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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244542/differential-long-term-medication-impact-on-executive-function-and-delay-aversion-in-adhd
#1
Belen Rubio Morell, Sergio Hernández Expósito
The objective was to compare long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) on executive functions (EF) and delay aversion (DAv) in ADHD. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at three moments (Naive, Post-1, Post-2). ADHD participants who showed deficits in the naive evaluation (n = 26) were randomized to receive either MPH (n = 13; Mage = 11 ± 1, MIQ 96 ± 8) or ATX (n = 13; Mage = 10 ± 1, MIQ 106 ± 16...
December 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243543/a-kainate-receptor-gluk4-deletion-protective-against-bipolar-disorder-is-associated-with-enhanced-cognitive-performance-across-diagnoses-in-the-twinsuk-cohort
#2
Maria Koromina, Miles Flitton, Ian Mellor, Helen Miranda Knight
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are a common feature of neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated the relationship between cognitive performance and a deletion allele within GluK4 protective against risk for bipolar disorder, in 1642 individuals from the TwinsUK study. METHODS: Cognitive performance was assessed using the National Adult Reading Test, four CANTAB tests (Spatial Working Memory, Paired Associates Learning, Pattern Recognition Memory, and Reaction Time), and two Principal Component Analysis derived factors...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241675/effect-of-telmisartan-on-preventing-learning-and-memory-deficits-via-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-in-vascular-dementia-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#3
Yuan Gao, Wei Li, Yali Liu, Yan Wang, Jianchao Zhang, Miao Li, Mengsen Bu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effect of telmisartan (TEL), as a partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, in vascular dementia (VaD) rats induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats were divided into 6 groups: the sham group, model group, TEL-treated groups (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg), and TEL + GW9662 (10 mg/kg + 1 mg/kg). Using the MCAO method established the VaD rat model...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241126/the-chronic-exposure-to-abamectin-causes-spatial-memory-deficit-and-depressive-behavior-in-mice
#4
Wellington Alves Mizael da Silva, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Mateus Flores Montalvão, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
It is known that abamectin (ABA), which is a component belonging to the group of avermectins, has been broadly used as biopesticide. Although its effect on non-target aquatic organisms is known, knowledge about its impacts on terrestrial animals such as mammals remains incipient. Thus, we aim at investigating the effects (phycical and neural-behavioral) from the chronic exposure (90 days) to ABA (1/10 of LD50) on Swiss and C57Bl/6J mice from both sexes. Accordingly, at the end of the experimental period the animals were subjected to the following tests: Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT), Morris Water Maze (MWM), Tail Suspension Test (TST), and Forced Swimming Test (FST)...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240990/wnt-signaling-loss-accelerates-the-appearance-of-neuropathological-hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-j20-app-transgenic-and-wild-type-mice
#5
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau protein, synaptic dysfunction, and spatial memory impairment. The Wnt signaling pathway has several key functions in the adult brain and has been associated with AD, mainly as a neuroprotective factor against Aβ toxicity and tau phosphorylation. However, dysfunction of Wnt/β-catenin signaling might also play a role in the onset and development of the disease. J20 APPswInd transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD was treated i...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239631/video-game-training-does-not-enhance-cognitive-ability-a-comprehensive-meta-analytic-investigation
#6
Giovanni Sala, K Semir Tatlidil, Fernand Gobet
As a result of considerable potential scientific and societal implications, the possibility of enhancing cognitive ability by training has been one of the most influential topics of cognitive psychology in the last two decades. However, substantial research into the psychology of expertise and a recent series of meta-analytic reviews have suggested that various types of cognitive training (e.g., working memory training) benefit performance only in the trained tasks. The lack of skill generalization from one domain to different ones-that is, far transfer-has been documented in various fields of research such as working memory training, music, brain training, and chess...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238619/hippocampal-regulation-of-postsynaptic-density-homer1-by-associative-learning
#7
