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Azad Khaledi, Abbas Bahador, Davood Esmaeili, Alireza Tafazoli, Kiarash Ghazvini, Davood Mansury
BACKGROUND: While the most nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) species are considered as opportunistic pathogens, some of them are related to several human infections. It is believed that environment is the main source for these infections. Distribution and scattering pattern of NTMs has not been well studied in Iran and a few studies about this subject have been done, so the aim of this study was to determine prevalence of NTMs in environmental samples from Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data about prevalence of NTMs in environmental samples from Iran were obtained by searching databases...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Jane Atesoh Awuh, Trude Helen Flo
Macrophages play an essential role in the immune system by ingesting and degrading invading pathogens, initiating an inflammatory response and instructing adaptive immune cells, and resolving inflammation to restore homeostasis. More interesting is the fact that some bacteria have evolved to use macrophages as a natural habitat and tools of spread in the host, e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and some non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Mtb is considered one of humanity's most successful pathogens and is the causal agent of tuberculosis, while NTMs cause opportunistic infections all of which are of significant public health concern...
November 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Nico Sollmann, Noriko Tanigawa, Lucia Bulubas, Jamil Sabih, Claus Zimmer, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
Correctly determining individual's resting motor threshold (rMT) is crucial for accurate and reliable mapping by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS), which is especially true for preoperative motor mapping in brain tumor patients. However, systematic data analysis on clinical factors underlying inter-individual rMT variability in neurosurgical motor mapping is sparse. The present study examined 14 preselected clinical factors that may underlie inter-individual rMT variability by performing multiple regression analysis (backward, followed by forward model comparisons) on the nTMS motor mapping data of 100 brain tumor patients...
November 4, 2016: Brain Topography
Hongfei Duan, Xiqin Han, Qingfeng Wang, Jing Wang, Jun Wang, Naihui Chu, Hairong Huang
The clinical relevance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been reported to be different dramatically by species or by regions, however, no such evaluation has been performed in China.A retrospective study was performed in Beijing Chest Hospital. All the NTM strains isolated from respiratory specimens in the past 5 years, and patients' clinical records (symptoms and radiographic information etc.) were investigated. The clinical relevance was evaluated according to the criteria recommended by the American Thoracic society...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maura J Donohue, Larry Wymer
RATIONALE: Many nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are clinically significant pathogens that cause disease in a variety of different human organs and tissues. OBJECTIVES: A population-based study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of patients with a positive specimen for NTM within five states of the United States. METHODS: We determined the case and age distribution of patients with at least one specimen positive for NTM, using data submitted to the disease surveillance systems of five states (Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) between 2008 and 2013...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Elisa Kallioniemi, Minna Pitkänen, Mervi Könönen, Ritva Vanninen, Petro Julkunen
BACKGROUND: Although the relationship between neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely studied in motor mapping, it is unknown how the motor response type or the choice of motor task affect this relationship. NEW METHOD: Centers of gravity (CoGs) and response maxima were measured with blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI during motor tasks against nTMS CoGs and response maxima, which were mapped with motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and silent periods (SPs)...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
X Q Ji, Y Xu, C Hidalgo, P H Diamond, Yi Liu, O Pan, Z B Shi, D L Yu
This Letter presents the first observation on the interplay between nonlocal transport and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) during transient nonlocal heat transport events in the HL-2A tokamak. The nonlocality is triggered by edge cooling and large-scale, inward propagating avalanches. These lead to a locally enhanced pressure gradient at the q = 3/2 (or 2/1) rational surface and hence the onset of the NTM in relatively low β plasmas (βN < 1). The NTM, in return, regulates the nonlocal transport by truncation of avalanches by local sheared toroidal flows which develop near the magnetic island...
2016: Scientific Reports
Philipp Hendrix, Sebastian Senger, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Joachim Oertel
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a frequently used, non-invasive method to map the motor cortex. It is of great value in the preoperative workup of patients that suffer from motor eloquent brain lesions. Here, we present a single-center experience using preoperative nTMS in cortical motor eloquent lesions with emphasis on metastasis. All patients that underwent preoperative nTMS between June 2013 and January 2016 were evaluated. A total of 61 patients underwent nTMS before undergoing surgery for a motor eloquent brain lesion...
