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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535390/spatial-memory-mice-quickly-learn-a-safe-haven
#1
S E Roian Egnor
New work on innate escape behavior shows that mice spontaneously form a spatially precise memory of the location of shelter, which is laid down quickly and updated continuously.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532855/long-term-influence-of-prenatal-high-sucrose-intake-on-learning-and-memory-of-aged-rat-offspring-with-oxidative-stress-and-disruptions-in-nmdars-wnt-signaling-in-hippocampus
#2
Axin He, Yingying Zhang, Lingjun Li, Xueqin Feng, Bin Wei, Di Zhu, Yanping Liu, Lei Wu, Lubo Zhang, Zhice Xu, Miao Sun
Maternal over-nutrition may increase risks of various diseases in the offspring. Our recent work demonstrated that prenatal high sucrose (HS) could impair spatial acquisitionin the adolescentoffspringrats. This study investigated whether prenatal HS has a long-term impact on cognitive capabilities in the aged offspring rats. The aged HS offspring showed impaired glucose tolerance, significantly increased fasting insulin and insulin resistance index, with unchanged plasma glucose. In the navigation test, the aged HS offspring exhibited longer escape latency and longer swimming path length to the platform...
May 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532645/identification-of-a-novel-psen1-mutation-leu232pro-in-a-korean-patient-with-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-and-a-family-history-of-dementia
#3
Jiyun Park, Seong Soo A An, Vo Van Giau, Kyuhwan Shim, Young Chul Youn, Eva Bagyinszky, SangYun Kim
In the present study, a novel mutation in exon 7 of presenilin 1 (Leu232Pro) was discovered in a Korean patient with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, who represented memory decline at 37 years of age, followed by impairment in spatial activity and concentrations and personality changes. Imaging analyses with magnetic resonance scan showed diffuse atrophy in the frontoparietal regions. Targeted next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing identified a heterozygous T to C transition at position 695 (c.695T>C) of in presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1), resulting in a novel missense mutation at codon 232 from leucine to proline (L232P)...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532302/the-effects-of-the-constancy-of-location-and-order-in-working-memory-visual-phonological-binding-of-children-with-dyslexia
#4
Enrico Toffalini, Elisa Tomasi, Donatella Albano, Cesare Cornoldi
It has been suggested that children with dyslexia have difficulties in visual-phonological working memory (WM) binding, supporting the hypothesis that this ability is crucial in the formation of associations between written forms and phonological codes required by reading. However, research on this topic is currently scarce and has not clarified to what extent binding may be supported by spatial and temporal information. The present study examined visual-phonological WM binding performance in a group of children with dyslexia compared to a control group of typically developing children matched for age, gender, and grade...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#5
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532055/gold-nanoparticles-prevent-cognitive-deficits-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-sporadic-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type
#6
Alexandre Pastoris Muller, Gabriela K Ferreira, Allison José Pires, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Débora Laureano de Souza, Joice de Abreu Brandolfi, Claudio Teodoro de Souza, Marcos M S Paula, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia in the aged brain. Even though its etiology is unknown, factors such as neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and impaired insulin signaling may play a role. We used a sporadic AD model in rats generated by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (i.c.v.-STZ) injection to test the therapeutic effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference between the STZ+GNPs group and the STZ group in the analyzed markers...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529875/advanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-for-detecting-brain-injury-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-university-amateur-boxers
#7
M G Hart, C R Housden, J Suckling, R Tait, A Young, U Müller, V F J Newcombe, I Jalloh, B Pearson, J Cross, R A Trivedi, J D Pickard, B J Sahakian, P J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND/AIM: The safety of amateur and professional boxing is a contentious issue. We hypothesised that advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing could provide evidence of acute and early brain injury in amateur boxers. METHODS: We recruited 30 participants from a university amateur boxing club in a prospective cohort study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing was performed at three time points: prior to starting training; within 48 h following a first major competition to detect acute brain injury; and one year follow-up...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529052/prenatal-melamine-exposure-induces-impairments-of-spatial-cognition-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-female-adolescent-rats
#8
Lei An, Wei Sun
Developmental exposure to melamine induces long-term effects on brain and behavior in male rodents. To examine whether this prenatal event damages cognitive function in female offspring, we evaluated the behavioral effects and further attempted to investigate synaptic function. Prenatal melamine exposure (PME) was given by oral treatment to pregnant females through the whole gestational days with 400mg/day/kg bodyweight. On postnatal day (PD) 36, female offspring were assessed for spatial cognition in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test...
