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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545004/autophagy-as-an-emerging-arena-for-plant-pathogen-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Hofius, Liang Li, Anders Hafrén, Nuria S Coll
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation and recycling process that controls cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation, and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy is a key regulator of plant innate immunity and contributes with both pro-death and pro-survival functions to antimicrobial defences, depending on the pathogenic lifestyle. In turn, several pathogens have co-opted and evolved strategies to manipulate host autophagy pathways to the benefit of infection, while some eukaryotic microbes require their own autophagy machinery for successful pathogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544937/recycling-metals-from-lithium-ion-battery-by-mechanical-separation-and-vacuum-metallurgy
#2
Jiefeng Xiao, Jia Li, Zhengming Xu
The large-batch application of lithium ion batteries leads to the mass production of spent batteries. So the enhancement of disposal ability of spent lithium ion batteries is becoming very urgent. This study proposes an integrated process to handle bulk spent lithium manganese (LiMn2O4) batteries to in situ recycle high value-added products without any additives. By mechanical separation, the mixed electrode materials mainly including binder, graphite and LiMn2O4 are firstly obtained from spent batteries. Then, the reaction characteristics for the oxygen-free roasting of mixed electrode materials are analyzed...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544612/ecology-adaptation-and-function-of-methane-sulfidic-spring-water-biofilm-microorganisms-including-a-strain-of-anaerobic-fungus-mucor-hiemalis
#3
Enamul Hoque, Johannes Fritscher
Ecological aspects, adaptation, and some functions of a special biofilm and its unique key anaerobic fungus Mucor hiemalis strain EH11 isolated from a pristine spring (Künzing, Bavaria, Germany) are described. The spring's pure nature is characterized by, for example, bubbling methane, marine-salinity, mild hydrothermal (~19.1°C), sulfidic, and reductive-anoxic (Eh : -241 to -253 mV, O2 : ≤ 0.1 mg/L) conditions. It is geoecologically located at the border zone between Bavarian Forest (crystalline rocky mountains) and the moor-like Danube River valley, where geological displacements bring the spring's water from the deeper layers of former marine sources up to the surface...
May 24, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544479/drinking-problems-mechanisms-of-macropinosome-formation-and-maturation
#4
REVIEW
Catherine M Buckley, Jason S King
Macropinocytosis is a mechanism for the non-specific bulk uptake and internalisation of extracellular fluid. This plays specific and distinct roles in diverse cell types such as macrophages, dendritic cells and neurons, by allowing cells to sample their environment, extract extracellular nutrients and regulate plasma membrane turnover. Macropinocytosis has recently been implicated in several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. Uptake by macropinocytosis is also exploited by several intracellular pathogens to gain entry into host cells...
May 24, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544268/a-novel-open-framework-copper-borovanadate-with-enhanced-catalytic-performance-for-oxidation-of-benzylic-c-h-bond
#5
Yuquan Feng, Zhiguo Zhong, Hongwei Wang, Huitao Fan, Dongqin Bi, Lu Wang, Zhengzheng Xing, Dongfang Qiu
A novel open-framework copper borovanadate with 6-conected topological net and 1-D 8-MR channels has been obtained for the first time. The compound not only exhibits a unique -B3O7(OH)-Cu-B(OH)3 linkage and features the largest ratio between TM2+(Cu2+) and the borovanadate anion, but also possesses enhanced catalytic performance, high recyclability and stability during the oxidations of benzylic C-H bond.
May 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544031/ubiquitin-specific-protease-8-is-a-novel-prognostic-marker-in-early-stage-lung-adenocarcinoma
#6
Yunjung Kim, Aya Shiba-Ishii, Tomoki Nakagawa, Ryan Edbert Husni, Shingo Sakashita, Tomoyo Takeuchi, Masayuki Noguchi
Alterations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression frequently occur in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. Ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) has been reported to stabilize EGFR protein at the plasma membrane through the recycling pathway. Here, we examined the correlation between USP8 expression and the expression or mutation status of EGFR, as well as the clinicopathological features of lung adenocarcinoma and patient outcome. Expression of EGFR and USP8 in surgically resected specimens of lung adenocarcinoma (82 cases) was examined by immunohistochemistry...
May 19, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544020/porous-poly-ionic-liquid-membranes-as-efficient-and-recyclable-absorbents-for-heavy-metal-ions
#7
Yongyuan Ren, Jiandong Zhang, Jiangna Guo, Fei Chen, Feng Yan
Heavy metal ion pollution has become a serious environmental problem. Herein, this study reports the synthesis of poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) membranes via in situ photo-crosslinking of vinyl imidazole with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ionic liquid monomers. The resultant amphiphilic polymer membranes are porous and exhibit high absorption capacity of metal ions (including Hg(2+) , Pb(2+) , Cu(2+) , Cd(2+) , and Zn(2+) ) in both high (1000 mg L(-1) ) and low (10 mg L(-1) ) concentration metal ion solutions...
