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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335251/nanostructured-tio%C3%A2-surfaces-promote-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-differentiation-to-osteoblasts
#1
Marco Vercellino, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Francesco Cristofaro, Martina Balli, Federico Bertoglio, Gianna Bruni, Laura Benedetti, Maria Antonietta Avanzini, Marcello Imbriani, Livia Visai
Micro- and nano-patterning/modification are emerging strategies to improve surfaces properties that may influence critically cells adherence and differentiation. Aim of this work was to study the in vitro biological reactivity of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to a nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO₂) surface in comparison to a coverglass (Glass) in two different culture conditions: with (osteogenic medium (OM)) and without (proliferative medium (PM)) osteogenic factors. To evaluate cell adhesion, hBMSCs phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) foci were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at 24 h: the TiO₂ surface showed a higher number of pFAK foci with respect to Glass...
June 24, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330488/cigarette-smoke-challenges-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-capacities-in-guinea-pig
#2
Olga Tura-Ceide, Borja Lobo, Tanja Paul, Raquel Puig-Pey, Núria Coll-Bonfill, Jéssica García-Lucio, Valérie Smolders, Isabel Blanco, Joan A Barberà, Víctor I Peinado
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with lower numbers of circulating stem cells and might severely affect their mobilization, trafficking and homing. Our study was designed to demonstrate in an animal model of CS exposure whether CS affects the homing and functional capabilities of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). METHODS: Guinea pigs (GP), exposed or sham-exposed to CS, were administered via tracheal instillation or by vascular administration with 2...
March 23, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326307/p75-neurotrophin-receptor-in-the-skin-beyond-its-neurotrophic-function
#3
REVIEW
Carlo Pincelli
p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), also known as CD271, is the low-affinity receptor that, together with the tyrosine kinase receptor tropomyosin-receptor kinase (Trk), mediate neurotrophin (NT) functions. Beside their classic role in skin innervation, NT and their receptors constitute a complex cutaneous network associated with a number of autocrine and paracrine activities. In this context, the role of p75(NTR) is becoming more and more important. This review will focus on the intriguing functions of p75(NTR) in healthy and diseased skin...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324501/assessing-telomerase-activities-in-mammalian-cells-using-the-quantitative-pcr-based-telomeric-repeat-amplification-protocol-qtrap
#4
Shuai Jiang, Mengfan Tang, Huawei Xin, Junjiu Huang
Telomerase expression and activity appear elevated in >80% of human cancers. The activity of the telomerase may serve as a diagnostic marker for malignancy, and an indicator of the proliferative potential of somatic and stem cells. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) is a sensitive and accurate PCR-based assay for telomerase detection and measurement. Here, we describe a quantitative PCR-based TRAP assay (qTRAP) that is more convenient and amenable to high-throughput applications compared to traditional gel-based TRAP assays...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324499/telomere-terminal-g-c-strand-synthesis-measuring-telomerase-action-and-c-rich-fill-in
#5
Yong Zhao, Jerry W Shay, Woodring E Wright
Telomerase is present in most human cancers, and proliferative stem cells including germline cells. Telomerase plays an essential role in tumorigenesis by maintaining/elongating telomeric DNA, and thus preventing the telomere shortening that results in replicative senescence. Understanding telomerase action in vivo has important implication for both cancer and aging, but there are not robust methods for monitoring telomerase action. By combining a series of cell biological and biochemical approaches, and taking advantage of the enzyme DSN that specifically cuts double-stranded DNA and releases the telomeric overhangs, we have developed a method to monitor telomerase action during one cell cycle...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323899/lawsonia-intracellularis-exploits-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt-and-notch-signalling-pathways-during-infection-of-intestinal-crypt-to-alter-cell-homeostasis-and-promote-cell-proliferation
#6
Yang W Huan, Rebecca J Bengtsson, Neil MacIntyre, Jack Guthrie, Heather Finlayson, Sionagh H Smith, Alan L Archibald, Tahar Ait-Ali
Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. L. intracellularis infection causes extensive intestinal crypt cell proliferation and inhibits secretory and absorptive cell differentiation. However, the affected host upstream cellular pathways leading to PE are still unknown. β-catenin/Wnt signalling is essential in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and self-renewal capacity, while Notch signalling governs differentiation of secretory and absorptive lineage specification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323540/identification-of-multipotent-stem-cells-in-human-brain-tissue-following-stroke
#7
Kotaro Tatebayashi, Yasue Tanaka, Akiko Nakano-Doi, Rika Sakuma, Saeko Kamachi, Manabu Shirakawa, Kazutaka Uchida, Hiroto Kageyama, Toshinori Takagi, Shinichi Yoshimura, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Takayuki Nakagomi
Perivascular regions of the brain harbor multipotent stem cells. We previously demonstrated that brain pericytes near blood vessels also develop multipotency following experimental ischemia in mice, and that these ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs) can contribute to neurogenesis. However, it is essential to understand the traits of iSCs in the post-stroke human brain for possible applications in stem cell-based therapies for stroke patients. Here we report for the first time that iSCs can be isolated from the post-stroke human brain...
