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human nutrition

Sylvia L Crowder, Katherine G Douglas, M Yanina Pepino, Kalika P Sarma, Anna E Arthur
PURPOSE: It is estimated that more than 90% of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors who underwent chemoradiotherapy experience one or more nutrition impact symptoms (NIS) in the months or years thereafter. Despite the high prevalence, there is limited research addressing long-term impact of NIS on outcomes such as nutrition and quality of life in HNC survivors treated with chemoradiotherapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The prevalence and consequences of nutrition impact symptoms are substantial among head and neck cancer survivors beyond the acute phase of cancer treatment...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Wasim Khasawneh, Salar Bani Hani
Medication errors remain among the major problems seen in hospitals. Such errors can relate to the prescription, dispensation, or administration of drugs. Human factors account for most of these mistakes, but other factors such as infusion pump programming defects should always be considered. Worldwide, medication errors have been reported to affect 2-30% of patients, depending on the institution. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) infusion is frequently used as part of total parenteral nutrition in patients of all ages with feeding and gastrointestinal issues...
March 19, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
Bastian Hornung, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Peter J Schaap
Humans are not autonomous entities. We are all living in a complex environment, interacting not only with our peers, but as true holobionts; we are also very much in interaction with our coexisting microbial ecosystems living on and especially within us, in the intestine. Intestinal microorganisms, often collectively referred to as intestinal microbiota, contribute significantly to our daily energy uptake by breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, which are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and subsequently absorbed by human cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Carmen Losasso, Ester M Eckert, Eleonora Mastrorilli, Jorg Villiger, Marzia Mancin, Ilaria Patuzzi, Andrea Di Cesare, Veronica Cibin, Federica Barrucci, Jakob Pernthaler, Gianluca Corno, Antonia Ricci
Diet and lifestyle have a strong influence on gut microbiota, which in turn has important implications on a variety of health-related aspects. Despite great advances in the field, it remains unclear to which extent the composition of the gut microbiota is modulated by the intake of animal derived products, compared to a vegetable based diet. Here the specific impact of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore feeding type on the composition of gut microbiota of 101 adults was investigated among groups homogeneous for variables known to have a role in modulating gut microbial composition such as age, anthropometric variables, ethnicity, and geographic area...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Melanie Tramontano, Sergej Andrejev, Mihaela Pruteanu, Martina Klünemann, Michael Kuhn, Marco Galardini, Paula Jouhten, Aleksej Zelezniak, Georg Zeller, Peer Bork, Athanasios Typas, Kiran Raosaheb Patil
Bacterial metabolism plays a fundamental role in gut microbiota ecology and host-microbiome interactions. Yet the metabolic capabilities of most gut bacteria have remained unknown. Here we report growth characteristics of 96 phylogenetically diverse gut bacterial strains across 4 rich and 15 defined media. The vast majority of strains (76) grow in at least one defined medium, enabling accurate assessment of their biosynthetic capabilities. These do not necessarily match phylogenetic similarity, thus indicating a complex evolution of nutritional preferences...
March 19, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Ana Patricia Ortiz, Daisy González, José Vivaldi-Oliver, Maira Castañeda, Vivian Rivera, Elba Díaz, Hilmaris Centeno, Cristina Muñoz, Joel Palefsky, Kaumudi Joshipura, Cynthia M Pérez
INTRODUCTION: Research on the association between periodontitis and oral human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is inconsistent. The cross-sectional association of severe periodontitis with oral HPV infection was investigated in a sample of Hispanic adults. METHODS: Data from the 2014-2016 San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (n=740) was analyzed. Periodontitis assessment and self-collection of oral HPV samples followed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey methodology...
March 16, 2018: Papillomavirus Research
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Wieneke Dijk, Sophie Schutte, Edo O Aarts, Ignace M C Janssen, Lydia Afman, Sander Kersten
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma triglycerides are increasingly viewed as a causal risk factor for coronary artery disease. One protein that raises plasma triglyceride levels and that has emerged as a modulator of coronary artery disease risk is angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4). ANGPTL4 raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of circulating triglycerides on the capillary endothelium. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to assess the association between ANGPTL4 and LPL in human adipose tissue, and to examine the influence of nutritional status on ANGPTL4 expression...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Carole Mast, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Papet
The optimisation of nutritional support for the growing number of older individuals does not usually take into account medication. Paracetamol (acetaminophen; APAP) is the first intention treatment of chronic pain that is highly prevalent and persistent in the elderly. Detoxification of APAP occurs in the liver and utilises sulfate and glutathione (GSH), both of which are issued from cysteine (Cys), a conditionally indispensable amino acid. The detoxification-induced siphoning of Cys could reduce the availability of Cys for skeletal muscle...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Eshan U Patel, Charlotte A Gaydos, Zoe R Packman, Thomas C Quinn, Aaron A R Tobian
Background: The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in the United States is poorly defined. Methods: Males and females aged 18-59 years who participated in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and provided a urine specimen were tested for TV infection (n = 4057). Participants were also examined for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lito M Amit, Young-Woong Song
Body surface area (BSA) is an important parameter in the conduct of human exposure studies and in clinical processes in children. The aim of this paper was to compare seven BSA formulas and to find out which of these formulas is appropriate for use with Korean children. Body surface area was calculated according to age, age-group and BMI-group using the height and weight data of Korean children (n = 4899) ages 1 to 18 from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2014). We used the formulas of Banerjee and Bhattacharya (1961), Fujimoto and Watanabe (1969), US EPA (1985), Gehan and George (1970), Boyd (1935), Haycock et al (1978) and Mosteller (1987)...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Helton O Campos, Lucas R Drummond, Quezia T Rodrigues, Frederico S M Machado, Washington Pires, Samuel P Wanner, Cândido C Coimbra
Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Nathan S Bryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reveal the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) production in humans and how lifestyle, drug therapy, and hygienic practices can decrease NO production. Furthermore, to show how functional nitric oxide nutrition can overcome these limitations to restore endogenous NO production and combat cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past decade has revealed that inorganic nitrate and nitrite found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other vegetables such as beets can provide the human body with a source of bioactive nitric oxide...