May 22, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542628/chemical-and-structural-characterization-of-a-model-post-termination-complex-potc-for-the-ribosome-recycling-reaction-evidence-for-the-release-of-the-mrna-by-rrf-and-ef-g
#8
Nobuhiro Iwakura, Takeshi Yokoyama, Fabio Quaglia, Kaoru Mitsuoka, Kazuhiro Mio, Hideki Shigematsu, Mikako Shirouzu, Akira Kaji, Hideko Kaji
A model Post-Termination Complex (PoTC) used for the discovery of Ribosome Recycling Factor (RRF) was purified and characterized by cryo-electron microscopic analysis and biochemical methods. We established that the model PoTC has mostly one tRNA, at the P/E or P/P position, together with one mRNA. The structural studies were supported by the biochemical measurement of bound tRNA and mRNA. Using this substrate, we establish that the release of tRNA, release of mRNA and splitting of ribosomal subunits occur during the recycling reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542518/rnf41-interacts-with-the-vps52-subunit-of-the-garp-and-earp-complexes
#9
Delphine Masschaele, Leentje De Ceuninck, Joris Wauman, Dieter Defever, Frank Stenner, Sam Lievens, Frank Peelman, Jan Tavernier
RNF41 (Ring Finger Protein 41) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the intracellular sorting and function of a diverse set of substrates. Next to BRUCE and Parkin, RNF41 can directly ubiquitinate ErbB3, IL-3, EPO and RARα receptors or downstream signaling molecules such as Myd88, TBK1 and USP8. In this way it can regulate receptor signaling and routing. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the role of RNF41 in intracellular transport we performed an Array MAPPIT (Mammalian Protein-Protein Interaction Trap) screen using an extensive set of proteins derived from the human ORFeome collection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542327/efficient-up-conversion-in-yb-er-nat-xo4-2-thermal-nanoprobes-imaging-of-their-distribution-in-a-perfused-mouse
#10
Carlos Zaldo, María Dolores Serrano, Xiumei Han, Concepción Cascales, Marta Cantero, Lluís Montoliu, Elvira Arza, Valeria R Caiolfa, Moreno Zamai
Yb and Er codoped NaT(XO4)2 (T = Y, La, Gd, Lu and X = Mo, W) disordered oxides show a green (Er3+ related) up-conversion (UC) efficiency comparable to that of Yb:Er:β-NaYF4 compound and unless 3 times larger UC ratiometric thermal sensitivity. The similar UC efficiency of Yb:Er doped NaT(XO4)2 and β-NaYF4 compounds allowed testing equal subcutaneous depths of ex-vivo chicken tissue in both cases. This extraordinary behavior for NaT(XO4)2 oxides with large cutoff phonon energy (ħω≈ 920 cm-1) is ascribed to 4F9/2 electron population recycling to higher energy 4G11/2 level by a phonon assisted transition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541682/powerful-thermally-stable-one-pot-preparable-and-recyclable-electrophilic-trifluoromethylating-agents-2-8-difluoro-and-2-3-7-8-tetrafluoro-s-trifluoromethyl-dibenzothiophenium-salts
#11
Teruo Umemoto, Bin Zhang, Tianhao Zhu, Xiaocong Zhou, Peng Zhang, Song Hu, Yuanqiang Li
Although many electrophilic trifluoromethylating agents have been reported to date, practically useful reagents have yet to be developed. S-(Trifluoromethyl)dibenzothiophenium salts, known as Umemoto's reagents, have two significant drawbacks that have hampered their practical application: (1) synthesis involving many steps and (2) the formation of large amounts of dibenzothiophene as waste after trifluoromethylation. Our idea to substitute fluorine at specific positions on the dibenzothiophenium rings has resulted in massive improvements in the synthesis, properties, reactivity, and applications of these compounds...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541288/skilful-prediction-of-sahel-summer-rainfall-on-inter-annual-and-multi-year-timescales
#12
K L Sheen, D M Smith, N J Dunstone, R Eade, D P Rowell, M Vellinga
Summer rainfall in the Sahel region of Africa exhibits one of the largest signals of climatic variability and with a population reliant on agricultural productivity, the Sahel is particularly vulnerable to major droughts such as occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. Rainfall levels have subsequently recovered, but future projections remain uncertain. Here we show that Sahel rainfall is skilfully predicted on inter-annual and multi-year (that is, >5 years) timescales and use these predictions to better understand the driving mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540744/production-of-single-cell-protein-scp-from-food-and-agricultural-waste-by-using-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Teresa Gervasi, Vito Pellizzeri, Giorgio Calabrese, Giuseppa Di Bella, Nicola Cicero, Giacomo Dugo
Food waste is the single-largest component of the waste stream, in order to protect and safeguard the public health, useful and innovative recycling methods are investigated. The conversion of food wastes in value-added products is becoming a more economically viable and interesting practice. Food waste, collected in the distribution sector and citrus industries, was characterised for its potential as a raw material to use in fermentation processes. In this study, the production of single-cell protein (SCP) using food waste as a substrate was investigated...
