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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346651/bipartite-network-analysis-of-gene-sharings-in-the-microbial-world
#1
Eduardo Corel, Raphaël Méheust, Andrew K Watson, James O McInerney, Philippe Lopez, Eric Bapteste
Extensive microbial gene flows affect how we understand virology, microbiology, medical sciences, genetic modification and evolutionary biology. Phylogenies only provide a narrow view of these gene flows: plasmids and viruses, lacking core genes, cannot be attached to cellular life on phylogenetic trees. Yet viruses and plasmids have a major impact on cellular evolution, affecting both the gene content and the dynamics of microbial communities. Using bipartite graphs that connect up to 149,000 clusters of homologous genes with 8217 related and unrelated genomes, we can in particular show patterns of gene sharing that do not map neatly with the organismal phylogeny...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345952/visible-light-enabled-preparation-of-palladium-nanoparticles-and-application-as-catalysts-for-suzuki-miyaura-coupling
#2
Florian Mäsing, Harald Nüsse, Jürgen Klingauf, Armido Studer
Silyl ketones were used for the preparation of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) starting with Pd(OAc)2 in dimethylformamide under irradiation with a visible light-emitting diode (LED). Variation of the silyl ketone structure allowed adjustment of the PdNP diameter (1.9 or 5.2 nm). The in situ-formed PdNPs were further stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone and then applied as recyclable catalysts in the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of arylboronic acids with aryl iodides to obtain substituted biphenyls in excellent yields...
January 18, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345752/oxidative-mechanochemistry-for-direct-room-temperature-solvent-free-conversion-of-palladium-and-gold-metals-into-soluble-salts-and-coordination-complexes
#3
Jean-Louis Do, Davin Tan, Tomislav Friscic
Noble metals are valued critical elements whose chemical activation or recycling is challenging, traditionally requiring high temperatures, strong acids or bases, or aggressive complexation agents. Using elementary palladium and gold, we demonstrate mechanochemistry for noble metal activation and recycling via mild, clean, solvent-free and room-temperature chemistry, leading to direct, efficient, one-pot conversion of the metals, including spent catalysts, to simple water-soluble salts, or to metal-organic catalysts...
January 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345420/integration-of-gas-enhanced-oil-recovery-in-multiphase-fermentations-for-the-microbial-production-of-fuels-and-chemicals
#4
Susana Pedraza-de la Cuesta, Lore Keijzers, Luuk A M van der Wielen, Maria C Cuellar
In multiphase fermentations where the product forms a second liquid phase or where solvents are added for product extraction, turbulent conditions disperse the oil phase as droplets. Surface-active components (SACs) present in the fermentation broth can stabilize the product droplets thus forming an emulsion. Breaking this emulsion increases process complexity and consequently the production cost. In previous works, it has been proposed to promote demulsification of oil/supernatant emulsions in an off-line batch bubble column operating at low gas flow rate...
January 18, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344748/lead-sorption-characteristics-of-various-chicken-bone-part-derived-chars
#5
Jong-Hwan Park, Jim J Wang, Seong-Heon Kim, Se-Won Kang, Ju-Sik Cho, Ronald D Delaune, Yong Sik Ok, Dong-Cheol Seo
Recycling food waste for beneficial use is becoming increasingly important in resource-limited economy. In this study, waste chicken bones of different parts from restaurant industry were pyrolyzed at 600 °C and evaluated for char physicochemical properties and Pb sorption characteristics. Lead adsorption isotherms by different chicken bone chars were carried out with initial Pb concentration range of 1-1000 mg L-1 at pH 5. The Pb adsorption data were better described by the Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9289-0...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343704/phosphorylation-induced-cochaperone-unfolding-promotes-kinase-recruitment-and-client-class-specific-hsp90-phosphorylation
#6
Ashleigh B Bachman, Dimitra Keramisanou, Wanping Xu, Kristin Beebe, Michael A Moses, M V Vasantha Kumar, Geoffrey Gray, Radwan Ebna Noor, Arjan van der Vaart, Len Neckers, Ioannis Gelis
During the Hsp90-mediated chaperoning of protein kinases, the core components of the machinery, Hsp90 and the cochaperone Cdc37, recycle between different phosphorylation states that regulate progression of the chaperone cycle. We show that Cdc37 phosphorylation at Y298 results in partial unfolding of the C-terminal domain and the population of folding intermediates. Unfolding facilitates Hsp90 phosphorylation at Y197 by unmasking a phosphopeptide sequence, which serves as a docking site to recruit non-receptor tyrosine kinases to the chaperone complex via their SH2 domains...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343551/two-subunits-of-the-exocyst-sec3p-and-exo70p-can-function-exclusively-on-the-plasma-membrane
#7
Dongmei Liu, Xia Li, David Shen, Peter Novick
The exocyst is an octameric complex that tethers secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane in preparation for fusion. We anchored each subunit with a transmembrane (TM) domain at its N- or C-terminus. Only N-terminally anchored TM-Sec3p and C-terminally anchored Exo70p-TM proved functional. These findings orient the complex with respect to the membrane and establish that Sec3p and Exo70p can function exclusively on the membrane. The functions of TM-Sec3p and Exo70p-TM were largely unaffected by blocks in endocytic recycling suggesting that they act on the plasma membrane, rather than on secretory vesicles...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343516/stat3-mediated-alterations-in-lysosomal-membrane-protein-composition
