operative Day 7, the patient developed mild abdominal distension and subjective nausea for which NGT placement was ordered for decompression. Tube placement was confirmed by insufflation of air without aspiration of gastric contents...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716387/respiratory-virus-prior-to-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-is-associated-with-allo-immune-mediated-lung-syndromes
#3
Birgitta Versluys, Marc Bierings, Jean Luc Murk, Tom Wolfs, Caroline Lindemans, Kors Vd Ent, Jaap Jan Boelens
BACKGROUND: Allo-immune mediated lung syndromes (allo-LS) are life-threatening complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Respiratory virus (RV) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relation between RV-DNA/RNA detection in upper/lower airway before HCT and the occurrence of allo-LS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all HCT recipients between 2004 and 2014, in whom Real-Time PCR for RV was done from Nasal-Pharyngeal-Aspirates (NPA) and Broncho-Alveolar- Lavage (BAL) before HCT...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709160/effectiveness-of-palivizumab-in-high-risk-infants-and-children-a-propensity-score-weighted-regression-analysis
#4
Evan J Anderson, Phyllis Carosone-Link, Ram Yogev, Jumi Yi, Eric A F Simões
BACKGROUND: Infants with premature birth ≤35 weeks gestational age, chronic lung disease of prematurity and congenital heart disease are at an increased risk for lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalization from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which has been shown in randomized trials to be prevented by palivizumab. However, palivizumab effectiveness (PE) has not been studied in a large clinical setting. METHODS: A multicenter study among high-risk US and Canadian children younger than 24 months hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection and whose nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and RSV were the subjects of the trial...
August 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708464/effect-of-whole-body-hypothermia-on-surfactant-function-when-amniotic-fluid-is-meconium-stained
#5
Chiara Autilio, Mercedes Echaide, Valentina Dell'Orto, Jesus Perez-Gil, Daniele De Luca
We provide the first complete biophysical study of surfactant by captive bubble surfactometry from a neonate with meconium-stained amniotic fluid under controlled whole body hypothermia. Surfactant function improves after 48 hours of hypothermia, as surfactant cholesterol decreases. These findings partially explain positive effect of hypothermia on respiratory outcomes during meconium aspiration syndrome. A larger study including several neonates with or without lung disease is being conducted to better define the effect of hypothermia on surfactant function...
July 14, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700565/nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-influences-bottle-feeding-in-preterm-lambs
#6
Nathalie Samson, Audrey Michaud, Rahmeh Othman, Charlène Nadeau, Stéphanie Nault, Danny Cantin, Michaël Sage, Céline Catelin, Jean-Paul Praud
BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, the time from initiation to full oral feeding can take weeks, which represents a very worrisome problem in neonatal medicine. Although current knowledge suggests that oral feeding should be introduced early, this is often delayed due to the need for prolonged nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Indeed, most caregivers fear that nCPAP could disrupt sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination and induce tracheal aspiration. The goal of the present study was to assess the impact of nCPAP delivered by the Infant Flow System on the physiology of sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination during bottle-feeding in preterm lambs over 24 h...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698541/ataxia-telangiectasia-in-siblings-oral-motor-and-swallowing-characterization
#7
Silmara Rondon-Melo, Isabel Junqueira de Almeida, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade, Fernanda Chiarion Sassi, Daniela Regina Molini-Avejonas
BACKGROUND The body of literature on oral motor and swallowing disorders in patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is limited. CASE REPORT The purpose of this study was to characterize oral motor and swallowing disorders in two siblings with AT, based on oral motor and swallowing assessments. Specific procedures were applied for oral motor and swallowing assessments and both patients underwent videofluoroscopy (VFS). Case 1 presented vocal instability, change in postural control during feeding; food retention in oral cavity; slower oral transit time; and multiple swallowing (signs for solid and liquid)...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698268/effects-of-volume-guaranteed-ventilation-combined-with-two-different-modes-in-preterm-infants
#8
Sezin Unal, Ebru Ergenekon, Selma Aktas, Nilgun Altuntas, Serdar Beken, Ebru Kazanci, Ferit Kulali, Ozlem Gulbahar, Ibrahim M Hirfanoglu, Esra Onal, Canan Turkyilmaz, Esin Koc, Yildiz Atalay
BACKGROUND: Volume-controlled ventilation modes have been shown to reduce duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of chronic lung disease, failure of primary mode of ventilation, hypocarbia, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants when compared with pressure limited ventilation modes. Volume-guarantee (VG) ventilation is the most commonly used mode for volume-controlled ventilation. Assist control, pressure-support ventilation (PSV), and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) can be combined with VG; however, there is a lack of knowledge on the superiority of each regarding clinical outcomes...
