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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214675/directional-delivery-of-rspo1-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorates-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury
#1
Wei Chen, Songwen Ju, Ting Lu, Yongfang Xu, Xiaocui Zheng, Haiyan Wang, Yan Ge, Songguang Ju
Radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) commonly occurs in patients who received radiotherapy for pelvic or abdominal cancer, or who suffered from whole-body irradiation during a nuclear accident. RIII can lead to intestinal disorders and even death given its integrity damage that results from intestinal stem cell (ISC) loss. Recovery from RIII relies on the intensity of supportive treatment, which can attenuate lethal infection and give surviving stem cells an opportunity to regenerate. It has been reported that RSPO1 is a cytokine with potent and specific proliferative effects on intestinal crypt cells...
February 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210556/are-breast-cancer-stem-cells-the-key-to-resolving-clinical-issues-in-breast-cancer-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Hidetaka Shima, Akimitsu Yamada, Takashi Ishikawa, Itaru Endo
Despite the dramatic advances in breast cancer treatment over the past two decades, it is still the most common malignancies in women. One of the reasons patients succumb to breast cancer is treatment resistance leading to metastasis and recurrence. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been suggested as a cause of metastasis and recurrence in several cancers because of their unique characteristics, including self-renewal, pluripotency, and high proliferative ability. Increasing evidence has implicated breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) as essential for tumor development, progression, recurrence, and treatment resistance...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209720/acquired-expression-of-cbl-q367p-in-mice-induces-dysplastic-myelopoiesis-mimicking-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia
#3
Yuichiro Nakata, Takeshi Ueda, Akiko Nagamachi, Norimasa Yamasaki, Ken-Ichiro Ikeda, Yasuyuki Sera, Keiyo Takubo, Akinori Kanai, Hideaki Oda, Masashi Sanada, Seishi Ogawa, Kohichiro Tsuji, Yasuhiro Ebihara, Linda Wolff, Zen-Ichiro Honda, Toshio Suda, Toshiya Inaba, Hiroaki Honda
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematological malignancy characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of dysplastic myelomonocytes and frequent progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We identified mutations in the Cbl gene, which encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling, in a subset of CMML patients. To investigate the contribution of mutant Cbl in CMML pathogenesis, we generated conditional knock-in mice for Cbl that express wild-type Cbl in a steady state and inducibly express Cbl(Q367P) , a CMML-associated Cbl mutant...
February 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205414/avoidance-of-maternal-cell-contamination-and-overgrowth-in-isolating-fetal-chorionic-villi-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-term-placenta
#4
Varda S Sardesai, Abbas Shafiee, Nicholas M Fisk, Rebecca A Pelekanos
Human placenta is rich in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), with their origin widely presumed fetal. Cultured placental MSCs are confounded by a high frequency of maternal cell contamination. Our recent systematic review concluded that only a small minority of placental MSC publications report fetal/maternal origin, and failed to discern a specific methodology for isolation of fetal MSC from term villi. We determined isolation conditions to yield fetal and separately maternal MSC during ex vivo expansion from human term placenta...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204820/hypoxia-enhances-the-wound-healing-potential-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-a-novel-human-primary-keratinocyte-based-scratch-assay
#5
Simone Riis, Rhonda Newman, Hilal Ipek, Jens I Andersen, David Kuninger, Shayne Boucher, Mohan C Vemuri, Cristian P Pennisi, Vladimir Zachar, Trine Fink
Preclinical studies have suggested that paracrine factors from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) promote the healing of chronic wounds, and that the exposure of ASCs to hypoxia enhances their wound healing effect. To aid the translation of these findings into clinical use, robust wound models are necessary to explore each aspect of wound healing. The aspect of re-epithelization is often studied in a scratch assay based on transformed keratinocytes. However, there are concerns regarding the validity of this model, since these cell lines differ from normal keratinocytes, both in terms of proliferative capacity and differentiation, and sensitivity to environmental cues...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202998/-comparative-study-of-proliferative-and-periodontal-differentiation-propensity-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-at-different-passages
#6
J W Li, X H Yin, Q X Luan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the proliferative and periodontal specific differentiation abilities of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) at different passages, and to investigate whether long term culturing would have a negative influence on their proliferation and specific differentiation capacity, thus providing a theoretical basis for further in-depth research on periodontal regeneration and the possible clinical applications of iPSCs. METHODS: IPSCs derived from human gingival fibroblasts at passages 5, 10, 15 and 20 were recovered and cultured in vitro...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196804/nipped-a-regulates-intestinal-stem-cell-proliferation-in-drosophila
#7
Helen Marie Tauc, Alpaslan Tasdogan, Patrick Meyer, Petra Pandur
Adult stem cells uphold a delicate balance between quiescent and active states, a deregulation of which can lead to age-associated diseases such as cancer. In Drosophila, intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation is tightly regulated and mis-regulation is detrimental to intestinal homeostasis. Various factors are known to govern ISC behavior; however, transcriptional changes in ISCs during aging are still unclear. RNA sequencing of young and old ISCs newly identified Nipped-A, a subunit of histone acetyltransferase complexes, as a regulator of ISC proliferation that is upregulated in old ISCs...
