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Ying Cheng, Megharaj Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu, Zuliang Chen
Improving the anode configuration to enhance biocompatibility and accelerate electron shuttling is critical for efficient energy recovery in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this paper, green reduced graphene nanocomposite was successfully coated using layer-by-layer assembly technique onto carbon brush anode. The modified anode achieved a 3.2-fold higher power density of 33.7 W m(-3) at a current density of 69.4 A m(-3) with a 75% shorter start period. As revealed in the characterization, the green synthesized nanocomposite film affords larger surface roughness for microbial colonization...
November 13, 2017: Chemosphere
Ville Turunen, Jaana Sorvari, Anna Mikola
Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of resources, such as nutrients and organic matter. At the same time, the organic contaminants (OC) found in sewage sludge are of growing concern. Consequently, in many European countries incineration is currently favored over recycling in agriculture. This study presents a Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT)-based decision support tool (DST) for facilitating sludge treatment decisions. Essential decision criteria were recognized and prioritized, i.e., weighted, by experts from water utilities...
November 13, 2017: Chemosphere
Tianjie Hong, Jun Mao, Feifei Tao, Mingxuan Lan
Using ilmenite as a raw material, iron was converted into Fe₃O₄ magnetic fluid, which further was combined with titanium filtrate by a solvothermal method. Finally Fe₃O₄/TiO₂ nanocomposites with the uniform size of 100-200 nm were prepared. This approach uses rich, inexpensive ilmenite as a titanium and iron source, which effectively reduces the production cost. The crystal structure, chemical properties and morphologies of the products were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR, BET, UV-Vis, XPS and VSM...
November 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nicolas Kern, Mateusz P Plesniak, Joseph J W McDouall, David J Procter
The rapid generation of molecular complexity from simple starting materials is a key challenge in synthesis. Enantioselective radical cyclization cascades have the potential to deliver complex, densely packed, polycyclic architectures, with control of three-dimensional shape, in one step. Unfortunately, carrying out reactions with radicals in an enantiocontrolled fashion remains challenging due to their high reactivity. This is particularly the case for reactions of radicals generated using the classical reagent, SmI2...
December 2017: Nature Chemistry
Debajit Kalita, S R Joshi
Lead released from manufacturing factories, recycling plants, automobile company and landfill leachate is abundantly found in wastewater. An efficient bioremediating agent for lead removal from wastewater is expected to ease the ever increasing problem. The present study reports Pseudomonas sp. W6 isolated from extreme habitat of hot water spring of North-East India evaluated for its Lead biosorption property. The bacterium showed capacity to resist 1.0 mM lead in both solid and liquid minimal media. Epifluorescence microscopy reveal the viability of bacterial cells under metal stress condition...
December 2017: Biotechnology Reports
Nadia Leloup, Philip Lössl, Dimphna H Meijer, Martha Brennich, Albert J R Heck, Dominique M E Thies-Weesie, Bert J C Janssen
Low pH-induced ligand release and receptor recycling are important steps for endocytosis. The transmembrane protein sortilin, a β-propeller containing endocytosis receptor, internalizes a diverse set of ligands with roles in cell differentiation and homeostasis. The molecular mechanisms of pH-mediated ligand release and sortilin recycling are unresolved. Here we present crystal structures that show the sortilin luminal segment (s-sortilin) undergoes a conformational change and dimerizes at low pH. The conformational change, within all three sortilin luminal domains, provides an altered surface and the dimers sterically shield a large interface while bringing the two s-sortilin C-termini into close proximity...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Brian G Hiester, Ashley M Bourke, Brooke L Sinnen, Sarah G Cook, Emily S Gibson, Katharine R Smith, Matthew J Kennedy
The repertoire and abundance of proteins displayed on the surface of neuronal dendrites are tuned by regulated fusion of recycling endosomes (REs) with the dendritic plasma membrane. While this process is critical for neuronal function and plasticity, how synaptic activity drives RE fusion remains unexplored. We demonstrate a multistep fusion mechanism that requires Ca(2+) from distinct sources. NMDA receptor Ca(2+) initiates RE fusion with the plasma membrane, while L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (L-VGCCs) regulate whether fused REs collapse into the membrane or reform without transferring their cargo to the cell surface...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
Qi Lin, Yan-Qing Fan, Peng-Peng Mao, Lu Liu, Juan Liu, You-Ming Zhang, Hong Yao, Tai-Bao Wei
The selective detection and separation of target ions or molecules is an intriguing issue. Herein, a novel supramolecular organic framework (SOF-THBP) was constructed by bis-thioacetylhydrazine functionalized pillar[5]arenes. The SOF-THBP shows fluorescent response for Fe3+, Cr3+, Hg2+ and Cu2+. The xerogel of SOF-THBP shows excellent recyclable separation properties for these metal ions and the absorption rates were up to 99.29%. More interestingly, by rationally introduced these metal ions into the SOF-THBP, a series of metal ions coordinated SOFs (MSOFs) such as MSOF-Fe, MSOF-Hg and MSOF-Cu were constructed...