May 18, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528185/simvastatin-ameliorate-memory-deficits-and-inflammation-in-clinical-and-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulating-the-expression-of-mir-106b
#9
Wenzhong Huang, Zhenyu Li, Liandong Zhao, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, and several studies have shown that AD is closely related to the inflammation, so anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on inflammation was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. METHODS: First, we tested the effect of simvastatin on AD in clinical research...
May 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527714/investigation-of-left-and-right-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-in-c57bl6-j-mice-in-vivo-functional-consequences
#10
Lesley D Schurman, Terry L Smith, Anthony J Morales, Nancy N Lee, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips, Aron H Lichtman
Although rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) reliably produce cognitive and motor disturbances, behavioral characterization resulting from left and right hemisphere injuries remains unexplored. Here we examined the functional consequences of targeting the left versus right parietal cortex in lateral fluid percussion injury, on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial memory tasks (fixed platform and reversal) and neurological motor deficits (neurological severity score and rotarod). In the MWM fixed platform task, right lateral injury produced a small delay in acquisition rate compared to left...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524123/-a-clinical-and-neuropsychological-study-of-patients-before-and-after-resection-of-third-ventricle-colloid-cysts
#11
S B Buklina, A N Konovalov, D I Pitskhelauri, M A Shkarubo, A A Poddubskaya, M V Kolycheva
The literature lacks studies of cognitive impairments in large groups of patients after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. AIM: To evaluate cognitive impairments in patients before and after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a clinical and neuropsychological study of 52 patients with third ventricle colloid cysts using the Luria method (1962). Forty three patients were examined before and after cyst resection in the early postoperative period (three patients in this group were also examined in a long-term period of 3-7 months after surgery)...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523564/prenatal-and-early-postnatal-environmental-enrichment-reduce-acute-cell-death-and-prevent-neurodevelopment-and-memory-impairments-in-rats-submitted-to-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#12
L E Durán-Carabali, D M Arcego, F K Odorcyk, L Reichert, J L Cordeiro, E F Sanches, L D Freitas, C Dalmaz, A Pagnussat, C A Netto
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental strategy to attenuate the negative effects of different neurological conditions including neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of prenatal and early postnatal EE in animals submitted to neonatal HIE model at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or standard conditions (SC) during pregnancy and lactation periods. Pups of both sexes were assigned to one of four experimental groups, considering the early environmental conditions and the injury: SC-Sham, SC-HIE, EE-sham, and EE-HIE...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523234/the-effect-of-comt-val158met-and-drd2-c957t-polymorphisms-on-executive-function-and-the-impact-of-early-life-stress
#13
Kristel Klaus, Kevin Butler, Simon J Durrant, Manir Ali, Chris F Inglehearn, Timothy L Hodgson, Humberto Gutierrez, Kyla Pennington
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has indicated that variation in genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) may influence cognitive function and that this may confer vulnerability to the development of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. However, increasing evidence suggests environmental factors such as early life stress may interact with genetic variants in affecting these cognitive outcomes. This study investigated the effect of COMT Val158Met and DRD2 C957T polymorphisms on executive function and the impact of early life stress in healthy adults...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521253/differences-in-cognitive-deficits-in-individuals-with-subthreshold-syndromes-with-and-without-family-history-of-bipolar-disorder
#14
Kangguang Lin, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Ting Li, Weicong Lu, Jiehua Kong, Guiyun Xu
Little is known about the development of cognitive deficits prior to the official onset of bipolar disorder (BP). The aim of this study was to investigate neurocognitive performance in two early stages of BP. This high-risk design study recruited a group of offspring of parents with BP (n = 58), aged 8-28 years. Based on the subthreshold syndromes, the "unaffected" offspring were further divided into high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages. For comparison, a group of individuals with subthreshold symptoms but without family history of psychiatric disorder (n = 17) and 48 healthy controls (HCs) were included...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520620/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-ameliorates-memory-impairment-and-rescues-the-abnormal-synaptic-protein-levels-in-the-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Yufang Guo, Yan Zhao, Ying Nan, Xiang Wang, Yulong Chen, Shuang Wang
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenolic extract in green tea and it has attracted increasing attention for its multiple bioactive effects. However, the mechanisms by which EGCG exerts its neuroprotective actions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are presently lacking. In the present study, a sporadic AD transgenic mouse model known as senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) was used to investigate whether oral administration of EGCG could improve recognition and memory function through reduction of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau hyperphosphorylation...
