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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441037/the-integration-of-realistic-episodic-memories-relies-on-different-working-memory-processes-evidence-from-virtual-navigation
#1
Gaën Plancher, Valérie Gyselinck, Pascale Piolino
Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person's life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs) have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM), for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441014/subtle-alterations-in-spatial-memory-induced-by-amyloid-peptides-infusion-in-rats
#2
Priscila Tavares Macêdo, Antônio C Q Aquino, Ywlliane S R Meurer, Luiz E M Brandão, Clarissa L C Campêlo, Ramon H Lima, Marcos R Costa, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva
The cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains uncertain. The accumulation of amyloid peptides (Aβ) is the main pathophysiological hallmark of the disease. Spatial deficit is an important initial sign of AD, while other types of memory impairments that appear in later stages. The Barnes maze allows the detection of subtle alterations in spatial search by the analysis of use of different strategies. Previous findings showed a general performance deficit in this task following long-term (35 days) infusion of Aβ, which corresponds to the moderate or severe impairments of the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440657/nippostrongylus-brasiliensis-infection-leads-to-impaired-reference-memory-and-myeloid-cell-interference
#3
T M Brombacher, K S De Gouveia, L Cruywagen, N Makena, F Booley, O Tamgue, F Brombacher
Hookworm infection is endemic in developing countries, leading to poor cognitive function-among other disruptions. In this study, the effects of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection (a murine model of Necator Americanus) on cognitive function were investigated. Though impaired cognition has been extensively reported, the exact domain of cognition affected is still unknown, hence requiring investigation. The objective of this study was to identify possible cognitive changes during Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in mice, using the Morris water maze...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436765/cognition-and-the-brain-of-brood-parasitic-cowbirds
#4
David F Sherry, Mélanie F Guigueno
Cowbirds are brood parasites. Females lay their eggs in the nests of other species which then incubate the cowbird eggs and raise the young cowbirds. Finding and returning to heterospecific nests presents cowbirds with a number of cognitive challenges. In some species, such as brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), females but not males, search for and remember the locations of potential host nests. We describe recent research on sex differences in cognition and the hippocampus associated with this sex difference in search for host nests...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436629/cognitive-improvement-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-by-voluntary-running%C3%A2-wheel-exercise-is-associated-with-lncmalat1%C3%A2-mediated-apoptosis-inhibition
#5
Jin-Lin Shang, Qing Cheng, Sheng-Jie Duan, Lu Li, Li-Ya Jia
Previous human and animal studies demonstrated that voluntary exercise may improve cognitive function and facilitate neuronal plasticity in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models. However, the possible underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Metastasis‑associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), may be associated with the functions and dysfunctions of endothelial cells. The present study investigated whether spontaneous running‑wheel (RW) exercise‑induced MALAT1 expression changes may be associated with the cognitive improvement of mice following I/R injury...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436486/randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study-of-single-dose-guanfacine-in-unilateral-neglect-following-stroke
#6
Edwin S Dalmaijer, Korina M S Li, Nikos Gorgoraptis, Alexander P Leff, David L Cohen, Andrew D Parton, Masud Husain, Paresh A Malhotra
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral neglect is a poststroke disorder that impacts negatively on functional outcome and lacks established, effective treatment. This multicomponent syndrome is characterised by a directional bias of attention away from contralesional space, together with impairments in several cognitive domains, including sustained attention and spatial working memory. This study aimed to test the effects of guanfacine, a noradrenergic alpha-2A agonist, on ameliorating aspects of neglect...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436055/deep-recurrent-neural-network-reveals-a-hierarchy-of-process-memory-during-dynamic-natural-vision
#7
Junxing Shi, Haiguang Wen, Yizhen Zhang, Kuan Han, Zhongming Liu
The human visual cortex extracts both spatial and temporal visual features to support perception and guide behavior. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) provide a computational framework to model cortical representation and organization for spatial visual processing, but unable to explain how the brain processes temporal information. To overcome this limitation, we extended a CNN by adding recurrent connections to different layers of the CNN to allow spatial representations to be remembered and accumulated over time...
