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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150416/-bicarbonate-from-physiology-to-treatment-for-all-clinicians
#1
Julie Beaume, Antoine Braconnier, Thibault Dolley-Hitze, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio
Acid-base regulation is essential to maintain homeostasis in humans. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate (H2CO3/HCO3(-)) couple is the most predominant extracellular buffer to keep plasma pH within a physiological range. The ability to (re)generate such a buffer is a key milestone that necessitates to understand a precise physiology of both renal tubule and digestive tract. Here, we first reviewed renal and digestive cycles of bicarbonate in physiology. We also reviewed pathological findings where acid-base disequilibrium is involved and nutritional and/or alkali therapy could be necessary...
November 14, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149293/distribution-of-putative-virulence-markers-in-enterococcus-faecium-towards-a-safety-profile-review
#2
Ana R Freitas, Ana P Tedim, Carla Novais, Teresa M Coque, Luísa Peixe
Objectives: The criteria for identification of Enterococcus faecium (Efm) with the ability to cause human infections are currently being debated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Strains that have an MIC of ampicillin of ≤ 2 mg/L and lack IS16/esp/hyl genes should be regarded as safe for use as feed additives in animal nutrition, despite the lack of knowledge about putative virulence marker (PVM) distribution in community Efm. We analysed the distribution of major PVM and ampicillin phenotypes in large Efm collections to investigate further the safety of strains from a public health perspective...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148112/big-data-and-data-science-in-healthcare-what-nurses-and-midwives-need-to-know
#3
EDITORIAL
Siobhan O'Connor
The evolution of technology in contemporary society has been accelerating in recent decades, with smaller, more interconnected hardware devices and software applications becoming the norm. As desktop computing paved the way for mobile platforms, which are now transitioning to wearable devices and other sensors, it is inevitable these electronic tools will advance into the realm of nanotechnology and biotechnology in the years to come. As the proliferation of information and communication technology continues it has led to a tsunami of digital data (Bates et al, 2014), which is being collected on many aspects of life...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147091/evaluation-of-the-digestibility-of-korean-hanwoo-beef-cuts-using-the-in-vitro-physicochemical-upper-gastrointestinal-system
#4
Ji-Hye Jeon, Michelle Yoo, Tae-Hwan Jung, Woo-Min Jeon, Kyoung-Sik Han
The aim of this study was to investigate the digestibility of different Korean Hanwoo beef cuts using an in vitro digestion model, in vitro physicochemical upper gastrointestinal system (IPUGS). The four most commonly consumed cuts - tenderloin, sirloin, brisket and flank, and bottom round - were chosen for this study. Beef samples (75 g) were cooked and ingested into IPUGS, which was composed of mouth, esophagus, and stomach, thereby simulating the digestion conditions of humans. Digested samples were collected every 15 min for 4 h of simulation and their pH monitored...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146341/oxidation-and-nitrosation-of-meat-proteins-under-gastro-intestinal-conditions-consequences-in-terms-of-nutritional-and-health-values-of-meat
#5
Diane de La Pomélie, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Thierry Sayd, Philippe Gatellier
The chemical changes (oxidation/nitrosation) of meat proteins during digestion lead to a decrease in their nutritional value. Moreover, oxidized and nitrosated amino acids are suspected to promote various human pathologies. To investigate the mechanisms and the kinetics of these endogenous protein modifications, we used a dynamic artificial digestive system (DIDGI®) that mimics the physicochemical conditions of digestion. The combined effect of meat cooking and endogenous addition of ascorbate and nitrite was evaluated on protein oxidation (by measuring carbonyl groups), protein nitrosation (by measuring nitrosamines), and proteolysis...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146139/how-to-prevent-renal-cachexia-a-clinical-randomized-pilot-study-testing-oral-supplemental-nutrition-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#6
Michael Zilles, Christoph Betz, Oliver Jung, Stefan Gauer, Renate Hammerstingl, Astrid Wächtershäuser, Thomas J Vogl, Helmut Geiger, Aida Asbe-Vollkopf, Rainer U Pliquett
OBJECTIVE: End-stage renal disease associates with catabolism and sarcopenia. Hypothetically, peroral supplemental nutrition over 6 months prevents catabolism in hemodialysis patients. DESIGN: Prospective randomized pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00687050). SUBJECTS: Twenty-three hemodialysis patients (15 males and 7 females) with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of 2 ambulatory hemodialysis centers...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146031/avian-ganglioneuritis-in-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Giacomo Rossi, Robert D Dahlhausen, Livio Galosi, Susan E Orosz