Nicholas E Clifton, Darren Cameron, Simon Trent, Lucy H Sykes, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, particularly genes encoding postsynaptic density proteins, have been recurrently linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Postsynaptic density Homer1 proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity through the competing actions of short and long isoforms. The activity-induced expression of short Homer1 isoforms, Homer1a and Ania-3, is thought to be related to processes of learning and memory. However, the precise regulation of Homer1a and Ania-3 with different components of learning has not been investigated...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238473/the-effects-of-cck-8s-on-spatial-memory-and-long-term-potentiation-at-ca1-during-induction-of-stress-in-rats
#8
Malihe Sadeghi, Parham Reisi, Maryam Radahmadi
Objectives: Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been proposed as a mediator in stress. However, it is still not fully documented what are its effects. We aimed to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of CCK exactly before induction of stress on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity at CA1 in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: the control, the control-CCK, the stress and the stress-CCK. Restraint stress was induced 6 hr per day, for 24 days...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238299/the-htm-spatial-pooler-a-neocortical-algorithm-for-online-sparse-distributed-coding
#9
Yuwei Cui, Subutai Ahmad, Jeff Hawkins
Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) provides a theoretical framework that models several key computational principles of the neocortex. In this paper, we analyze an important component of HTM, the HTM spatial pooler (SP). The SP models how neurons learn feedforward connections and form efficient representations of the input. It converts arbitrary binary input patterns into sparse distributed representations (SDRs) using a combination of competitive Hebbian learning rules and homeostatic excitability control...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237555/real-world-navigation-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-the-relation-to-visuospatial-memory-and-volume-of-hippocampal-subregions
#10
Jessica Peter, Richard Sandkamp, Lora Minkova, Lena V Schumacher, Christoph P Kaller, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Stefan Klöppel
Spatial disorientation is a frequent symptom in Alzheimer's disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In the clinical routine, spatial orientation is less often tested with real-world navigation but rather with 2D visuoconstructive tasks. However, reports about the association between the two types of tasks are sparse. Additionally, spatial disorientation has been linked to volume of the right hippocampus but it remains unclear whether right hippocampal subregions have differential involvement in real-world navigation...
December 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237528/-effect-of-leptin-on-long-term-spatial-memory-of-rats-with-white-matter-damage-in-developing-brain
#11
Er-Cui Feng, Li Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of leptin by observing its effect on spatial memory of rats with white matter damage in developing brain. METHODS: A total of 80 neonatal rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operation (n=27), model (n=27) and leptin intervention (n=27). The rats in the model and leptin intervention groups were used to prepare a model of white matter damage in developing brain, and the rats in the leptin intervention group were given leptin (100 μg/kg) diluted with normal saline immediately after modelling for 4 consecutive days...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236504/atomristor-non-volatile-resistance-switching-in-atomic-sheets-of-transition-metal-dichalcogenides
#12
Ruijing Ge, Xiaohan Wu, Myungsoo Kim, Jianping Shi, Sushant Sudam Sonde, Li Tao, Yanfeng Zhang, Jack Lee, Deji Akinwande
Recently, two-dimensional (2D) atomic sheets have inspired new ideas in nanoscience including topologically-protected charge transport, spatially-separated excitons, and strongly anisotropic heat transport. Here, we report the intriguing observation of stable non-volatile resistance switching (NVRS) in single-layer atomic sheets sandwiched between metal electrodes. NVRS is observed in the prototypical semiconducting (MX2, M=Mo, W; and X=S, Se) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which alludes to the universality of this phenomenon in TMD monolayers, and offers forming-free switching...
December 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235036/expression-of-dha-metabolizing-enzyme-alox15-is-regulated-by-selective-histone-acetylation-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#13
Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Claire Poh-Ee Bon, Yee-Kong Ng, Deron R Herr, Jui-Sheng Wu, Teng-Nan Lin, Wei-Yi Ong
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in neural membranes of the CNS, and recent studies have shown a role of DHA metabolism by 15-lipoxygenase-1 (Alox15) in prefrontal cortex resolvin D1 formation, hippocampo-prefrontal cortical long-term-potentiation, spatial working memory, and anti-nociception/anxiety. In this study, we elucidated epigenetic regulation of Alox15 via histone modifications in neuron-like cells. Treatment of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate significantly increased Alox15 mRNA expression...
