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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647593/features-of-emotional-and-social-behavioral-phenotypes-of-calsyntenin2-knockout-mice
#1
S V Ranneva, K S Pavlov, A V Gromova, T G Amstislavskaya, T V Lipina
Calsyntenin-2 (Clstn2) is the synaptic protein that belongs to the super family of cadherins, playing an important role in learning and memory. We recently reported that Clstn2 knockout mice (Clstn2-KO) have a deficit of GABAergic interneurons coupled with hyperactivity and deficient spatial memory. Given, that impaired functioning of GABA receptors is linked to several psychopathologies, including anxiety and autism, we sought to further characterize Clstn2-KO mice with respect to emotional and social behavior...
June 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646794/dexibuprofen-prevents-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-decline-in-appswe-ps1de9-through-multiple-signaling-pathways
#2
Miren Ettcheto, Elena Sánchez-López, Laura Pons, Oriol Busquets, Jordi Olloquequi, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Merce Pallas, Maria Luisa García, Carme Auladell, Jaume Folch, Antoni Camins
The aim of the present study is to elucidate the neuronal pathways associated to NSAIDs causing a reduction of the risk and progression of Alzheimer's disease. The research was developed administering the active enantiomer of ibuprofen, dexibuprofen (DXI), in order to reduce associated gastric toxicity. DXI was administered from three to six-month-old female APPswe/PS1dE9 mice as a model of familial Alzheimer's disease. DXI treatment reduced the activation of glial cells and the cytokine release involved in the neurodegenerative process, especially TNFα...
June 15, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646712/prediction-of-vocational-participation-and-global-role-functioning-in-help-seeking-young-adults-from-neurocognitive-demographic-and-clinical-variables
#3
Alice J Cairns, David J Kavanagh, Frances Dark, Steven M McPhail
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate neurocognitive, demographic and clinical correlates of vocational participation among a sample of young help-seeking adults. METHODS: Young people (18-25 years) accessing an early intervention youth health service participated. The Global Functioning: Role scale and level of vocational participation, participant characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic background and family history of serious mental illness), distress, psychotic-like experiences, substance use, and mental health diagnoses were recorded...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646561/pathways-to-arithmetic-fact-retrieval-and-percentage-calculation-in-adolescents
#4
Ulf Träff, Kenny Skagerlund, Linda Olsson, Rickard Östergren
BACKGROUND: Developing sufficient mathematical skills is a prerequisite to function adequately in society today. Given this, an important task is to increase our understanding regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying young people's acquisition of early number skills and formal mathematical knowledge. AIMS: The purpose was to examine whether the pathways to mathematics model provides a valid account of the cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic-number processing and mathematics in adolescents...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646363/the-many-routes-of-mental-navigation-contrasting-the-effects-of-a-detailed-and-gist-retrieval-approach-on-using-and-forming-spatial-representations
#5
Signy Sheldon, Alexa Ruel
Navigated routes can be recalled by remembering a schematic layout or with additional sensory and perceptual details, engaging episodic memory processes. In this study, we contrasted the effects of these remembering approaches on retrieving real-world navigated routes, the impact on flexibly using familiar route information and on learning new spatial representations. In a within-subjects design, participants were oriented to recall familiar routes under two remembering conditions-a detail condition that promoted episodic memory processes and a gist condition in which routes were recalled via schematic processes...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645788/effects-of-acute-altered-gravity-during-parabolic-flight-and-or-vestibular-loss-on-cell-proliferation-in-the-rat-dentate-gyrus
#6
Yiwen Zheng, Catherine M Gliddon, Phillip Aitken, Lucy Stiles, Marie-Laure Machado, Bruno Philoxene, Pierre Denise, Paul F Smith, Stephane Besnard
Both parabolic flight, i.e. a condition of altered gravity, and loss of vestibular function, have been suggested to affect spatial learning and memory, which is known to be influenced by neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In this study we investigated whether short alternated micro- and hyper-gravity stimulations during parabolic flight and/or loss of vestibular function, would alter cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats, by measuring the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporated cells...
June 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645186/igf-i-gene-therapy-in-aging-rats-modulates-hippocampal-genes-relevant-to-memory-function
#7
Joaquín Pardo, Martin C Abba, Ezequiel Lacunza, Olalekan M Ogundele, Isabel Paiva, Gustavo R Morel, Tiago F Outeiro, Rodolfo G Goya
In rats, learning and memory performance decline during normal aging, which makes this rodent species a suitable model to evaluate therapeutic strategies. In aging rats, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), is known to significantly improve spatial memory accuracy as compared to control counterparts. A constellation of gene expression changes underlie the hippocampal phenotype of aging but no studies on the effects of IGF-I on the hippocampal transcriptome of old rodents have been documented. Here, we assessed the effects of IGF-I gene therapy on spatial memory performance in old female rats and compared them with changes in the hippocampal transcriptome...
