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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735143/transcranial-low-level-laser-therapy-improves-brain-mitochondrial-function-and-cognitive-impairment-in-d-galactose-induced-aging-mice
#1
Farzad Salehpour, Nahid Ahmadian, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Mehdi Farhoudi, Pouran Karimi, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad
Mitochondrial function plays a key role in the aging-related cognitive impairment, and photoneuromodulation of mitochondria by transcranial low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may contribute to its improvement. This study focused on the transcranial LLLT effects on the D-galactose (DG)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and cognitive impairment in mice. For this purpose, red and near-infrared (NIR) laser wavelengths (660 and 810 nm) at 2 different fluencies (4 and 8 J/cm(2)) at 10-Hz pulsed wave mode were administrated transcranially 3 d/wk in DG-received (500 mg/kg/subcutaneous) mice model of aging for 6 weeks...
July 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734549/habitual-versus-goal-driven-attention
#2
REVIEW
Yuhong V Jiang
Recent research has expanded the list of factors that control spatial attention. Beside current goals and perceptual salience, statistical learning, reward, motivation and emotion also affect attention. But do these various factors influence spatial attention in the same manner, as suggested by the integrated framework of attention, or do they target different aspects of spatial attention? Here I present evidence that the control of attention may be implemented in two ways. Whereas current goals typically modulate where in space attention is prioritized, search habits affect how one moves attention in space...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734164/cognitive-strategies-in-the-mental-rotation-task-revealed-by-eeg-spectral-power
#3
Aaron L Gardony, Marianna D Eddy, Tad T Brunyé, Holly A Taylor
The classic mental rotation task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971) is commonly thought to measure mental rotation, a cognitive process involving covert simulation of motor rotation. Yet much research suggests that the MRT recruits both motor simulation and other analytic cognitive strategies that depend on visuospatial representation and visual working memory (WM). In the present study, we investigated cognitive strategies in the MRT using time-frequency analysis of EEG and independent component analysis. We scrutinized sensorimotor mu (µ) power reduction, associated with motor simulation, parietal alpha (pα) power reduction, associated with visuospatial representation, and frontal midline theta (fmθ) power enhancement, associated with WM maintenance and manipulation...
July 19, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734078/associations-between-adolescent-cannabis-use-and-neuropsychological-decline-a-longitudinal-co-twin-control-study
#4
Madeline H Meier, Avshalom Caspi, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Renate Houts, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E Moffitt
AIMS: This study tested whether adolescents who used cannabis or met criteria for cannabis dependence showed neuropsychological impairment prior to cannabis initiation and neuropsychological decline from before to after cannabis initiation. DESIGN: A longitudinal co-twin control study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 1,989 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of twins born in England and Wales from 1994-1995...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733897/alleviation-of-neuropathology-by-inhibition-of-monoacylglycerol-lipase-in-app-transgenic-mice-lacking-cb2-receptors
#5
Jian Zhang, Chu Chen
Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, produces profound anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and improves synaptic and cognitive functions in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects produced by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are still not clear. The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) has been thought to be a therapeutic target for AD...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733268/carriers-of-an-apolipoprotein-e-epsilon-4-allele-are-more-vulnerable-to-a-dietary-deficiency-in-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cognitive-decline
#6
REVIEW
Tanya Gwendolyn Nock, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Mélanie Plourde
Carriers of an epsilon 4 allele (E4) of apolipoprotein E (APOE) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) earlier than carriers of other APOE alleles. The metabolism of plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), an omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), taken up by the brain and concentrated in neurons, is disrupted in E4 carriers, resulting in lower levels of brain DHA. Behavioural and cognitive impairments have been observed in animals with lower brain DHA levels, with emphasis on loss of spatial memory and increased anxiety...
July 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733256/prefrontal-neuromodulation-reverses-spatial-associations-of-non-numerical-sequences-but-not-numbers
#7
Philipp Alexander Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
Numerical and non-numerical sequence items interact with spatial responding, pointing towards mental representations that are grounded in space and referred to as SNARC effects (spatial-numerical association of response codes). An ongoing controversy pertains to the universal origin of different SNARC effects and whether their underpinning is a spatial arrangement of cardinal magnitude (mental number line) or a sequential arrangement of ordinal elements in working memory. Recent results from prefrontal neuromodulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were supportive of the unified working memory account...