February 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433615/a-haplotype-of-the-dopamine-transporter-gene-modulates-regional-homogeneity-gray-matter-volume-and-visual-memory-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
C Y Shang, H Y Lin, W Y Tseng, S S Gau
BACKGROUND: The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and visual memory deficits have been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine whether a DAT1 haplotype affected functional and structural brain alterations in children with ADHD and whether those alterations were associated with visual memory. METHOD: We recruited a total of 37 drug-naïve children with ADHD (17 with the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype) and 37 typically developing children (17 with the CT haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype)...
February 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432778/-looking-at-nothing-during-sequential-sensorimotor-actions-long-term-memory-based-eye-scanning-of-remembered-target-locations
#9
Rebecca M Foerster
Before acting humans saccade to a target object to extract relevant visual information. Even when acting on remembered objects, locations previously occupied by relevant objects are fixated during imagery and memory tasks - a phenomenon called "looking-at-nothing". While looking-at-nothing was robustly found in tasks encouraging declarative memory built-up, results are mixed in the case of procedural sensorimotor tasks. Eye-guidance to manual targets in complete darkness was observed in a task practiced for days beforehand, while investigations using only a single session did not find fixations to remembered action targets...
February 9, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432105/learning-a-continuous-time-streaming-video-qoe-model
#10
Deepti Ghadiyaram, Janice Pan, Alan C Bovik
Over-the-top adaptive video streaming services are frequently impacted by fluctuating network conditions that can lead to rebuffering events (stalling events) and sudden bitrate changes. These events visually impact video consumers' quality of experience (QoE) and can lead to consumer churn. The development of models that can accurately predict viewers' instantaneous subjective QoE under such volatile network conditions could potentially enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for media-driven services, such as YouTube, Amazon, Netflix, and so on...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432100/her2net-a-deep-framework-for-semantic-segmentation-and-classification-of-cell-membranes-and-nuclei-in-breast-cancer-evaluation
#11
Monjoy Saha, Chandan Chakraborty
We present an efficient deep learning framework for identifying, segmenting, and classifying cell membranes and nuclei from human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-stained breast cancer images with minimal user intervention. This is a long-standing issue for pathologists because the manual quantification of HER2 is error-prone, costly, and time-consuming. Hence, we propose a deep learning-based HER2 deep neural network (Her2Net) to solve this issue. The convolutional and deconvolutional parts of the proposed Her2Net framework consisted mainly of multiple convolution layers, max-pooling layers, spatial pyramid pooling layers, deconvolution layers, up-sampling layers, and trapezoidal long short-term memory (TLSTM)...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432034/cognitive-functioning-in-chronic-post-stroke-aphasia
#12
José Fonseca, Ana Raposo, Isabel Pavão Martins
There is a minimal amount of knowledge regarding the cognitive abilities of people with aphasia. We evaluated the performance of individuals with chronic aphasia (AP) and control participants without aphasia (CP) with left hemisphere stroke in a battery of nonverbal cognitive tests and its relationship with aphasia severity, comprehension abilities, and speech fluency in a prospective cross-sectional study. Cognitive evaluation comprised 10 nonverbal tests. Scores were converted to age and education adjusted standard scores...
February 12, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431646/basolateral-amygdala-inputs-to-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex-selectively-modulate-the-consolidation-of-spatial-and-contextual-learning
#13
Krista L Wahlstrom, Mary L Huff, Eric B Emmons, John H Freeman, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Christa K McIntyre, Ryan T LaLumiere
Although evidence suggests that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) work together to influence the consolidation of spatial/contextual learning, the circuit mechanism by which the BLA selectively modulates spatial/contextual memory consolidation is not clear. The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) is a critical region in the hippocampus-based system for processing spatial information. As an efferent target of the BLA, the mEC is a candidate by which the BLA influences the consolidation of such learning...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430923/interactive-visual-exploration-of-3d-mass-spectrometry-imaging-data-using-hierarchical-stochastic-neighbor-embedding-reveals-spatio-molecular-structures-at-full-data-resolution
#14
Walid M Abdelmoula, Nicola Pezzotti, Thomas Hölt, Jouke Dijkstra, Anna Vilanova, Liam A McDonnell, Boudewijn P F Lelieveldt