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192115/substance-p-enhances-proliferation-and-paracrine-potential-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#8
Suna Kim, Jiyuan Piao, Youngsook Son, Hyun Sook Hong
Stem cells have tremendous promise to treat intractable diseases. Notably, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are actively being investigated because of ease of sampling and high repopulation capacity in vitro. ADSCs can exert a therapeutic effect through differentiation and paracrine potential, and these actions have been proven in many diseases, including cutaneous and inflammatory diseases. Transplantation of ADSCs necessitates therapeutic quantities and thus, long term ex vivo culture of ADSCs. However, this procedure can impair the activity of ADSCs and provoke cellular senescence, leading to low efficacy in vivo...
February 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192065/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-and-leptin-expression-associated-with-ectopic-proliferation-and-retinal-dysplasia-in-zebrafish-optic-pathway-tumors
#9
Laura E Schultz, Staci L Solin, Wesley A Wierson, Janna M Lovan, Judith Syrkin-Nikolau, Deborah E Lincow, Andrew J Severin, Donald S Sakaguchi, Maura McGrail
In the central nervous system injury induces cellular reprogramming and progenitor proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms that limit regeneration and prevent tumorigenesis are not completely understood. We previously described a zebrafish optic pathway tumor model in which transgenic Tg(flk1:RFP)is18/+ adults develop nonmalignant retinal tumors. Key pathways driving injury-induced glial reprogramming and regeneration contributed to tumor formation. In this study, we examine a time course of proliferation and present new analyses of the Tg(flk1:RFP)is18/+ dysplastic retina and tumor transcriptomes...
February 13, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191769/suppression-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-delays-cellular-senescence-and-preserves-the-function-of-endothelial-cells-derived-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
Hao Bai, Yongxing Gao, Dixie L Hoyle, Tao Cheng, Zack Z Wang
Transplantation of vascular cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers an attractive noninvasive method for repairing the ischemic tissues and for preventing the progression of vascular diseases. Here, we found that in a serum-free condition, the proliferation rate of hPSC-derived endothelial cells is quickly decreased, accompanied with an increased cellular senescence, resulting in impaired gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and impaired vessel forming capability in vitro and in vivo...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191763/electrical-cell-substrate-impedance-spectroscopy-can-monitor-age-grouped-human-adipose-stem-cell-variability-during-osteogenic-differentiation
#11
Rachel C Nordberg, Jianlei Zhang, Emily H Griffith, Matthew W Frank, Binil Starly, Elizabeth G Loboa
Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering applications. However, a critical issue to be addressed before widespread hASC clinical translation is the dramatic variability in proliferative capacity and osteogenic potential among hASCs isolated from different donors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that electrical cell-substrate impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) could track complex bioimpedance patterns of hASCs throughout proliferation and osteogenic differentiation to better understand and predict variability among hASC populations...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190551/proliferation-of-canine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-different-nanomaterial-based-thin-film-scaffolds
#12
Kinsuk Das, Bhabesh Mili, Madhusoodan A P, Abhishek Chandra Saxena, Ajay Kumar, Praveen Singh, Med Ram Verma, Mihir Sarkar, Sadhan Bag
Stem cell niche research uses nanotechnologies to mimic the extra-cellular microenvironment to promote proliferation and differentiation. The aim of designing different scaffolds is to simulate the best structural and environmental pattern for extracellular matrix. This experiment was designed to study the proliferative behaviour of canine bone marrow deriver mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on different nanomaterial based thin film scaffolds of carbon nanotubes (CNT), chitosan and poly ε-caprolactone. Similar number of cells was seeded on the scaffolds and standard cell culture flask, taken as control...
February 6, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179275/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-mobilizes-dormant-hematopoietic-stem-cells-without-proliferation-in-mice
#13
Jeffrey M Bernitz, Michael Daniel, Yesai S Fstkchyan, Kateri Moore
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used clinically to treat leukopenia and to enforce hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization to the peripheral blood (PB). However, G-CSF is also produced in response to infection, and excessive exposure reduces HSC repopulation capacity. Previous work has shown that dormant HSCs contain all the long-term repopulation potential in the bone marrow (BM), and that as HSCs accumulate a divisional history they progressively lose regenerative potential. As G-CSF treatment also induces HSC proliferation, we sought to examine whether G-CSF-mediated repopulation defects are due to increased proliferative history...