Avian ganglioneuritis (AG) comprises one of the most intricate pathologies in avian medicine and is researched worldwide. Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been shown to be a causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease in birds. The avian Bornaviridae represent a genetically diverse group of viruses that are widely distributed in captive and wild populations around the world. ABV and other infective agents are implicated as a cause of the autoimmune pathology that leads to AG, similar to human Guillain Barrè syndrome...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145757/nutrition-and-lower-extremity-ulcers-causality-and-or-treatment
#8
Lauren Haughey, Adrian Barbul
The association between malnutrition, impaired wound healing, and the presence of chronic wounds has been recognized for a long time. It is widely believed that the lack of adequate nutrition increases the risk of developing wounds which have a great likelihood of progressing to chronicity due to lack of appropriate healing responses. This risk is particularly high in the aging population. For the individual patient, as well as patient populations, the diagnosis of malnutrition has been in dispute; further, there is lack of agreement of when and how to intervene nutritionally in those with wounds or healing deficits...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#9
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144445/critical-review-on-the-significance-of-olive-phytochemicals-in-plant-physiology-and-human-health
#10
REVIEW
Irene Gouvinhas, Nelson Machado, Carla Sobreira, Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Sónia Gomes, Eduardo Rosa, Ana I R N A Barros
Olive oil displays remarkable organoleptic and nutritional features, which turn it into a foodstuff appreciated by consumers, and a basic component of the Mediterranean diet. Indeed, the noticed benefits of including olive oil in the diet have been assigned to the presence of diverse bioactive compounds with different molecular structures. These compounds confer a wide range of biological properties to this food matrix, including the prevention of distinct human diseases as well as the modulation of their severity...
November 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144022/collagen-a-review-on-its-sources-and-potential-cosmetic-applications
#11
REVIEW
María Isabela Avila Rodríguez, Laura G Rodríguez Barroso, Mirna Lorena Sánchez
Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143967/thirteen-week-toxicity-study-of-dietary-l-tryptophan-in-rats-with-a-recovery-period-of-5%C3%A2-weeks
#12
Yusuke Shibui, Hideki Matsumoto, Yoko Masuzawa, Takumi Ohishi, Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Katsumi Shibata, Ryosei Sakai
Although l-tryptophan is nutritionally important and widely used in medical applications, toxicity data for its oral administration are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of an experimental diet containing added l-tryptophan at doses of 0 (basal diet), 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% when administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 13 weeks. There were no toxicological changes in clinical signs, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology between control rats and those fed additional l-tryptophan...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141977/vitamins-associated-with-brain-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-epidemiological-and-experimental-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-knowledge-gaps
#13
REVIEW
Michael Fenech
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk. This narrative review infers information on mechanisms from gene and metabolic defects associated with MCI and AD, and assesses the role of vitamins using recent results from animal and human studies...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141972/epigenetic-regulation-of-centromere-chromatin-stability-by-dietary-and-environmental-factors
#14
REVIEW
Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Rita S Strakovsky, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The centromere is a genomic locus required for the segregation of the chromosomes during cell division. This chromosomal region together with pericentromeres has been found to be susceptible to damage, and thus the perturbation of the centromere could lead to the development of aneuploidic events. Metabolic abnormalities that underlie the generation of cancer include inflammation, oxidative stress, cell cycle deregulation, and numerous others. The micronucleus assay, an early clinical marker of cancer, has been shown to provide a reliable measure of genotoxic damage that may signal cancer initiation...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140739/cftr-genotype-and-maximal-exercise-capacity-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Thomas Radtke, Helge Hebestreit, Sabina Gallati, Jane E Schneiderman, Julia Braun, Daniel Stevens, Erik Hj Hulzebos, Tim Takken, Steven R Boas, Don S Urquhart, Larry C Lands, Sergio Tejero, Aleksandar Sovtic, Tiffany Dwyer, Milos Petrovic, Ryan A Harris, Chantal Karila, Daniela Savi, Jakob Usemann, Meir Mei-Zahav, Elpis Hatziagorou, Felix Ratjen, Susi Kriemler
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells. Variations of CFTR dysfunction among patients with CF may present an important determinant of aerobic exercise capacity in CF. Previous studies on the relationship between CFTR genotype and aerobic exercise capacity are scarce and contradictory. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to explore factors influencing aerobic exercise capacity, expressed as peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) with a specific focus on CFTR genotype in children and adults with CF...
