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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727019/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-potential-and-perspectives-for-their-use-in-clinical-and-animal-science-purpose
#1
M S Duarte, R Bueno, W Silva, C F Campos, M P Gionbelli, S E F Guimarães, F F Silva, P S Lopes, G J Hausman, M V Dodson
An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726797/multiple-myeloma
#2
REVIEW
Shaji K Kumar, Vincent Rajkumar, Robert A Kyle, Mark van Duin, Pieter Sonneveld, María-Victoria Mateos, Francesca Gay, Kenneth C Anderson
Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells, and patients typically present with bone marrow infiltration of clonal plasma cells and monoclonal protein in the serum and/or urine. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma is made when clear end-organ damage attributable to the plasma cell proliferative disorder or when findings that suggest a high likelihood of their development are present. Distinguishing symptomatic multiple myeloma that requires treatment from the precursor stages of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering multiple myeloma is important, as observation is the standard for those conditions...
July 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726519/cancer-stem-cells-cd133-inhibition-and-cytotoxicity-of-certain-3-phenylthiazolo-3-2-a-benzimidazoles-design-direct-synthesis-crystal-study-and-in-vitro-biological-evaluation
#3
Ghada H Al-Ansary, Wagdy M Eldehna, Hazem A Ghabbour, Sara T A Al-Rashood, Khalid A Al-Rashood, Radwa A Eladwy, Abdullah Al-Dhfyan, Maha M Kabil, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been objects of intensive study since their identification in 1994. Adopting a structural rigidification approach, a novel series of 3-phenylthiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazoles 4a-d was designed and synthesised, in an attempt to develop potent anticancer agent that can target the bulk of tumour cells and CSCs. The anti-proliferative activity of the synthesised compounds was evaluated against two cell lines, namely; colon cancer HT-29 and triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cell lines...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725969/mastocytosis-from-a-molecular-point-of-view
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Todd Rambasek, Stefan Wöhrl
Mast cells (MCs) are physiologically activated by binding of stem cell factor (SCF) to the extracellular domains of the Kit receptor. This binding increases the proliferation and prolongs the survival of normal mature MCs, as well as intensifies the release of mediators. In mastocytosis, somatic mutations of the coding Kit gene cause autocrine dysregulation and lead to constitutive KIT activation even in the absence of its ligand SCF. Clinical symptoms are caused by MC-mediator release and/or infiltration of MCs into tissues...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724980/handheld-co-axial-bioprinting-application-to-in-situ-surgical-cartilage-repair
#5
Serena Duchi, Carmine Onofrillo, Cathal D O'Connell, Romane Blanchard, Cheryl Augustine, Anita F Quigley, Robert M I Kapsa, Peter Pivonka, Gordon Wallace, Claudia Di Bella, Peter F M Choong
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is driving major innovations in the area of cartilage tissue engineering. Extrusion-based 3D bioprinting necessitates a phase change from a liquid bioink to a semi-solid crosslinked network achieved by a photo-initiated free radical polymerization reaction that is known to be cytotoxic. Therefore, the choice of the photocuring conditions has to be carefully addressed to generate a structure stiff enough to withstand the forces phisiologically applied on articular cartilage, while ensuring adequate cell survival for functional chondral repair...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721818/eurycoma-longifolia-a-potential-phytomedicine-for-the-treatment-of-cancer-evidence-of-p53-mediated-apoptosis-in-cancerous-cells
#6
Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia is a well-documented herbal medicine that has gained widespread recognition due to its versatile pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-malarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-diabetic, anti-rheumatism and anti-ulcer. Plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies evidenced their excellent anti-proliferative and anticancer efficacy against various types of human cancers. OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to critically analyze the therapeutic viability and anticancer efficacy of Eurycoma longifolia in the treatment of cancer and also to propose its molecular and translational mechanism of cytotoxicity against cancerous cells...
July 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718836/the-biological-activities-of-sesterterpenoid-type-ophiobolins
#7
REVIEW
Wei Tian, Zixin Deng, Kui Hong
Ophiobolins (Ophs) are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A-W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities...
July 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718412/stem-cells-cancer-and-musashi-in-blood-and-guts
#8
REVIEW
Michael G Kharas, Christopher J Lengner
The mammalian MSI family of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have important roles as oncoproteins in an array of tumor types, including leukemias, glioblastomas, and pancreatic, breast, lung, and colorectal cancers. The mammalian Msi genes, Msi1 and Msi2, have been most thoroughly investigated in two highly proliferative tissues prone to oncogenic transformation: the hematopoietic lineage and the intestinal epithelium. Despite their vast phenotypic differences, MSI proteins appear to have an analogous role in governing the stem cell compartment in both of these tissues, potentially providing a paradigm for a broader understanding of MSI function and oncogenic activities...