July 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733247/effective-connectivity-during-successful-and-unsuccessful-recollection-in-young-and-old-adults
#8
Selene Cansino, Patricia Trejo-Morales, Cinthya Estrada-Manilla, Erick Humberto Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Perla Salgado-Lujambio, Ana Luisa Sosa-Ortiz
Aging effects on regional brain activation have been studied extensively to explain the gradual recollection failure that occurs with advancing age. However, little is known about the consequence of aging on the interaction among brain regions that support recollection. The purpose of this study was to examine effective connectivity at encoding and retrieval during successful and unsuccessful recollection in young and old adults. In particular, we analyzed a recollection network that is characterized by its susceptibility to aging effects by middle age or later, which is comprised of the occipital cortex, hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732282/proficient-use-of-low-spatial-frequencies-facilitates-face-memory-but-shows-protracted-maturation-throughout-adolescence
#9
Judith C Peters, Chantal Kemner
Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9-10-year-olds), adolescents (12-13-year-olds and 15-16-year-olds), and young adults (21-32-year-olds)...
July 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732260/differences-in-emotional-stimuli-processing-in-subjects-with-mtle-with-and-without-depression
#10
Lidija Preglej, Ksenija Marinković, Hrvoje Hećimović
In healthy people, a preference in attention maintenance and memory for words with emotional valence comparing to neutral words has been shown. The pattern of emotional stimuli processing may be different in people with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and it may be sensitive to the presence of depressive symptoms. In order to explore these possibilities, we applied the emotional spatial cueing attentional task and the free recall memory task to participants (N=39) with MTLE and compared them with healthy controls...
July 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731748/characterizing-time-irreversibility-in-disordered-fermionic-systems-by-the-effect-of-local-perturbations
#11
Shreya Vardhan, Giuseppe De Tomasi, Markus Heyl, Eric J Heller, Frank Pollmann
We study the effects of local perturbations on the dynamics of disordered fermionic systems in order to characterize time irreversibility. We focus on three different systems: the noninteracting Anderson and Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) models and the interacting spinless disordered t-V chain. First, we consider the effect on the full many-body wave functions by measuring the Loschmidt echo (LE). We show that in the extended or ergodic phase the LE decays exponentially fast with time, while in the localized phase the decay is algebraic...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731722/dynamically-reconfigurable-metadevice-employing-nanostructured-phase-change-materials
#12
Zhihua Zhu, Philip Gareth Evans, Richard F Haglund, Jason Valentine
Mastering dynamic free-space spectral control and modulation in the near-infrared and optical regimes remains a challenging task that is hindered by the available functional materials at high frequencies. Here, we realize an efficient metadevice capable of spectral control by minimizing the thermal mass of a vanadium dioxide phase-change material (PCM) and placing the PCM at the feed gap of a bow-tie field antenna. The device has an experimentally measured tuning range up to 360 nm in the NIR and a modulation depth of 33% at the resonant wavelength...
July 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731445/colivelin-ameliorates-impairments-in%C3%A2-cognitive-behaviors-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#13
Meina Wu, Hui Shi, Yexin He, Li Yuan, Xuesong Qu, Jun Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Hongyan Cai, Jinshun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and effective therapeutics are lacking. Colivelin (CLN), a novel, strong humanin derivative, is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low concentration. We recently demonstrated that intrahippocampal injection of CLN prevents Aβ25-35-induced deficits in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in normal rats. Here, we further observed the effects of chronically intranasally (i...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731436/impaired-processing-of-serial-order-determines-working-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Maya De Belder, Patrick Santens, Anne Sieben, Wim Fias
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) problems are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the affected mechanisms leading to impaired WM are still insufficiently understood. The ability to efficiently process serial order in WM has been demonstrated to be fundamental to fluent daily life functioning. The decreased capability to mentally process serial position in WM has been put forward as the underlying explanation for generally compromised WM performance. OBJECTIVE: Determine which mechanisms, such as order processing, are responsible for deficient WM functioning in AD...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729940/propofol-induced-downregulation-of-nr2b-membrane-translocation-in-hippocampus-and-spatial-memory-deficits-of-neonatal-mice
