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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101749/twenty-seven-years-of-cerebral-pyruvate-recycling
#1
Sebastián Cerdán
Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase, as well as of those transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane exchanging the corresponding intermediates...
January 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101711/catalytic-performance-of-graphene-bimetallic-composite-for-heterogeneous-oxidation-of-acid-orange-7-from-aqueous-solution
#2
Jiebing Li, Asif Hussain, Dengxin Li, Ming Yang, Shihong Xu
In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) embedded with bimetallic nanoparticles of cobalt-manganese oxide (CoMn2O4) was fabricated by hydrothermal treatment. The obtained product was characterized and applied for the heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to degrade acid orange 7 (AO7). The characterization results revealed that 10-20 nm nanosized CoMn2O4 was homogenously decorated on the surface of rGO. The effect of different CoMn2O4 loadings showed that catalyst with a CoMn2O4 contents higher than 20% performs stronger capability for catalytic degradation of AO7 compared to pure CoMn2O4...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100773/targeted-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-clearance-by-a-biparatopic-bispecific-antibody
#3
Srinath Kasturirangan, G Jonah Rainey, Linda Xu, Xinwei Wang, Alyse Portnoff, Tracy Chen, Christine Fazenbaker, Helen Zhong, Jared Bee, Zhutian Zeng, Craig Jenne, Herren Wu, Changshou Gao
Soluble ligands have commonly been targeted by antibody therapeutics for cancers and other diseases. While monoclonal antibodies targeting such ligands can block their interactions with their cognate receptors, they can also significantly increase the half-life of their ligands by FcRn-mediated antibody recycling, thereby evading ligand renal clearance and requiring increasingly high antibody doses to neutralize the increasing pool of target. To overcome this issue, we generated a bispecific/biparatopic antibody (BiSAb) that targets two different epitopes on IL-6 to block IL-6 mediated signaling...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100772/de-novo-sphingolipid-biosynthesis-is-required-for-adipocyte-survival-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#4
Aikaterini Alexaki, Benjamin A Clarke, Oksana Gavrilova, Yinyan Ma, Hongling Zhu, Xinran Ma, Lingyan Xu, Galina Tuymetova, Bridget C Larman, Maria L Allende, Teresa M Dunn, Richard L Proia
Sphingolipids are a diverse class of essential cellular lipids that function as structural membrane components and as signaling molecules. Cells acquire sphingolipids by both de novo biosynthesis and recycling of exogenous sphingolipids. The individual importance of these pathways for the generation of essential sphingolipids in differentiated cells is not well understood. To investigate the requirement for de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis in adipocytes, a cell type with highly regulated lipid metabolism, we generated mice with an adipocyte-specific deletion of Sptlc1 Sptlc1 is an obligate subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for the first and rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100638/retromer-driven-membrane-tubulation-separates-endosomal-recycling-from-rab7-ypt7-dependent-fusion
#5
Latha Kallur Purushothaman, Henning Arlt, Anne Kuhlee, Stefan Raunser, Christian Ungermann
Endosomes are the major protein sorting hubs of the endocytic pathway. They sort proteins destined for degradation into internal vesicles, while in parallel recycling receptors via tubular carriers back to the Golgi. Tubule formation depends on the Rab7/Ypt7-interacting retromer complex, consisting of the sorting nexin dimer (SNX-BAR) and the trimeric cargo selection complex (CSC). Fusion of mature endosomes with the lysosome-like vacuole also requires Rab7/Ypt7. Here, we now solved a major problem in understanding this dual function of endosomal Rab7/Ypt7 using a fully reconstituted system, including purified, full-length yeast SNX-BAR and CSC, whose overall structure we present...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099844/acetate-recapturing-by-nuclear-acetyl-coa-synthetase-2-prevents-loss-of-histone-acetylation-during-oxygen-and-serum-limitation
#6
Vinay Bulusu, Sergey Tumanov, Evdokia Michalopoulou, Niels J van den Broek, Gillian MacKay, Colin Nixon, Sandeep Dhayade, Zachary T Schug, Johan Vande Voorde, Karen Blyth, Eyal Gottlieb, Alexei Vazquez, Jurre J Kamphorst
Acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic intermediate with an important role in transcriptional regulation. The nuclear-cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) was found to sustain the growth of hypoxic tumor cells. It generates acetyl-CoA from acetate, but exactly which pathways it supports is not fully understood. Here, quantitative analysis of acetate metabolism reveals that ACSS2 fulfills distinct functions depending on its cellular location. Exogenous acetate uptake is controlled by expression of both ACSS2 and the mitochondrial ACSS1, and ACSS2 supports lipogenesis...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099815/stocks-flows-and-distribution-of-critical-metals-in-embedded-electronics-in-passenger-vehicles
#7
Eliette Restrepo, Amund N Løvik, Patrick Wäger, Rolf Widmer, Radek Lonka, Daniel B Müller
