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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778758/major-traits-of-the-senescent-phenotype-of-nucleus-pulposus-intervertebral-disc-cells-persist-under-the-specific-microenvironmental-conditions-of-the-tissue
#1
Anastasios Kouroumalis, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Olga D Savvidou, Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos, Harris Pratsinis, Dimitris Kletsas
Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are the joints of the spine, mainly consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) with a low number of cells embedded therein. Low cellularity stems from nutrient deprivation due to the lack of blood supply, as well as from the hypoxic and hyperosmotic conditions prevailing in the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) has been firmly connected with low back pain, a major age-related disease, whereas degenerated discs have been characterized by increased proteolytic activity and accumulation of senescent cells...
May 17, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776986/the-characteristics-of-vessel-lining-cells-in-normal-spleens-and-their-role-in-the-pathobiology-of-myelofibrosis
#2
Jiajing Qiu, Mohamed E Salama, Cing Siang Hu, Yan Li, Xiaoli Wang, Ronald Hoffman
The CD34- CD8α+ , sinusoid lining, littoral cells (LCs), and CD34+ CD8α- , splenic vascular endothelial cells (SVECs) represent 2 distinct cellular types that line the vessels within normal spleens and those of patients with myelofibrosis (MF). To further understand the respective roles of LCs and SVECs, each was purified from normal and MF spleens, cultured, and characterized. Gene expression profiling indicated that LCs were a specialized type of SVEC. LCs possessed a distinct gene expression profile associated with cytoskeleton regulation, cellular interactions, endocytosis, and iron transport...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775245/subunits-of-the-dna-polymerase-alpha-primase-complex-promote-notch-mediated-proliferation-with-discrete-and-shared-functions-in-c-elegans-germline
#3
Dong Suk Yoon, Dong Seok Cha, Mohammad A Alfhili, Brett D Keiper, Myon-Hee Lee
Notch receptor signaling is a highly conserved cell communication system in most multicellular organisms and plays a critical role at several junctures in animal development. In C. elegans, GLP-1/Notch signaling is essential for both germline stem cell maintenance and germ cell proliferation during gonad development. Here, we show that subunits (POLA-1, DIV-1, PRI-1, and PRI-2) of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex are required for germ cell proliferation in response to GLP-1/Notch signaling in different tissues at different developmental stages...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774992/interleukin-17a-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-by-increasing-opg-rankl-ratio-in-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-shed
#4
Alphonsa-Sebastian Alphy, Thirumulu-Ponnuraj Kannan, Mohd-Nor Norazmi, Asma-Abdullah Nurul
Stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a promising cell source for bone tissue regeneration. The present study evaluated the effects of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) on the osteogenic differentiation of SHED. SHED were cultured in complete alpha minimum essential medium supplemented with osteoinducing reagents and treated with recombinant IL-17A. The cells were quantitatively analyzed for proliferative activity by MTS assay, cell markers expression as well as apoptotic activity by flow cytometry...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773641/il1rap-potentiates-multiple-oncogenic-signaling-pathways-in-aml
#5
Kelly Mitchell, Laura Barreyro, Tihomira I Todorova, Samuel J Taylor, Iléana Antony-Debré, Swathi-Rao Narayanagari, Luis A Carvajal, Joana Leite, Zubair Piperdi, Gopichand Pendurti, Ioannis Mantzaris, Elisabeth Paietta, Amit Verma, Kira Gritsman, Ulrich Steidl
The surface molecule interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) is consistently overexpressed across multiple genetic subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other myeloid malignancies, including at the stem cell level, and is emerging as a novel therapeutic target. However, the cell-intrinsic functions of IL1RAP in AML cells are largely unknown. Here, we show that targeting of IL1RAP via RNA interference, genetic deletion, or antibodies inhibits AML pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo, without perturbing healthy hematopoietic function or viability...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771943/cross-talk-between-human-airway-epithelial-cells-and-3t3-j2-feeder-cells-involves-partial-activation-of-human-met-by-murine-hgf
