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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086833/delta-like-4-notch-signaling-promotes-apc-min-tumor-initiation-through-angiogenic-and-non-angiogenic-related-mechanisms
#1
Marina Badenes, Alexandre Trindade, Hugo Pissarra, Luís Lopes-da-Costa, António Duarte
BACKGROUND: Delta like 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling is a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis. Additionally, the role of Dll4 has been studied on tumor stem cells. However, as these cells are implicated in tumor angiogenesis, it is conceivable that the effect of Dll4 on these cells may be a consequence of its angiogenic function. Our aim was to evaluate the expression and dissect the functions of Dll4 in the Apc (Min/+) model of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We evaluated the protein expression pattern of Dll4 and other Notch members in the Apc (Min/+) tumors relatively to the normal gut and compared endothelial-specific with ubiquitous Dll4 knockout mice on an Apc (Min/+) background...
January 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081228/resistance-for-genotoxic-damage-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-is-increased-by-hypoxia-but-not-generally-dependent-on-p53-regulated-cell-cycle-arrest
#2
Jana Lützkendorf, Elisabeth Wieduwild, Katrin Nerger, Nina Lambrecht, Hans-Joachim Schmoll, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Lutz Peter Müller
Adult stem cells including multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) acquire a high amount of DNA-damage due to their prolonged lifespan. MSC may exert specific mechanisms of resistance to avoid loss of functional activity. We have previously shown that resistance of MSC is associated with an induction of p53 and proliferation arrest upon genotoxic damage. Hypoxia may also contribute to resistance in MSC due to the low oxygen tension in the niche. In this study we characterized the role of p53 and contribution of hypoxia in resistance of MSC to genotoxic damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078840/mast-cell-and-cancer-with-special-emphasis-on-il-37-an-anti-inflammatory-and-inhibitor-of-innate-immunity-new-frontiers
#3
F Carinci, G Lessiani, E Spinas, S K Kritas, G Ronconi, Al Caraffa, P Conti
Mast cells (MCs) are mediators of allergy and inflammation and participate in the growth of cancer cells. MCs can promote both neoangiogenesis and tumor growth. They increase in the stroma of certain tumors where they can be recruited by tumor-derived chemoattractants, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES and stem cell factor (SCF) to selectively secrete inflammatory molecules including chemical mediators and cytokines (TNF, IL-6 and IL-1). However, MC differentiation pathways and heterogeneity in cancer are still poorly understood...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078186/soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-improves-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-activity-in-model-diabetic-environments
#4
Melissa Przyborowski Olekson, Renea A Faulknor, Henry C Hsia, Ann Marie Schmidt, François Berthiaume
Objective: In diabetes, hyperglycemia causes the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through binding the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Because exogenous growth factors have had little success in enhancing chronic wound healing, we investigated whether hyperglycemia-induced AGEs interfere with cellular responses to extracellular signals. We used stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), an angiogenic chemokine also known to promote stem cell recruitment in skin wounds...
December 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077316/chromatin-dynamics-regulate-mesenchymal-stem-cell-lineage-specification-and-differentiation-to-osteogenesis
#5
Hai Wu, Jonathan A R Gordon, Troy W Whitfield, Phillip W L Tai, Andre J van Wijnen, Janet L Stein, Gary S Stein, Jane B Lian
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are critical for regeneration of multiple tissues. Epigenetic mechanisms are fundamental regulators of lineage specification and cell fate, and as such, we addressed the question of which epigenetic modifications characterize the transition of nascent MSCs to a tissue specific MSC-derived phenotype. By profiling the temporal changes of seven histone marks correlated to gene expression during proliferation, early commitment, matrix deposition, and mineralization stages, we identified distinct epigenetic mechanisms that regulate transcriptional programs necessary for tissue-specific phenotype development...
January 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076568/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-retinoblastoma-cell-phenotype-using-neuronal-and-glial-cell-markers
#6
María Eugenia Orellana, Rubens Belfort, Emilia Antecka, Miguel Noel Burnier
Purpose: The cellular origin of retinoblastoma is uncertain as constituent tumor cells heterogeneously express markers of both immature and mature retinal cells. An immunohistochemical analysis of cellular origin may yield valuable insights into disease progression and treatment options. This study aimed to determine the cellular origin of retinoblastoma in a large case series and correlate these findings with histopathological prognostic factors. Methods: Thirty-nine retinoblastoma cases were histopathologically diagnosed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the immature neural cell marker SRY-box containing gene 2 (SOX-2), the mature neuronal cell marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and the mature glial cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070642/distinct-expression-profile-of-stem-cell-markers-lgr5-and-lgr6-in-basaloid-skin-tumors
#7
Bo Gun Jang, Cheol Lee, Hye Sung Kim, Myung Soo Shin, Min Seok Cheon, Jae Wang Kim, Woo Ho Kim
Mammalian epidermis, which is composed of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and interfollicular epidermis, is maintained by discrete stem cells. In vivo lineage tracing demonstrated that murine LGR5 cells are mainly responsible for hair follicle regeneration whereas LGR6 cells generate sebaceous glands and interfollicular epidermis. However, little is known about their expression in the human skin tumors. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of LGR5 and LGR6 in a variety of human skin tumors including basaloid tumors with follicular differentiation (94 basal cell carcinomas, 18 trichoepitheliomas, 3 basaloid follicular hamartomas, and 12 pilomatricomas) and tumors with ductal differentiation (7 eccrine poromas, 8 hidradenomas, and 5 spiradenomas)...