July 11, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695492/patterns-of-acute-poisoning-with-pesticides-in-the-paediatric-age-group
#9
Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri, Shaluka F Jayamanne, Chamilka Y Jayasinghe
BACKGROUND: Pesticides are identified as one of the dangerous poisons globally in children and are associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity. Pesticide poisoning is the most common method of self-poisoning among adults in rural Sri Lanka, and the clinical management is associated with significant healthcare costs to the country. There is however little data published on acute pesticide poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. The current study aimed to comprehensively evaluate clinical profiles, harmful first aid measures, emergency clinical management, complications and outcomes related to acute pesticide poisoning among children in the rural community of Sri Lanka...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693597/clinical-outcome-and-risk-factors-of-neonatal-sepsis-among-neonates-in-felege-hiwot-referral-hospital-bahir-dar-amhara-regional-state-north-west-ethiopia-2016-a-retrospective-chart-review
#10
Tilahun Tewabe, Seida Mohammed, Yibeltal Tilahun, Birhanie Melaku, Mequanint Fenta, Tsigiereda Dagnaw, Amare Belachew, Ashagre Molla, Habte Belete
BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates. The risk factors and clinical outcomes of sepsis are poorly understood. Most cases of sepsis occurred mostly within the first week of newborns life related to perinatal risk factors. Late onset sepsis is related to hospital acquired infections which is seen after seven days of age. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical outcome and risk factors of neonatal sepsis in Felege Hiwot referral hospital Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia...
July 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690873/spinal-cord-infarction-in-a-sick-neonate-from-predominant-haemorrhagic-aetiology-a-case-report
#11
Richa Kulshrestha, Joy R Chowdhury, Radhesh K Lalam, Nigel T Kiely
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injuries in new born infants following a traumatic delivery or umbilical cord catheterisation due to thromboembolism are well known. Cases with atraumatic acute onset of neonatal paraplegia have also been described in preterm babies or babies born small for gestational age with a stormy postnatal course related to ischaemic aetiology. We describe a rare case of infarction of the spinal cord from a predominant haemorrhagic aetiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A term female baby, first child of unrelated parents, was born by normal vaginal delivery...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689530/congenital-vallecular-cyst-arare-and-potentially-lethal-condition
#12
Shabbir Ahmed Mallick, Tabinda Naz Qureshi, Ajoy Methew Varghese, Mona Mohammed Al Busaidi
Congenital vallecular cyst is a rare laryngeal lesion, accounting for 10-20% of all laryngeal cysts, with a potential to cause severe upper airway obstruction, which can be fatal. It can cause stridor, apnea, cyanosis, respiratory distress, and feeding difficulties. Diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion and helps in timely intervention. Direct laryngoscopy is gold standard for definitive diagnosis. Treatment options include aspiration, marsupialization, and surgical excision. Here, we report a case of 7-week-old infant with complain of recurrent episodes of cyanosis when agitated, since the age of 3 weeks, admitted with impression of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs)...
June 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683098/three-distinct-pneumotypes-characterize-the-microbiome-of-the-lung-in-balb-cj-mice
#13
Julia Scheiermann, Dennis M Klinman
Bacteria can rarely be isolated from normal healthy lungs using conventional culture techniques, supporting the traditional belief that the lungs are sterile. Yet recent studies using next generation sequencing report that bacterial DNA commonly found in the upper respiratory tract (URT) is present at lower levels in the lungs. Interpretation of that finding is complicated by the technical limitations and potential for contamination introduced when dealing with low biomass samples. The current work sought to overcome those limitations to clarify the number, type and source of bacteria present in the lungs of normal mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676373/middle-age-exacerbates-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-a-double-hit-murine-model
#14
Guillaume Voiriot, Damien Contou, Jeanne Tran Van Nhieu, Valerie Amsellem, Elisabeth Marcos, Mehdi Latiri, Serge Adnot, Bernard Maitre, Armand Mekontso Dessap
RATIONALE: In a recent systematic review, aging has been identified as the only factor independently associated with mortality during human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We explored this age-dependent severity in a clinically relevant double hit murine ARDS model. METHODS: Young adult (Y, 10-12weeks) and middle-old (O, 12-13months) male C57BL6 mice underwent an aspiration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or control saline vehicle. Twenty hours later, four groups of mice were sacrificed [Y(control), O(control), Y(LPS) and O(LPS)]...