#6
Robert E Hynds, Kate H C Gowers, Ersilia Nigro, Colin R Butler, Paola Bonfanti, Adam Giangreco, Cecilia M Prêle, Sam M Janes
There is considerable interest in the ex vivo propagation of primary human basal epithelial stem/progenitor cells with a view to their use in drug development, toxicity testing and regenerative medicine. These cells can be expanded in co-culture with mitotically inactivated 3T3-J2 murine embryonic feeder cells but, similar to other epithelial cell culture systems employing 3T3-J2 cells, the aspects of cross-talk between 3T3-J2 cells and human airway basal cells that are critical for their expansion remain largely unknown...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765418/isolation-and-characterisation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-rat-bone-marrow-and-the-endosteal-niche-a-comparative-study
#7
Norhayati Yusop, Paul Battersby, Amr Alraies, Alastair J Sloan, Ryan Moseley, Rachel J Waddington
Within bone, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exist within the bone marrow stroma (BM-MSC) and the endosteal niche, as cells lining compact bone (CB-MSCs). This study isolated and characterised heterogeneous MSC populations from each niche and subsequently investigated the effects of extensive cell expansion, analysing population doublings (PDs)/cellular senescence, colony-forming efficiencies (CFEs), MSC cell marker expression, and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation. CB-MSCs and BM-MSCs demonstrated similar morphologies and PDs, reaching 100 PDs...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764837/il22-promotes-kras-mutant-lung-cancer-by-induction-of-a-pro-tumor-immune-response-and-protection-of-stemness-properties
#8
Nasim Khosravi, Mauricio S Caetano, Amber M Cumpian, Nese Unver, Cynthia De la Garza Ramos, Oscar Noble, Soudabeh Daliri, Belinda J Hernandez, Berenice A Gutierrez, Scott E Evans, Samir Hanash, Andrei M Alekseev, Yi Yang, Seon Hee Chang, Roza Nurieva, Humam Kadara, Jichao Chen, Edwin J Ostrin, Seyed Javad Moghaddam
Somatic KRAS mutations are the most common oncogenic variants in lung cancer and are associated with poor prognosis. Using a Kras-induced lung cancer mouse model, CC-LR, we previously showed a role for inflammation in lung tumorigenesis through activation of the NF-kB pathway, along with induction of interleukin 6 (IL6) and an IL17-producing CD4+ T-helper cell response. IL22 is an effector molecule secreted by CD4+ and γδ T cells that we previously found to be expressed in CC-LR mice. IL22 mostly signals through the STAT3 pathway and is thought to act exclusively on non-hematopoietic cells with basal IL22 receptor (IL22R) expression on epithelial cells...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764313/2-5-hexanedione-increases-the-percentage-of-proliferative-sox2-cells-in-rat-hippocampus
#9
Longjuan Wang, Shuang Liu, Dan Su, Feng Chen, Tengteng Lei, Haibo Chen, Wei Dong, Yue Jiang, Xiance Sun, Wenchang Sun
n-Hexane is an organic solvent widely used in industry. 2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD), the major neurotoxic metabolite of n-hexane, decreases the levels of neurofilaments (NFs) in neurons. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life, and the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of two major brain areas showing neurogenesis in adulthood. In the current study, rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline solution or 2,5-HD five times per week for five continuous weeks. 2,5-HD was administered to the low-dose and high-dose groups at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761600/loss-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-exacerbates-diabetic-retinopathy-by-promoting-bone-marrow-dysfunction
#10
Yaqian Duan, Eleni Beli, Sergio Li Calzi, Judith L Quigley, Rehae C Miller, Leni Moldovan, Dongni Feng, Tatiana E Salazar, Sugata Hazra, Jude Al-Sabah, Kakarla V Chalam, Thao Le Phuong Trinh, Marya Meroueh, Troy A Markel, Matthew C Murray, Ruchi J Vyas, Michael E Boulton, Patricia Parsons-Wingerter, Gavin Y Oudit, Alexander G Obukhov, Maria B Grant
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary enzyme of the vasoprotective axis of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). We tested the hypothesis that loss of ACE2 would exacerbate diabetic retinopathy by promoting bone marrow dysfunction. ACE2-/y were crossed with Akita mice, a model of type 1 diabetes. When comparing the bone marrow of the ACE2-/y -Akita mice to that of Akita mice, we observed a reduction of both short-term and long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells, a shift of hematopoiesis towards myelopoiesis, and an impairment of lineage- c-kit+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HS/PC) migration and proliferation...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760732/comparative-study-on-in-vitro-culture-of-mouse-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Yuxin Hu, Bin Lou, Xiafang Wu, Ruirui Wu, Huihui Wang, Lanyue Gao, Jingbo Pi, Yuanyuan Xu