October 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Neal Conway, Noriko Tanigawa, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
INTRODUCTION: Better understanding of the mechanisms behind cerebral plasticity, coupled with noninvasive detection of its presence, harbors a huge potential to improve glioma therapy. Our aim was to demonstrate the frequency of plastic reshaping, find the patterns behind it, and prove that it can be recognized noninvasively using navigated transcranial stimulation (nTMS). METHODS: We used nTMS to map cortical motor representation in 22 patients with gliomas affecting the precentral gyrus immediately preoperatively, and 3 to 42 months postoperatively...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Boatema Ofori-Anyinam, Fatoumatta Kanuteh, Schadrac C Agbla, Ifedayo Adetifa, Catherine Okoi, Gregory Dolganov, Gary Schoolnik, Ousman Secka, Martin Antonio, Bouke C de Jong, Florian Gehre
BACKGROUND: MPT64 rapid speciation tests are increasingly being used in diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterium africanum West Africa 2 (Maf 2) remains an important cause of TB in West Africa and causes one third of disease in The Gambia. Since the introduction of MPT64 antigen tests, a higher than expected rate of suspected non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was seen among AFB smear positive TB suspects, which led us to prospectively assess sensitivity of the MPT64 antigen test in our setting...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chih-Yu Chi, Chia-Hao Lin, Mao-Wang Ho, Jing-Ya Ding, Wen-Chi Huang, Han-Po Shih, Chun-Fu Yeh, Chang-Phone Fung, Hsin-Yun Sun, Ching-Tai Huang, Ting-Shu Wu, Chih-Yen Chang, Yuag-Meng Liu, Jia-Yih Feng, Wei-Kai Wu, Lih-Shinn Wang, Chung-Hao Tsai, Cheng-Mao Ho, Huang-Shen Lin, Hung-Jen Chen, Po-Chang Lin, Wei-Chin Liao, Wei-Ting Chen, Chia-Chi Lo, Shang-Yu Wang, Chen-Yen Kuo, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Cheng-Lung Ku
Neutralizing anti-interferon-γ autoantibody (nAIGA)-associated immunodeficiency is an emerging medical issue worldwide. In the present study, we describe and discuss the clinical features and outcomes of patients with nAIGAs and disseminated infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (dNTM).We thoroughly reviewed the medical records of all patients. Microorganisms and nAIGAs were identified using previously described methods with modifications. All data were calculated and analyzed using SPSS software.Among 46 adult patients with dNTM infections, we identified 45 cases (97...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
L Bardóczi, T L Rhodes, T A Carter, A Bañón Navarro, W A Peebles, F Jenko, G McKee
We report the first observation of localized modulation of turbulent density fluctuations n[over ˜] (via beam emission spectroscopy) by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in the core of the DIII-D tokamak. NTMs are important as they often lead to severe degradation of plasma confinement and disruptions in high-confinement fusion experiments. Magnetic islands associated with NTMs significantly modify the profiles and turbulence drives. In this experiment n[over ˜] was found to be modulated by 14% across the island...
May 27, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Gudrun T Plundrich, Hubert Wadepohl, Eric Clot, Lutz H Gade
The cyclometalated monobenzyl complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) -CH)ZrBnX] 1 (iPr) Cl and 1 (Ph) I reacted with dihydrogen (10 bar) to yield the η(6) -toluene complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) )Zr(η(6) -tol)X] 2 (iPr) Cl and 2 (Ph) I (cbzdiphos=1,8-bis(phosphino)-3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazole). The arene complexes were also found to be directly accessible from the triiodide [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )ZrI3 ] through an in situ reaction with a dibenzylmagnesium reagent and subsequent hydrogenolysis, as exemplified for the η(6) -mesitylene complex [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )Zr(η(6) -mes)I] (3 (Ph) I)...
