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Rosany Camargo-Ramírez, Beatriz Val-Torregrosa, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-coding small RNAs that direct post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes. In plants, the expression of a large number of miRNAs has been shown to be regulated during pathogen infection. However, the functional role of the majority of these pathogen-regulated miRNAs has not been elucidated. In this work, we investigated the role of Arabidopsis miR858 in the defense response of Arabidopsis plants to infection by fungal pathogens with necrotrophic (Plectosphaerella cucumerina) or hemibiotrophic (Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum) lifestyles...
November 15, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jae Woo Han, Sang Hee Shim, Kyoung Soo Jang, Yong Ho Choi, Hun Kim, Gyung Ja Choi
Phytochemicals have been considered as alternatives for synthetic fungicides because of their biodegradability and low toxicity. In this study, we found that the methanolic extract of Corydalis ternata suppressed the development of plant diseases caused by Puccinia triticina and Colletotrichum coccodes. As an antifungal substance, three isoquinoline alkaloids (dehydrocorydaline, stylopine, and corydaline) were isolated from C. ternata. These active compounds also exhibited an in vivo antifungal activity against P...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
May Moe Oo, GiTaek Lim, Hyun A Jang, Sang-Keun Oh
The anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species is well-known as a major plant pathogen that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper and reduces its marketability. Thirty-five isolates representing species of Colletotrichum were obtained from chili fruits showing anthracnose disease symptoms in Chungcheongnam-do and Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea. These 35 isolates were characterized according to morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence data of internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, and β-tubulin...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Bruna Balen Forcelini, Carolina Suguinoshita Rebello, Nan-Yi Wang, Natalia Peres
Quinone-outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides are used to manage anthracnose of strawberry, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. However, selection for resistance to QoI fungicides was first reported in 2013 in Florida, and subsequently in strawberry nurseries and production areas across the USA and Canada. C. acutatum resistance to QoIs is associated with the G143A point mutation in the cytochrome b gene. This mutation is known to be associated with field resistance even at high rates of QoIs. In this study, we investigated the relative fitness and competitive ability of QoI-resistant and -sensitive C...
November 14, 2017: Phytopathology
Mariola Piślewska-Bednarek, Ryohei Thomas Nakano, Kei Hiruma, Marta Pastorczyk, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Suthitar Singkaravanit-Ogawa, Danuta Ciesiołka, Yoshitaka Takano, Antonio Molina, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Paweł Bednarek
Glutathione (GSH) and indole glucosinolates (IGs) exert key functions in the immune system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Appropriate GSH levels are important for execution of both pre- and post-invasive disease resistance mechanisms to invasive pathogens, while an intact PENETRATION2 (PEN2)-pathway for IG-metabolism is essential for pre-invasive resistance in this species. Earlier indirect evidence suggested that the latter pathway involves conjugation of GSH with unstable products of IG metabolism and further processing of the resulting adducts to biologically active molecules...
November 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
Yong Wang, Jie Zhang, Yang Sun, Juntao Feng, Xing Zhang
Fusarium wilt and anthracnose are two major diseases which limit the yield and quality of cucumber worldwide. Cuminic acid was extracted from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L. The mean EC50 values of cuminic acid for inhibiting mycelial growth and zoospore germination of five Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum strains were 25.66 ± 3.02 μg/mL and 15.99 ± 2.19 μg/mL, and of four Colletotrichum lagenarium (Pass.) Ellis and Halsted strains were 29.53 ± 3.18 μg/mL and 18.41 ± 2.78 μg/mL, respectively. In greenhouse experiments, cuminic acid at 2000 μg/mL exhibited 70...