In vitro culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from mouse bone marrow (BM) has been hampered because of the low yield of MSCs during isolation and the contamination of hematopoietic cells during expansion. The lack of specific mouse BM-MSC markers increases the difficulty. Several techniques have been reported to improve the purity and in vitro growth of mouse BM-MSCs. However, systematic report on comparison of characteristics in primary BM-MSCs between different culture conditions is rare. Here, we studied the effects of oxygen concentrations and initial medium replacement intervals, along with cell passages, on mouse BM-MSCs isolated with differential adhesion method...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760725/the-effects-of-hyperacute-serum-on-the-elements-of-the-human-subchondral-bone-marrow-niche
#12
Melinda Simon, Bálint Major, Gabriella Vácz, Olga Kuten, István Hornyák, Adél Hinsenkamp, Dorottya Kardos, Marcell Bagó, Domonkos Cseh, Adrienn Sárközi, Denes Horvathy, Stefan Nehrer, Zsombor Lacza
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in laboratory experiments as well as in human cell therapy. Their culture requires animal sera like fetal calf serum (FCS) as essential supplementation; however, animal sera pose a risk for clinical applications. Human blood derivatives, for example, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) releasates, are potential replacements of FCS; however, it is unclear which serum variant has the best effect on the given cell or tissue type. Additionally, blood derivatives are commonly used in musculoskeletal diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) or osteonecrosis as "proliferative agents" for the topical MSC pool...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755530/the-effect-of-age-on-the-regenerative-potential-of-human-eyelid-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#13
Mingqi Zhang, Zhuoshi Wang, Yan Zhao, Lirong Zhang, Ling Xu, Liu Cao, Wei He
Human eyelid adipose-derived stem cells (HEASCs) are a new source of autologous mesenchymal stem cells, which are derived from neuroectoderm and potentially applied in the tissue regeneration and cell therapies. Based on the prevalence of blepharoplasty in Asia and the availability of HEASCs, we investigated the effect of donor age on their characteristics and regenerative potential of HEASCs in vitro. The HEASCs were isolated from patients of three groups: (1) <20 years ( n = 4), (2) >20 years, <45 years ( n = 5), and (3) >55 years ( n = 4)...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754771/epstein-barr-virus-specific-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-for-treatment-of-epstein-barr-virus-related-malignant-lymphoma
#14
Lisa-Marie Pfeffermann, Verena Pfirrmann, Sabine Huenecke, Melanie Bremm, Halvard Bonig, Hans-Michael Kvasnicka, Thomas Klingebiel, Peter Bader, Eva Rettinger
BACKGROUND: Prolonged immunosuppression or delayed T-cell recovery may favor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which can lead to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and high-grade malignant B-cell lymphoma. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells with dual specific anti-tumor and virus-specific cellular immunity may be applied in this context. METHODS: CIK cells with EBV-specificity were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), expanded in the presence of interferon-γ, anti-CD3, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15 and were pulsed twice with EBV consensus peptide pool...
May 10, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752298/single-cell-rna-seq-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reveals-cellular-heterogeneity-and-cell-state-transitions-between-subpopulations
#15
Quan Nguyen, Samuel Lukowski, Han Chiu, Anne Senabouth, Timothy Bruxner, Angelika Christ, Nathan Palpant, Joseph Powell
Heterogeneity of cell states represented in pluripotent cultures have not been described at the transcriptional level. Since gene expression is highly heterogeneous between cells, single-cell RNA sequencing can be used to identify how individual pluripotent cells function. Here, we present results from the analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing data from 18,787 individual WTC CRISPRi human induced pluripotent stem cells. We developed an unsupervised clustering method, and through this identified four subpopulations distinguishable on the basis of their pluripotent state including: a core pluripotent population (48...