November 15, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140435/hmdb-4-0-the-human-metabolome-database-for-2018
#16
David S Wishart, Yannick Djoumbou Feunang, Ana Marcu, An Chi Guo, Kevin Liang, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Tanvir Sajed, Daniel Johnson, Carin Li, Naama Karu, Zinat Sayeeda, Elvis Lo, Nazanin Assempour, Mark Berjanskii, Sandeep Singhal, David Arndt, Yonjie Liang, Hasan Badran, Jason Grant, Arnau Serra-Cayuela, Yifeng Liu, Rupa Mandal, Vanessa Neveu, Allison Pon, Craig Knox, Michael Wilson, Claudine Manach, Augustin Scalbert
The Human Metabolome Database or HMDB (www.hmdb.ca) is a web-enabled metabolomic database containing comprehensive information about human metabolites along with their biological roles, physiological concentrations, disease associations, chemical reactions, metabolic pathways, and reference spectra. First described in 2007, the HMDB is now considered the standard metabolomic resource for human metabolic studies. Over the past decade the HMDB has continued to grow and evolve in response to emerging needs for metabolomics researchers and continuing changes in web standards...
November 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140236/impact-of-childhood-nutritional-status-on-pathogen-prevalence-and-severity-of-acute-diarrhea
#17
Kirkby D Tickell, Patricia B Pavlinac, Grace C John-Stewart, Donna M Denno, Barbra A Richardson, Jaqueline M Naulikha, Ronald K Kirera, Brett E Swierczewski, Benson O Singa, Judd L Walson
Children with acute and chronic malnutrition are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality following a diarrheal episode. To compare diarrheal disease severity and pathogen prevalence among children with and without acute and chronic malnutrition, we conducted a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Kenyan children aged 6-59 months, who presented with acute diarrhea. Children underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and provided stool for bacterial and protozoal pathogen detection...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138439/abma-a-small-molecule-that-inhibits-intracellular-toxins-and-pathogens-by-interfering-with-late-endosomal-compartments
#18
Yu Wu, Valérie Pons, Amélie Goudet, Laetitia Panigai, Annette Fischer, Jo-Ana Herweg, Sabrina Kali, Robert A Davey, Jérôme Laporte, Céline Bouclier, Rahima Yousfi, Céline Aubenque, Goulven Merer, Emilie Gobbo, Roman Lopez, Cynthia Gillet, Sandrine Cojean, Michel R Popoff, Pascal Clayette, Roger Le Grand, Claire Boulogne, Noël Tordo, Emmanuel Lemichez, Philippe M Loiseau, Thomas Rudel, Didier Sauvaire, Jean-Christophe Cintrat, Daniel Gillet, Julien Barbier
Intracellular pathogenic microorganisms and toxins exploit host cell mechanisms to enter, exert their deleterious effects as well as hijack host nutrition for their development. A potential approach to treat multiple pathogen infections and that should not induce drug resistance is the use of small molecules that target host components. We identified the compound 1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine (ABMA) from a cell-based high throughput screening for its capacity to protect human cells and mice against ricin toxin without toxicity...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137687/combining-traditional-dietary-assessment-methods-with-novel-metabolomics-techniques-present-efforts-by-the-food-biomarker-alliance
#19
Elske M Brouwer-Brolsma, Lorraine Brennan, Christian A Drevon, Henk van Kranen, Claudine Manach, Lars Ove Dragsted, Helen M Roche, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Stephan J L Bakker, Jildau Bouwman, Francesco Capozzi, Sarah De Saeger, Thomas E Gundersen, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Sabine E Kulling, Rikard Landberg, Jakob Linseisen, Fulvio Mattivi, Ronald P Mensink, Cristina Scaccini, Thomas Skurk, Inge Tetens, Guy Vergeres, David S Wishart, Augustin Scalbert, Edith J M Feskens
FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently validated. This review provides an overview of food intake biomarker research and highlights present research efforts of the Joint Programming Initiative 'A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life' (JPI-HDHL) Food Biomarkers Alliance (FoodBAll)...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137685/nutrition-research-in-cognitive-impairment-dementia-with-a-focus-on-soya-and-folate
#20
Eef Hogervorst, Shelina Kassam, Atik Kridawati, Mira Soni, Xu Xin, Xiao Shifu, Tri Budi Rahardjo
Observational studies and treatment trials investigating nutrition and cognitive function, with a focus on folate and soya and dementia, were reviewed. Data suggested that effects of folic acid based interventions may only be shown before cognitive decline is evident and/or if people are folate deficient. In older people in Indonesia, Hawai'i and China, tofu, which can contain high levels of phytoestrogens, was found to increase dementia risk. This association was not mediated by a vegetarian diet, socioeconomic status, formaldehyde, thyroid function, or loss of teeth...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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