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ketamine pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749444/effects-of-intravenous-anesthetics-on-the-phosphorylation-of-camp-response-element%C3%A2-binding-protein-in-hippocampal-slices-of-adult-mice
#1
Haiying Gao, Lingyu Zhang, Zhenyi Chen, Shuncui Liu, Qinghong Zhang, Bingxi Zhang
cAMP response‑element binding protein (CREB) functions in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, it remains unknown whether intravenous anesthetics modulate CREB. The present study aimed to examine the effects of intravenous anesthetics on CREB phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus. CREB phosphorylation was examined in hippocampal slices with and without pharmacological or intravenous anesthetics via immunoblotting. In a dose‑response experiment, the concentrations of intravenous anesthetics ranged from 10‑9 to 10‑4 mol/l for 1 h...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743582/synaptic-phospholipids-as-a-new-target-for-cortical-hyperexcitability-and-e-i-balance-in-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Carine Thalman, Guilherme Horta, Lianyong Qiao, Heiko Endle, Irmgard Tegeder, Hong Cheng, Gregor Laube, Torfi Sigrudsson, Maria Jelena Hauser, Stefan Tenzer, Ute Distler, Junken Aoki, Andrew J Morris, Gerd Geisslinger, Jochen Röper, Sergei Kirischuk, Heiko J Luhmann, Konstantin Radyushkin, Robert Nitsch, Johannes Vogt
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a synaptic phospholipid, which regulates cortical excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance and controls sensory information processing in mice and man. Altered synaptic LPA signaling was shown to be associated with psychiatric disorders. Here, we show that the LPA-synthesizing enzyme autotaxin (ATX) is expressed in the astrocytic compartment of excitatory synapses and modulates glutamatergic transmission. In astrocytes, ATX is sorted toward fine astrocytic processes and transported to excitatory but not inhibitory synapses...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734923/virtual-reality-based-cognitive-training-for-drug-abusers-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
David W K Man
Non-pharmacological means are being developed to enhance cognitive abilities in drug abusers. This study evaluated virtual reality (VR) as an intervention tool for enhancing cognitive and vocational outcomes in 90 young ketamine users (KU) randomly assigned to a treatment group (virtual reality group, VRG; tutor-administered group, TAG) or wait-listed control group (CG). Two training programmes with similar content but different delivery modes (VR-based and manual-based) were applied using a virtual boutique as a training scenario...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730359/emerging-trends-in-pain-medication-management-back-to-the-future-a-focus-on-ketamine
#4
REVIEW
Meredith W Crumb, Candace Bryant, Timothy J Atkinson
Providers face many challenges when faced with pain management. Pain is complex, difficult to understand, diagnose, and especially enigmatic to manage. The discovery of non-opioid agents for pain management has become particularly important considering the on-going opioid epidemic. This review is focused on revisiting Ketamine, an agent that has historically been used for anesthesia in new ways to manage pain. Ketamine has unique pharmacologic properties that may prevent the development of pain as well as reduce chronic pain...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727003/safety-in-acute-pain-medicine-pharmacologic-considerations-and-the-impact-of-systems-based-gaps
#5
Toby N Weingarten, Andreas H Taenzer, Nabil M Elkassabany, Linda Le Wendling, Olga Nin, Michael L Kent
Objective: In the setting of an expanding prevalence of acute pain medicine services and the aggressive use of multimodal analgesia, an overview of systems-based safety gaps and safety concerns in the setting of aggressive multimodal analgesia is provided below. Setting: Expert commentary. Methods: Recent evidence focused on systems-based gaps in acute pain medicine is discussed. A focused literature review was conducted to assess safety concerns related to commonly used multimodal pharmacologic agents (opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, gabapentanoids, ketamine, acetaminophen) in the setting of inpatient acute pain management...
