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tuskegee syphilis study

Marilyn J Hammer
The history of informed consent dates back as early as the 16th century (Selek, 2010). The current tenets of informed consent pertaining to the ethical conduct of research on human participants predominately stems from the 1947 Nuremberg Code (National Institutes of Health, 2016), which was created following the Nuremberg trials at the end of World War II. The unethical conduct of research on human participants during the Holocaust, coupled with experiments (e.g., the Tuskegee syphilis study), prompted a more formalized structure for ensuring the well-being and autonomy of human participants in research studies...
September 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Alexander Morgan Capron
The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Barron H Lerner, Arthur L Caplan
Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons...
April 19, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Ezekiel J Emanuel
In 1972, Jean Heller of the Associated Press reported on a 40-year-old research study that had followed black Alabama sharecroppers, some of whom had syphilis. The revelation of deception, withholding of appropriate treatment, and other unethical practices exploded into the Tuskegee scandal...
December 10, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Charlotte Paul, Barbara Brookes
Two studies, widely condemned in the 1970s and 1980s-the Tuskegee study of men with untreated syphilis and the New Zealand study of women with untreated carcinoma in situ of the cervix-received new defenses in the 21st century. We noted remarkable similarities in both the studies and their defenses. Here we evaluate the scientific, political, and moral claims of the defenders. The scientific claims are largely based on incomplete or misinterpreted evidence and exaggeration of the uncertainties of science. The defenders' political arguments mistakenly claim that identity politics clouded the original critiques; in fact such politics opened the eyes of the public to exploitation...
October 2015: American Journal of Public Health
Susan M Reverby
If the aphorism “history will be the judge” is deployed, the active agent of this formulation is the historian. Comparing two great(ly infamous) doctors,John C. Cutler and Alan Berkman, the article considers how historians balance digging for sources, creating meaningful narrative, and acknowledging our own beliefs that embed in the judgments we make. The article explores our responsibility for balance and moral judgment at the same time. Cutler, admonished for his role in the infamous sexually transmitted diseases studies in Tuskegee and Guatemala, also was a well-respected researcher and teacher...
2014: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
E Cuerda-Galindo, X Sierra-Valenti, E González-López, F López-Muñoz
Even after the Nuremberg code was published, research on syphilis often continued to fall far short of ethical standards. We review post-World War II research on this disease, focusing on the work carried out in Guatemala and Tuskegee. Over a thousand adults were deliberately inoculated with infectious material for syphilis, chancroid, and gonorrhea between 1946 and 1948 in Guatemala, and thousands of serologies were performed in individuals belonging to indigenous populations or sheltered in orphanages. The Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by the US Public Health Service, took place between 1932 and 1972 with the aim of following the natural history of the disease when left untreated...
November 2014: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Mohammed Imran, Shadab Samad, Mohammad Maaz, Ashhar Qadeer, Abul Kalam Najmi, Mohammed Aqil
Hippocratic Oath is a living document for ethical conduct of the physicians around the world. World Medical Association has been amending the oath as per the contemporary times. Although physicians maintain their ethical standards while treating a patient yet many a times social, administrative and ruling powers either use physicians as their tool of oppression or victimize them for conducting duties as per their oath. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and Human Radiation Experiments in America, Nazi Experiments in Germany and compulsory sterilization program in India were the studies where States used physicians for the advancement of their rationality or belief...
October 2013: Journal of Mid-life Health
William C Rencher, Leslie E Wolf
Numerous diseases disproportionately affect African Americans across socioeconomic, age, gender, and geographic groups. Despite the need for research into these disparities, African Americans are often underrepresented in research. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study receives much of the blame for this problem, but other contributing factors have also been identified. To date, government policies seeking to increase African American participation have had limited success, and recently proposed changes to the Common Rule do not address this problem...
December 2013: American Journal of Public Health
Vickie M Mays
In 1997 President William Clinton issued an apology to the living male survivors of the U.S. Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. While the apology became the focus for many, little attention has been paid going forward to two very important recommendations by President Clinton that accompanied the apology. President Clinton pointed out that it is through the remembering of the shameful past of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee that we can build a better present and a better future for the nation. Second, President Clinton directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to work in partnership with higher education to prepare training materials for medical researchers as well as postgraduate fellowships to train bioethicists to build on core ethical principles of respect for individuals, justice, and informed consent, and how to use these principles effectively in racial/ethnic minority populations, especially African Americans...