May 17, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515873/brain-morphology-of-the-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus-varies-inconsistently-with-respect-to-habitat-complexity-a-test-of-the-clever-foraging-hypothesis
#16
Newaz I Ahmed, Cole Thompson, Daniel I Bolnick, Yoel E Stuart
The Clever Foraging Hypothesis asserts that organisms living in a more spatially complex environment will have a greater neurological capacity for cognitive processes related to spatial memory, navigation, and foraging. Because the telencephalon is often associated with spatial memory and navigation tasks, this hypothesis predicts a positive association between telencephalon size and environmental complexity. The association between habitat complexity and brain size has been supported by comparative studies across multiple species but has not been widely studied at the within-species level...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515768/effect-of-acute-and-long-term-potassium-bromide-administration-on-spatial-working-memory-in-rat
#17
Faezeh Safdari, Mohammad Rabbani, Ali Hosseini-Sharifabad
Potassium bromide (KBr), an old antiepileptic agent, is illegally used in pharmaceutical or food industries to improve the product appearance. KBr has been proven to influence several pathways which are important in memory formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of KBr on spatial working memory using object recognition task (ORT). Rats received a single dose of KBr (50, 100 or 150 mg/kg), per oral, in acute treatment. KBr long term effects were also studied in animals receiving 50 mg/kg/day of KBr for 28 consecutive days...
April 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514890/spatial-recognition-test-a-novel-cognition-task-for-assessing-topographical-memory-in-mice
#18
Enes Havolli, Mark Dw Hill, Annie Godley, Pascal Jd Goetghebeur
Dysfunction in topographical memory is a core feature of several neurological disorders. There is a large unmet medical need to address learning and memory deficits as a whole in central nervous system disease. There are considerable efforts to identify pro-cognitive compounds but current methods are either lengthy or labour intensive. Our test used a two chamber apparatus and is based on the preference of rodents to explore novel environments. It was used firstly to assess topographical memory in mice at different retention intervals (RI) and secondly to investigate the effect of three drugs reported to be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease, namely: donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513774/hippocampal-overexpression-of-down-syndrome-cell-adhesion-molecule-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic-mice
#19
Y L Jia, Z X Fu, B H Zhang, Y J Jia
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) is located within the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21. DSCAM is a broadly expressed neurodevelopmental protein involved in synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and axon guidance. We previously demonstrated DSCAM overexpression in the cortex of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, suggesting possible regulatory interactions between APP and DSCAM. APP mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In this preliminary study, we examined age-related changes in DSCAM expression within the hippocampus in 16 APP transgenic mice (1, 3, 6 and 12 months old)...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513589/decoding-material-specific-memory-reprocessing-during-sleep-in-humans
#20
M Schönauer, S Alizadeh, H Jamalabadi, A Abraham, A Pawlizki, S Gais
Neuronal learning activity is reactivated during sleep but the dynamics of this reactivation in humans are still poorly understood. Here we use multivariate pattern classification to decode electrical brain activity during sleep and determine what type of images participants had viewed in a preceding learning session. We find significant patterns of learning-related processing during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, which are generalizable across subjects. This processing occurs in a cyclic fashion during time windows congruous to critical periods of synaptic plasticity...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
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