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Thomas P Hendrickson, Maya Bruguera
California faces significant energy and water infrastructure planning challenges in response to a changing climate. Immediately following the most severe recorded drought, the state experienced one of its wettest water years in recorded history. Despite the recent severe wet weather, much of the state's critical groundwater systems have not recovered from the drought. The recent Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) aims to eliminate future depletion risks, but may force California basins to seek alternative water sources by limiting groundwater withdrawals during droughts...
May 16, 2018: Water Research
Lei Qin, Lu Liu, Zhongming Wang, Weining Chen, Dong Wei
To determine the feasibility of microalgae-yeast mixed culture using the liquid digestate of dairy wastewater (LDDW) for biofuels and single cell protein (SCP) production, the cell growth, nutrient removal and outputs evaluation of the mono and mixed culture of Chlorella vulgaris and Yarrowia lipolytica in LDDW were investigated by adding glycerol as carbon source. The results showed that the mixed culture could enhance the biological utilization efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, and obtain higher yield of biomass (1...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Raffaella Mancuso, Christian S Pomelli, Piera Chiappetta, Katia Francesca Gioia, Asif Maner, Nadia Marino, Lucia Veltri, Cinzia Chiappe, Bartolo Gabriele
The cycloisomerization of readily available 2-alkynylbenzoic acids 1 in ionic liquids (ILs) as recyclable reaction media has been studied under the catalytic action of CuCl2. With substrates bearing an aryl group on the triple bond, a mixture of (Z)-3-alkylideneisobenzofuran-1(3H)-ones (from 5-exo-dig cyclization) and 1H-isochromen-1-ones (from 6-endo-dig cyclization) was observed in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (EmimEtSO4), while the reaction turned out to be selective toward the formation of the isobenzofuranone only using N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium dicyanamide [Mor1,2N(CN)2], as the solvent...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Johann Auer, Robert Berent
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) are associated with a substantial mortality, physical morbidity, and mental disability. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels play a major role in the pathophysiology of ASCVDs. Statins have been shown to reduce ASCVD risk and associated events and are recommended as first-line therapy for treatment of hypercholesterolemia by current international guidelines. The key issue is to attain guideline-recommended LDL-C levels (below 70 mg/dl) for patients at very high cardiovascular risk...
May 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Samuel Patton, Mariano Romano, Vincenzo Naddeo, Kenneth P Ishida, Haizhou Liu
Growing demands and increasing scarcity of fresh water resources necessitate potable water reuse, which has been implemented with the aid of UV-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) that remove potentially hazardous trace organic contaminants from reclaimed water. During the potable reuse treatment process, chloramines are added to prevent membrane fouling that are carried over to the UV/AOP, where hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is commonly added. However, the impact of chloramines on the photolysis of H2O2 and the overall performance of the UV/AOP remains unknown...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Huan Cui, Kouki Kitajima, Michael J Spicuzza, John H Fournelle, Akizumi Ishida, Philip E Brown, John W Valley
Sedimentological observations from the Paleoproterozoic Huronian Supergroup are suggested to mark the rise in atmospheric oxygen at that time, which is commonly known as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) and typically coupled with a transition from mass-independent fractionation (MIF) to mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of sulfur isotopes. An early in situ study of S three-isotopes across the Huronian Supergroup by Papineau et al. ( 2007 ) identified a weak MIF-MDF transition. However, the interpretation and stratigraphic placement of this transition is ambiguous...
May 2018: Astrobiology
Dennis Weidener, Holger Klose, Walter Leitner, Ulrich Schurr, Björn Usadel, Pablo Domínguez de María, Philipp Michael Grande
To develop novel biorefinery concepts, the use of bio-based catalysts and solvents must be aligned with the Green Chemistry principles. In this context biogenic 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is a very promising, yet underused molecule with high potential application as acid catalyst combining feasibility and sustainability with an efficient and straightforward recovery. In this work, FDCA was evaluated as catalyst in the recently developed OrganoCat pretreatment, a biphasic lignocellulose fractionation system...
