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ketamine pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339170/sub-anesthetic-doses-of-ketamine-attenuate-nicotine-self-administration-in-rats
#1
Amir H Rezvani, Yousef Tizabi, Susan Slade, Bruk Getachew, Edward D Levin
Smoking cessation strategies are of prime medical importance. Despite availability of various pharmacological agents in combating addiction to nicotine, more effective medications are needed. Based on recent findings, the glutamatergic system in the brain may provide novel targets. Here, we evaluated the effects of acute administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats trained to self-administer nicotine. Animals were injected subcutaneously with 5, 7...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322377/s-ketamine-current-trends-in-emergency-and-intensive-care-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Helmut Trimmel, Raimund Helbok, Thomas Staudinger, Wolfgang Jaksch, Brigitte Messerer, Herbert Schöchl, Rudolf Likar
S(+)-ketamine, the pure dextrorotatory enantiomer of ketamine has been available for clinical use in analgesia and anesthesia for more than 25 years. The main effects are mediated by non-competitive inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor but S(+)-ketamine also interacts with opioid receptors, monoamine receptors, adenosine receptors and other purinergic receptors. Effects on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and L‑type calcium chanels have also been described...
January 10, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311474/enantioselective-monoclonal-antibodies-for-detecting-ketamine-to-crack-down-on-illicit-use
#3
Izumi Morita, Hiroyuki Oyama, Yui Kanda, Mayumi Yasuo, Aya Ito, Masahiro Toyota, Yoshinori Hayashi, Takeshi Yokoyama, Norihiro Kobayashi
Ketamine (KT) is a chiral anesthetic agent, (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of which differ in their pharmacological properties. KT has become one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in the world, thus, rapid and feasible on-site testing is required to crack down on the illicit use. Although immunochemical approach with specific antibodies is promising for this purpose, in practice anti-KT antibodies are difficult to obtain. We here disclose generation of monoclonal antibodies against KT. Mice were immunized with either (a) commercially-available or (b) in-house-prepared KT-albumin conjugates...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299518/an-updated-review-of-pediatric-drug-induced-sleep-endoscopy
#4
REVIEW
Lyndy J Wilcox, Mathieu Bergeron, Saranya Reghunathan, Stacey L Ishman
Objectives: Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) involves assessment of the upper airway using a flexible endoscope while patients are in a pharmacologically-induced sleep-like state. The aim of this article is to review the current literature regarding the role of DISE in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The indications, typical anesthetic protocol, comparison to other diagnostic modalities, scoring systems, and outcomes are discussed. Methods: A comprehensive review of literature regarding pediatric DISE up through May 2017 was performed...
December 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236648/a-putative-electrophysiological-biomarker-of-auditory-sensory-memory-encoding-is-sensitive-to-pharmacological-alterations-of-excitatory-inhibitory-balance-in-male-macaque-monkeys
#5
William B Holliday, Kate Gurnsey, Robert A Sweet, Tobias Teichert
BACKGROUND: The amplitude of the auditory evoked N1 component that can be derived from noninvasive electroencephalographic recordings increases as a function of time between subsequent tones. N1 amplitudes in individuals with schizophrenia saturate at a lower asymptote, thus giving rise to a reduced dynamic range. Reduced N1 dynamic range is a putative electrophysiological biomarker of altered sensory memory function in individuals with the disease. To date, it is not clear what determines N1 dynamic range and what causes reduced N1 dynamic range in individuals with schizophrenia...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203848/bdnf-release-and-signaling-are-required-for-the-antidepressant-actions-of-glyx-13
#6
T Kato, M V Fogaça, S Deyama, X-Y Li, K Fukumoto, R S Duman
Conventional antidepressant medications, which act on monoaminergic systems, display significant limitations, including a time lag of weeks to months and low rates of therapeutic efficacy. GLYX-13 is a novel glutamatergic compound that acts as an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) modulator with glycine-like partial agonist properties; like the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine GLYX-13 produces rapid antidepressant actions in depressed patients and in preclinical rodent models. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of GLYX-13 have not been characterized...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196183/nmda-receptor-antagonist-rodent-models-for-cognition-in-schizophrenia-and-identification-of-novel-drug-treatments-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Cadinu, Ben Grayson, Giovanni Podda, Michael K Harte, Nazanin Doostdar, Joanna C Neill
Negative and cognitive deficit symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Improved understanding of the neuro- and psychopathology of cognitive dysfunction in the illness is urgently required to enhance the development of new improved therapeutic strategies. Careful validation of animal models that mimic the behaviour and pathology of complex psychiatric disorders is an essential step towards this goal. Non-competitive NMDAR (N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor) antagonists e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and dizocilpine (MK-801) can effectively replicate certain aspects of negative and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia in animals...