November 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
R D Pacheco-Cano, R Salcedo-Hernández, J E López-Meza, D K Bideshi, J E Barboza-Corona
AIMS: The objective of this study was to show whether the edible part of broccoli has antibacterial and antifungal activity against microorganism of importance in human health and vegetable spoilage, and to test if this effect was partially due to antimicrobial peptides. METHODS AND RESULTS: Crude extracts were obtained from florets and stems of broccoli cultivar Avenger and the inhibitory effect was demonstrated against pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, S...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Lucia Oro, Erica Feliziani, Maurizio Ciani, Gianfranco Romanazzi, Francesca Comitini
The effectiveness of Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biocontrol agents on postharvest decay of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cv. 'Alba') fruit, and their inhibitory activities on some decay-causing fungi were evaluated. Volatile organic compounds from these yeasts decreased mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea by 69%, and by less for Monilinia fructicola, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus carbonarius, Penicillium digitatum, Cladosporium spp., and Colletotrichum spp...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Zongling Liu, Shuang Du, Yi Ren, Yanlin Liu
A total of 216 killer yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isolated from wine, were evaluated in controlling Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a pre-harvest anthracnose agent of grape. Three of these yeast isolates were tested positive for antagonizing C. gloeosporioides and were further evaluated for their mechanisms as biological control agents (BCAs): production of antifungal compounds, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of C. gloeosporioides conidia germination, colonization on grape berry, and efficiency in controlling anthracnose of grape...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
C Douanla-Meli, J-G Unger, E Langer
Colletotrichum cliviae is a fungal species reported both as pathogen and endophyte with broad geographical distribution. Some purported isolates of this species have been assigned to different taxa, including Colletotrichum aracearum, Colletotrichum orchidearum and Colletotrichum. sichuanensis, for which a preliminary analysis of extensive multilocus (ACT, GAPDH, ITS, TUB2) data in this study revealed high sequence similarity with C. cliviae. We further reassessed the species delineation by using the coalescent method of the generalized mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) and Poisson Tree Processes (PTP)...
November 1, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Riccardo Baroncelli, Pedro Talhinhas, Flora Pensec, Serenella A Sukno, Gaetan Le Floch, Michael R Thon
Colletotrichum spp. infect a wide diversity of hosts, causing plant diseases on many economically important crops worldwide. The genus contains approximately 189 species organized into at least 11 major phylogenetic lineages, also known as species complexes. The Colletotrichum acutatum species complex is a diverse yet relatively closely related group of plant pathogenic fungi within this genus. Within the species complex we find a wide diversity of important traits such as host range and host preference, mode of reproduction and differences in the strategy used to infect their hosts...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alicia Lara-Márquez, Ken Oyama, María G Zavala-Páramo, Maria G Villa-Rivera, Ulises Conejo-Saucedo, Horacio Cano-Camacho
Pectin lyases (PNLs) are important enzymes that are involved in plant cell wall degradation during the infection process. Colletotrichum is a diverse genus of fungi, which allows the study of the evolution of PNLs and their possible role in pathogen-host interactions and lifestyle adaptations. The phylogenetic reconstruction of PNLs from Colletotrichum and analysis of selection pressures showed the formation of protein lineages by groups of species with different selection pressures and specific patterns. The analysis of positive selection at individual sites using different methods allowed for the identification of three codons with evidence of positive selection in the oligosaccharide-binding region and two codons on the antiparallel sheet, which may influence the interaction with the substrate...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Liping Liu, Yaqin Yan, Junbin Huang, Tom Hsiang, Yangdou Wei, Yu Li, Jie Gao, Lu Zheng
Colletotrichum higginsianum is a widely distributed fungus attacking many cruciferous species. To investigate pathogenic mechanisms of the pathogen on the host Arabidopsis thaliana, we screened and obtained a virulence-deficient mutant Ch-1-T513 in a T-DNA insertion mutant library of C. higginsianum. The mutant Ch-1-T513 produced yellow colony centers with distorted multi-branching hyphal tips as well as producing few conidia. Heavily swollen hyphae in the mutant could be observed, and intra-hyphal hyphae were found to be formed in the balloon-shaped hyphae...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tanushree Naik, Shanadrahalli Chandrashekaraiah Vanitha, Pradumn Kumar Rajvanshi, Manjegowda Chandrika, Subban Kamalraj, Chelliah Jayabaskaran
Eighteen endophytic fungi were isolated from various tissues of Datura metel and genes encoding for putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), tropinone reductase 1 (TR1) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H) were used as molecular markers for PCR-based screening approach for tropane alkaloids (TAs) producing endophytic fungi. These fungi were identified taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and also based on morphological characteristics of the fungal spore as Colletotrichum boninense, Phomopsis sp...