May 23, 2018: ChemSusChem
Josie Wittmer, Kate Parizeau
We explore informal recyclers' perceptions and experiences of the social determinants of health in Vancouver, Canada, and investigate the factors that contribute to the environmental health inequities they experience. Based on in-depth interviews with 40 informal recyclers and 7 key informants, we used a social determinants of health framework to detail the health threats that informal recyclers associated with their work and the factors that influenced their access to health-related resources and services...
January 1, 2018: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
A T Ezhil Vilian, Rajamanickam Sivakumar, Yun Suk Huh, Ji Ho Youk, Young-Kyu Han
Metal nanoparticle-containing porous organic polymers have gained great interest in chemical and pharmaceutical applications owing to their high reactivity and good recyclability. In the present work, a palladium nanoparticle-decorated triazine-urea-based porous organic polymer (Pd@TU-POP) was designed and synthesized using 1, 3-bis (4-aminiphenyl) urea with cyanuric chloride and palladium acetate. The porous structure and physicochemical properties of this electrode material Pd@TU-POP were observed using a range of standard techniques...
May 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shailesh Kumar Singh, Syed Masood Husain
Superoxide (O2*-) generation in biological systems is achieved through some of the most complex enzymatic systems. Of these, only the xanthine/xanthine oxidase has been used for in vitro biochemical studies. However, it suffers from limitations such as, lack of suitable heterologous expression system for xanthine oxidase and the irreversible consumption along with low solubility of xanthine under physiological conditions. Here, we report a redox-based, enzyme-catalyzed system where autoxidation of hydroquinone to quinone via semiquinone results in superoxide generation...
May 23, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Tony Garnier, Mathieu Danel, Valentin Magne, Anthony Pujol, Valérie Beneteau, Patrick Pale, Stefan Chassaing
The copper(I)-doped zeolite CuI-USY proved to be a versatile, efficient, and recyclable catalyst for various Ullmann-type coupling reactions. Easy-to-prepare and cheap, this catalytic material enables the arylation and heteroarylation of diverse O-, N-, S- and C-nucleophiles under ligand-free conditions, while exhibiting large functional group compatibility. The facility of this catalyst to promote C-O bond formation was further demonstrated with the total synthesis of 3-methylobovatol, a naturally occurring diaryl ether of biological relevance...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Shuliang Yang, Yanan Zhu, Changyan Cao, Li Peng, Wendy L Queen, Weiguo Song
The synthesis of porous carbon spheres with hierarchical porous structures coupled with the doping of heteroatoms is particularly important for advanced applications. In this research, a new route for efficient and controllable synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon spheres co-doped with nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur (denoted as NPS-HPCs) was reported. This new approach combines in situ polymerization of hexachlorocyclophosphazene and 4, 4'-sulfonyldiphenol with the self-assembly of colloidal silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs)...
May 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Li Zhang, Jiewei Liu, Yan-Zhong Fan, Xin Li, Yao-Wei Xu, Cheng-Yong Su
Porous porphyrin metal-organic frameworks (PMOFs) provide a promising platform to study CO2 capture and conversion (C3) owing to their versatility in photoelectric, catalytic and redox activities and porphyrin coordination chemistry. Herein, we report the C3 application of two PMOFs by engineering the coordination space through introduction of two catalytic metalloporphyrins, Rh-PMOF-1 and Ir-PMOF-1, both of which can serve as heterogeneous catalysts for the chemical fixation of CO2 into cyclic carbonates with up to 99% yields...