November 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178131/the-rapid-onset-antidepressant-effect-of-ketamine-more-surprises
#8
R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: An effective rapid-onset treatment for major depressive disorder could save lives. Extensive preclinical and clinical data demonstrate such an action of ketamine. However, the presumptive mechanism of action, inhibition of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors, has recently been challenged. Elucidation of the mechanism is important clinically for drug discovery and for understanding the (patho)physiology of depression. COMMENT: The best-known pharmacologic property of ketamine is non-competitive inhibition of the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171010/prenatal-exposure-to-ketamine-in-rats-implications-on-animal-models-of-schizophrenia
#9
Carlos M Coronel-Oliveros, Renny Pacheco-Calderón
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, anhedonia, flat affect and cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to propose a prenatal treatment with ketamine, a psychedelic drug that acts as a non-competitive inhibitor of glutamate NMDA receptors, as a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia. The drug was applied (i.m. 60 mg.kg(-1)  h(-1) ) in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on gestational Day 14. Offspring behavior was studied on pubertal (4 weeks old) and adult (10 weeks old) stages...
November 24, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170340/43%C3%A2-management-of-acute-low-back-pain-in-the-ed-a-systematic-review
#10
Jane Ashbrook, Nikos Rodgdakis, Peter Goodwin, Gill Yeowell, Michael Callaghan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus on the management of low back pain in the ED and evidence suggests that these patients are likely to receive unwarranted imaging and inappropriate opioid prescription.The purpose of this study is to review the available literature pertaining to the clinical management of acute low back pain in the ED. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) guidelines were observed during this review...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162814/trkb-dependent-adult-hippocampal-progenitor-differentiation-mediates-sustained-ketamine-antidepressant-response
#11
Zhenzhong Ma, Tong Zang, Shari G Birnbaum, Zilai Wang, Jane E Johnson, Chun-Li Zhang, Luis F Parada
Adult neurogenesis persists in the rodent dentate gyrus and is stimulated by chronic treatment with conventional antidepressants through BDNF/TrkB signaling. Ketamine in low doses produces both rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in patients. Previous studies have shed light on post-transcriptional synaptic NMDAR mediated mechanisms underlying the acute effect, but how ketamine acts at the cellular level to sustain this anti-depressive function for prolonged periods remains unclear. Here we report that ketamine accelerates differentiation of doublecortin-positive adult hippocampal neural progenitors into functionally mature neurons...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162522/loss-of-consciousness-is-related-to-hyper-correlated-gamma-band-activity-in-anesthetized-macaques-and-sleeping-humans
#12
Michał Bola, Adam B Barrett, Andrea Pigorini, Lino Nobili, Anil K Seth, Artur Marchewka
Loss of consciousness can result from a wide range of causes, including natural sleep and pharmacologically induced anesthesia. Important insights might thus come from identifying neuronal mechanisms of loss and re-emergence of consciousness independent of a specific manipulation. Therefore, to seek neuronal signatures of loss of consciousness common to sleep and anesthesia we analyzed spontaneous electrophysiological activity recorded in two experiments. First, electrocorticography (ECoG) acquired from 4 macaque monkeys anesthetized with different anesthetic agents (ketamine, medetomidine, propofol) and, second, stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) from 10 epilepsy patients in different wake-sleep stages (wakefulness, NREM, REM)...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162429/studies-with-psychedelic-drugs-in-human-volunteers
#13
REVIEW
Edward M Sellers, Myroslava K Romach, Deborah B Leiderman
Scientific curiosity and fascination have played a key role in human research with psychedelics along with the hope that perceptual alterations and heightened insight could benefit well-being and play a role in the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. These motivations need to be tempered by a realistic assessment of the hurdles to be cleared for therapeutic use. Development of a psychedelic drug for treatment of a serious psychiatric disorder presents substantial although not insurmountable challenges...