February 8, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173846/phenotype-and-multipotency-of-rabbit-oryctolagus-cuniculus-amniotic-stem-cells
#14
Jéssica Borghesi, Lara Carolina Mario, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Maria Angélica Miglino, Phelipe Oliveira Favaron
BACKGROUND: Stem cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and are able to remain undifferentiated for extended periods of time prior to their differentiation into specific cell lineages. Because of the issues (ethical and religious) involved in the use of embryonic stem cells and the limited plasticity of adult stem cells, an alternative cell source could be foetal stem cells derived from extra-embryonic tissue, which are highly proliferative, grow in vitro and possess interesting immunogenic characteristics...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170175/genetic-modification-of-human-peripheral-blood-aspirates-using-recombinant-adeno-associated-viral-vectors-for-articular-cartilage-repair-with-a-focus-on-chondrogenic-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-gene-delivery
#15
Janina Frisch, Patrick Orth, Jagadeesh Kumar Venkatesan, Ana Rey-Rico, Gertrud Schmitt, Dieter Kohn, Henning Madry, Magali Cucchiarini
Transplantation of genetically modified peripheral blood aspirates that carry chondrogenically competent progenitor cells may offer new, convenient tools to treat articular cartilage lesions compared with the more complex and invasive application of bone marrow concentrates or of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we show that recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors are powerful gene vehicles capable of successfully targeting primary human peripheral blood aspirates in a stable and safe manner, allowing for an efficient and long-term transgene expression in such samples (up to 63 days with use of a lacZ reporter gene and for at least 21 days with application of the pleiotropic, chondrogenic factor transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β])...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168007/basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-inhibits-apoptosis-and-promotes-proliferation-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-isolated-from-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-by-reducing-cellular-oxidative-stress
#16
Daria Nawrocka, Katarzyna Kornicka, Joanna Szydlarska, Krzysztof Marycz
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting increasing number of people in developed countries. Therefore new strategies for treatment of T2D and its complications are of special interest. Nowadays, cellular therapies involving mesenchymal stromal cells that reside in adipose tissue (ASCs) constitute a promising approach; however, there are still many obstacles concerning safety and effectiveness that need to be overcome before ASCs could be engaged for the treatment of diabetes mellitus...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166194/mutant-p53-oncogenic-functions-in-cancer-stem-cells-are-regulated-by-wip-through-yap-taz
#17
M Escoll, R Gargini, A Cuadrado, I M Anton, F Wandosell
Wild-type p53 (wtp53) is described as a tumour suppressor gene; mutations in this gene occur in many human cancers and promote oncogenic capacity. Here, we establish that the oncogenic activity of mutant p53 (mtp53) is driven by the WASP-interacting protein (WIP). WIP knockdown from mtp53-expressing glioblastoma and breast cancer cells (BCC) greatly reduced proliferation and growth capacity of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cells and decreased CSC-like markers (CD133, CD44 or YAP/TAZ). mtp53 overexpression in human astrocytes enhanced their proliferative capacity in suspension culture and increased expression of CSC markers and WIP...
February 6, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165338/the-chromatin-remodeling-factor-chd7-controls-cerebellar-development-by-regulating-reelin-expression
#18
Danielle E Whittaker, Kimberley L H Riegman, Sahrunizam Kasah, Conor Mohan, Tian Yu, Blanca Pijuan Sala, Husam Hebaishi, Angela Caruso, Ana Claudia Marques, Caterina Michetti, María Eugenia Sanz Smachetti, Apar Shah, Mara Sabbioni, Omer Kulhanci, Wee-Wei Tee, Danny Reinberg, Maria Luisa Scattoni, Holger Volk, Imelda McGonnell, Fiona C Wardle, Cathy Fernandes, M Albert Basson
The mechanisms underlying the neurodevelopmental deficits associated with CHARGE syndrome, which include cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, coordination problems, and autistic features, have not been identified. CHARGE syndrome has been associated with mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler CHD7. CHD7 is expressed in neural stem and progenitor cells, but its role in neurogenesis during brain development remains unknown. Here we have shown that deletion of Chd7 from cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCps) results in reduced GCp proliferation, cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, and motor deficits in mice...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164090/met-roles-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-stemness
#19
REVIEW
Hye-Min Jeon, Jeongwu Lee
In a number of cancers, deregulated MET pathway leads to aberrantly activated proliferative and invasive signaling programs that promote malignant transformation, cell motility and migration, angiogenesis, survival in hypoxia, and invasion. A better understanding of oncogenic MET signaling will help us to discover effective therapeutic approaches and to identify which tumors are likely to respond to MET-targeted cancer therapy. In this review, we will summarize the roles of MET signaling in cancer, with particular focus on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stemness...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153089/genome-editing-reveals-glioblastoma-addiction-to-microrna-10b
#20
Rachid El Fatimy, Shruthi Subramanian, Erik J Uhlmann, Anna M Krichevsky
Glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor remains among the most lethal and incurable human diseases. Oncogenic microRNA-10b (miR-10b) is strongly and universally upregulated in GBM, and its inhibition by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) reduces the growth of heterogeneous glioma cells; therefore, miR-10b represents a unique therapeutic target for GBM. Here we explored the effects of miR-10b gene editing on GBM. Using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system, we investigated effects of miR-10b gene editing on the growth of cultured human glioma cells, tumor-initiating stem-like cells, and mouse GBM xenografts, as well as the oncogene-induced transformation of normal astrocytes...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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