June 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644892/r-modafinil-exerts-weak-effects-on-spatial-memory-acquisition-and-dentate-gyrus-synaptic-plasticity
#8
Bharanidharan Shanmugasundaram, Yogesh D Aher, Jana Aradska, Marija Ilic, Daniel Daba Feyissa, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragacevic, Babak Saber Marouf, Thierry Langer, Harald H Sitte, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Modafinil is a wake promoting drug approved for clinical use and also has cognitive enhancing properties. Its enantiomer R-Modafinil (R-MO) is not well studied in regard to cognitive enhancing properties. Hence we studied its effect in a spatial memory paradigm and its possible effects on dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (DG-LTP). Clinically relevant doses of R-MO, vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or saline were administered for three days during the hole-board test and in in vivo DG-LTP. Synaptic levels of dopamine receptors D1R, D2R, dopamine transporter (DAT), and its phosphorylated form (ph-DAT) in DG tissue 4 h after LTP induction were quantified by western blot analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644490/potentiating-role-of-copper-on-spatial-memory-deficit-induced-by-beta-amyloid-and-evaluation-of-mitochondrial-function-markers-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats
#9
Ladan Behzadfar, Mohammad Abdollahi, Omid Sabzevari, Rohollah Hosseini, Ahmad Salimi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Jalal Pourahmad
Mounting evidence suggests that copper, a crucial element in normal brain function, plays an important role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, which is known as a neurodegenerative mitochondrial disorder. However, the precise mechanisms of its effects on cognitive and mitochondrial functions through the CNS have not been thoroughly recognized yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term (3-week) effects of copper sulfate (50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) exposure on learning and memory as well as on mitochondrial function in the hippocampus of rats in the presence and absence of beta amyloid (1 μg μl(-1) per side) intrahippocampally (IH)...
June 23, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643158/measuring-working-memory-capacity-in-children-using-adaptive-tasks-example-validation-of-an-adaptive-complex-span
#10
Corentin Gonthier, Alexandre Aubry, Béatrice Bourdin
Working memory tasks designed for children usually present trials in order of ascending difficulty, with testing discontinued when the child fails a particular level. Unfortunately, this procedure comes with a number of issues, such as decreased engagement from high-ability children, vulnerability of the scores to temporary mind-wandering, and large between-subjects variations in number of trials, testing time, and proactive interference. To circumvent these problems, the goal of the present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of assessing working memory using an adaptive testing procedure...
June 22, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642613/protecting-visual-short-term-memory-during-maintenance-attentional-modulation-of-target-and-distractor-representations
#11
Marlies E Vissers, Rasa Gulbinaite, Tijl van den Bos, Heleen A Slagter
In the presence of distraction, attentional filtering is a key predictor of efficient information storage in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Yet, the role of attention in distractor filtering, and the extent to which attentional filtering continues to protect information during post-perceptual stages of VSTM, remains largely unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of spatial attention in distractor filtering during VSTM encoding and maintenance. Participants performed a change detection task with varying distractor load...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642096/pine-needle-extract-prevents-hippocampal-memory-impairment-in-acute-restraint-stress-mouse-model
#12
Jin-Seok Lee, Hyeong-Geug Kim, Hye-Won Lee, Won-Yong Kim, Yo-Chan Ahn, Chang-Gue Son
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Pinus densiflora leaf has been traditionally used to treat mental health disorders as a traditional Chinese medicine. Here we examined the ethnopharmacological relevance of pine needle on memory impairment caused by stress. AIM OF THE STUDY: To elucidate the possible modulatory actions of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on stress-induced hippocampal excitotoxicity, we adopted an acute restraint stress mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were orally administered with PNE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) for 9 days, and were then subjected to restraint stress (6h/day) for 3 days (from experimental day 7 to 9)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641949/reduced-protein-expressions-of-cytomembrane-gabaar%C3%AE-3-at-different-postnatal-developmental-stages-of-rats-exposed-prenatally-to-valproic-acid
#13
Yixin Li, Yang Zhou, Li Peng, Yong Zhao
Decreased inhibition plays an extremely important role in pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, we aimed to determine whether expression levels of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor β3 subunit (GABAARβ3), K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2), and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) related to inhibition transmission are changed in a sodium valproate-induced rat model of ASD. Decreased expression levels of membrane GABAARβ3 (m-GABAARβ3) and KCC2 as well as increased endocytosis of GABAARs were found in the model group...