November 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
C J M Poole, S Basu
Background: The waste and recycling sector is a growing part of industry. Whether health surveillance is indicated and how it should be undertaken is unclear. Aims: To undertake a review of the literature to identify hazards to health, biological effects and occupational illnesses for workers in the sector. Methods: A systematic review of the published literature and two UK databases. Results: Rates of fatal, non-fatal injuries and self-reported work-related illness were found to be higher in the waste and recycling sector than in UK industry as a whole...
November 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
Qinyue Deng, Yajing Shen, Haibo Zhu, Tao Tu
A robust magnetic nanoparticle-supported N-heterocyclic carbene-palladacycle has been readily synthesized by directly anchoring the structural defined acenaphthoimidazolylidene palladacycle with a long tail on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and functioned as a solid molecular catalyst and exhibited extremely high catalytic activity towards the challenging Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions between less-studied heterocyclic 9-chloroacridine and diverse boronic acids. Remarkably, the catalyst could be used 5 times without obvious loss of activity highlighting the efficiency of our strategy of immobilization of previledged catalysts...
November 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Hisao Ohtake, Kenji Okano, Masashi Kunisada, Hiroyuki Takano, Masaya Toda
A simple technology for phosphate (P i ) recovery has been developed using a bifunctional adsorption-aggregation agent. The bifunctional agent was prepared by soaking calcium silicates in hydrochloric acid solution. Importantly, recyclable calcium silicates were available almost free of charge from the cement industry and also from the steel industry. The acid treatment was essential not only for enhancing the ability of calcium silicates to remove P i from aqueous solution but also for enabling the high settleability of removed P i ...
November 21, 2017: Ambio
Xinqiang Liang, Yi Jin, Miaomiao He, Christophe Niyungeko, Jin Zhang, Chunlong Liu, Guangming Tian, Yuji Arai
Converting swine manure to biochar is an effective way to recycle valuable nutrients, but there are few reports on its feasibility as a phosphorus (P) source. The objective of this study was to clarify the unique nature, including P speciation, of manure biochar products under various pyrolysis temperatures. We used solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and P K-edge X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (P XANES) to characterize P species in swine manure biochar. For every 100 °C increment starting from 300 °C, the P content in manure biochar increased by 2...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Harriet E Moore, Jennifer Boldero
Policy makers draw on behavioral research to design interventions that promote the voluntary adoption of environmental behavior in societies. Many environmental behaviors will only be effective if they are maintained over the long-term. In the context of climate change and concerns about future water security, behaviors that involve reducing energy consumption and improving water quality must be continued indefinitely to mitigate global warming and preserve scarce resources. Previous reviews of environmental behavior have focused exclusively on factors related to adoption...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Lucyna Walkowicz, Ewelina Kijak, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Jolanta Górska-Andrzejak, Vassilis Stratoulias, Olga Woznicka, Elzbieta Chwastek, Tapio I Heino, Elzbieta M Pyza
In Drosophila melanogaster, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (DmMANF) is an evolutionarily conserved ortholog of mammalian MANF and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), which have been shown to promote the survival of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We observed especially high levels of DmMANF in the visual system of Drosophila, particularly in the first optic neuropil (lamina). In the lamina, DmMANF was found in glial cells (surface and epithelial glia), photoreceptors and interneurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hiroko Yanagisawa, Tomohiro Ishii, Kentaro Endo, Emiko Kawakami, Kazuaki Nagao, Toshiyuki Miyashita, Keiko Akiyama, Kazuhiko Watabe, Masaaki Komatsu, Daisuke Yamamoto, Yoshikatsu Eto