May 2, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726758/pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-treatment-resistant-depressive-disorder
#6
Madia Lozupone, Maddalena La Montagna, Francesca D'Urso, Carla Piccininni, Rodolfo Sardone, Vittorio Dibello, Gianluigi Giannelli, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Antonio Greco, Antonio Daniele, Nicola Quaranta, Davide Seripa, Antonello Bellomo, Giancarlo Logroscino, Francesco Panza
Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of depressive disorders in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) represents a clinical challenge. pharmacological options are often attempted after a period of watchful waiting (8-12 weeks). monoaminergic antidepressant drugs have shown only modest or null clinical benefits, maybe because the etiology of depressive symptoms in ad patients is fundamentally different from that of nondemented subjects. Areas covered: The following article looks at the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline, which is one of the most frequently studied antidepressant medications in randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
May 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710504/pharmacological-interaction-of-galphimia-glauca-extract-and-natural-galphimines-with-ketamine-and-haloperidol-on-different-behavioral-tests
#7
Mayra Alejandra Santillán-Urquiza, Maribel Herrera-Ruiz, Alejandro Zamilpa, Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer, Rubén Román-Ramos, Jaime Tortoriello
Due to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the prevalent side effects produced by the antipsychotic drugs available, it is necessary to search for new therapeutic options. Galphimia glauca has been used for many years in Mexican traditional medicine for treating mental diseases. From this plant, some compounds, denominated galphimines, have been discovered and have shown to possess the ability of modifying the frequency of discharge of dopaminergic neurons in the Ventral tegmental area. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect produced by the G...
April 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688874/a-putative-electrophysiological-biomarker-of-auditory-sensory-memory-encoding-is-sensitive-to-pharmacological-alterations-of-excitatory-inhibitory-balance-in-male-macaque-monkeys
#8
William B Holliday, Kate Gurnsey, Robert A Sweet, Tobias Teichert
BACKGROUND: The amplitude of the auditory evoked N1 component that can be derived from noninvasive electroencephalographic recordings increases as a function of time between subsequent tones. N1 amplitudes in individuals with schizophrenia saturate at a lower asymptote, thus giving rise to a reduced dynamic range. Reduced N1 dynamic range is a putative electrophysiological biomarker of altered sensory memory function in individuals with the disease. To date, it is not clear what determines N1 dynamic range and what causes reduced N1 dynamic range in individuals with schizophrenia...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679883/protective-effects-of-stigmasterol-against-ketamine-induced-psychotic-symptoms-possible-behavioral-biochemical-and-histopathological-changes-in-mice
#9
Monu Yadav, Milind Parle, Deepak Kumar Jindal, Sameer Dhingra
BACKGROUND: Stigmasterol, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen has been reported to possess many pharmacological activities. The aim of the present study was to screen the effect of stigmasterol against ketamine-induced mice model of psychosis. METHODS: The behavioural studies included an assessment of locomotor activity, stereotypic behaviours, immobility duration, step down latency and effects on catalepsy. Biochemical estimations involved the estimations of GABA, dopamine, GSH, MDA, TNF-α, total protein content and AChE activity...
January 11, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630129/a-meta-analysis-of-pharmacological-neuroprotection-in-noncardiac-surgery-focus-on-statins-lidocaine-ketamine-and-magnesium-sulfate
#10
Z-W Zeng, Y-N Zhang, W-X Lin, W-Q Zhang, R Luo
OBJECTIVE: Non-cardiac surgery is associated with perioperative cerebral complications (delirium, postoperative cognition dysfunction, stroke). While rare, these complications can lead to disabilities and deaths. Information is ambiguous as to whether pharmacological preoperative treatment exerts neuroprotection. We wished to systematically assess potential modulation by statins, lidocaine, ketamine or magnesium sulfate of the relative risk of cerebral complications in noncardiac surgery...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621538/ketamine-and-ketamine-metabolites-as-novel-estrogen-receptor-ligands-induction-of-cytochrome-p450-and-ampa-glutamate-receptor-gene-expression
#11
Ming-Fen Ho, Cristina Correia, James N Ingle, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Liewei Wang, Scott H Kaufmann, Richard M Weinshilboum
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric illness worldwide, and it displays a striking sex-dependent difference in incidence, with two thirds of MDD patients being women. Ketamine treatment can produce rapid antidepressant effects in MDD patients, effects that are mediated-at least partially-through glutamatergic neurotransmission. Two active metabolites of ketamine, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) and (2S,6S)-HNK, also appear to play a key role in ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects through the activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604367/effects-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-nmdar-uncompetitive-antagonists-in-a-delay-discounting-paradigm-using-a-concurrent-chains-procedure
#12
Justin R Yates, Benjamin T Gunkel, Katherine K Rogers, Kerry A Breitenstein, Mallory N Hughes, Anthony B Johnson, Sara M Sharpe
Impulsive choice is often assessed in rodents using a delay discounting (DD) paradigm in which the delay to a large reinforcer (LR) increases across the session. This procedure allows one to test the effects of pharmacological manipulations within a single session. Because discounting is influenced by sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude (SRM) and sensitivity to delayed reinforcement (SDR), applying quantitative analyses (e.g., fitting hyperbolic function) is important for determining the precise behavioral mechanisms being altered following drug administration...