March 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323051/anticancer-and-anti-angiogenic-activities-of-extract-from-actinidia-eriantha-benth-root
#8
Jian-Guo Wu, Li Ma, Shui-Hua Lin, Yan-Bin Wu, Jun Yi, Bin-Jun Yang, Jin-Zhong Wu, Ka-Hing Wong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The roots of Actinidia eriantha Benth (AER) are commonly used traditional folk medicine for the treatment of gastric carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and breast carcinoma. Besides, the anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory effects of AER polysaccharides on tumor-bearing mice have been reported previously. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work was carried out to investigate the anticancer and anti-angiogenic activities of AER. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The growth inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from the leaves (EEL), stems (EES) and roots (EER) of A...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321259/evaluation-of-three-devices-for-the-isolation-of-the-stromal-vascular-fraction-from-adipose-tissue-and-for-asc-culture-a-comparative-study
#9
Jonathan Rodriguez, Anne-Sophie Pratta, Nacira Abbassi, Hugo Fabre, Fanny Rodriguez, Cyrille Debard, Jacqueline Adobati, Fabien Boucher, Frédéric Mallein-Gerin, Céline Auxenfans, Odile Damour, Ali Mojallal
Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue (AT) and can be easily isolated. However, extraction of the SVF from lipoaspirate is a critical step in generating ASC, and semiautomated devices have been developed to enhance the efficacy and reproducibility of the outcomes and to decrease manipulation and contamination. In this study, we compared the reference method used in our lab for SVF isolation from lipoaspirate, with three medical devices: GID SVF-1™, Puregraft™, and Stem...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320483/human-and-feline-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-have-comparable-phenotype-immunomodulatory-functions-and-transcriptome
#10
Kaitlin C Clark, Fernando A Fierro, Emily Mills Ko, Naomi J Walker, Boaz Arzi, Clifford G Tepper, Heather Dahlenburg, Andrew Cicchetto, Amir Kol, Lyndsey Marsh, William J Murphy, Nasim Fazel, Dori L Borjesson
BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell therapy to treat inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Development of appropriate pre-clinical animal models is critical to determine safety and attain early efficacy data for the most promising therapeutic candidates. Naturally occurring diseases in cats already serve as valuable models to inform human clinical trials in oncologic, cardiovascular, and genetic diseases. The objective of this study was to complete a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of human and feline ASCs, with an emphasis on their immunomodulatory capacity and transcriptome...
March 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320452/compared-to-the-amniotic-membrane-wharton-s-jelly-may-be-a-more-suitable-source-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cardiovascular-tissue-engineering-and-clinical-regeneration
#11
Lei Pu, Mingyao Meng, Jian Wu, Jing Zhang, Zongliu Hou, Hui Gao, Hui Xu, Boyu Liu, Weiwei Tang, Lihong Jiang, Yaxiong Li
BACKGROUND: The success of developing cardiovascular tissue engineering (CTE) grafts greatly needs a readily available cell substitute for endothelial and interstitial cells. Perinatal annexes have been proposed as a valuable source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the potential of human Wharton's jelly MSCs (WJ-MSCs) and amniotic membrane MSCs (AM-MSCs) as a seeding cell in CTE and cardiovascular regenerative medicine...
March 21, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297577/surgical-excision-of-heterotopic-ossification-leads-to-re-emergence-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-populations-responsible-for-recurrence
#12
Shailesh Agarwal, Shawn Loder, David Cholok, John Li, Chris Breuler, James Drake, Cameron Brownley, Joshua Peterson, Shuli Li, Benjamin Levi
Trauma-induced heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs after severe musculoskeletal injuries and burns, and presents a significant barrier to patient rehabilitation. Interestingly, the incidence of HO significantly increases with repeated operations and after resection of previous HO. Treatment of established heterotopic ossification is challenging because surgical excision is often incomplete, with evidence of persistent heterotopic bone. As a result, patients may continue to report the signs or symptoms of HO, including chronic pain, nonhealing wounds, and joint restriction...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294046/notch-signalling-pathways-and-their-importance-in-the-treatment-of-cancers
#13
Seong Lin Teoh, Srijit Das
The Notch pathway is an evolutionarily conserved, intercellular signalling system which is present in all multicellular organisms and mammals. The Notch pathway plays an important role in the embryonic development as it controls cell proliferation, cell differentiation and binary cell fate decisions. In the present review, we discuss the Notch signalling pathway components i.e. Notch receptors, ligands, effector, and their regulators. Interestingly, the Notch signalling pathway is dysregulated in many cancers...
