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Johannes Schmidpeter, Marlis Dahl, Jörg Hofmann, Christian Koch
BACKGROUND: Mob family proteins are conserved between animals, plants and fungi and are essential for the activation of NDR kinases that control crucial cellular processes like cytokinesis, proliferation and morphology. RESULTS: We identified a hypomorphic allele of ChMOB2 in a random insertional mutant (vir-88) of the hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum. The mutant is impaired in conidiation, host penetration and virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana...
January 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Christian Derntl, Bernhard Kluger, Christoph Bueschl, Rainer Schuhmacher, Robert L Mach, Astrid R Mach-Aigner
Fungi can produce a wide range of chemical compounds via secondary metabolism. These compounds are of major interest because of their (potential) application in medicine and biotechnology and as a potential source for new therapeutic agents and drug leads. However, under laboratory conditions, most secondary metabolism genes remain silent. This circumstance is an obstacle for the production of known metabolites and the discovery of new secondary metabolites. In this study, we describe the dual role of the transcription factor Xylanase promoter binding protein 1 (Xpp1) in the regulation of both primary and secondary metabolism of Trichoderma reesei Xpp1 was previously described as a repressor of xylanases...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
E A S Buiate, K V Xavier, N Moore, M F Torres, M L Farman, C L Schardl, L J Vaillancourt
BACKGROUND: Colletotrichum graminicola and C. sublineola cause anthracnose leaf and stalk diseases of maize and sorghum, respectively. In spite of their close evolutionary relationship, the two species are completely host-specific. Host specificity is often attributed to pathogen virulence factors, including specialized secondary metabolites (SSM), and small-secreted protein (SSP) effectors. Genes relevant to these categories were manually annotated in two co-occurring, contemporaneous strains of C...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
Juan Hua, Yan Liu, Chao-Jiang Xiao, Shu-Xi Jing, Shi-Hong Luo, Sheng-Hong Li
Plant latex is an endogenous fluid secreted from highly specialized laticifer cells and has been suggested to act as a plant defense system. The chemical profile of the latex of Euphorbia peplus was investigated. A total of 13 terpenoids including two previously unknown diterpenoids, (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,6R*,8R*,l1R*,13S*,14S*,15R*, 16R*)-5,8,15-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-11,16-dihydroxy-9-oxopepluane and (2R*,3R*, 4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,8,9,14-pentaacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-15-hydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene), ten known diterpenoids, and a known acyclic triterpene alcohol peplusol, were identified, using HPLC and UPLC-MS/MS analyses and through comparison with the authentic compounds isolated from the whole plant...
January 3, 2017: Phytochemistry
Sakon Monggoot, Siam Popluechai, Eleni Gentekaki, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fungal endophytes are microorganisms that are well-known for producing a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Recent studies have uncovered the bioprospecting potential of several plant endophytic fungi. Here, we demonstrate the presence of highly bioactive fungal endophytic species in Aquilaria subintegra, a fragrant wood plant collected from Thailand. Thirty-three fungal endophytic strains were isolated and further identified to genus level based on morphological characteristics. These genera included Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, Fusarium, Russula, Arthrinium, Diaporthe and Cladosporium...
January 5, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Marco Masi, Alessio Cimmino, Angela Boari, Angela Tuzi, Maria Chiara Zonno, Riccardo Baroncelli, Maurizio Vurro, Antonio Evidente
A new tetrasubstituted pyran-2-one and a new dihydrobenzofuran, named colletochlorins E and F (1 and 2), were isolated from the culture filtrates of the fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum together with the already known colletochlorin A, 4-chloroorcinol and colletopyrone. Colletochlorins E, the main metabolite, and F were characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, HRESIMS) and chemical methods as 3-[7-chloro-4-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-benzofuran-5-ylmethyl]-4-hydroxy-5,6-dimethyl-pyran-2-one, and 7-chloro-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-ol...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Amit K Dubey, Shiri Barad, Neta Luria, Dilip Kumar, Eduardo A Espeso, Dov B Prusky
Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the presence of cation salts NaCl and KCl inhibited fungal growth and anthracnose symptom of colonization. Previous reports indicate that adaptation of Aspergillus nidulans to salt- and osmotic-stress conditions revealed the role of zinc-finger transcription factors SltA and CrzA in cation homeostasis. Homologs of A. nidulans SltA and CrzA were identified in C. gloeosporioides. The C. gloeosporioides CrzA homolog is a 682-amino acid protein, which contains a C2H2 zinc finger DNA-binding domain that is highly conserved among CrzA proteins from yeast and filamentous fungi...
2016: PloS One
Fangcheng Bi, Dana Ment, Neta Luria, Xiangchun Meng, Dov Prusky
The GATA transcription factor AreA is a global nitrogen regulator that restricts the utilization of complex and poor nitrogen sources in the presence of good nitrogen sources in microorganisms. In this study, we report the biological function of an AreA homolog (the CgareA gene) in the fruit postharvest pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Targeted gene deletion mutants of areA exhibited significant reductions in vegetative growth, increases in conidia production, and slight decreases in conidial germination rates...
December 25, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Qiongnan Gu, Meijuan Chen, Junbin Huang, Y D Wei, Tom Hsiang, Lu Zheng
The infection process of Colletotrichum higginsianum, which causes a disease of crucifers, involves several key steps: conidial germination, appressorial formation, appressorial penetration, and invasive growth in host tissues. In this study, the ChRgf gene encoding a Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor protein was identified by screening T-DNA insertion mutants generated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AtMT) that were unable to cause disease on the host Arabidopsis thaliana. Targeted gene deletion of ChRgf resulted in a null mutant (ΔChrgf-42) with defects in vegetative growth, hyphal morphology and conidiation, and poor surface attachment and low germination on hydrophobic surfaces, but there were no apparent differences in appressorial turgor pressure between the wild-type and the mutant...