December 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234786/the-effects-of-delay-duration-on-visual-working-memory-for-orientation
#14
Hongsup Shin, Qijia Zou, Wei Ji Ma
We used a delayed-estimation paradigm to characterize the joint effects of set size (one, two, four, or six) and delay duration (1, 2, 3, or 6 s) on visual working memory for orientation. We conducted two experiments: one with delay durations blocked, another with delay durations interleaved. As dependent variables, we examined four model-free metrics of dispersion as well as precision estimates in four simple models. We tested for effects of delay time using analyses of variance, linear regressions, and nested model comparisons...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234436/fraction-n-butanol-of-radix-notoginseng-protects-pc12-cells-from-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-cytotoxicity-and-alleviates-cognitive-deficits-in-samp8-mice-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress-and-a%C3%AE-accumulation
#15
Jin-Lan Huang, Ying-Qin Feng, Li-Ru Bai, Mei-Chun Qin, Zhe-Hao Xu, Zhao-Rong Liu, Wen-Bing Chen, Deng-Pan Wu, Zhen-Guo Zhong
Chinese medicine has been used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment for thousands of years with more effective and fewer side effects. Therefore, developing effective potential candidates from Chinese medicine against AD would be considered as critical and efficient therapy for AD treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the neuronal protective effect of fraction n-butanol (NB) of Radix Notoginseng on Aβ25-35-induced PC12 cells, explore the effect of the tested fraction on spatial learning and memory, and characterize the impacts of fraction NB on antioxidant enzymes, Aβ production, and APP and BACE1 expressions...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234016/activity-dependent-regulation-of-alternative-cleavage-and-polyadenylation-during-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation
#16
Mariana M Fontes, Aysegul Guvenek, Riki Kawaguchi, Dinghai Zheng, Alden Huang, Victoria M Ho, Patrick B Chen, Xiaochuan Liu, Thomas J O'Dell, Giovanni Coppola, Bin Tian, Kelsey C Martin
Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity that underlie learning and memory require new transcription and translation for their persistence. The remarkable polarity and compartmentalization of neurons raises questions about the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression within neurons. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) generates mRNA isoforms with different 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) and/or coding sequences. Changes in the 3'UTR composition of mRNAs can alter gene expression by regulating transcript localization, stability and/or translation, while changes in the coding sequences lead to mRNAs encoding distinct proteins...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232966/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-prolactin-levels-and-impaired-processing-speed-in-early-psychosis
#17
Itziar Montalvo, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Marta Creus, Ángel Cabezas, Montse Solé, Maria José Algora, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella, Javier Labad
INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinaemia is commonly observed in people with psychotic disorders due to D2 receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs, although it may also exist in drug-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis. Recent studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may have a negative impact on cognitive function in people with early psychosis. We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in the association between prolactin levels and cognitive performance in early psychosis patients...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232622/cognitive-mechanisms-underlying-third-graders-arithmetic-skills-expanding-the-pathways-to-mathematics-model
#18
Ulf Träff, Linda Olsson, Kenny Skagerlund, Rickard Östergren
A modified pathways to mathematics model was used to examine the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic skills in third graders. A total of 269 children were assessed on tasks tapping the four pathways and arithmetic skills. A path analysis showed that symbolic number processing was directly supported by the linguistic and approximate quantitative pathways. The direct contribution from the four pathways to arithmetic proficiency varied; the linguistic pathway supported single-digit arithmetic and word problem solving, whereas the approximate quantitative pathway supported only multi-digit calculation...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232494/reconstructing-relational-information
#19
Kevin M Horecka, Michael Dulas, Hillary Schwarb, Heather Lucas, Melissa Duff, Neal J Cohen
Hippocampal involvement in learning and remembering relational information has an extensive history, often focusing specifically on spatial information. In humans, spatial reconstruction (SR) paradigms are a powerful tool for evaluating an individuals' spatial-relational memory. In SR tasks, participants study locations of items in space and subsequently reconstruct the studied display after a short delay. Previous work has revealed that patients with hippocampal damage are impaired both in overall placement accuracy as well as on a specific measure of relational memory efficacy, "swaps" (i...
December 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232477/behavior-driven-arc-expression-is-reduced-in-all-ventral-hippocampal-subfields-compared-to-ca1-ca3-and-dentate-gyrus-in-rat-dorsal-hippocampus
#20
M K Chawla, V L Sutherland, K Olson, B L McNaughton, C A Barnes
Anatomical connectivity and lesion studies reveal distinct functional heterogeneity along the dorsal-ventral axis of the hippocampus. The immediate early gene Arc is known to be involved in neural plasticity and memory and can be used as a marker for cell activity that occurs, for example, when hippocampal place cells fire. We report here, that Arc is expressed in a greater proportion of cells in dorsal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), following spatial behavioral experiences compared to ventral hippocampal subregions (dorsal CA1= 33%; ventral CA1= 13%; dorsal CA3 = 23%; ventral CA3 = 8%; and dorsal DG = 2...
December 12, 2017: Hippocampus
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