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Tyson Green, Steven Kavros, Steve Springer, David Drez, Matthew McCabe, Jared Gremillion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: JBJS Reviews
Scott Falci, Charlotte Indeck, Dave Barnkow
OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Arnulf H Koeppen, Alyssa B Becker, Jiang Qian, Benjamin B Gelman, Joseph E Mazurkiewicz
Dorsal root ganglia, dorsal roots (DR), and dorsal root entry zones (DREZ) are vulnerable to frataxin deficiency in Friedreich ataxia (FA). A previously unrecognized abnormality is the intrusion of astroglial tissue into DR. Segments of formalin-fixed upper lumbar spinal cord of 13 homozygous and 2 compound heterozygous FA patients were sectioned longitudinally to represent DREZ and stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100, vimentin, the central nervous system (CNS)-specific myelin protein proteolipid protein, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin proteins PMP-22 and P0, and the Schwann cell proteins laminin, alpha-dystroglycan, and periaxin...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Byung-Chul Son, Jin-Gyu Choi, Sang-Woo Ha, Deog-Ryeong Kim
AIMS: To address the feasibility and importance of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning for brachial plexus avulsion pain. METHODS: Muscle motor evoked potential (mMEP) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) were applied during DREZ lesioning for brachial plexus avulsion pain. RESULTS: IONM of mMEPs and SSEPs was feasible for monitoring of the spinal cord during DREZ lesioning. With the exception of 3 unrecordable mMEPs in ipsilateral arms, mMEPs were preserved and referenced to look for changes according to lesioning in 6 upper extremities (66...
2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Supraja G Varadarajan, Samantha J Butler
The canonical model for netrin1 function proposed that it acted as a long-range chemotropic axon guidance cue. In the developing spinal cord, floor-plate (FP)-derived netrin1 was thought to act as a diffusible attractant to draw commissural axons to the ventral midline. However, our recent studies have shown that netrin1 is dispensable in the FP for axon guidance. We have rather found that netrin1 acts locally: netrin1 is produced by neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the ventricular zone (VZ), and deposited on the pial surface as a haptotactic adhesive substrate that guides Dcc+ axon growth...
October 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
Keisuke Takai, Makoto Taniguchi
OBJECTIVE Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning has been the most effective surgical treatment for the relief of intractable pain due to root avulsion injury, but residual pain and a decrease in pain relief in the follow-up period have been reported in 23%-70% of patients. Based on pain topography in the most recent studies on neuropathic pain, the authors modified the conventional DREZ lesioning procedure to improve clinical outcomes. The presumed rationale for this procedure is to eliminate the spontaneous discharges of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn as well as wide dynamic range neurons in the deep spinal dorsal horn...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Cody J Smith, Michael A Wheeler, Lindsay Marjoram, Michel Bagnat, Christopher D Deppmann, Sarah Kucenas
Somatosensory information from the periphery is routed to the spinal cord through centrally-projecting sensory axons that cross into the central nervous system (CNS) via the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ). The glial cells that ensheath these axons ensure rapid propagation of this information. Despite the importance of this glial-axon arrangement, how this afferent nerve is assembled during development is unknown. Using in vivo, time-lapse imaging we show that as centrally-projecting pioneer axons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) enter the spinal cord, they initiate expression of the cytokine TNFalpha...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
R K Mishra, C Mahajan, A Bindra, K Goyal
Postoperative visual loss (POVL) is a rare but grave postoperative complication. It has been mainly reported in patients undergoing cardiac and spinal surgeries. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) is pain relieving procedure performed in patients with refractory neuropathic pain with minimal complication rate. We present a case of unilateral POVL following DREZ rhizotomy in prone position in a patient having brachial plexus neuropathy. Exact etiology of vision loss was though not clear; hypotension, use of vasopressors and hemodilution may have led to vision loss in this patient...
October 2016: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Di Wu, Michelle C Klaw, Nikolai Kholodilov, Robert E Burke, Megan R Detloff, Marie-Pascale Côté, Veronica J Tom
While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Milan Spaic
INTRODUCTION: Chronic neuropathic pain in traumatic paraplegia appears as the illness by itself, and it represents the unique treatment challenge. The dorsal horn, an anatomical structure involved in pain generating, has been recognized as a target for ablative dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) surgery. The dorsal horn suction technique as the DREZ lesioning method takes advantage of the natural difference in dynamical viscosity of the cord white vs gray matter to perform DREZ lesions by using the suction of the dorsal horn gray matter...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Marc Sindou, George Georgoulis
BACKGROUND: Focal dystonia in hemiplegic upper limbs is poorly responsive to medications or classical neurosurgical treatments. Only repeated botulinum toxin injections show efficacy, but in most severe cases effects are transient. OBJECTIVES: Cervical DREZ lesioning, which has proven efficacious in hyperspasticity when done deeply (3-5 mm) in the dorsal horn, may have favorable effects on the dystonic component when performed down to, and including, the base of the ventral horn (5-6 mm in depth)...
