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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641389/acute-tryptophan-depletion-the-first-method-validation-in-an-avian-species-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#1
Patrick Birkl, Joergen B Kjaer, William Szkotnicki, Paul Forsythe, Alexandra Harlander-Matauschek
Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a valuable non-invasive nutritional tool in human and rodent research to study dysfunctions of the serotonergic system and related behavioral disorders. Serotonergic dysfunction is thought to be involved in the pathology of feather pecking behavior of laying hens, one of the most relevant welfare and production issues in modern intensive egg-production systems. ATD temporarily compromises the influx of tryptophan (TRP) across the blood brain barrier which reduces central availability of TRP, the substrate for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis...
June 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640882/quantitation-of-underivatized-branched-chain-amino-acids-in-sport-nutritional-supplements-by-capillary-electrophoresis-with-direct-or-indirect-uv-absorbance-detection
#2
Jun Qiu, Jinhao Wang, Zhongqi Xu, Huiqing Liu, Jie Ren
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val) were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE) consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at pH 10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635106/long-noncoding-rna-and-its-contribution-to-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Jie Tang, Yizhen Yu, Wei Yang
Recent studies have indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in multiple processes, such as epigenetic regulation, gene expression regulation, development, nutrition-related and other diseases, toxic response, and response to drugs. Although the functional roles and mechanisms of several lncRNAs have been discovered, a better understanding of the vast majority of lncRNAs remains elusive. To understand the functional roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs is critical because these transcripts represent the majority of the transcriptional output of the mammalian genome...
June 20, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634118/identification-of-chickpea-seed-proteins-resistant-to-simulated-in-vitro-human-digestion
#4
I C Ribeiro, C C Leclercq, N Simões, A Toureiro, I Duarte, J B Freire, M M Chaves, J Renaut, C Pinheiro
Proteins and peptides able to resist gastrointestinal digestion and reach the intestinal mucosa have the potential to influence human health. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seed proteins are able to resist cooking (86.9% total protein) and/or in vitro simulated human digestion (15.9% total protein resists soaking, cooking and digestion with pepsin and pancreatin). To identify and characterize proteins resisting digestion we made use of different MS methodologies. The efficiency of several proteases (trypsin, AspN, chymotrypsin and LysC) was tested, and two technologies were employed (MALDI-TOF-TOF and LC-nESI-MS/MS)...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633683/plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-is-regulated-through-dietary-fat-intake-and-heritability-studies-in-twins
#5
Anna Janina Engstler, Turid Frahnow, Michael Kruse, Andreas Friedrich Hermann Pfeiffer, Ina Bergheim
In different pathophysiological conditions plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plasma concentrations are elevated. As dietary patterns are considered to influence PAI-1 concentration, we aimed to determine active PAI-1 plasma concentrations and mRNA expression in adipose tissue before and after consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) and the impact of additive genetic effects herein in humans. For 6 weeks, 46 healthy, non-obese pairs of twins (aged 18-70) received a normal nutritionally balanced diet (ND) followed by an isocaloric HFD for 6 weeks...
June 21, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631291/folate-deficiency-disturbs-hsa-let-7-g-level-through-methylation-regulation-in-neural-tube-defects
#6
Li Wang, Shaofang Shangguan, Yu Xin, Shaoyan Chang, Zhen Wang, Xiaolin Lu, Lihua Wu, Bo Niu, Ting Zhang
Folic acid deficiency during pregnancy is believed to be a high-risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). Disturbed epigenetic modifications, including miRNA regulation, have been linked to the pathogenesis of NTDs in those with folate deficiency. However, the mechanism by which folic acid-regulated miRNA influences this pathogenesis remains unclear. It is believed that DNA methylation is associated with dysregulated miRNA expression. To clarify this issue, here we measured the methylation changes of 22 miRNAs in 57 human NTD cases to explore whether such changes are involved in miRNA regulation in NTD cases through folate metabolism...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630084/maternal-lifestyle-and-nutritional-status-in-relation-to-pregnancy-and-infant-health-outcomes-in-western-china-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Li Tang, Xiong-Fei Pan, Andy H Lee, Colin W Binns, Chun-Xia Yang, Xin Sun
INTRODUCTION: Improving the health and nutrition of women and children is a priority for Western China, where the economy is less developed. Due to the dynamic nature of lifestyle, modern food habits and nutrition, there is a need to update our limited knowledge and understanding of maternal lifestyle and nutritional status and their impact on pregnancy and infant health outcomes. While breast milk is the preferred feeding option, infant formula use is widespread in China. It is thus necessary to examine the effects of formula consumption on growth and morbidity...
