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Spatial memory

Audrey M B Wong-Kee-You, Scott A Adler
Advances in our understanding of long-term memory in early infancy have been made possible by studies that have used the Rovee-Collier's mobile conjugate reinforcement paradigm and its variants. One function that has been attributed to long-term memory is the formation of expectations (Rovee-Collier & Hayne, 1987); consequently, a long-term memory representation should be established during expectation formation. To examine this prediction and potentially open the door on a new paradigm for exploring infants' long-term memory, using the Visual Expectation Paradigm (Haith, Hazan, & Goodman, 1988), 3-month-old infants were trained to form an expectation for predictable color and spatial information of picture events and emit anticipatory eye movements to those events...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Adam I Ramsaran, Hollie R Sanders, Mark E Stanton
Since the seminal report on novel object recognition in the rat (Ennaceur & Delacour, 1988), novelty recognition paradigms have become increasingly prevalent in learning and memory research. Novelty recognition tasks do not require extensive training or complex behaviors, and thus are especially suitable for studying the ontogeny of various forms of memory (e.g., object, spatial, and contextual memory). However, relatively little is known about the determinants of recognition memory during development. The present study extends our recent research on the development of recognition memory by further characterizing the ontogeny of contextual recognition (Ramsaran, Westbrook, & Stanton, 2016)...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Yanan Cao, Xiangyi Cao, Zhenzhu Yue, Ling Wang
Behavioral and recent neuroimaging findings have shown reversal of interference effects due to manipulating proportion congruency (PC), which suggests that task-irrelevant stimulus-response (S-R) associations are strengthened and applied to predict responses. However, it is unclear how the strengthened S-R associations are represented and applied in the brain. We investigated with a between-subjects PC paradigm of the Hedge and Marsh task using electroencephalography (EEG). The behavioral results showed the reversal of the conflict effects, suggesting that task-irrelevant S-R associations were strengthened and used to prepare responses...
October 17, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Steve Majerus, Nelson Cowan
Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Joshua Kim, Michele Pignatelli, Sangyu Xu, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Susumu Tonegawa
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a site of convergence of negative and positive stimuli and is critical for emotional behaviors and associations. However, the neural substrate for negative and positive behaviors and relationship between negative and positive representations in the basolateral amygdala are unknown. Here we identify two genetically distinct, spatially segregated populations of excitatory neurons in the mouse BLA that participate in valence-specific behaviors and are connected through mutual inhibition...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Carmen Brankaer, Pol Ghesquière, Anke De Wel, Ann Swillen, Bert De Smedt
Cross-syndrome comparisons offer an important window onto understanding heterogeneity in mathematical learning disabilities or dyscalculia. The present study therefore investigated symbolic numerical magnitude processing in two genetic syndromes that are both characterized by mathematical learning disabilities: Turner syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). We further verified whether the phenotypic outcomes of these syndromes emerged from the same or different cognitive processes and therefore examined whether numerical impairments were related to working memory deficits, often observed in these syndromes...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Elpiniki Pappa, Denis Burdakov, John Apergis-Schoute
The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) system holds a central role in the regulation of several physiological functions critical for food-seeking behavior including mnemonic processes for effective foraging behavior. It is unclear however whether physiological increases in HO neuronal activity can support such processes. Using a designer rM3Ds receptor activation approach increasing HO neuronal activity resulted in improved short-term memory for novel locations. When tested on a non-spatial novelty object recognition task no significant difference was detected between groups indicating that hypothalamic HO neuronal activation can selectively facilitate short-term spatial memory for potentially supporting memory for locations during active exploration...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Dohoung Kim, Huijeong Jeong, Juhyeong Lee, Jeong-Wook Ghim, Eun Sil Her, Seung-Hee Lee, Min Whan Jung
Inhibitory interneurons are thought to play crucial roles in diverse brain functions. However, roles of different inhibitory interneuron subtypes in working memory remain unclear. We found distinct activity patterns and stimulation effects of two major interneuron subtypes, parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SOM)-expressing interneurons, in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice performing a spatial working memory task. PV interneurons showed weak target-dependent delay-period activity and were strongly inhibited by reward...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Juliana Sorraila de Oliveira, Fátima Husein Abdalla, Guilherme Lopes Dornelles, Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha, Taís Vidal Palma, Cristiane Signor, Jamile da Silva Bernardi, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Luana Suéling Lenz, Luana Pereira Magni, Maribel Antonello Rubin, Micheli Mainardi Pillat, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of berberine (BRB) on spatial and learning memory, anxiety, acetylcholinesterase activity and cell death in an experimental model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced sporadic Alzheimer's-like dementia. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control (CTR), BRB 50mg/kg (BRB 50), BRB 100mg/kg (BRB 100), streptozotocin (STZ), streptozotocin plus BRB 50mg/kg (STZ+BRB 50), and streptozotocin plus BRB 100mg/kg (STZ+BRB 100)...