March 9, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292427/planarian-epidermal-stem-cells-respond-to-positional-cues-to-promote-cell-type-diversity
#14
Omri Wurtzel, Isaac M Oderberg, Peter W Reddien
Successful regeneration requires that progenitors of different lineages form the appropriate missing cell types. However, simply generating lineages is not enough. Cells produced by a particular lineage often have distinct functions depending on their position within the organism. How this occurs in regeneration is largely unexplored. In planarian regeneration, new cells arise from a proliferative cell population (neoblasts). We used the planarian epidermal lineage to study how the location of adult progenitor cells results in their acquisition of distinct functional identities...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289330/the-heterogeneity-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-at-the-invasive-front
#15
Go J Yoshida
Cancer stem-like cells exhibit the multi-functional roles to survive and persist for a long period in the minimal residual disease after the conventional anti-cancer treatments. Cancer stem-like cells of solid malignant tumors which highly express CD44v8-10, the variant isoform of CD44 generated by alternative splicing, has a resistance to redox stress by the robust production of glutathione mediated by ESRP1-CD44v-xCT (cystine/glutamate antiporter) axis. It has been reported that CD44v and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression pattern at the invasive front of the aggressive tumors...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289071/disorganization-of-the-germ-cell-pool-leads-to-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#16
Ikko Kawashima, Kazuhiro Kawamura
The mammalian ovary is an organ that controls female germ cell development, storing them and releasing mature oocytes for transporting to the oviduct. During the fetal stage, female germ cells change from a proliferative state to meiosis before forming follicles with the potential for growth of surrounding somatic cells. Understanding of molecular and physiological bases of germ cell development in the fetal ovary contributed not only to the elucidation of genetic disorders in primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), but also advancement of novel treatments for patients with POI...
March 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288899/kisspeptin-10-treatment-generated-specific-gnrh-expression-in-cells-differentiated-from-rhesus-monkey-derived-lyon-nscs
#17
Tanzeel Huma, Xintian Hu, Yuanye Ma, Andrew Willden, Joshua Rizak, Muhammad Shahab, Zhengbo Wang
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have enormous potential as novel cell-based therapies, but their effectiveness depends on stem cell differentiation and specific signaling regulators, which remain poorly understood. In this study, a kisspeptin peptide (KP-10) was used at different dosages to determine whether rhesus macaque derived tau GFP-Lyon ES cells underwent kisspeptin specific neuronal differentiation. It was found that KP-10 exhibited an anti-proliferative effect on the cells and led to morphological changes and cellular differentiation consistent with neuronal stem cell (NSC) development...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288348/a-microengineered-collagen-scaffold-for-generating-a-polarized-crypt-villus-architecture-of-human-small-intestinal-epithelium
#18
Yuli Wang, Dulan B Gunasekara, Mark I Reed, Matthew DiSalvo, Scott J Bultman, Christopher E Sims, Scott T Magness, Nancy L Allbritton
The human small intestinal epithelium possesses a distinct crypt-villus architecture and tissue polarity in which proliferative cells reside inside crypts while differentiated cells are localized to the villi. Indirect evidence has shown that the processes of differentiation and migration are driven in part by biochemical gradients of factors that specify the polarity of these cellular compartments; however, direct evidence for gradient-driven patterning of this in vivo architecture has been hampered by limitations of the in vitro systems available...
March 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287512/preparation-and-culture-of-myogenic-precursor-cells-primary-myoblasts-from-skeletal-muscle-of-adult-and-aged-humans
#19
Ana Soriano-Arroquia, Peter D Clegg, Andrew P Molloy, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on muscle growth (hypertrophy), atrophy and regeneration. During ageing and in several diseases, muscle wasting occurs. Loss of muscle mass and function is associated with muscle fiber type atrophy, fiber type switching, defective muscle regeneration associated with dysfunction of satellite cells, muscle stem cells, and other pathophysiological processes. These changes are associated with changes in intracellular as well as local and systemic niches. In addition to most commonly used rodent models of muscle ageing, there is a need to study muscle homeostasis and wasting using human models, which due to ethical implications, consist predominantly of in vitro cultures...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285904/mex3a-marks-a-slowly-dividing-subpopulation-of-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells
#20
Francisco M Barriga, Elisa Montagni, Miyeko Mana, Maria Mendez-Lago, Xavier Hernando-Momblona, Marta Sevillano, Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Gustavo Rodriguez-Esteban, Simon J A Buczacki, Marta Gut, Holger Heyn, Douglas J Winton, Omer H Yilmaz, Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini, Ivo Gut, Eduard Batlle
Highly proliferative Lgr5+ stem cells maintain the intestinal epithelium and are thought to be largely homogeneous. Although quiescent intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations have been described, the identity and features of such a population remain controversial. Here we report unanticipated heterogeneity within the Lgr5+ ISC pool. We found that expression of the RNA-binding protein Mex3a labels a slowly cycling subpopulation of Lgr5+ ISCs that contribute to all intestinal lineages with distinct kinetics. Single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed that Lgr5+ cells adopt two discrete states, one of which is defined by a Mex3a expression program and relatively low levels of proliferation genes...
March 8, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
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