November 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151192/impact-of-oral-ketamine-augmentation-on-hospital-admissions-in-treatment-resistant-depression-and-ptsd-a-retrospective-study
#14
John Hartberg, Simone Garrett-Walcott, Angelo De Gioannis
RATIONALE: Depressive episodes are the leading cause of mental health-related hospital admissions in Australia, and 44% of those admitted have a previous history of hospitalisations for depression (Admitted patient mental health-related care: (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Aust Hospital Stat 2011-12, 2013). Despite numerous available antidepressant treatments, many patients do not respond to conventional therapy, having what is called 'treatment resistance' (Fava Biol Psychiatry 53:649-659, 2003)...
November 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147790/-etomidate-for-intravenous-induction-of-anaesthesia
#15
C Dumps, D Bolkenius, E Halbeck
The pharmacological and historical knowledge about the currently available intravenous induction hypnotics form the basis for the daily work of anesthetists. Side effects of using hypnotic induction agents must be anticipated and adequately treated. Decades of experience with using intravenous induction hypnotics have led to theoretical requirements for an ideal narcotic agent with a best possible side effect profile. In the absence of this optimal hypnotic induction agent, a careful selection of one or a combination of narcotic drugs is necessary to meet the needs of the respective risk constellation of the patient...
November 16, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138992/use-of-ketamine-in-elderly-patients-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#16
REVIEW
Carolina Medeiros da Frota Ribeiro, Patricio Riva-Posse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the use of ketamine as an antidepressant for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in the geriatric population. Available treatment options for late-life treatment-resistant depression are limited and include electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation as well as possible pharmacologic augmentation. Ketamine has been shown to be a promising treatment in TRD; however, data regarding the use of ketamine in the elderly includes only five case reports...
November 15, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137928/camkii%C3%AE-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-nmdar-hypofunction-schizophrenia-putative-roles-for-igf-1r-and-tlr4
#17
O M Ogundele, C C Lee
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is linked to social behavioral deficits and other negative symptoms associated with hippocampal synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic mechanism of schizophrenia is characterized by loss of hippocampal N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) activity (NMDAR hypofunction) and dendritic spines. Previous studies show that genetic deletion of hippocampal synaptic regulatory calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) cause synaptic and behavioral defects associated with schizophrenia in mice...
November 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136301/ketamine-for-the-acute-management-of-excited-delirium-and-agitation-in-the-prehospital-setting
#18
REVIEW
Lauren M Linder, Clint A Ross, Kyle A Weant
Traditional first-line therapy in the prehospital setting for the acutely agitated patient includes an antipsychotic in combination with a benzodiazepine. Recently, interest has grown regarding the use of ketamine in the prehospital setting as an attempt to overcome the limitations of the traditional medications and provide a more safe and effective therapy. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of ketamine, evaluates the literature regarding ketamine use for prehospital agitation, and proposes an algorithm that may be used within the prehospital setting...
January 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127600/a-review-of-current-and-emerging-approaches-to-pain-management-in-the-emergency-department
#19
REVIEW
Knox H Todd
INTRODUCTION: Pain is the most common symptom prompting an emergency department visit and emergency physicians are responsible for managing both acute pain and acute exacerbations of chronic pain resulting from a broad range of illnesses and injuries. The responsibility to treat must be balanced by the duty to limit harm resulting from analgesics. In recent years, opioid-related adverse effects, including overdose and deaths, have increased dramatically in the USA. In response to the US opioid crisis, emergency physicians have broadened their analgesic armamentarium to include a variety of non-opioid approaches...
December 2017: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123660/does-perioperative-ketamine-have-a-role-in-the-prevention-of-chronic-postsurgical-pain-the-rocket-trial
#20
Stephan A Schug, Philip Peyton
Identifying operations and individuals with an increased risk of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) has led to significant interest in interventions with the potential to achieve primary prevention of this condition. Pharmacological prevention remains controversial with a Cochrane review identifying perioperative ketamine administration as the only intervention with possible benefit although, with only small, heterogeneous studies, the authors called for a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) to confirm the validity of this result...
November 2017: British Journal of Pain
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