March 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Lindsay P Galway, Yubraj Acharya, Andrew D Jones
Deforestation worldwide could have important consequences for diet quality and human nutrition given the numerous ecosystem services that are provided by forests and biodiverse landscapes. Yet, empirical research assessing the links between deforestation and diets is lacking. In this study, we examined the association between deforestation and diet diversity among children using geolocated Demographic and Health Survey data for 33,777 children across 15 countries of sub-Saharan Africa coupled with remotely-sensed data on forest cover loss...
March 15, 2018: Health & Place
Julia Karmann, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes
Pathways for assimilates. During their life cycle, plants alternate between a haploid stage, the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, the sporophyte. In higher plants, meiosis generates the gametophyte deeply embedded in the maternal tissue of the flower. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis, and then, the surviving megaspore of the four megaspores produced undergoes mitotic divisions and finally gives rise to the female gametophyte, consisting of the egg cell, two synergids, the central cell, which due to the fusion of two nuclei is diploid (double haploid) in Arabidopsis and most angiosperms and the antipods, whose number is not fixed and varies significantly between species (Yadegari and Drews in Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S133-S141, 2004)...
March 16, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Catarina Guerreiro Pereira, Luísa Barreira, Sebastiaan Bijttebier, Luc Pieters, Cátia Marques, Tamára F Santos, Maria João Rodrigues, João Varela, Luísa Custódio
This work explored the biotechnological potential of the medicinal halophyte Artemisia campestris subsp. maritima (dune wormwood) as a source of health promoting commodities. For that purpose, infusions, decoctions and tinctures were prepared from roots and aerial-organs and evaluated for in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetic and tyrosinase-inhibitory potential, and also for polyphenolic and mineral contents and toxicity. The dune wormwood extracts had high polyphenolic content and several phenolics were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS)...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Heidi Cecilie Villmones, Erik Skaaheim Haug, Elling Ulvestad, Nils Grude, Tore Stenstad, Adrian Halland, Øyvind Kommedal
The small bowel is responsible for most of the body's nutritional uptake and for the development of intestinal and systemic tolerance towards microbes. Nevertheless, the human small bowel microbiota has remained poorly characterized, mainly owing to sampling difficulties. Sample collection directly from the distal ileum was performed during radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Material from the ileal mucosa were analysed using massive parallel sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Samples from 27 Caucasian patients were included...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lori Kogan, James A Oxley, Peter Hellyer, Regina Schoenfeld, Mark Rishniw
The internet has been found to be a popular source for human health information. However, there is a lack of information on pet owners' use of the internet to source pet health information and implications for the owner-veterinarian relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to address this gap in knowledge by focusing on UK pet owners' general use of the internet to find online pet health information and the impact of this behaviour on the owner-veterinarian relationship. An online survey targeting UK pet owners resulted in 571 respondents...
March 16, 2018: Veterinary Record
Timmy L S Choi, Jenny K Y Wong, Wai Him Kwok, Peter Curl, Stewart Mechie, Terence S M Wan
Methylstenbolone (2,17α-dimethyl-5α-androst-1-en-17β-ol-3-one) is a synthetic anabolic and androgenic steroid (AAS) sold as an oral 'nutritional supplement' under the brand names 'Ultradrol', 'M-Sten' and 'Methyl-Sten'. Like other AASs, methylstenbolone is a prohibited substance in both human and equine sports. This paper describes the studies of the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of methylstenbolone in horses using LC/HRMS, GC/MS and GC/MS/MS. Phase I in vitro metabolic study of methylstenbolone was performed using homogenised horse liver...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jiaqiang Luo, Cheryl Taylor, Thomas Nebl, Ken Ng, Louise E Bennett
Animal and aquatic meats represent important sources of dietary protein and micro-nutrients. Although red and processed meats carry some risks for human health, sensory and nutritional advantages drive meat consumption. Therefore, it is important to understand how meat processing and cooking influence healthiness. The research aim was to investigate relationships of meat composition (proximates, amino acids and minerals) and cooking conditions (raw, 90 s microwave, 200 °C oven for 10 or 30 min) on protein digestibility, for a selection of four animal (beef, chicken, pork, kangaroo) and four aquatic meats (salmon, trout, prawn, oyster)...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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