One of the major applications of critical metals (CMs) is in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), which is increasingly embedded in other products, notably passenger vehicles. However, recycling strategies for future CM quantities in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are poorly understood, mainly due to a limited understating of the complexity of automotive embedded EEE. We introduce a harmonization of the network structure of automotive electronics that enables a comprehensive quantification of CMs in all embedded EEE in a vehicle...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099529/a-possible-role-of-the-full-length-nascent-protein-in-post-translational-ribosome-recycling
#8
Debasis Das, Dibyendu Samanta, Arpita Bhattacharya, Arunima Basu, Anindita Das, Jaydip Ghosh, Abhijit Chakrabarti, Chanchal Das Gupta
Each cycle of translation initiation in bacterial cell requires free 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits originating from the post-translational dissociation of 70S ribosome from the previous cycle. Literature shows stable dissociation of 70S from model post-termination complexes by the concerted action of Ribosome Recycling Factor (RRF) and Elongation Factor G (EF-G) that interact with the rRNA bridge B2a/B2b joining 50S to 30S. In such experimental models, the role of full-length nascent protein was never considered seriously...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099005/complementarity-of-dft-calculations-nmr-anisotropy-and-ecd-for-the-configurational-analysis-of-brevipolides-k-o-from-hyptis-brevipes
#9
G Alejandra Suárez-Ortiz, Carlos M Cerda-García-Rojas, Mabel Fragoso-Serrano, Rogelio Pereda-Miranda
Brevipolides K-O (1-5), five new cytotoxic 6-(6'-cinnamoyloxy-2',5'-epoxy-1'-hydroxyheptyl)-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-ones (IC50 values against six cancer cell lines, 1.7-10 μM), were purified by recycling HPLC from Hyptis brevipes. The structures, containing a distinctive tetrahydrofuran ring, were established by comprehensive quantum mechanical calculations and experimental spectroscopic analysis of their NMR and ECD data. Detailed analysis of the experimental NMR (1)H-(1)H vicinal coupling constants in comparison with the corresponding DFT-calculated values at the B3LYP/DGDZVP level confirmed the absolute configuration of 3 and revealed its conformational preferences, which were further strengthened by NOESY correlations...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098187/carbon-elimination-from-silicon-kerf-thermogravimetric-analysis-and-mechanistic-considerations
#10
Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Tandeep S Chadha, Gregory Yablonsky, Pratim Biswas
40% of ultrapure silicon is lost as kerf during slicing to produce wafers. Kerf is currently not being recycled due to engineering challenges and costs associated with removing its abundant impurities. Carbon left behind from the lubricant remains as one of the most difficult contaminants to remove in kerf without significant silicon oxidation. The present work enables to better understand the mechanism of carbon elimination in kerf which can aid the design of better processes for kef recycling and low cost photovoltaics...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098022/system-dynamics-research-of-remanufacturing-closed-loop-supply-chain-dominated-by-the-third-party
#11
Shidi Miao, Tengfei Wang, Deyun Chen
With the rapid development of the electronic information industry in recent years, electronic products are being updated faster and faster, and e-waste recycling has become a common problem around the world. Firstly, this article contrasts recycling at home and abroad using the predicament of Midea Corp. Based on a closed-loop supply chain with the system dynamics method, a model is constructed and simulated. In this model, the collection point coverage rate is introduced to adjust the e-waste recycling rate dynamically...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097947/evaluating-waste-printed-circuit-boards-recycling-opportunities-and-challenges-a-mini-review
#12
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Gabriel Ionut Zlamparet, Xianlai Zeng, Jinhui Li
Rapid generation of waste printed circuit boards has become a very serious issue worldwide. Numerous techniques have been developed in the last decade to resolve the pollution from waste printed circuit boards, and also recover valuable metals from the waste printed circuit boards stream on a large-scale. However, these techniques have their own certain specific drawbacks that need to be rectified properly. In this review article, these recycling technologies are evaluated based on a strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097922/cascade-use-indicators-for-selected-biopolymers-are-we-aiming-for-the-right-solutions-in-the-design-for-recycling-of-bio-based-polymers
#13
Jakob Hildebrandt, Alberto Bezama, Daniela Thrän
When surveying the trends and criteria for the design for recycling (DfR) of bio-based polymers, priorities appear to lie in energy recovery at the end of the product life of durable products, such as bio-based thermosets. Non-durable products made of thermoplastic polymers exhibit good properties for material recycling. The latter commonly enjoy growing material recycling quotas in countries that enforce a landfill ban. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are needed for characterizing progress in the development towards more recycling friendly bio-based polymers...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097920/extending-the-life-cycle-of-reverse-osmosis-membranes-a-review
#14
Eduardo Coutinho de Paula, Míriam Cristina Santos Amaral