June 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628784/identifying-populations-sensitive-to-environmental-chemicals-by-simulating-toxicokinetic-variability
#8
Caroline L Ring, Robert G Pearce, R Woodrow Setzer, Barbara A Wetmore, John F Wambaugh
The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure...
June 16, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628402/calcium-bioavailability-from-mineral-waters-with-different-mineralization-in-comparison-to-milk-and-a-supplement
#9
Theresa Greupner, Inga Schneider, Andreas Hahn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from 3 mineral waters with different concentrations of minerals with that of milk and a calcium supplement. METHODS: A single-center, randomized controlled trial with a crossover design with 21 healthy men and women was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover. The participants consumed the 5 test products providing 300 mg of calcium each on 5 examination days with 1-week wash-out phases in between...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628359/the-genetic-basis-for-sex-differences-in-obesity-and-lipid-metabolism
#10
Jenny C Link, Karen Reue
Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Less appreciated as a contributor to sex differences are the fundamental genetic differences between males and females, which are ultimately determined by the presence of an XX or XY sex chromosome complement...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627618/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-regulates-autophagy-via-the-p27-e2f1-signaling-pathway
#11
Pan Wang, Meijing Long, Shijie Zhang, Zhenyun Cheng, Xin Zhao, Fucheng He, Hongchun Liu, Liang Ming
Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which the cell contents are delivered to lysosomes for degradation, or are used to provide macromolecules for energy generation under conditions of nutritional starvation. It has previously been demonstrated that cancer cells in hypoxic regions, with an oxygen concentration below the normal physiological level, express hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)‑1α, in order to adapt and survive. HIF‑1α is important in the regulation of oxygen homeostasis and the transcription of hundreds of genes in response to conditions of hypoxia, hence maintaining energy and redox homeostasis...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625124/occurrence-and-importance-of-plant-lipids-a-promising-insight-into-algae
#12
Nihed Ben Halima
BACKGROUND: Lipids are biomolecules with interesting structural variability. They are involved in many processes such as the storage of energy, in nutrition and are also of relevance for signal transduction processes, in apoptosis, cell differentiation and phagocytosis, etc. Algae and microalgae are a promising and very diverse group of organisms. These living arganisms inhabit a vaste range of ecosystems from the Antarctic to the Deserts. They account for above half the primary productivity at the base of the food chain because of their multiple nutritional products including, for instance, lipids...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624933/influence-of-food-consumption-patterns-and-galician-lifestyle-on-human-gut-microbiota
#13
María Castro-Penalonga, Paula Roca-Saavedra, Jose Manuel Miranda, Jose Julio Porto-Arias, Carolina Nebot, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Carlos Manuel Franco, Alberto Cepeda
The proportion of different microbial populations in the human gut is an important factor that in recent years has been linked to obesity and numerous metabolic diseases. Because there are many factors that can affect the composition of human gut microbiota, it is of interest to have information about what is the composition of the gut microbiota in different populations in order to better understand the possibilities for improving nutritional management. A group of 31 volunteers were selected according to established inclusion and exclusion criteria and were asked about their diet history, lifestyle patterns, and adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621445/nutritional-and-functional-bioactivity-value-of-selected-azorean-macroalgae-ulva-compressa-ulva-rigida-gelidium-microdon-and-pterocladiella-capillacea
#14
Lisete Paiva, Elisabete Lima, Ana Isabel Neto, Massimo Marcone, José Baptista
This study presents information on the biochemical composition (dry weight basis), nutritional aspects, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of selected macroalgae (Ulva compressa, Ulva rigida, Gelidium microdon, and Pterocladiella capillacea) from Azores. Moisture content was very high (83.2% to 90.0% of fresh weight). Total dietary fiber (33.7% to 41.0%) that presented a good balance of both soluble and insoluble fibers (15.5% to 19.2% and 18.2% to 21.8%, respectively) was the most abundant component in these macroalgae...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620582/physicochemical-and-nutritional-requirements-for-axenic-replication-suggest-physiological-basis-for-coxiella-burnetii-niche-restriction
#15
Eduardo Vallejo Esquerra, Hong Yang, Savannah E Sanchez, Anders Omsland