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716722/dynamics-of-proliferative-and-quiescent-stem-cells-in-liver-homeostasis-and-injury
#9
Wanlu Cao, Kan Chen, Michiel Bolkestein, Yuebang Yin, Monique M A Verstegen, Marcel J C Bijvelds, Wenshi Wang, Nesrin Tuysuz, Derk Ten Berge, Dave Sprengers, Herold J Metselaar, Luc J W van der Laan, Jaap Kwekkeboom, Ron Smits, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult liver stem cells are usually maintained in a quiescent/slow cycling state. However, a proliferative population, marked by leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), was recently identified as an important liver stem cell population. We aimed to investigate the dynamics and functions of proliferative and quiescent stem cells in healthy and injured livers. METHODS: We studied LGR5-positive stem cells using diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice...
July 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713822/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibit-the-function-of-dendritic-cells-by-secreting-galectin-1
#10
Yue Zhang, Xia-Hui Ge, Xue-Jun Guo, Si-Bin Guan, Xiao-Ming Li, Wen Gu, Wei-Guo Xu
This study aimed to investigate whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can inhibit function of dendritic cells (DCs) by secreting Galectin-1 (Gal-1). BM-MSCs have been shown to inhibit the maturation and function of DCs, further inhibiting the activation and proliferation of T cells. However, the detailed mechanism remains unknown. In this current study, MSCs and DCs derived from mouse bone marrow were cocultured using Transwell culture plates under different in vitro conditions. The results showed that as the ratio of MSC to DC of the coculture system increased and the coculture time of the two cells prolonged, the concentrations of Gal-1, interleukin- (IL-) 10, and IL-12 in the supernatants were increased and the protein expression of Gal-1 on and within DCs was also enhanced...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712928/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-propagate-immunosuppressive-anti-inflammatory-macrophages-in-cell-to-cell-contact-independent-and-dependent-manners-under-hypoxic-culture
#11
Naoki Takizawa, Naoto Okubo, Masaharu Kamo, Naoyuki Chosa, Toshinari Mikami, Keita Suzuki, Seiji Yokota, Miho Ibi, Masato Ohtsuka, Masayuki Taira, Takashi Yaegashi, Akira Ishisaki, Seiko Kyakumoto
Immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory macrophage (Mφ), M2-Mφ that expressed the typical M2-Mφs marker, CD206, and anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, is beneficial and expected tool for the cytotherapy against inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrated that bone marrow-derived lineage-positive (Lin+) blood cells proliferated and differentiated into M2-Mφs by cooperation with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under hypoxic condition: MSCs not only promoted proliferation of undifferentiated M2-Mφs, pre-M2-Mφs, in the Lin+ fraction via a proliferative effect of the MSCs-secreted macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but also promoted M2-Mφ polarization of the pre-M2-Mφs through cell-to-cell contact with the pre-M2-Mφs...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709146/liver-cancers-with-stem-progenitor-cell-features-a-rare-chemotherapy-sensitive-malignancy
#12
Bruno Christian Köhler, Nina Waldburger, Kai Schlamp, Dirk Jäger, Karl Heinz Weiss, Henning Schulze-Bergkamen, Peter Schirmacher, Christoph Springfeld
Primary liver tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies. Besides classical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC), combined and intermediate forms of liver cancer exist and can express stem-cell markers like nuclear cell adhesion molecule (NCAM-1/CD56), c-kit (CD117) or epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) together with high proliferative activity. Liver tumors with progenitor-cell features are associated with an unfavorable prognosis, but the phenotype has not resulted in therapeutic consequences so far...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708036/amniotic-fluid-cells-show-higher-pluripotency-related-gene-expression-than-allantoic-fluid-cells
#13
Debora Kehl, Melanie Generali, Sabrina Görtz, Diego Geering, Jaroslav Slamecka, Simon P Hoerstrup, Ulrich Bleul, Benedikt Weber
Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly mul-tipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. How-ever, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues. In this re-gard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation...