December 27, 2016: Phytopathology
Irina S Druzhinina, Eva M Kubicek, Christian P Kubicek
BACKGROUND: Sorbicillinoids are a family of complex cyclic polyketides produced by only a small number of distantly related ascomycete fungi such as Trichoderma (Sordariomycetes) and Penicillium (Eurotiomycetes). In T. reesei, they are synthesized by a gene cluster consisting of eight genes including two polyketide synthases (PKS). To reconstruct the evolutionary origin of this gene cluster, we examined the occurrence of these eight genes in ascomycetes. RESULTS: A cluster comprising at least six of them was only found in Hypocreales (Acremonium chrysogenum, Ustilaginoidea virens, Trichoderma species from section Longibrachiatum) and in Penicillium rubens (Eurotiales)...
December 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Delfia Marcenaro, Jari P T Valkonen
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions...
2016: PloS One
Wenqiang Tan, Qing Li, Zhenpeng Gao, Shuai Qiu, Fang Dong, Zhanyong Guo
Based on cuprous-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), starch derivative bearing 1,2,3-triazole and pyridine (II) was prepared and subsequently followed by alkylation with iodomethane to synthesize starch derivative bearing 1,2,3-triazolium and pyridinium (III). The antifungal activities of starch derivatives against Colletotrichum lagenarium, Watermelon fusarium, and Phomopsis asparagi, were then assayed by hypha measurement in vitro. Apparently, starch derivatives showed enhanced antifungal activity against three fungi at the tested concentrations compared with starch...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
A Triastuti, M Vansteelandt, F Barakat, P Jargeat, L Rieusset, N Fabre, C Amasifuen, A Valentin, M Haddad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
Timo Engelsdorf, Cornelia Will, Jörg Hofmann, Christine Schmitt, Brian B Merritt, Leonie Rieger, Marc S Frenger, André Marschall, Rochus B Franke, Sivakumar Pattathil, Lars M Voll
Penetration resistance represents the first level of plant defense against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we report that the starch-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana phosphoglucomutase (pgm) mutant has impaired penetration resistance against the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum. We could not determine any changes in leaf cutin and epicuticular wax composition or indolic glucosinolate levels, but detected complex alterations in the cell wall monosaccharide composition of pgm Notably, other mutants deficient in starch biosynthesis (adg1) or mobilization (sex1) had similarly affected cell wall composition and penetration resistance...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ely Oliveira-Garcia, Holger B Deising
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins is one of the most common posttranslational modifications of proteins in eukaryotic cells and is important for associating proteins with the cell surface. In fungi, GPI-anchored proteins play essential roles in cross-linking of β-glucan cell-wall polymers and cell-wall rigidity. GPI-anchor synthesis is successively performed at the cytoplasmic and the luminal face of the ER membrane and involves approximately 25 proteins. While mutagenesis of auxiliary genes of this pathway suggested roles of GPI-anchored proteins in hyphal growth and virulence, essential genes of this pathway have not been characterized...
November 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Young Soo Kim, Kotnala Balaraju, Yongho Jeon
In this study, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against postharvest pathogens of apple fruits. In vitro bioassays revealed that, out of 30 isolates screened, isolates APEC136 and APEC170 had the most significant inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of several fungal pathogens. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences identified the two effective isolates as Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. The two strains showed greater growth in brain-heart infusion broth than in other growth media...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Shalini Rai, Prem Lal Kashyap, Sudheer Kumar, Alok Kumar Srivastava, Pramod W Ramteke
The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured...
2016: SpringerPlus
Fuqian Wang, Haoran Ma, Zhengxi Hu, Jie Jiang, Hucheng Zhu, Lu Cheng, Quanwei Yang, Hong Zhang, Geng Zhang, Yonghui Zhang
A rare new tremulane sesquiterpenoid analogue, 11,12-epoxy-5,6-seco-1,6(13)-tremuladien-5,12-olide (1), together with five known altenuene derivatives (2-6) was isolated from the cultures of Colletotrichum capsici, which was isolated as an endophytic fungus from fresh leaves of Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino (Compositae). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. All compounds isolated were reported for the first time from the fungus C. capsici.
November 28, 2016: Natural Product Research
Wensheng Li, Jiaxin Xu, Fenqi Li, Li Xu, Chunyuan Li
BACKGROUND: Myoporum bontioides A. Gray is a commonly used medicinal plant in China. Recently, the chemical and bioactive investigations to the endophytic fungi of this plant have led to several new compounds with antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. To find out more active molecules, the metabolites of an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma sp. 09 from the root of Myoporum bontioides were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The metabolites were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis[one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Mass spectrometry (MS)], and by comparison with the published data...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Tekalign Kejela, Vasudev R Thakkar, Parth Thakor
BACKGROUND: Colletotrichum and Fusarium species are among pathogenic fungi widely affecting Coffea arabica L., resulting in major yield loss. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bacteria from root rhizosphere of the same plant that is capable of antagonizing Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum as well as promotes plant growth. RESULTS: A total of 42 Bacillus species were isolated, one of the isolates named BT42 showed maximum radial mycelial growth inhibition against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (78%) and Fusarium oxysporum (86%)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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