Lysosomal storage disorders are characterized by progressive accumulation of undigested macromolecules within the cell due to lysosomal dysfunction. 573C10 is a Schwann cell line derived from a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C disease-1, NPC (-/-). Under serum-starved conditions, NPC (-/-) cells manifested impaired autophagy accompanied by an increase in the amount of p62 and lysosome enlargement. Addition of L-leucine to serum-starved NPC (-/-) cells ameliorated the enlargement of lysosomes and the p62 accumulation...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Keyang Chen, Qingsi Wu, Kongwang Hu, Chengwei Yang, Xiangdong Wu, Peter Cheung, Kevin Jon Williams
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the atherometabolic syndrome exhibit a deadly dyslipoproteinemia that arises in part from impaired hepatic disposal of C-TRLs (cholesterol- and triglyceride-rich remnant apoB [apolipoprotein B] lipoproteins). We previously identified syndecan-1 as a receptor for C-TRLs that directly mediates endocytosis via rafts, independent from coated pits. Caveolins and flotillins form rafts but facilitate distinct endocytotic pathways. We now investigated their participation in syndecan-1-mediated disposal of C-TRLs and their expression in T2DM liver...
November 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Sergey A Prokopenko, Vladimir S Ludzish, Anatoly A Li
The objective of this study was to find opportunities for metal waste recycling in the process of rock breaking in mines. A built-up cutter design for a combined cutter-loader and a recycling technique for a considerable portion of the deteriorated tool are suggested. Industrial tests have proven the possibility of a ten-fold increase in the use of cutters on mining machines for coal rock mass destruction. The proposed technique allows a four times reduction in metal consumption in the production and use of cutters and a reduction of the ultimate resulting waste by 80%...
December 2017: Waste Management & Research
Tianlong Han, Liping Wang, Yanming Zhang, Jun Zhang, Dongsheng Han, Ning Lv, Xiaohua Han, Guoqiang Zhao, Min Wang
This study investigated the changes of nutrient compositions of piled laying hen manure, detected the physical and chemical components of laying hen manure fermented by mixed strains, and analysed its application effects on feeding ruminants. The results showed that with increasing of piling time, the contents of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) in laying hen manure were reduced, while the contents of crude ash (CA), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) were increased. Fermentation could effectively decrease pH value, reduce Ca/P ratio, lessen the total bacterial counts, and maintain the organisms contents in laying hen manure...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
David C Gershlick, María Lucas
Transmembrane proteins are sorted from endosomes to avoid lysosomal degradation. A recent study has identified a new multimeric complex called retriever that is essential for recycling numerous cell-surface cargoes from endosomes and is structurally and functionally related to the well-characterised retromer complex.
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Michael B Fessler
The lung has a unique relationship to cholesterol that is shaped by its singular physiology. On the one hand, the lungs receive the full cardiac output and have a predominant dependence on plasma lipoprotein uptake for their cholesterol supply. On the other hand, surfactant lipids, including cholesterol, are continually susceptible to oxidation owing to direct environmental exposure and must be cleared or recycled because of the very narrow biophysical mandates placed upon surfactant lipid composition. Interestingly, increased lipid-laden macrophage "foam cells" have been noted in a wide range of human lung pathologies...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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