January 9, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069512/minocycline-enhances-the-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cell-pro-healing-phenotype-in-triple-antimicrobial-loaded-hydrogels
#8
Alberto Daniel Guerra, Warren E Rose, Peiman Hematti, W John Kao
: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated pro-healing properties including an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile and the promotion of angiogenesis via expression of growth factors in pre-clinical models. MSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGdA) and thiolated gelatin poly(ethylene glycol) (Gel-PEG-Cys) crosslinked hydrogels have led to controlled cellular presentation at wound sites with favorable wound healing outcomes. However, the therapeutic potential of MSC-loaded hydrogels may be limited by non-specific protein adsorption on the delivery matrix that could facilitate the initial adhesion of microorganisms and subsequent virulent biofilm formation...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068868/mir-26a-mediates-adipogenesis-of-amniotic-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-via-pten-cyclin-e1-and-cdk6
#9
Ourania Trohatou, Dimitra Zagoura, Nikos Orfanos, Kalliopi I Pappa, Evangelos Marinos, Nicholas Anagnou, Maria G Roubelakis
Recent findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical for the regulatory network of adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Fetal MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) represent a population of multipotent stem cells characterized by a wide range of differentiation properties that can be applied in cell-based therapies. In this study, miRNA microarray analysis was performed to assess miRNA expression in terminal differentiated AF-MSCs into adipocyte-like cells (AL cells). MiR-26a was identified in high expression levels in AL cells indicating a critical role in the process of adipogenesis...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067666/versatile-humanized-niche-model-enables-study-of-normal-and-malignant-human-hematopoiesis
#10
Ander Abarrategi, Katie Foster, Ashley Hamilton, Syed A Mian, Diana Passaro, John Gribben, Ghulam Mufti, Dominique Bonnet
The BM niche comprises a tightly controlled microenvironment formed by specific tissue and cells that regulates the behavior of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here, we have provided a 3D model that is tunable in different BM niche components and useful, both in vitro and in vivo, for studying the maintenance of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Using scaffolds, we tested the capacity of different stromal cell types to support human HSCs. Scaffolds coated with human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) proved to be superior in terms of HSC engraftment and long-term maintenance when implanted in vivo...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067275/sdf-1-cxcr4-axis-induces-human-dental-pulp-stem-cell-migration-through-fak-pi3k-akt-and-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathways
#11
Mingwei Li, Xuefei Sun, Liang Ma, Lu Jin, Wenfei Zhang, Min Xiao, Qing Yu
SDF-1 (stromal cell derived factor-1) has been found to be widely expressed during dental pulp inflammation, while hDPSCs (human dental pulp stem cells) contribute to the repair of dental pulp. We showed that the migration of hDPSCs was induced by SDF-1 in a concentration-dependent manner and could be inhibited with siCXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4) and siCDC42 (cell division control protein 42), as well as drug inhibitors such as AMD3100 (antagonist of CXCR4), LY294002 (inhibitor of PI3K) and PF573228 (inhibitor of FAK)...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066541/ultrastructural-changes-during-osteogenic-differentiation-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cultured-in-alginate-hydrogel
#12
Jakub Grzesiak, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Krzysztof Marycz
BACKGROUND: Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells has been extensively investigated with regards to different aspects, including the analysis of cell intracellular and extracellular proteome, cell gene expression pattern, and morphology. During the osteogenic differentiation, osteoblasts produce and release specific proteins, like osteocalcin and osteopontin. Simultaneously, cells produce the extracellular matrix (ECM) that resembles the bone ECM, with high quantity of calcium and phosphorus...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056602/the-potential-of-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-delivery-using-a-collagen-membrane-for-bone-regeneration
#13
Tadahiro Takayama, Jisen Dai, Keita Tachi, Ryutaro Shohara, Hironori Kasai, Kentaro Imamura, Seiichi Yamano
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a cytokine that is important in stem and progenitor cell recruitment in tissue repair after injury. Regenerative procedures using collagen membranes (CMs) are presently well established in periodontal and implant dentistry. The objective of this study is to test the subsequent effects of the released SDF-1 from a CM on bone regeneration compared to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro studies, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteoblastic differentiation marker genes were assessed after MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts were cultured with CMs containing factors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049042/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-by-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-impairs-human-b-lymphopoiesis
#14
Jinpeng Li, Ashwini S Phadnis-Moghe, Robert B Crawford, Norbert E Kaminski
The homeostasis of peripheral B cell compartment requires lifelong B lymphopoiesis from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). As a result, the B cell repertoire is susceptible to disruptions of hematopoiesis. Increasing evidence, primarily from rodent models, shows that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates hematopoiesis. To study the effects of persistent AHR activation on human B cell development, a potent AHR agonist and known environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was utilized...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045376/priming-of-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-in-a-mesenchymal-niche-improves-engraftment-and-vasculogenic-potential-by-initiating-mesenchymal-transition-orchestrated-by-notch-signaling
#15
Abbas Shafiee, Jatin Patel, Ho Yi Wong, Prudence Donovan, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Nicholas M Fisk, Kiarash Khosrotehrani
The prospect of using endothelial progenitors is currently hampered by their low engraftment upon transplantation. We report that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), independent of source and age, improve the engraftment of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). MSC coculture altered ECFC appearance to an elongated mesenchymal morphology with reduced proliferation. ECFC primed via MSC contact had reduced self-renewal potential, but improved capacity to form tube structures in vitro and engraftment in vivo Primed ECFCs displayed major differences in transcriptome compared to ECFCs never exposed to MSCs, affecting genes involved in the cell cycle, up-regulating of genes influencing mesenchymal transition, adhesion, extracellular matrix...
