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Yan Zhao, Jingjing Yin
The effects of individual and combined Pichia guilliermondii (at 1 × 108 CFU mL-1) and hot air (at 38°C for 96 h) treatments on the three major postharvest diseases Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as well as the quality and antioxidant content of Red Fuji ( Malus pumila var. domestica) apple fruit, were investigated in this work. Results suggested that the combined hot air and antagonistic yeast ( P. guilliermondii) treatment effectively and completely inhibited the infection of apple fruit wounds by the three major postharvest diseases...
February 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Tianxiao Li, Yulan Hu, Bingjian Zhang, Xiaoru Yang
Feilaifeng is a cultural heritage site that contains unique Buddhist statues which date back to the Five Dynasties period (907 AD-960 AD). The site was inscribed on world heritage list by UNESCO in 2011. Various patinas, which may be caused by fungi, have covered the surface of the limestone and have severely diminished the esthetic value of the statues and altered the limestone structure. Culture-dependent method was used to isolate and identify the fungi. After incubation on modified B4 medium, the calcifying fungi were identified by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive analysis...
January 6, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Gustavo Gabriel Martos, Alicia Mamaní, María Paula Filippone, Atilio Pedro Castagnaro, Juan Carlos Díaz Ricci
HeT (1-0-galloyl-2,3; 4,6-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucopyranose) is a penta-esterified ellagitannin obtained from strawberry leaves. Previous studies have shown that foliar application of HeT prior to inoculation with a virulent pathogen increases the resistance toward Colletotrichum acutatum in strawberry plants and to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in lemon plants. In this work we report that HeT induces an immediate leak of electrolytes, the hyperpolarization of the cellular membrane, a rapid Ca2+ influx to the cytoplasm during the first few seconds, which in turn modulates the accumulation of nitric oxide 5 min after treatment...
December 27, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Amanda da Silva Ribeiro, Julio Cesar Polonio, Alessandra Tenório Costa, Caroline Menicoze Dos Santos, Sandro Augusto Rhoden, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
Endophytes are fungi and bacteria that inhabit plant tissues without causing disease. Endophytes have characteristics that are important for the health of the plant and have been isolated from several plants of economic and medicinal interest but rarely from ornamental plants. The current study isolates and identifies endophytic fungi from the leaves of Pachystachys lutea and evaluates the antagonistic activity of these endophytes as well as cellulase production by the endophytes. Fungi were isolated by fragmentation from surface-disinfected leaves and were identified by the sequencing of the ITS gene and the genes coding for EF 1-α and β-tubulin followed by multilocus sequence analysis...
January 3, 2018: Current Microbiology
Chang-Shan Chen, Chun-Yi Chen, Divya Malathy Ravinath, Agustina Bungahot, Chi-Ping Cheng, Ren-In You
BACKGROUND: Along with the rapid development of glycomic tools, the study of lectin-carbohydrate interactions has expanded, opening the way for applications in the fields of analytic, diagnostic, and drug delivery. Chitin-binding lectins (CBLs) play roles in immune defense against chitin-containing pathogens. CBLs from species of the Solanaceae family, such as tomato, potato and jimsonweed, display different binding specificities to sugar chains containing poly-N-acetyllactosamine. RESULTS: In this report, CBLs from Solanum integrifolium were isolated by ion exchange chromatography...
January 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Adones Sales, Luana Ferreira Afonso, Juliana Alves Americo, Mauro de Freitas Rebelo, Glaucia Maria Pastore, Juliano Lemos Bicas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biocatalytic potential of Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum nymphaeae for monoterpene biotransformation. RESULTS: C. acutatum and C. nymphaeae used limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, farnesene, citronellol, linalool, geraniol, perillyl alcohol, and carveol as sole carbon and energy sources. Both species biotransformed limonene and linalool, accumulating limonene-1,2-diol and linalool oxides, respectively. α-Pinene was only biotransformed by C...