2012: Ethics & Behavior
Aaron G Buseh, Patricia E Stevens, Sandra Millon-Underwood, Leolia Townsend, Sheryl T Kelber
There is limited information about what African Americans think about biobanks and the ethical questions surrounding them. Likewise, there is a gap in capacity to successfully enroll African Americans as biobank donors. The purposes of this community-based participatory study were to: (a) explore African Americans' perspectives on genetics/genomic research, (b) understand facilitators and barriers to participation in such studies, and (c) enlist their ideas about how to attract and sustain engagement of African Americans in genetics initiatives...
October 2013: Journal of Community Genetics
Vickie M Mays
This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families...
November 1, 2012: Ethics & Behavior
Rosalyn Lang, Vinaya A Kelkar, Jennifer R Byrd, Christopher L Edwards, Margaret Pericak-Vance, Goldie S Byrd
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate factors that influence African American willingness to participate in health-related research studies. METHODS: The African American Alzheimer disease research study group at North Carolina A&T State University designed an in-person questionnaire and surveyed more than 700 African American adults on their willingness to participate in health-related research studies. The questionnaire was distributed and collected in a nonclinical setting during the years 2008 and 2009...
March 2013: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Vickie M Mays, Courtney N Coles, Susan D Cochran
Knowledge of the US Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee is sometime cited as a principal reason for the relatively low participation rates seen among racial/ethnic minorities, particularly African Americans, in biomedical research. However, only a few studies have actually explored this possibility. We use data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 510 African-Americans and 253 Latinos, age 18 to 45 years, to investigate associations between knowledge of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee and endorsement of HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories...
January 1, 2012: Ethics & Behavior
Robert S Levine, Jamila C Williams, Barbara A Kilbourne, Paul D Juarez
Human health experiments systematically expose people to conditions beyond the boundaries of medical evidence. Such experiments have included legal-medical collaboration, exemplified in the U.S. by the Public Health Service (PHS) Syphilis Study (Tuskegee). That medical experiment was legal, conforming to segregationist protocols and specific legislative authorization which excluded a selected group of African Americans from any medical protection from syphilis. Subsequent corrective action outlawed unethical medical experiments but did not address other forms of collaboration, including PHS submission to laws which may have placed African American women at increased risk from AIDS and breast cancer...
November 2012: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Selina A Smith, Daniel S Blumenthal
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U...
November 2012: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Stephen Olufemi Sodeke
The Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care was established in 1999 in partial response to the Presidential Apology for the United States Public Health Service's Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male conducted in Macon County, Alabama, from 1932 to 1972. The Center's mission of promoting equity and justice in health and health care for African Americans and other underserved populations employs an integrative bioethics approach informed by moral vision. Etymological and historical analyses are used to delineate the meaning and evolution of bioethics and to provide a basis for Tuskegee's integrative bioethics niche...
November 2012: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Gina B Gaston, Binta Alleyne-Green
Disparities in access to and retention of regular HIV medical treatment persist among African Americans living with HIV. Many scholars believe that the mistrust of health care held by many African Americans stems from a legacy of abuse, from medical experimentation on slaves to the unethical practices with patients in the Tuskegee Syphilis study. We performed a systematic appraisal of the literature, using several key terms, in order to understand how attitudes about HIV-related health care influence African Americans' engagement in care...
January 2013: AIDS and Behavior
Marvella Ford, Amy Wahlquist, Rashell Blake, CoDanielle Green, June Streets, Ebonie Fuller, Erica Johnson, Melanie Jefferson, James Etheredge, Heidi Varner, Shannon Johnson, Saundra Glover, David Turner, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer
BACKGROUND: African Americans (AA) are not well-represented in cancer clinical trials despite having significantly higher cancer mortality rates than their European-American (EA) counterparts. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program to improve perceptions of cancer clinical trials among AA. METHODS: The program was conducted in a convenience sample of 195 participants (75.4% AA) who lived in counties with high racial disparities in cancer mortality rates and who were recruited by community partners...
2012: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Jenna L Davis, B Lee Green, Ralph V Katz
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether scary/alarming beliefs about details on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS) are associated with willingness and/or fear to participate in biomedical research. METHODS: Scary beliefs about TSS were examined for 565 Black and White adults who had heard of the TSS. Multivariate analyses by race were used to measure association. RESULTS: No association between scary beliefs and willingness or fear to participate in research was found (P > 0...
2012: ABNF Journal: Official Journal of the Association of Black Nursing Faculty in Higher Education, Inc
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