June 27, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tizian Rosenstock, Ulrike Grittner, Güliz Acker, Vera Schwarzer, Nataliia Kulchytska, Peter Vajkoczy, Thomas Picht
OBJECTIVE Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a noninvasive method for preoperatively localizing functional areas in patients with tumors in presumed motor eloquent areas. The aim of this study was to establish an nTMS-based risk stratification model by examining whether the results of nTMS mapping and its neurophysiological data predict postoperative motor outcome in glioma surgery. METHODS Included in this study were prospectively collected data for 113 patients undergoing bihemispheric nTMS examination prior to surgery for gliomas in presumed motor eloquent locations...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Chiara Negwer, Nico Sollmann, Sebastian Ille, Theresa Hauck, Stefanie Maurer, Jan S Kirschke, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking (FT) has been widely used in glioma surgery in recent years. It can provide helpful information about subcortical structures, especially in patients with eloquent space-occupying lesions. This study compared the newly developed navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)-based DTI FT of language pathways with the most reproducible protocol for language pathway tractography, using cubic regions of interest (ROIs) for the arcuate fascicle. METHODS Thirty-seven patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions underwent language mapping by repetitive nTMS...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Thomas Picht
The surgical removal of brain tumours in so-called eloquent regions is frequently associated with a high risk of causing disabling postoperative deficits. Among the preoperative techniques proposed to help neurosurgical planning and procedure, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is increasingly performed. A high level of evidence is now available in the literature regarding the anatomical and functional accuracy of this mapping technique. This article presents the principles and facts demonstrating the value of using nTMS in clinical practice to preserve motor or language functions from deleterious lesions secondary to brain tumour resection or epilepsy surgery...
April 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Woo-Jin Kim, Soo Jung Hahn, Won-Seok Kim, Nam-Jong Paik
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is widely used for several neurological conditions, as it has gained acknowledgement for its potential therapeutic effects. Brain excitability is non-invasively modulated by rTMS, and rTMS to the language areas has proved its potential effects on treatment of aphasia. In our protocol, we aim to artificially induce virtual aphasia in healthy subjects by inhibiting Brodmann area 44 and 45 using neuronavigational TMS (nTMS), and F3 of the International 10-20 EEG system for conventional TMS (cTMS)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yu Lin, Kai Zhang, Shuai Li, Song Li, Jingna Jin, Fang Jin, Wen Qin, Wei Han, Zhipeng Liu, Tao Yin, Xuejun Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hodotopical organization of neural pathway of Chinese in posterior inferior frontal gyrus. Forprovide the basis for the individual protectionoflanguage functionin the operation of the language functional area. METHODS: Twenty volunteers underwentlanguage mapping using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation(nTMS)to identify the essential language sites in posterior inferior frontal gyrus.Then, DTI tractography was used to reconstruct language-relevant fiber tracts within posterior inferior frontal lobe...
May 10, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Nico Sollmann, Chiara Negwer, Sebastian Ille, Stefanie Maurer, Theresa Hauck, Jan S Kirschke, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
BACKGROUND: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) provides language maps in brain tumor patients. Yet, corresponding data on the visualization of language-related subcortical pathways is lacking. Therefore, this study evaluates the feasibility of nTMS-based diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI FT) for subcortical language pathways by a fractional anisotropy (FA) protocol. NEW METHOD: DTI FT was performed in 37 patients suffering from left-sided perisylvian brain lesions based on nTMS data exclusively, using the FA-based protocol originally established for the corticospinal tract (CST) by Frey et al...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Doris Hillemann, Elvira Richter, Nada Ahmed, Marieke J van der Werf, Csaba Kodmon, Francis Drobniewski, Sabine Ruesch-Gerdes
BACKGROUND: External quality assurance (EQA) systems are essential to ensure accurate diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB. The implementation of EQA through organising regular EQA rounds and identification of training needs is one of the key activities of the European TB reference laboratory network (ERLTB-Net). The aim of this study was to analyse the results of the EQA rounds in a systematic manner and to identify potential benefits as well as common problems encountered by the participants...
2016: PloS One
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