October 13, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Martina Starc, John D Murray, Nicole Santamauro, Aleksandar Savic, Caroline Diehl, Youngsun T Cho, Vinod Srihari, Peter T Morgan, John H Krystal, Xiao-Jing Wang, Grega Repovs, Alan Anticevic
Schizophrenia is associated with severe cognitive deficits, including impaired working memory (WM). A neural mechanism that may contribute to WM impairment is the disruption in excitation-inhibition (E/I) balance in cortical microcircuits. It remains unknown, however, how these alterations map onto quantifiable behavioral deficits in patients. Based on predictions from a validated microcircuit model of spatial WM, we hypothesized two key behavioral consequences: i) increased variability of WM traces over time, reducing performance precision; and ii) decreased ability to filter out distractors that overlap with WM representations...
October 10, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Rimpi Arora, Rahul Deshmukh
Embelin, the main active constituent of Embelia ribes, has been reported to possess various pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanisms and therapeutic potential of embelin against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic dementia in rats. STZ was infused bilaterally at the dose of (3 mg/kg/1 μl/1 min) ICV on day first and third. Spatial and non-spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze and object recognition task in rats...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
David C Cappadocia, Simona Monaco, Ying Chen, Gunnar Blohm, J Douglas Crawford
The cortical mechanisms for reach have been studied extensively, but directionally selective mechanisms for visuospatial target memory, movement planning, and movement execution have not been clearly differentiated in the human. We used an event-related fMRI design with a visuospatial memory delay, followed by a pro-/anti-reach instruction, a planning delay, and finally a "go" instruction for movement. This sequence yielded temporally separable preparatory responses that expanded from modest parieto-frontal activation for visual target memory to broad occipital-parietal-frontal activation during planning and execution...
October 15, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
L Müller, D Weinert
In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Deeba Noreen Baig, Toru Yanagawa, Katsuhiko Tabuchi
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SCAMs) are a functional category of cell adhesion molecules that connect pre- and postsynapses by the protein-protein interaction via their extracellular cell adhesion domains. Countless numbers of common genetic variants and rare mutations in SCAMs have been identified in the patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these, NRXN and NLGN family proteins cooperatively function at synaptic terminals both of which genes are strongly implicated as risk genes for ASDs...
October 12, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
M-N Babinet, C Rigard, É Peyroux, A-R Dragomir, I Plotton, H Lejeune, C Demily
INTRODUCTION: The Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic condition characterized by an X supernumerary sex chromosome in males. The syndrome is frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Indeed, the different areas of the executive sphere can be affected such as inhibition, cognitive flexibility but also attentional and visual-spatial domain. Social cognition disorders, predominantly on emotional recognition processes, have also been documented. In addition, the syndrome may be associated with psychiatric symptoms...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
Martijn J Schut, Jasper H Fabius, Nathan Van der Stoep, Stefan Van der Stigchel
One of the factors contributing to a seamless visual experience is object correspondence-that is, the integration of pre- and postsaccadic visual object information into one representation. Previous research had suggested that before the execution of a saccade, a target object is loaded into visual working memory and subsequently is used to locate the target object after the saccade. Until now, studies on object correspondence have not taken previous fixations into account. In the present study, we investigated the influence of previously fixated information on object correspondence...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes, however the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Brent F B Huisman, J M Létang, É Testa, D Sarrut
There is interest in the particle therapy community in using prompt gammas (PGs), a natural byproduct of particle treatment, for range verification and eventually dose control. However, PG production is a rare process and therefore estimation of PGs exiting a patient during a proton treatment plan executed by a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation converges slowly. Recently, different approaches to accelerating the estimation of PG yield have been presented. Sterpin et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 4915-46) described a fast analytic method, which is still sensitive to heterogeneities...
October 14, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Minzhen Deng, Liping Huang, Baile Ning, Nanbu Wang, Qinxin Zhang, Caixia Zhu, Yongqi Fang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly, and studies have suggested that β-asarone has pharmacological effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ) injected in the rat hippocampus. However, the effect of β-asarone on autophagy in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse is unreported. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into six groups (n=10/group): an untreated group, an Aricept-treated group, a 3-MA-treated group, a rapamycin-treated group, an LY294002-treated group, a β-asarone-treated group...
October 10, 2016: Brain Research
A Minami, H Matsushita, D Ieno, Y Matsuda, Y Horii, A Ishii, T Takahashi, H Kanazawa, A Wakatsuki, T Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) has estrogenic activity. Estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to a high risk of memory impairment and depression as well as metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. We here investigated the effect of RJ on memory impairment and depression-like behaviors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. METHODS: OVX rats were administered with RJ for 82 days. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and depression-like behaviors were assessed by the Morris water maze test and the forced swimming test, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
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