June 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641496/guanfacine-attenuates-adverse-effects-of-dronabinol-thc-on-working-memory-in-adolescent-onset-heavy-cannabis-users-a-pilot-study
#14
David S Mathai, Manuela Holst, Christopher Rodgman, Colin N Haile, Jake Keller, Mariyah Z Hussain, Thomas R Kosten, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641120/the-cognitive-bases-of-the-development-of-past-and-future-episodic-cognition-in-preschoolers
#15
Gülten Ünal, Annette Hohenberger
The aim of this study was to use a minimalist framework to examine the joint development of past and future episodic cognition and their underlying cognitive abilities in 3- to 5-year-old Turkish preschoolers. Participants engaged in two main tasks, a what-where-when (www) task to measure episodic memory and a future prediction task to measure episodic future thinking. Three additional tasks were used for predicting children's performance in the two main tasks: a temporal language task, an executive function task, and a spatial working memory task...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638916/-different-subtypes-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-and-related-signal-molecules-in-the-hippocampus-are-associated-with-spatial-cognitive-impairment-of-diabetic-mice
#16
Ming-Rui Zhang, Chao Qu, Jia Sun, Cui Wang, Hong-Yan Li, Ye-Jun Zhang, Bing-Qiang Zhang, Wei Zou
To study the correlation between the spatial cognitive impairment and different subtypes of estrogen receptor α (ERα) of hippocampus in diabetic mice, we used alloxan (intraperitoneal injection) to induce type 1 diabetes in male Kunming mice and compared the spatial cognitive ability of the model mice with that of control mice through Morris water maze test. Meanwhile, using Western blot, we detected the protein expressions of ER-α36, ER-α66, caveolin-1, PKCα, cAMP-response element binding protein 2 (CREB2), and synaptophysin (Syn) in the hippocampus of the mice...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638877/protective-effect-of-iris-germanica-l-in-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Mona Borhani, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Zahra Narimani, Fatemeh Sabbaghziarani, Mahdi Gholami, Roja Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia that is an irretrievable chronic neurodegenerative disease. In the current study, we have examined the therapeutic effects of Iris germanica extract on Amyloid β (Aβ) induced memory impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 8 per each. Groups were as followed: control group which were normal rats without induction of AD, Aβ group which received Aβ (50 ng/side), iris 100 group which received Aβ + Iris (100 mg/kg), iris 200 group which received Aβ + Iris (200 mg/kg), and iris 400 group which received Aβ + Iris (400 mg/kg)...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638123/transient-cell-assembly-networks-encode-stable-spatial-memories
#18
Andrey Babichev, Yuri Dabaghian
One of the mysteries of memory is that it can last despite changes in the underlying synaptic architecture. How can we, for example, maintain an internal spatial map of an environment over months or years when the underlying network is full of transient connections? In the following, we propose a computational model for describing the emergence of the hippocampal cognitive map in a network of transient place cell assemblies and demonstrate, using methods of algebraic topology, how such a network can maintain spatial memory over time...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637174/effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-waterpipe-tobacco-smoke-on-learning-and-memory-of-adult-offspring-rats
#19
Nour Al-Sawalha, Karem Alzoubi, Omar Khabour, Weam Alyacoub, Yehya Almahmmod, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence worldwide, including among pregnant women. In this study, we investigated the effect of prenatal maternal waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) exposure during different stages of pregnancy on learning and memory of adult offspring rats. Methods: Pregnant rats received either fresh air or mainstream WTS (two hours daily) during early, mid, late, or whole gestational period. Male offspring rats were followed through 20 weeks...
June 20, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636948/pten%C3%AE-modulates-camkii-signaling-and-controls-contextual-fear-memory-and-spatial-learning
#20
Pan Wang, Fan Mei, Jiapan Hu, Minglu Zhu, Hailong Qi, Xi Chen, Ruiqi Li, Michael A McNutt, Yuxin Yin
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10) has multiple functions, and recent studies have shown that the PTEN family has isoforms. The roles of these PTEN family members in biologic activities warrant specific evaluation. Here, we show that PTENα maintains CaMKII in a state that is competent to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) with resultant regulation of contextual fear memory and spatial learning. PTENα binds to CaMKII with its distinctive N terminus and resets CaMKII to an activatable state by dephosphorylating it at sites T305/306...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
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