May 22, 2018: ChemSusChem
Xinhua Wan, Xichong Ye, Jiaxi Cui, Bowen Li, Na Li, Jie Zhang
Collection of two optically pure enantiomers in a single crystallization process can significantly increase the chiral separation efficiency but it's hard to realize nowadays. Herein we describe, for the first time, a self-reporting strategy for visualizing the crystallization process by a kind of dyed self-assembled inhibitors made from the copolymers with tri(ethylene glycol)-grafting polymethylsiloxane as main chains and poly(N6-methacryloyl-L-lysine) as side chains. When applied with seeds together for the fractional crystallization of conglomerates, the inhibitors can label the formation of the secondary crystals and guide us to completely separate the crystallization process of two enantiomers with colorless crystals as the first product and red crystals as the secondary product...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Clarissa von Haefen, Marco Sifringer, Stefanie Endesfelder, Alexander Kalb, Adrián González-López, Annalena Tegethoff, Nadine Paeschke, Claudia D Spies
Tissue damage and pathogen invasion during surgical trauma have been identified as contributing factors leading to neuroinflammation in the hippocampus, which can be protected by stimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway using the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. Macroautophagy, an intracellular degradation pathway used to recycle and eliminate damaged proteins and organelles by lysosomal digestion, seems to be important for cell survival under stress conditions. This study aimed to examine the role of autophagy in physostigmine-mediated hippocampal cell protection in a rat model of surgery stress...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Libin Yang, Qinqin Sang, Juan Du, Ming Yang, Xiuling Li, Yu Shen, Xiaoxia Han, Xin Jiang, Bing Zhao
Ag simultaneously deposited and doped TiO2 (Ag-TiO2) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via a sol-hydrothermal method, as both a sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and a superior photocatalyst for the first time. Ag-TiO2 hybrid NPs exhibit excellent SERS performance for several probe molecules and the enhancement factor is calculated to be 1.86 × 105. The detection limit of the 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) probe on the Ag-TiO2 substrate is 1 × 10-9 mol L-1, which is four orders of magnitude lower than that on pure TiO2 as a consequence of the synergistic effects of TiO2 and Ag...
May 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shaoni Bhattacharjee, Priyanka Bose, Krishna Patel, Shatadru Ghosh Roy, Chandrima Gain, Harsha Gowda, Erle S Robertson, Abhik Saha
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncoprotein EBNA3C is indispensable for primary B-cell transformation and maintenance of lymphoblastoid cells outgrowth. EBNA3C usurps two putative cellular pathways-cell-cycle and apoptosis, essentially through modulating ubiquitin-mediated protein-degradation or gene transcription. In cancer cells, these two pathways are interconnected with autophagy,-a survival-promoting catabolic network in which cytoplasmic material including mis/un-folded protein aggregates and damaged organelles along with intracellular pathogens are degraded and recycled in lysosomal compartments...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Stephan Block
The capability of lipid bilayers to exhibit fluid-phase behavior is a fascinating property, which enables, for example, membrane-associated components, such as lipids (domains) and transmembrane proteins, to diffuse within the membrane. These diffusion processes are of paramount importance for cells, as they are for example involved in cell signaling processes or the recycling of membrane components, but also for recently developed analytical approaches, which use differences in the mobility for certain analytical purposes, such as in-membrane purification of membrane proteins or the analysis of multivalent interactions...
May 22, 2018: Biomolecules
Yue Chen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Qiangwei Kou, Yang Liu, Donglai Han, Dandan Wang, Yantao Sun, Yongjun Zhang, Yaxin Wang, Ziyang Lu, Lei Chen, Jinghai Yang, Scott Guozhong Xing
In this work, we report the enhanced catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol driven by Fe₃O₄-Au magnetic nanocomposite interface engineering. A facile solvothermal method is employed for Fe₃O₄ hollow microspheres and Fe₃O₄-Au magnetic nanocomposite synthesis via a seed deposition process. Complementary structural, chemical composition and valence state studies validate that the as-obtained samples are formed in a pure magnetite phase. A series of characterizations including conventional scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic testing and elemental mapping is conducted to unveil the structural and physical characteristics of the developed Fe₃O₄-Au magnetic nanocomposites...
May 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Ayoub Talbi Alami, Federica Richina, M Rita Correro, Yves Dudal, Patrick Shahgaldian
Transaminases are enzymes capable of stereoselective reductive amination; they are of great interest in the production of chiral building blocks. However, the use of this class of enzymes in industrial processes is often hindered by their limited stability under operational conditions. Herein, we demonstrate that a transaminase enzyme from Aspergillus terreus can be immobilized at the surface of silica nanoparticles and protected in an organosilica shell of controlled thickness. The so-protected enzyme displays a high biocatalytic activity, and additionally provides the possibility to be retained in a reactor system for continuous operation and to be recycled...
May 30, 2018: Chimia
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