July 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674680/giant-gastric-bezoar-complicating-congenital-esophageal-atresia-repaired-by-gastric-interposition-a-case-report
#15
Archana Chacko, Brent I Masters, Alan Isles
We describe a giant gastric phytobezoar in a child with repaired congenital esophageal atresia. At age two, a gastric interposition (pull-up) procedure was performed for severe and recurrent esophageal strictures. For 12 months post-gastric interposition, he experienced frequent respiratory illnesses requiring hospital admissions but it was not initially appreciated that these episodes were likely secondary to recurrent aspiration from a gastric bezoar with "spill-over" aspiration.
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671175/a-rare-cause-of-ventilatory-failure-in-a-patient-with-post-traumatic-intracranial-hemorrhage
#16
Balamugesh Thangakunam, Shakti Kumar Bal, Ajay V Venkatapathy, Aparna Irodi, Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher
High minute ventilation is required to lower intracranial pressures in patients with intracranial bleed. Respiratory acidemia consequent to ventilatory difficulty is dangerous in such patients as it further raises intracranial tension. We describe such a case. A 24-year-old man had to be intubated and mechanically ventilated after he met with a road traffic accident and sustained extensive maxillofacial injuries and intracranial bleed. A tooth was accidentally aspirated in this injury and progressively resulted in left lower lobe collapse, pneumomediastinum, and consequent difficult ventilation...
July 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668567/10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv10-decreases-metabolic-activity-but-not-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae
#17
Dafne C Andrade, Igor C Borges, Maiara L Bouzas, Juliana R Oliveira, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Artur T Queiroz, Camila Indiani de Oliveira, Aldina Barral, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Cristiana Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The effect of pneumococcal vaccination is widely variable when measured by nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine and non-vaccine targets. The aim of this study was to compare the carriage rates and metabolic activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis among children who were or were not vaccinated with PCV10. METHODS: We included children with acute respiratory infection aged 6-23months from a cross-sectional study (CHIADO-IVAS)...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667196/patient-safety-during-procedural-sedation-using-capnography-monitoring-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Rhodri Saunders, Michel M R F Struys, Richard F Pollock, Michael Mestek, Jenifer R Lightdale
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of capnography monitoring on sedation-related adverse events during procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) administered for ambulatory surgery relative to visual assessment and pulse oximetry alone. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic literature review and random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting sedation-related adverse event incidence when adding capnography to visual assessment and pulse oximetry in patients undergoing PSA during ambulatory surgery in the hospital setting...
June 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665932/surfactant-phospholipid-composition-of-gastric-aspirate-samples-differs-between-male-and-female-very-preterm-infants
#19
Foula Sozo, Noreen Ishak, Risha Bhatia, Peter G Davis, Richard Harding
BACKGROUND: Among preterm infants, males have a greater incidence of respiratory distress and death than females born at the same gestational age, likely due to sex-related differences in lung maturation. Our aim was to determine whether surfactant phospholipid composition differs between male and female preterm infants. METHODS: Gastric aspirate samples from male and female infants born between 25 and 30 weeks of gestation at The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, were collected within 1 h after birth...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658765/prevalence-of-lung-lesions-at-autopsy-a-histopathological-study
#20
Pratima Khare, Renu Gupta, Mukta Ahuja, Nupur Khare, Swapnil Agarwal, Deepti Bansal
INTRODUCTION: Autopsies are carried out to establish the identity, cause of death, time of death, and ante-mortem or post-mortem nature of death. These help in establishing the cause of death and ascertain the disease process which led to death. AIM: To study the prevalence and pattern of lung diseases in medicolegal autopsies, confirmed by histopathological examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Pathology...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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