Bacterial obligate intracellular parasites are clinically significant animal and human pathogens. Central to the biology of these organisms is their level of adaptation to intracellular replication niches associated with physicochemical and nutritional constraints. While most bacterial pathogens can adapt to a wide range of environments, severe niche restriction-an inability to thrive in diverse environments-is a hallmark of bacterial obligate intracellular parasites. Herein the physicochemical and nutritional factors underlying the physiological basis for niche restriction in the zoonotic bacterial obligate intracellular parasite and Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii are characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618245/multi-omics-integrative-investigation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-obese-and-lean-subcutaneous-tissue
#16
Flavia Badoud, Dyanne Brewer, Armen Charchoglyan, Daniel J Cuthbertson, David M Mutch
White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a central role in whole-body energy homeostasis through storage and release of fatty acids. A deeper understanding of the complex and highly integrated pathways regulating WAT fatty acid metabolism, and how they are altered with obesity, is necessary for diagnostic and therapeutic innovations in nutritional disorders. In this multi-omics study, we investigated the influence of obesity on fatty acid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) using an approach that integrated transcriptomic, peptidomic, and fatty acid analyses...
June 15, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618237/effect-of-sweetened-dried-cranberry-consumption-on-urinary-proteome-and-fecal-microbiome-in-healthy-human-subjects
#17
Nell Bekiares, Christian G Krueger, Jennifer J Meudt, Dhanansayan Shanmuganayagam, Jess D Reed
The relationship among diet, human health, and disease is an area of growing interest in biomarker research. Previous studies suggest that the consumption of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) could beneficially influence urinary and digestive health. The present study sought to determine if daily consumption of sweetened dried cranberries (SDC) changes the urinary proteome and fecal microbiome, as determined in a prospective sample of 10 healthy individuals. Baseline urine and fecal samples were collected from the subjects in the fasted (8-12 h) state...
June 15, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617769/trends-in-breastfeeding-among-infants-enrolled-in-the-special-supplemental-nutrition-program-for-women-infants-and-children-new-york-2002-2015
#18
Furrina Lee, Lynn S Edmunds, Xiao Cong, Jackson P Sekhobo
Breastfeeding is widely accepted as the optimal method of infant feeding (1,2). New York Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) has prioritized the promotion of breastfeeding. To assess breastfeeding trends among New York WIC infants, indicators for measuring breastfeeding practices reported by the New York Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) during 2002-2015 were examined. The prevalence of breastfeeding initiation increased from 62.0% (2002) to 83.4% (2015), exceeding the Healthy People 2020 (HP2020)* objective of 81...
June 16, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615378/amino-acid-absorption-in-the-large-intestine-of-humans-and-porcine-models
#19
REVIEW
Nikkie van der Wielen, Paul J Moughan, Marco Mensink
Dietary protein quality has been recognized as a critical issue by international authorities because it can affect important functions of the body. To predict protein quality, the FAO introduced the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score. This score depends on ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility; therefore, the assumption is made that AAs are not absorbed in nutritionally relevant amounts from the large intestine. This article reviews the evidence for this assumption by considering the role of the mammalian large intestine in dietary protein and AA digestion and absorption, with particular reference to adult humans...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614390/fatty-acid-profiles-of-five-farmed-brazilian-freshwater-fish-species-from-different-families
#20
Bruna Leal Rodrigues, Anna Carolina Vilhena da Cruz Silva Canto, Marion Pereira da Costa, Flávio Alves da Silva, Eliane Teixeira Mársico, Carlos Adam Conte-Junior
The proximate composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of five Brazilian freshwater fish species, namely Brycon cephalus (BC), Cichla ocellaris (CO), Prochilodus lineatus (PL), Leporinus friderici (LF) and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (PCO), were investigated. CO and LF exhibited the highest (p < 0.05) moisture content, as well as one of the lowest (p < 0.05) lipid values, whereas BC presented the lowest (p < 0.05) moisture and, alongside PL, the highest (p < 0.05) lipid content. The predominant FAs in the evaluated fish species were palmitic, oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acids...
2017: PloS One
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