March 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596148/personalized-n-of-1-trials-for-depression-a-systematic-review
#13
Ian M Kronish, Meghan Hampsey, Louise Falzon, Beatrice Konrad, Karina W Davidson
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Personalized (N-of-1) trials are single-patient, crossover-design trials that may be useful for personalizing the selection of depression treatments. We conducted a systematic review of published N-of-1 trials for depression to determine the feasibility and suitability of this methodology for personalizing depression care. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Electronic databases were searched from database inception through October 2016. Studies were selected if they enrolled depressed patients, included a within-subject crossover design, and systematically assessed depressive symptoms during the N-of-1 trial...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564482/group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-agonist-prodrugs-ly2979165-and-ly2140023-attenuate-the-functional-imaging-response-to-ketamine-in-healthy-subjects
#14
Mitul A Mehta, Anne Schmechtig, Vasileia Kotoula, Juliet McColm, Kimberley Jackson, Claire Brittain, Sitra Tauscher-Wisniewski, Bruce J Kinon, Paul D Morrison, Thomas Pollak, Timothy Mant, Steven C R Williams, Adam J Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Aberrant glutamate neurotransmission, and in particular dysfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and represents a novel therapeutic target. Low-dose administration of the NMDA antagonist ketamine in healthy volunteers elicits a strong blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging signal that can be attenuated by pretreatment with single, therapeutically effective doses of marketed medicines interacting with the glutamate system...
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562929/the-influence-of-an-accredited-pediatric-emergency-medicine-program-on-the-management-of-pediatric-pain-and-anxiety
#15
Tali Capua, Zohar Bar Kama, Ayelet Rimon
BACKGROUND: The emergency department (ED) setting is an environment where children may experience intense physical pain and emotional stress. This study sought to determine the availability of pain and anxiety management practices in all Israeli emergency departments which accept children, specifically looking for differences between accredited pediatric emergency medicine departments and others. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of all Israeli emergency departments that accept children was performed...
March 21, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559781/novel-treatment-options-in-depression-and-psychosis
#16
REVIEW
Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan
In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527296/management-of-eight-labor-and-delivery-patients-dependent-on-buprenorphine-subutex%C3%A2-a-retrospective-chart-review
#17
Solina Tith, Garinder Bining, Laurent Bollag
Background : Opioid use during pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Buprenorphine has been recommended by "The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology" as an alternative to methadone to decrease risks associated with the use of illicit opioids during pregnancy. The partial μ-opioid agonists' unique pharmacology, including its long half time and high affinity to the μ-opioid receptor, complicates patient management in a highly kinetic, and often urgent field like obstetric anesthesia...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516301/convergent-mechanisms-underlying-rapid-antidepressant-action
#18
REVIEW
Panos Zanos, Scott M Thompson, Ronald S Duman, Carlos A Zarate, Todd D Gould
Traditional pharmacological treatments for depression have a delayed therapeutic onset, ranging from several weeks to months, and there is a high percentage of individuals who never respond to treatment. In contrast, ketamine produces rapid-onset antidepressant, anti-suicidal, and anti-anhedonic actions following a single administration to patients with depression. Proposed mechanisms of the antidepressant action of ketamine include N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) modulation, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron disinhibition, and direct actions of its hydroxynorketamine (HNK) metabolites...
March 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512789/protective-effects-of-tetrahydropalmatine-against-ketamine-induced-learning-and-memory-injury-via-antioxidative-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-in-mice
#19
Yonglai Zhang, Rui Sha, Kaiguo Wang, Hao Li, Bo Yan, Naibao Zhou
Tetrahydropalmatine exerts numerous pharmacological activities, including analgesic and narcotic effects; anti-arrhythmic, blood pressure lowering and cardioprotective effects; protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury; inhibition of platelet aggregation; prevention of ulcerative diseases and inhibition of gastric acid secretion; antitumor effects; and beneficial effects on the withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of tetrahydropalmatine against ketamine‑induced learning and memory impairment in mice...
May 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509582/ketamine-action-in-the-in-vitro-cortical-slice-is-mitigated-by-potassium-channel-blockade
#20
Logan J Voss, Sebastian Karalus, Vilhelm Englund, James W Sleigh
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a general anesthetic thought to act by antagonizing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. However, ketamine acts on multiple channels, many of which are potential targets-including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated and potassium channels. In this study we tested the hypothesis that potassium leak channels contribute to the anesthetic action of ketamine. METHODS: Adult mouse cortical slices (400 µm) were exposed to no-magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to generate seizure-like event activity...
June 2018: Anesthesiology
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