July 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703313/mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-new-platform-for-targeting-suicide-genes-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Rana Moradian Tehrani, Javad Verdi, Mahdi Noureddini, Rasoul Salehi, Reza Salarinia, Meysam Mosalaei, Miganosh Simonian, Behrang Alani, Moosa Rahimi Ghiasi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Hamed Mirzaie
One of the important strategies for the treatment of cancer is gene therapy which has the potential to exclusively eradicate malignant cells, without any damage to the normal tissues. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is a two-step gene therapy approach, where a suicide gene is directed to tumor cells. The gene encodes an enzyme that expressed intracellularly where it is able to convert a prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites. Various delivery systems have been developed to achieve the appropriate levels of tumor restricted expression of chemotherapeutic drugs...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701961/insights-into-the-development-of-the-adult-leydig-cell-lineage-from-stem-leydig-cells
#15
REVIEW
Leping Ye, Xiaoheng Li, Linxi Li, Haolin Chen, Ren-Shan Ge
Adult Leydig cells (ALCs) are the steroidogenic cells in the testes that produce testosterone. ALCs develop postnatally from a pool of stem cells, referred to as stem Leydig cells (SLCs). SLCs are spindle-shaped cells that lack steroidogenic cell markers, including luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The commitment of SLCs into the progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs), the first stage in the lineage, requires growth factors, including Dessert Hedgehog (DHH) and platelet-derived growth factor-AA...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700649/autophagy-mediates-cell-cycle-response-by-regulating-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-of-pax6-in-limbal-stem-cells-under-ultraviolet-a-stress
#16
Maria Laggner, Andreas Pollreisz, Gerald Schmidinger, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Ying-Ting Chen
Limbal stem cells (LSC) account for homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelium. Solar ultraviolet A (UVA) is the major source causing oxidative damage in the ocular surface. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation mechanism, is essential for physiologic function and stress defense of stem cells. PAX6, a master transcription factor governing corneal homeostasis by regulating cell cycle and cell fate of LSC, responds to oxidative stress by nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Impaired autophagy and deregulated PAX6 have been reported in oxidative stress-related ocular surface disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700112/mammalian-blastocyst-mimicry
#17
Niccolò Bianchi, Marianna Longo, CarloAlberto Redi, Manuela Monti
A gradual restriction in stem cells potency is observed during the different stages of mammalian embryonic development, starting with the zygote, the totipotent stem cell par excellence, up to the blastocyst stage. Stem cells of the inner cell mass are endowed with pluripotent characteristic, being able to form cells of the three germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm). Pluripotent stem cells retain proliferative capacity throughout the life of an individual, and divide asymmetrically, wherein one cell is the copy of the original stem cell while the other is programmed to begin the differentiation process...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699667/mantle-cell-lymphoma-2017-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-clinical-management
#18
Julie M Vose
DISEASE OVERVIEW: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by involvement of the lymph nodes, spleen, blood and bone marrow with a short remission duration to standard therapies and a median overall survival (OS) of 4-5 years. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on lymph node, bone marrow, or tissue morphology of centrocytic lymphocytes, small cell type, or blastoid variant cells. A chromosomal translocation t (11:14) is the molecular hallmark of MCL, resulting in the overexpression of cyclin D1...
August 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699179/colorectal-cancer-stem-cells-acquire-chemoresistance-through-the-upregulation-of-fbxw7-and-the-consequent-degradation-of-c-myc
#19
Daisuke Izumi, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Keisuke Miyake, Tsugio Eto, Kota Arima, Yuki Kiyozumi, Tomoyuki Uchihara, Junji Kurashige, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yoshifumi Baba, Yasuo Sakamoto, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Ajay Goel, Patrick Tan, Hideo Baba
The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm suggests that tumors are organized hierarchically. We previously established an LGR5(+) human colorectal cancer stem-cell-enriched cell line (colorectal CSCs) that expresses well-accepted colorectal CSC markers and that can dynamically switch between proliferative and drug-resistant non-cycling states. We performed this study to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for evading cell death in colorectal CSCs mediated by anticancer agents. During the cell cycle arrest caused by anticancer agents, we found that c-Myc expression was substantially decreased in colorectal CSCs...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687615/sox5-6-21-prevent-oncogene-driven-transformation-of-brain-stem-cells
#20
Idha Kurtsdotter, Danijal Topcic, Alexandra Karlén, Bhumica Singla, Daniel W Hagey, Maria Bergsland, Peter Siesjö, Monica Nistér, Joseph W Carlson, Veronique Lefebvre, Oscar Persson, Johan Holmberg, Jonas Muhr
Molecular mechanisms preventing self-renewing brain stem cells from oncogenic transformation are poorly defined. We show that the expression levels of SOX5, SOX6 and SOX21 (SOX5/6/21) transcription factors increase in stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) upon oncogenic stress, whereas their expression in human glioma decreases during malignant progression. Elevated levels of SOX5/6/21 promoted SVZ cells to exit the cell cycle, while genetic ablation of SOX5/6/21 dramatically increased the capacity of these cells to form glioma-like tumors in an oncogene-driven mouse brain tumor model...
July 7, 2017: Cancer Research
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