2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Andrew M Garrett, Thomas J Jucius, Liam P R Sigaud, Fu-Lei Tang, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Susan L Ackerman, Robert W Burgess
Boundary cap cells (BCC) are a transient, neural-crest-derived population found at the motor exit point (MEP) and dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) of the embryonic spinal cord. These cells contribute to the central/peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) boundary, and in their absence neurons and glia from the CNS migrate into the PNS. We found Netrin5 (Ntn5), a previously unstudied member of the netrin gene family, to be robustly expressed in BCC. We generated Ntn5 knockout mice and examined neurodevelopmental and BCC-related phenotypes...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Andrew L Ko, Alp Ozpinar, Jeffrey S Raskin, Stephen T Magill, Ahmed M Raslan, Kim J Burchiel
OBJECT Lesioning of the dorsal root entry zone (DREZotomy) is an effective treatment for brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) pain. The role of preoperative assessment with MRI has been shown to be unreliable for determining affected levels; however, it may have a role in predicting pain outcomes. Here, DREZotomy outcomes are reviewed and preoperative MRI is examined as a possible prognostic factor. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of an institutional database of patients who had undergone brachial plexus DREZ procedures since 1995...
May 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Tao Fan, XinGang Zhao, HaiJun Zhao, Cong Liang, YinQian Wang, QiFei Gai, Fangyi Zhang
OF BACKGROUND DATA: It is well established that syringomyelia can cause neurological symptoms and deficit by accumulation of fluid within syrinx cavities that lead to internal compression within the spinal cord. When other intervention treating the underlying etiology failed to yield any improvement, the next option would be a procedure to divert the fluid from the syrinx cavity, such as syringo-subarachnoid, syringo-peritoneal or syringo-pleural shunting. The indications and long term efficacy of these direct shunting procedures are still questionable and controversial...
October 2015: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Byung-Chul Son, Sang-Woo Ha
BACKGROUND: Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning has been reported to be effective for phantom limb pain caused by brachial plexus avulsion pain. Most reports on DREZ lesioning for brachial plexus avulsion pain have focused on the results of pain relief without a detailed description of phantom sensations following DREZ lesioning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two patients (1 with amputation and the other nonamputated) with chronic intractable phantom limb pain caused by brachial plexus avulsion underwent DREZ lesioning on the avulsed segments of the cervical spinal cords...
2015: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Srinivas Chivukula, Zachary J Tempel, Ching-Jen Chen, Samuel S Shin, Abhiram V Gande, John J Moossy
BACKGROUND: The role for nucleus caudalis (NC) and spinal dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning in the management of chronic pain emanating from increased electrical activity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and brainstem remains largely uncharted. METHODS: All patients who underwent NC and spinal DREZ lesioning by a single surgeon were identified and follow-up was obtained by telephone questionnaires. Patient demographics, surgical details, outcomes, and complications were critically reviewed for all patients identified...
August 2015: World Neurosurgery
M Atarod, T E Ludwig, C B Frank, T A Schmidt, N G Shrive
OBJECTIVE: To assess ovine synovial fluid (oSF) from different post-injury time points for (1) proteoglycan-4 (PRG4) and hyaluronan (HA) concentration, (2) HA molecular weight (MW) distribution, (3) cartilage boundary lubrication function, and (4) lubricant composition-function relationships. The association between cartilage boundary lubrication and gross cartilage changes after injury was also examined. METHODS: oSF was collected 2, 4, 10, and 20 weeks post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection in five skeletally mature sheep...
April 2015: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Pavel Haninec, Radek Kaiser, Libor Mencl, Petr Waldauf
BACKGROUND: Despite high success rate of DREZ lesioning in the treatment of intractable central pain, there is still a significant incidence of patients without satisfactory post-operative effect. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effect of DREZ lesioning using both a subjective assessment using a visual analog scale (VAS) to quantify residual pain and an assessment using the screening tool (painDETECT Questionnaire, PD-Q). METHODS: DREZ lesioning was performed in 52 patients from a total 441 cases with brachial plexus injury (11...
December 9, 2014: BMC Neurology
Erhan Turkoglu, Hayri Kertmen, Kutluay Uluc, Erinc Akture, Bora Gurer, Ulaş Cikla, Shahriar Salamat, Mustafa K Başkaya
The aim of this study was to analyze the topographical anatomy of the dorsal spinal cord (SC) in relation to the posterior median septum (PMS). This included the course and variations in the PMS, and its relationship to and distance from other dorsal spinal landmarks. Microsurgical anatomy of the PMS was examined in 12 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric SCs. Surface landmarks such as the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the denticulate ligament, the architecture of the leptomeninges and pial vascular distribution were noted...
January 2015: Clinical Anatomy
Yi-Chieh Hung, Cheng-Chia Lee, Kang-Du Liu, Wen-Yuh Chung, David Hung-Chi Pan, Huai-Che Yang
OBJECT: The authors evaluated individual anatomical variations in the trigeminal nerves of patients with medically intractable trigeminal neuralgia and clarified the relationships among the variations, radiosurgical target locations, and the clinical outcomes after high-dose Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). METHODS: From 2006 through 2011, the authors conducted a retrospective review of 106 cases of primary or secondary trigeminal neuralgia consecutively treated with GKS targeting the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) for which a maximal dose of 90 Gy and a 20% isodose line to the brainstem were used...
December 2014: Journal of Neurosurgery
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