May 25, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540408/-contaminants-from-food-packaging-new-developments-in-risk-assessment
#14
REVIEW
Karla Pfaff, Detlef Wölfle, Andreas Luch
Diverse materials intended for contact with food are important sources of food contamination. Harmonised European regulations including whitelists (so-called "positive lists") of substances along with migration limits and restrictions exist for plastics and regenerated cellulose films only. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for the risk assessment of substances prior to their authorization and inclusion into the positive lists. In 2016 the EFSA issued an opinion on recent developments in the risk assessment of substances migrating into food for public consideration...
May 24, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539612/the-role-of-retinol-dehydrogenase-10-in-the-cone-visual-cycle
#15
Yunlu Xue, Shinya Sato, David Razafsky, Bhubanananda Sahu, Susan Q Shen, Chloe Potter, Lisa L Sandell, Joseph C Corbo, Krzysztof Palczewski, Akiko Maeda, Didier Hodzic, Vladimir J Kefalov
Pigment regeneration is critical for the function of cone photoreceptors in bright and rapidly-changing light conditions. This process is facilitated by the recently-characterized retina visual cycle, in which Müller cells recycle spent all-trans-retinol visual chromophore back to 11-cis-retinol. This 11-cis-retinol is oxidized selectively in cones to the 11-cis-retinal used for pigment regeneration. However, the enzyme responsible for the oxidation of 11-cis-retinol remains unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10), upregulated in rod/cone hybrid retinas and expressed abundantly in Müller cells, is the enzyme that drives this reaction...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539100/production-of-thermal-insulation-blocks-from-bottom-ash-of-fluidized-bed-combustion-system
#16
A K Mandal, O P Sinha
The issues of disposal and environmental problems are increased by the generation of bottom ash from the thermal power plants day by day; hence, its recycling is required. The present study aimed to make thermal insulation blocks using as raw material bottom ash and iron ore slime as a binder and to characterize their engineering properties. Two different fineness values of bottom ash were considered with varying amounts of iron ore slime (0-10%) to make the blocks. Blocks were dried followed by firing at 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, respectively...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538724/applying-systems-level-spectral-imaging-and-analysis-to-reveal-the-organelle-interactome
#17
Alex M Valm, Sarah Cohen, Wesley R Legant, Justin Melunis, Uri Hershberg, Eric Wait, Andrew R Cohen, Michael W Davidson, Eric Betzig, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
The organization of the eukaryotic cell into discrete membrane-bound organelles allows for the separation of incompatible biochemical processes, but the activities of these organelles must be coordinated. For example, lipid metabolism is distributed between the endoplasmic reticulum for lipid synthesis, lipid droplets for storage and transport, mitochondria and peroxisomes for β-oxidation, and lysosomes for lipid hydrolysis and recycling. It is increasingly recognized that organelle contacts have a vital role in diverse cellular functions...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538701/chlorpromazine-increases-the-expression-of-polysialic-acid-polysia-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells-and-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Chikara Abe, Saki Nishimura, Airi Mori, Yuki Niimi, Yi Yang, Masaya Hane, Ken Kitajima, Chihiro Sato
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is modified by polysialic acid (polySia or PSA) in embryonic brains. In adult brains, polySia modification of NCAM is only observed in restricted areas where neural plasticity, remodeling of neural connections, or neural generation is ongoing although the amount of NCAM remains unchanged. Impairments of the polySia-expression and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the polysialyltransferase (polyST) ST8SIA2 gene are reported to be associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538202/development-of-nanobiocatalysts-through-the-immobilization-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-lipase-for-applications-in-efficient-kinetic-resolution-of-racemic-compounds
#19
Bharat P Dwivedee, Jayeeta Bhaumik, Shushil K Rai, Joydev K Laha, Uttam C Banerjee
The present work reports covalent immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase (PFL) on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a nanobiocatalyst (NBC). This nanobiocatalyst facilitates efficient kinetic resolution of (RS)-1-phenylethanol into (S)-1-phenylethanol [C=49.7%, eep=99.5%, ees=98.1% and E value=191.4]. The immobilized preparation (MWCNTs-PFL) showed ten-fold increase in activity, thermal stability upto 80 °C and recyclability (8 cycles). MWCNTs-PFL nanobioconjugate demonstrated better stability and enhanced activity compared to covalently immobilized PFL on other matrices (silver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles and chitosan beads) used for the study...
May 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537723/multivariate-metal-organic-frameworks-as-multifunctional-heterogeneous-asymmetric-catalysts-for-a-broad-of-sequential-reactions
#20
Qingchun Xia, Zijian Li, Chunxia Tan, Yan Liu, Wei Gong, Yong Cui
The search for versatile heterogeneous catalysts with multiple active sites for a broad of asymmetric transformations has long been of great interest, but it remains a formidable synthetic challenge. Here we demonstrate that multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) can be used as an excellent platform to engineer heterogeneous catalysts featuring multiple and cooperative active sites. An isostructural series of twofold interpenetrated MTV-MOFs that contain up to three different chiral metallosalen catalysts were constructed and used as efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalysts for a variety of asymmetric sequential alkene epoxidation/epoxide ring-opening reactions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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