#8
Bethan Lloyd-Lewis, Caroline C Krueger, Timothy J Sargeant, Michael E D'Angelo, Michael J Deery, Renata Feret, Julie A Howard, Kathryn S Lilley, Christine J Watson
Lysosome function is essential in cellular homeostasis. In addition to its recycling role, the lysosome has recently been recognised as a cellular signalling hub. We have shown in mammary epithelial cells, both in vivo and in vitro, that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) modulates lysosome biogenesis and can promote the release of lysosomal proteases that culminates in cell death. To further investigate the impact of Stat3 on lysosomal function, we have conducted a proteomic screen of changes in lysosomal membrane protein components induced by Stat3 using an iron nanoparticle enrichment strategy...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341838/immobilization-of-cross-linked-tannase-enzyme-on-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-and-its-catalytic-behavior
#9
Chong-Boon Ong, Mohamad S M Annuar
Immobilization of cross-linked tannase on pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was successfully carried out. Cross-linking of tannase molecules was made via glutaraldehyde. The immobilized tannase exhibited significantly improved pH, thermal, and recycling stabilities. The optimal pH for both free- and immobilized tannase were observed at pH 5.0 with optimal operating temperature at 30 °C. Moreover, immobilized enzyme retained greater biocatalytic activities upon ten-repeated uses compared to free enzyme in solution...
January 17, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341621/sustainable-handaphos-ppm-palladium-technology-for-copper-free-sonogashira-couplings-in-water-under-mild-conditions
#10
Sachin Handa, Justin D Smith, Yitao Zhang, Balaram S Takale, Fabrice Gallou, Bruce H Lipshutz
Complexation of ca. 1000 ppm Pd(OAc)2 with the ligand HandaPhos (1-1.5:1) leads to a precatalyst that efficiently mediates Sonogashira couplings in aqueous nanomicelles under very mild conditions. Neither copper nor organic solvent is required in the reaction medium, and the product can be isolated directly from the reaction flask, leaving behind a reaction mixture that can be recycled without additional additives.
January 17, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341383/co2-triggered-switchable-hydrophilicity-of-heterogeneous-conjugated-polymer-photocatalyst-for-enhanced-catalytic-activity-in-water
#11
Jeehye Byun, Wei Huang, Di Wang, Run Li, Kai A I Zhang
Water-compatibility of heterogeneous photocatalysts has been pursued for energy and environmental applications. However, there exists a trade-off between hydrophilicity and recyclability of the photocatalyst. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer photocatalyst with tertiary amine terminals that reversibly binds CO2 in water, generating a switchable hydrophilicity. The CO2-assisted hydrophilicity boosted up the photocatalytic efficiency in aqueous medium with minimum dosage. When CO2 was desorbed, the photocatalyst could be simply regenerated from reaction media, facilitating the repeated use of photocatalyst...
January 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341109/the-prescribable-drugs-with-efficacy-in-experimental-epilepsies-pde3-database-for-drug-repurposing-research-in-epilepsy
#12
Shayeeshan Sivapalarajah, Mathangi Krishnakumar, Harry Bickerstaffe, YikYing Chan, Joseph Clarkson, Alistair Hampden-Martin, Ahmad Mirza, Matthew Tanti, Anthony Marson, Munir Pirmohamed, Nasir Mirza
OBJECTIVE: Current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have several shortcomings. For example, they fail to control seizures in 30% of patients. Hence, there is a need to identify new AEDs. Drug repurposing is the discovery of new indications for approved drugs. This drug "recycling" offers the potential of significant savings in the time and cost of drug development. Many drugs licensed for other indications exhibit antiepileptic efficacy in animal models. Our aim was to create a database of "prescribable" drugs, approved for other conditions, with published evidence of efficacy in animal models of epilepsy, and to collate data that would assist in choosing the most promising candidates for drug repurposing...
January 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340862/effect-of-brewery-wastewater-obtained-from-different-phases-of-treatment-plant-on-seed-germination-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-maize-zea-mays-and-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan
#13
Rupa Salian, Suhas Wani, Ramamohan Reddy, Mukund Patil
Brewing industry releases large quantities of wastewater after product generation. Brewery wastewater contains organic compounds which are biodegradable in nature. These biodegradable wastes can be recycled and reused and hence considered as suitable products for agriculture. But before using wastewater for agriculture, it is better to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of wastewater on crops. Hence, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of brewery effluent on seed germination and growth parameters of selected crop species like chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339823/phosphate-insensitive-aminophosphonate-mineralisation-within-oceanic-nutrient-cycles
#14
Jason P Chin, John P Quinn, John W McGrath
Many areas of the ocean are nutrient-poor yet support large microbial populations, leading to intense competition for and recycling of nutrients. Organic phosphonates are frequently found in marine waters, but require specialist enzymes for catabolism. Previous studies have shown that the genes that encode these enzymes in marine systems are under Pho regulon control and so are repressed by inorganic phosphate. This has led to the conclusion that phosphonates are recalcitrant in much of the ocean, where phosphorus is not limiting despite the degradative genes being common throughout the marine environment...