October 24, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044259/bortezomib-interferes-with-adhesion-of-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells-through-sparc-up-regulation-in-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells
#16
Masaki Iwasa, Yasuo Miura, Aya Fujishiro, Sumie Fujii, Noriko Sugino, Satoshi Yoshioka, Asumi Yokota, Terutoshi Hishita, Hideyo Hirai, Akira Andoh, Tatsuo Ichinohe, Taira Maekawa
The poor prognosis of adults with B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is attributed to leukemia cells that are protected by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. In the present study, we explored the pharmacological targeting of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells in BM (BM-MSCs) to eliminate chemoresistant BCP-ALL cells. Human BCP-ALL cells (NALM-6 cells) that adhered to human BM-MSCs (NALM-6/Ad) were highly resistant to multiple anti-cancer drugs, and exhibited pro-survival characteristics, such as an enhanced Akt/Bcl-2 pathway and increased populations in the G0 and G2/S/M cell cycle stages...
January 2, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040478/cathepsin-k-cleavage-of-sdf-1%C3%AE-inhibits-its-chemotactic-activity-towards-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells
#17
Vashendriya V V Hira, Urška Verbovšek, Barbara Breznik, Matic Srdič, Marko Novinec, Hala Kakar, Jill Wormer, Britt Van der Swaan, Brigita Lenarčič, Luiz Juliano, Shwetal Mehta, Cornelis J F Van Noorden, Tamara T Lah
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor patient survival that is at least partly caused by malignant and therapy-resistant glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) that are protected in GSLC niches. Previously, we have shown that the chemo-attractant stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), its C-X-C receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and the cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK) are localized in GSLC niches in glioblastoma. Here, we investigated whether SDF-1α is a niche factor that through its interactions with CXCR4 and/or its second receptor CXCR7 on GSLCs facilitates their homing to niches...
December 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039693/exosomal-communication-in-glioma-a-review
#18
Hongsheng Xu, Kezhong Zhang, Hailiang Zong, Ming Shang, Kai Li, Xiaoguang He
Cancer research has revealed the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the influence of the surrounding stromal cells present in the microenvironment on CSCs is still poorly understood. The latest studies on gliomas suggested that the microenvironment of human gliomas contains both glioma stem cells (GSCs) and glioma associated (GA)-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs; (GA-MSCs). Also, studies have suggested that nano- sized vesicles, termed exosomes, have been recently observed to contribute towards intercellular communication within the tumor niche...
November 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038353/decellularized-adipose-tissue-microcarriers-as-a-dynamic-culture-platform-for-human-adipose-derived-stem-stromal-cell-expansion
#19
Claire Yu, Anna Kornmuller, Cody Brown, Todd Hoare, Lauren E Flynn
With the goal of designing a clinically-relevant expansion strategy for human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), methods were developed to synthesize porous microcarriers derived purely from human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT). An electrospraying approach was applied to generate spherical DAT microcarriers with an average diameter of 428 ± 41 μm, which were soft, compliant, and stable in long-term culture without chemical crosslinking. Human ASCs demonstrated enhanced proliferation on the DAT microcarriers relative to commercially-sourced Cultispher-S microcarriers within a spinner culture system over 1 month...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035654/seven-days-post-injury-fate-and-effects-of-genetically-labelled-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-cells-on-a-rat-traumatic-brain-injury-experimental-model
#20
Ioanna Dori, Spyros Petrakis, Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, Chryssa Bekiari, Ioannis Grivas, Evangelia K Siska, Georgios Koliakos, Georgios C Papadopoulos
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been suggested to have beneficial effects on animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), owing to their neurotrophic and immunomodulatory properties. Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are multipotent MSC that can be harvested with minimally invasive methods, show a high proliferative capacity, low immunogenicity if allogeneic, and can be used in autologous or heterologous settings. In the present study ASCs were genetically labelled using the Sleeping Beauty transposon to express the fluorescent protein Venus...
December 30, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
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