December 29, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Wenqiang Tan, Qing Li, Fang Dong, Jingjing Zhang, Fang Luan, Lijie Wei, Yuan Chen, Zhanyong Guo
In this paper, novel cationic chitosan derivative possessing 1,2,3-triazolium and pyridinium groups was synthesized conveniently via cuprous-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and methylation. FTIR, 1H NMR, and elemental analysis examined the structural characteristics of the synthesized derivatives. The antifungal efficiencies of chitosan derivatives against three plant-threatening fungi were assayed by hypha measurement in vitro. The determination showed that chitosan derivative bearing 1,2,3-triazolium and pyridinium displayed tremendously enhanced antifungal activity as compared with chitosan and chitosan derivative bearing 1,2,3-triazole and pyridine...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xinwei Zhu, Jiaqing Chen, Shuirong Zhu, Yuyi He, Weijia Ding, Chunyuan Li
A new pyrrolidinone derivative named nigrosporamide A (1), and a new acetophenone derivative, 4-prenyloxyclavatol (2), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica (collection No. ZMT05) isolated from Oxya chinensis Thunberg. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data. In primary in vitro bioassay, nigrosporamide A (1) exhibited strong antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and high inhibitory activity towards α-glucosidase...
December 18, 2017: Natural Product Research
Sutapa Roy, Etta Nuckles, Douglas D Archbold
Colletotrichum acutatum is responsible for anthracnose fruit rot, one of the most devastating diseases in strawberry. Phenolic compounds have been described as contributors to anthracnose resistance in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch.). Six isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum and four isolates of three other Colletotrichum species, C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. graminicola, associated with disease symptoms were investigated in this study. The potential inhibitory effect of phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid), flavonoids (catechin, quercetin, naringenin), and ellagic acid, which are naturally found in strawberry, were screened against two different spore suspension concentrations of the Colletotrichum isolates at 5, 10, 50 mM in vitro...
December 15, 2017: Current Microbiology
Lidia Elena Ayón-Reyna, José Ángel López-Valenzuela, Francisco Delgado-Vargas, Martha Edith López-López, Francisco Javier Molina-Corral, Armando Carrillo-López, Misael Odín Vega-García
Anthracnose of papaya fruit caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most economically important postharvest diseases. Hot water immersion (HW) and calcium chloride (Ca) treatments have been used to control papaya postharvest diseases; however, the effect of the combination HW-Ca on the pathogen growth and the development of the disease in infected papaya fruit has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the HW-Ca treatment on the in vitro growth of C...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Gnanendra Shanmugam, Junhyun Jeon
Control of plant diseases is largely dependent on use of agrochemicals. However, there are widening gaps between our knowledge on plant diseases gained from genetic/mechanistic studies and rapid translation of the knowledge into target-oriented development of effective agrochemicals. Here we propose that the time is ripe for computer-aided drug discovery/design (CADD) in molecular plant pathology. CADD has played a pivotal role in development of medically important molecules over the last three decades. Now, explosive increase in information on genome sequences and three dimensional structures of biological molecules, in combination with advances in computational and informational technologies, opens up exciting possibilities for application of CADD in discovery and development of agrochemicals...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Matthias Naets, Mattias van Dael, Els Vanstreels, Dirk Daelemans, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï, Wannes Keulemans, Annemie Geeraerd
Postharvest losses of fruit and vegetables can reach up to 30%, the main cause being microbial decay. For apple fruit, mostly fungal pathogens, such as Penicillium expansum, Colletotrichum spp., Neofabraea spp. and Botrytis cinerea, are important. As such losses are unsustainable in many ways, it is necessary that research is conducted to prevent them. Generally, for plants and fruit grown under non-sterile field conditions, disinfection is carried out prior to the start of a phytopathological experiment. The motivation for this practice is the removal of background contamination so that it will not affect the experimental outcome and its interpretation...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Hong-Xin Liu, Hai-Bo Tan, Yu-Chan Chen, Sai-Ni Li, Hao-Hua Li, Wei-Min Zhang
Two new cyclohexene derivatives colletotricones A and B (1 and 2) and a new thiazole derivative colletotricole A (5), along with six known natural metabolites were isolated from the extract of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides A12, an endophytic fungus derived from Aquilaria sinensis. Among them, the colletotricones A and B possess a cyclohexenone skeleton, whereas the colletotricole A is a thiazole derivative. Their structures were fully assigned with the aid of extensive spectroscopic analysis and data from the literature...