January 16, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339212/autophagy-and-t-cell-metabolism
#15
Samuel D Dowling, Fernando Macian
Autophagy, a highly conserved catabolic process that involves the degradation and recycling of intracellular components in the lysosome, has emerged as a key process in the maintenance of T cell homeostasis and the regulation of T cell differentiation and function. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms that mediates the regulation of autophagy in T cells and discuss different cellular processes that are under the control of autophagy in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. A special emphasis is placed on the role that autophagy plays in the modulation of T cell metabolism and the consequences of this regulation on functional states and programs of differentiation in specific T cell populations...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338696/transcriptional-responses-of-escherichia-coli-during-recovery-from-inorganic-or-organic-mercury-exposure
#16
Stephen P LaVoie, Anne O Summers
BACKGROUND: The protean chemical properties of mercury have long made it attractive for diverse applications, but its toxicity requires great care in its use, disposal, and recycling. Mercury occurs in multiple chemical forms, and the molecular basis for the distinct toxicity of its various forms is only partly understood. Global transcriptomics applied over time can reveal how a cell recognizes a toxicant and what cellular subsystems it marshals to repair and recover from the damage...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338210/an-emission-free-vacuum-chlorinating-process-for-simultaneous-sulfur-fixation-and-lead-recovery-from-spent-lead-acid-batteries
#17
Kang Liu, Jiakuan Yang, Sha Liang, Huijie Hou, Ye Chen, Junxiong Wang, Bingchuan Liu, Keke Xiao, Jingping Hu, Jin Wang
Spent lead-acid battery recycling by using conventional technologies is usually accompanied with releases of lead-containing wastewater as well as emissions of sulfur oxides and lead particulates that may potentially cause secondary pollution. This study developed a vacuum chlorinating process for simultaneous sulfur fixation and high-purity lead chloride (PbCl2) recovery from spent lead paste by using calcium chloride (CaCl2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as reagents. The process train includes pretreatment, simultaneous PbCl2 production and sulfur fixation, and PbCl2 volatilization...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337429/co-expression-of-orfcma-with-phb-depolymerase-phazcma-in-escherichia-coli-induces-efficient-whole-cell-biodegradation-of-polyesters
#18
Ming-Chieh Lee, En-Jung Liu, Cheng-Han Yang, Li-Jung Hsiao, Tzong-Ming Wu, Si-Yu Li
Whole-cell degradation of polyesters not only avoids the tedious process of enzyme separation, but also allows the degraded product to be reused as a carbon source. In this study, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) harboring phaZCma , a gene encoding poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase from Caldimonas manganoxidans, was constructed. The extra-cellular fraction of E. coli/pPHAZ exhibited a fast PHB degradation rate where it only took 35 h to completely degrade PHB films, while C. manganoxidans took 81 h to do the same...
January 16, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336954/high-voltage-fragmentation-of-composites-from-secondary-raw-materials-potential-and-limitations
#19
T Leißner, D Hamann, L Wuschke, H-G Jäckel, U A Peuker
The comminution of composites for liberation of valuable components is a costly and energy-intensive process within the recycling of spent products. It therefore is continuously studied and optimized. In addition to conventional mechanical comminution innovative new principles for size reduction have been developed. One is the use of high voltage (HV) pulses, which is known to be a technology selectively liberating along phase boundaries. This technology offers the advantage of targeted liberation, preventing overgrinding of the material and thus improving the overall processing as well as product quality...
January 11, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336807/functionalized-mof-nanocomposites-for-dispersive-solid-phase-extraction-and-enantioselective-capture-of-chiral-drug-intermediates
#20
Xue Ma, Xiaohua Zhou, Ajuan Yu, Wuduo Zhao, Wenfen Zhang, Shusheng Zhang, Linlin Wei, Debra J Cook, Anirban Roy
The facile preparation, characterization and application of a novel magnetic graphene oxide- metal organic framework [Zn2(d-Cam)2(4, 4'-bpy)]n (MGO-ZnCB) as a sorbent for fast, simple and enantioselective capture of chiral drug intermediates are presented in this paper. The MGO-ZnCB nanocomposite, developed by encapsulating MGO nanoparticles into the homochiral metal organic framework of ZnCB, can integrate the advantages from each component endowing the hybrids with improved synergystic effects. The enantioselective performance of MGO-ZnCB was evaluated by dispersive magnetic nanoparticle solid phase extraction (d-MNSPE) of 1, 1'-bi-2-naphthol (BN) and 2, 2'-furoin (Furoin) racemic solutions...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
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