May 11, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752261/nk-cell-editing-mediates-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-phenotypic-and-proteomic-changes-in-melanoma-cell-lines
#16
Leticia Huergo Zapico, Monica Parodi, Claudia Cantoni, Chiara Lavarello, Juan L Fernández-Martínez, Andrea Petretto, Enrique J DeAndrés-Galiana, Mirna Balsamo, Alejandro López-Soto, Gabriella Pietra, Mattia Bugatti, Enrico Munari, Marcella Marconi, Maria Cristina Mingari, William Vermi, Lorenzo Moretta, Segundo Gonzalez, Massimo Vitale
Tumor cell plasticity is a major obstacle for the cure of malignancies as it makes tumor cells highly adaptable to micro-environmental changes, enables their phenotype switching among different forms, and favors the generation of pro-metastatic tumor cell subsets. Phenotype switching towards more aggressive forms involves different functional, phenotypic and morphologic changes, which are often related to the process known as Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). In this study, we report NK cells may increase the malignancy of melanoma cells by inducing changes relevant to EMT and, more broadly, to phenotype switching from proliferative to invasive forms...
May 11, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751774/changes-in-phenotype-and-differentiation-potential-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-aging-in-vitro
#17
Yueh-Hsun Kevin Yang, Courtney R Ogando, Carmine Wang See, Tsui-Yun Chang, Gilda A Barabino
BACKGROUND: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine because of their self-renewal, multipotency, and trophic and immunosuppressive effects. Due to the rareness and high heterogeneity of freshly isolated MSCs, extensive in-vitro passage is required to expand their populations prior to clinical use; however, senescence usually accompanies and can potentially affect MSC characteristics and functionality. Therefore, a thorough characterization of the variations in phenotype and differentiation potential of in-vitro aging MSCs must be sought...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745539/-endothelial-injury-and-its-repair-strategies-after-intravascular-stents-implantation
#18
REVIEW
Yadong Xi, Yuhua Huang, Ruolin Du, Yazhou Wang, Guixue Wang, Tieying Yin
Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease is a serious threat to human life and health. In recent years, the main treatment for it is to implant the intravascular stent into the lesion to support blood vessels and reconstruct blood supply. However, a large number of experimental results showed that mechanical injury and anti-proliferative drugs caused great damage after stent implantation, and increased in-stent restenosis and late thrombosis risk. Thus, maintaining the integrity and normal function of the endothelium can significantly reduce the rate of thrombosis and restenosis...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742815/ablation-of-proliferating-neural-stem-cells-during-early-life-is-sufficient-to-reduce-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#19
Mary Youssef, Varsha S Krish, Greer S Kirshenbaum, Piray Atsak, Tamara J Lass, Sophie R Lieberman, E David Leonardo, Alex Dranovsky
Environmental exposures during early life, but not during adolescence or adulthood, lead to persistent reductions in neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The mechanisms by which early life exposures lead to long-term deficits in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether targeted ablation of dividing neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to produce long-term decreases in DG neurogenesis. Having previously found that the stem cell lineage is resistant to long-term effects of transient ablation of dividing stem cells during adolescence or adulthood (Kirshenbaum et al...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742392/direct-reprogramming-of-mouse-fibroblasts-into-functional-skeletal-muscle-progenitors
#20
Ori Bar-Nur, Mattia F M Gerli, Bruno Di Stefano, Albert E Almada, Amy Galvin, Amy Coffey, Aaron J Huebner, Peter Feige, Cassandra Verheul, Priscilla Cheung, Duygu Payzin-Dogru, Sylvain Paisant, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Harald C Ott, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Michael A Rudnicki, Amy J Wagers, Konrad Hochedlinger
Skeletal muscle harbors quiescent stem cells termed satellite cells and proliferative progenitors termed myoblasts, which play pivotal roles during muscle regeneration. However, current technology does not allow permanent capture of these cell populations in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD, combined with exposure to small molecules, reprograms mouse fibroblasts into expandable induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs). iMPCs express key skeletal muscle stem and progenitor cell markers including Pax7 and Myf5 and give rise to dystrophin-expressing myofibers upon transplantation in vivo...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
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