October 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yuanye Zhu, Xiaoyu Liang, Yanjun Li, Yabing Duan, Zhitian Zheng, Jianxin Wang, Zhou Mingguo
β-tubulin is the target of benzimidazole fungicides and the most wildly used one of which is Carbendazim (methyl benzimidazol-2-yl-carbamate, MBC). MBC sensitivity is determined by the differential affinity of MBC for β-tubulins. However, the mechanism of less sensitivity of F. graminearum to MBC compared to other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodies, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum remains exclusive. Alignment of β-tubulin acid amino sequences showed that position 240 of β-tubulins is leucine (L) in most pathogenic fungi but is phenylalanine (F) in the Fgβ2-tubulin of F...
October 24, 2017: Phytopathology
Mark R Bleackley, Charlotte S Dawson, James A McKenna, Pedro Quimbar, Brigitte M E Hayes, Nicole L van der Weerden, Marilyn A Anderson
Defensins are a large family of small, cationic, cysteine-rich proteins that are part of the defense arsenal that plants use for protection against potentially damaging fungal infections. The plant defensin NaD1 from Nicotiana alata is a potent antifungal protein that inhibits growth and kills a variety of fungal pathogens that affect both plant and animal (human) hosts. Some serine protease inhibitors have also been reported to be antifungal molecules, while others have no inhibitory activity against fungi...
September 2017: MSphere
Nur Sabrina Ahmad Azmi, Suthitar Singkaravanit-Ogawa, Kyoko Ikeda, Saeko Kitakura, Yoshihiro Inoue, Yoshihiro Narusaka, Ken Shirasu, Masanori Kaido, Kazuyuki Mise, Yoshitaka Takano
The hemibiotrophic pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare preferentially expresses a necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like protein named NLP1 during the switch to necrotrophy. Here, we report that the constitutive expression of NLP1 in C. orbiculare blocks pathogen infection in multiple Cucurbitaceae cultivars via their enhanced defense responses. NLP1 has a cytotoxic activity that induces cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, C. orbiculare transgenic lines constitutively expressing a mutant NLP1 lacking the cytotoxic activity still failed to infect cucumber, indicating no clear relationship between cytotoxic activity and the NLP1-dependent enhanced defense...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Marco Masi, Maria Chiara Zonno, Alessio Cimmino, Pierluigi Reveglia, Alexander Berestetskiy, Angela Boari, Maurizio Vurro, Antonio Evidente
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is responsible for serious allergies induced on humans. Different approaches for its control were proposed during the COST Action FA1203 "Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe" (SMARTER). Fungal secondary metabolites often show potential herbicidal activity. Three phytotoxins were purified from the fungal culture filtrates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from infected leaves of A. artemisiifolia. They were identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods as colletochlorin A, orcinol and tyrosol (1, 2 and 3)...
October 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
J Romero, C Agustí-Brisach, A E Santa Bárbara, F Cherifi, R Oliveira, L F Roca, J Moral, A Trapero
AIMS: To set up a practical method to detect latent infections of Colletotrichum spp., causal agent of olive anthracnose, on olives before disease symptoms onset. METHODS AND RESULTS: Freezing, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ethanol and ethylene treatments were evaluated to detect latent infections on inoculated and naturally infected olive fruit by Colletotrichum spp. as non-hazardous alternatives to paraquat. Treatments were conducted using fruit of cultivars Arbequina and Hojiblanca...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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