December 4, 2017: Natural Product Research
Lúcia Raquel Ramos Berger, Thayza Christina Montenegro Stamford, Kataryne Árabe Rimá de Oliveira, Adjane de Miranda Pereira Pessoa, Marcos Antonio Barbosa de Lima, Maria Manuela Estevez Pintado, Marcos Paz Saraiva Câmara, Luciana de Oliveira Franco, Marciane Magnani, Evandro Leite de Souza
This study evaluated corn steep liquor (CSL) and papaya peel juice (PPJ) in mixture as substrates for the cultivation (96h, 28°C, pH 5.6, 150rpm) of Mucorales fungi for chitosan production, and determined the growth-inhibitory effect of the fungal chitosan (FuCS) obtained under optimized conditions against phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. All Mucorales fungi tested were capable of growing in CSL-PPJ medium, showing FuCS production in the range of 5.02 (Fennelomyces heterothalicus SIS 28) - 15.63mg/g (Cunninghamella elegans SIS 41)...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Katchen Julliany P Silva, Asha M Brunings, Juliana A Pereira, Natalia A Peres, Kevin M Folta, Zhonglin Mou
BACKGROUND: Plant immune response is associated with a large-scale transcriptional reprogramming, which is regulated by numerous transcription regulators such as the Elongator complex. Elongator is a multitasking protein complex involved in diverse cellular processes, including histone modification, DNA methylation, and tRNA modification. In recent years, Elongator is emerging as a key regulator of plant immune responses. However, characterization of Elongator's function in plant immunity has been conducted only in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
December 1, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Lady T Albarracín, Wilman Delgado, Luis Enrique Cuca, Mónica C Ávila
In this work, screening of Lauraceae species for their antifungal activity against Collectotrichum tamarilloi was carried out and the ethanol extract derived from the bark of Endlicheria arenosa was found to be the best candidate. From the ethanolic extract of the bark of E. arenosa, the hexane and chloroform fractions were found to be active, from these five fatty acids were identified and two lactones were isolated. The most active fatty acid was the dodecanoic acid with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 78...
November 30, 2017: Natural Product Research
Hyo-Hyoun Seo, Ae Ran Park, Hyun-Hwa Lee, Sangkyu Park, Yun-Jeong Han, Quyen T N Hoang, Gyung Ja Choi, Jin-Cheol Kim, Yong Soon Kim, Jeong-Il Kim
Colletotrichum species are major fungal pathogens that cause devastating anthracnose diseases in many economically important crops. In this study, we observed the hydrolyzing activity of a fungus-inducible pepper carboxylesterase (PepEST) on cell walls of C. gloeosporioides, causing growth retardation of the fungus by blocking appressorium formation. To determine the cellular basis for the growth inhibition, we observed the localization of PepEST on the fungus and found the attachment of the protein on surfaces of conidia and germination tubes...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Lenka Hrabáková, Alexey A Grum-Grzhimaylo, Igor Koloniuk, Alfons J M Debets, Tatiana Sarkisova, Karel Petrzik
Mixed infection by three dsRNA viruses, a novel betapartitivirus, a gammapartitivirus, and a novel fusarivirus, has been identified in four isolates of the obligate alkalophilic fungus Sodiomyces alkalinus. The first, Sodiomyces alkalinus partitivirus 1 (SaPV1), is placed within the genus Betapartitivirus and is related to Ustilaginoidea virens partitivirus 2. The taxonomic position of the second virus is less clear as it shares high (85%) amino acid sequence identity but significantly low (77%) nucleotide sequence identity of the capsid protein with Colletotrichum truncatum partitivirus 1...
2017: PloS One
Priscila Dinah Lima Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá de Oliveira, Willie Anderson Dos Santos Vieira, Marcos Paz Saraiva Câmara, Evandro Leite de Souza
This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (Chi) and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) combinations to control the mycelial growth of five pathogenic Colletotrichum species (C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii) in vitro, as well as the anthracnose development in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Paluma, mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Tommy Atkins and papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Papaya artificially inoculated with these species. Combinations of Chi (2...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Zhi-Qiang Liu, Man-Li Wu, Zhi-Jian Ke, Wen-Bo Liu, Xiao-Yu Li
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal agent of rubber anthracnose, which is also one of the important biological factors threatening the development of natural rubber industry in the world. Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) are key negative regulators of G-proteins, which play important roles in growth, development and pathogenic processes of plant pathogens. In this study, a RGS gene CgRGS1 was functionally characterized in C. gloeosporioides. Compared to the wild type, the CgRGS1 deletion mutant had slow vegetative growth, reduced conidia with multi-end germination, low appressorium formation rate, high resistance to oxidative stress and SDS...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
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