The reverse osmosis (RO) technology for desalination and demineralization serves the global water crisis context, both technically and economically, and its market is growing. However, RO membranes have a limited life-cycle and are often disposed of in landfills. The impacts caused by the disposal of thousands of tonnes per annum of RO membranes have grown dramatically around the world. Waste prevention should have a high priority and take effect before the end-of-life phase of a product is reached. In this review, a summary is presented of the main advances in the performance of the RO technology and the membrane lifespan...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097861/light-driven-au-wo3-c-janus-micromotors-for-rapid-photodegradation-of-dye-pollutants
#15
Qilu Zhang, Renfeng Dong, Yefei Wu, Wei Gao, Zihan He, Biye Ren
A novel light-driven Au-WO3@C Janus micromotor based on colloidal carbon WO3 nanoparticle composite spheres (WO3@C) prepared by one-step hydrothermal treatment is described. The Janus micromotors can move in aqueous media at a speed of 16 μm/s under 40 mW/cm2 UV light due to diffusiophoretic effects. The propulsion of such Au-WO3@C Janus micromotors (diameter ~1.0 μm) can be generated by UV light in pure water without any external chemical fuels and readily modulated by light intensity. After depositing a paramagnetic Ni layer between Au layer and WO3, the motion direction of the micromotor can be precisely controlled by an external magnetic field...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097682/evaluation-of-perforated-demineralized-dentin-scaffold-on-bone-regeneration-in-critical-size-sheep-iliac-defects
#16
Md Arafat Kabir, Masaru Murata, Toshiyuki Akazawa, Kaoru Kusano, Katsuhisa Yamada, Manabu Ito
OBJECTIVES: Regenerating critical-size bone injury is a major problem that continues to inspire the design of new graft materials. Therefore, tissue engineering has become a novel approach for targeting bone regeneration applications. Human teeth are a rich source of stem cells, matrix, trace metal ions, and growth factors. A vital tooth-derived demineralized dentin matrix is acid-insoluble and composed of cross-linked collagen with growth factors. In this study, we recycled human non-functional tooth into a unique geometric dentin scaffold, entitled perforated root-demineralized dentin matrix (PR-DDM)...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096572/current-and-emerging-treatments-for-hypercholesterolemia-a-focus-on-statins-and-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-inhibitors-for-perioperative-clinicians
#17
REVIEW
Terrence L Trentman, Steven G Avey, Harish Ramakrishna
Statins are a mainstay of hyperlipidemia treatment. These drugs inhibit the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis including plaque stabilization, reduction of platelet activation, and reduction of plaque proliferation and inflammation. Statins also have a benefit beyond atherosclerotic plaque, including anticoagulation, vasodilatation, antioxidant effects, and reduction of mediators of inflammation. In the perioperative period, statins appear to contribute to improved outcomes via these mechanisms...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096314/exposure-to-recycled-uranium-contaminants-in-gaseous-diffusion-plants
#18
Jeri L Anderson, A Iulian Apostoaei, James H Yiin, Chih-Yu Tseng
As part of an ongoing study of health effects in a pooled cohort of gaseous diffusion plant workers, organ dose from internal exposure to uranium was evaluated. Due to the introduction of recycled uranium into the plants, there was also potential for exposure to radiologically significant levels of (99)Tc, (237)Np and (238,239)Pu. In the evaluation of dose response, these radionuclide exposures could confound the effect of internal uranium. Using urine bioassay data for study subjects reported in facility records, intakes and absorbed dose to bone surface, red bone marrow and kidneys were estimated as these organs were associated with a priori outcomes of interest...
January 16, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096264/adherens-junctions-on-the-move-membrane-trafficking-of-e-cadherin
#19
Lena Brüser, Sven Bogdan
Cadherin-based adherens junctions are conserved structures that mediate epithelial cell-cell adhesion in invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite their pivotal function in epithelial integrity, adherens junctions show a remarkable plasticity that is a prerequisite for tissue architecture and morphogenesis. Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is continuously turned over and undergoes cycles of endocytosis, sorting and recycling back to the plasma membrane. Mammalian cell culture and genetically tractable model systems such as Drosophila have revealed conserved, but also distinct, mechanisms in the regulation of E-cadherin membrane trafficking...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096133/regulation-of-the-iron-homeostatic-hormone-hepcidin
#20
REVIEW
Veena Sangkhae, Elizabeta Nemeth
Iron is required for many biological processes but is also toxic in excess; thus, body iron balance is maintained through sophisticated regulatory mechanisms. The lack of a regulated iron excretory mechanism means that body iron balance is controlled at the level of absorption from the diet. Iron absorption is regulated by the hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin also controls iron release from cells that recycle or store iron, thus regulating plasma iron concentrations. Hepcidin exerts its effects through its receptor, the cellular iron exporter ferroportin...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
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