Technological advances in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) have contributed to the growing interest in 3D-MSI. However, the large size of 3D-MSI datasets has made their efficient analysis, visualization and the identification of informative molecular patterns, computationally challenging. Hierarchical stochastic neighbor embedding (HSNE), a non-linear dimensionality reduction technique that aims at finding hierarchical and multi-scale representations of large datasets, is a recent development that enables the analysis of millions of data points, with manageable time and memory complexities...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430738/neonatal-adoptive-transfer-of-lymphocytes-rescues-social-behavior-during-adolescence-in-immune-deficient-mice
#15
Sarah M Clark, Chloe N Vaughn, Jennifer A Soroka, Xin Li, Leonardo H Tonelli
Accumulating evidence has shown that lymphocytes modulate behavior and cognition by direct interactions with the central nervous system. Studies have shown that reconstitution by adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from wild type into immune deficient mice restores a number of neurobehavioral deficits observed in these models. Moreover, it has been shown that these effects are mostly mediated by T lymphocytes. Studies of adoptive transfer thus far have employed adult mice, but whether lymphocytes may also modulate behavior during development remains unknown...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430736/probing-the-limits-of-alpha-power-lateralizationas-a-neural-marker-of-selective-attention-in-middle-aged-and-older-listeners
#16
Sarah Tune, Malte Wöstmann, Jonas Obleser
In recent years, hemispheric lateralization of alpha power has emerged as a neural mechanism thought to underpin spatial attention across sensory modalities. Yet, how healthy aging, beginning in middle adulthood, impacts the modulation of lateralized alpha power supporting auditory attention remains poorly understood. In the current electroencephalography (EEG) study, middle-aged and older adults (N = 29; ~40-70 years) performed a dichotic listening task that simulates a challenging, multi-talker scenario. We examined the extent to which the modulation of 8-12 Hz alpha power would serve as neural marker of listening success across age...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430567/n-back-versus-complex-span-working-memory-training
#17
Kara J Blacker, Serban Negoita, Joshua B Ewen, Susan M Courtney
Working memory (WM) is the ability to maintain and manipulate task-relevant information in the absence of sensory input. While its improvement through training is of great interest, the degree to which WM training transfers to untrained WM tasks (near transfer) and other untrained cognitive skills (far transfer) remains debated and the mechanism(s) underlying transfer are unclear. Here we hypothesized that a critical feature of dual n-back training is its reliance on maintaining relational information in WM...
December 2017: Journal of Cognitive Enhancement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428769/impaired-spatial-pattern-separation-performance-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-is-associated-with-visuospatial-memory-deficits-and-hippocampal-volume-loss
#18
Anny Reyes, Heather M Holden, Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Vedang S Uttarwar, David P Sheppard, Nicole E DeFord, Shannon Yandall DeJesus, Leena Kansal, Paul E Gilbert, Carrie R McDonald
Individuals with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) experience episodic memory deficits that may be progressive in nature. These memory decrements have been shown to increase with the extent of hippocampal damage, a hallmark feature of TLE. Pattern separation, a neural computational mechanism thought to play a role in episodic memory formation, has been shown to be negatively affected by aging and in individuals with known hippocampal dysfunction. Despite the link between poor pattern separation performance and episodic memory deficits, behavioral pattern separation has not been examined in patients with TLE...
February 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428548/the-impact-from-the-aftermath-of-chronic-stress-on-hippocampal-structure-and-function-is-there-a-recovery
#19
REVIEW
J Bryce Ortiz, Cheryl D Conrad
Chronic stress results in functional and structural changes to the brain and especially the hippocampus. Decades of research have provided insights into the mechanisms by which chronic stress impairs hippocampal-mediated cognition and the corresponding reduction of hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic complexity. Yet, when chronic stress ends and time passes, which we refer to as a "post-stress rest period," hippocampal-mediated spatial memory deficits begin to improve and CA3 apical dendritic arbors increase in complexity...
February 8, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428214/the-effects-of-bilateral-continuous-and-chronic-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-in-a-rodent-model-of-depression
#20
Stephanie Thiele, Luciano Furlanetti, Lisa-Marie Pfeiffer, Volker A Coenen, Máté D Döbrössy
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials of supra-lateral medial forebrain bundle (MFB) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in treatment resistant major depressive patients have shown rapid and long-term benefits. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The study used Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats with previously identified depressive-like phenotype to assess the range of behavior modification achieved by MFB DBS. METHODS: Male FSL and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats as Controls were tested on mood/anxiety/exploration, cognitive and motor behaviors...
February 8, 2018: Experimental Neurology
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