#15
Yuzhu Wang, Song Han, Ruquan Han, Yue Su, Junfa Li
BACKGROUND: Thousands of infants and children are undergoing anesthesia around the world every day. But impacts of anesthetics on the developing neural system remain unclear yet. Previous evidence showed that anesthesia might affect the developing neural system. Thus, early-life anesthesia becomes a critical issue in clinical pediatric practice. Hence, propofol, a short-acting and widely applied intravenous anesthetic, has been gaining focus upon neonatal anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty-four male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into following three groups: group D6 intraperitoneally (i...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729438/electrophysiological-evidence-that-the-retrosplenial-cortex-displays-a-strong-and-specific-activation-phased-with-hippocampal-theta-during-paradoxical-rem-sleep
#16
Koike Bruna Del Vechio, Farias Kelly Soares, Billwiller Francesca, Almeida-Filho Daniel, Libourel Paul-Antoine, Tiran-Cappello Alix, Parmentier Régis, Blanco Wilfredo, Ribeiro Sidarta, Luppi Pierre-Herve, Queiroz Claudio Marcos
It is widely accepted that cortical neurons are similarly more activated during waking and paradoxical sleep (PS, aka REM) than during slow wave sleep (SWS). However, we recently reported using Fos labeling that only a few limbic cortical structures including the retrosplenial (RSC) and anterior cingulate (ACA) cortices contain a large number of neurons activated during PS hypersomnia. Our aim in the present study was to record local field potentials (LFPs) and unit activity from these two structures across all vigilance states in freely moving male rats to determine whether the RSC and the ACA are electrophysiologically specifically active during basal PS episodes...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729138/spatial-working-memory-in-the-touchscreen-operant-platform-is-disrupted-in-female-rats-by-ovariectomy-but-not-estrous-cycle
#17
Alyssa M Sbisa, Andrea Gogos, Maarten van den Buuse
Learning and memory deficits have been described in rats and mice after ovariectomy (OVX) and across the estrous cycle. Preclinical researchers therefore often avoid using female animals and, consequently, a large male bias exists in the preclinical cognitive literature. In the present study we examined the role of sex hormones in the touchscreen operant platform using the spatial working memory trial unique nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task. Twenty-nine Long Evans rats were trained to acquire the TUNL task including three incremental spatial separations (S0, S1, S2)...
July 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728096/early-life-stress-explains-reduced-positive-memory-biases-in-remitted-depression
#18
J A Gethin, K E Lythe, C I Workman, A Mayes, J Moll, R Zahn
BACKGROUND: There is contradictory evidence regarding negative memory biases in major depressive disorder (MDD) and whether these persist into remission, which would suggest their role as vulnerability traits rather than correlates of mood state. Early life stress (ELS), common in patients with psychiatric disorders, has independently been associated with memory biases, and confounds MDD versus control group comparisons. Furthermore, in most studies negative biases could have resulted from executive impairments rather than memory difficulties per se...
July 10, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727685/erbb4-signaling-in-dopaminergic-axonal-projections-increases-extracellular-dopamine-levels-and-regulates-spatial-working-memory-behaviors
#19
M Skirzewski, I Karavanova, A Shamir, L Erben, J Garcia-Olivares, J H Shin, D Vullhorst, V A Alvarez, S G Amara, A Buonanno
Genetic variants of Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its neuronal tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4 are associated with risk for schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and dopamine (DA) dysfunction. To date, most ErbB4 studies have focused on GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and neocortex, particularly fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (PV+) basket cells. However, NRG has also been shown to modulate DA levels, suggesting a role for ErbB4 signaling in dopaminergic neuron function...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725889/cholesterol-lowering-by-pediococcus-acidilactici-lab4-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-lab12-in-adult-zebrafish-is-associated-with-improved-memory-and-involves-an-interplay-between-npc1l1-and-abca1
#20
Fei Tieng Lim, Siong Meng Lim, Kalavathy Ramasamy
This study assessed the cholesterol lowering effect of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 using adult zebrafish. Animals were fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) with/without LAB for seven weeks. Serum and liver cholesterol was quantified using colorimetric and dye staining methods. Expressions of npc1l1 and abca1 in the liver and intestine and appa in the brain were quantified using RT-PCR. Serum and liver cholesterol was significantly lowered in LAB4- and LAB12-fed zebrafish (≤64% and ≤71%, respectively), with reduced liver cholesterol deposition...
July 20, 2017: Food & Function
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