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Gastric electrical stimulation

Yeming Xie, Koon Hee Han, Nathan Grainger, Wen Li, Robert D Corrigan, Brian A Perrino
Smooth muscle contraction involves regulating myosin light chain phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain phosphatase. CPI-17 and MYPT1 are crucial for regulating gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase. Integrin signalling involves the dynamic recruitment of several proteins, including FAK, to focal adhesions. FAK tyrosine kinase activation is involved in cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix via integrin signalling...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Xue-Dao He, Yan-Mei Guo, Raj K Goyal
Background: Hyperglycemia has been reported to enhance vagovagal reflex that causes the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), at the neuromuscular junction in the antrum to relax the antrum and slow gastric emptying by stimulating glucose-sensitive afferent neurons. However, hyperglycemia has also been reported to cause fast gastric emptying that may be due to suppression of the inhibitory motor neurons. Aims: The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in the gastric antrum due to hyperglycemia...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Yunchang Mo, Anqi Zhang, Bo Zheng, Chengyu Chen, Yelong Ren, Xixi Wang, Haifeng Fu, Lingmin Lin, Junlu Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on gastric emptying in patients undergoing selective surgery based on velocity of gastric emptying by ultrasonography. METHODS: A total of 75 patients with selective operation of subarachnoid block at lower limb in the afternoon were randomly assigned to a TEAS group, a sham group and a control group, 25 patients in each one. All the patients were provided with semi-fluid diet at 8 a...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
S Morales-Conde, I Alarcón Del Agua, L Busetto, F Favretti, M Anselmino, G M Rovera, M Socas-Macias, A Barranco-Moreno, R Province-Azalde, A J Torres
BACKGROUND: Weight regain following bariatric surgery is not uncommon. Safe, effective weight loss treatment up to 1 year has been reported with the closed-loop gastric electrical stimulation (CLGES) system. Continuous recording of eating and activity behavior by onboard sensors is one of the novel features of this closed-loop electrical stimulation therapy, and may provide improved long-term weight maintenance by enhancing aftercare. METHODS: Four centers participating in a 12-month prospective multicenter randomized study monitored all implanted participants (n = 47) up to 24 months after laparoscopic implantation of a CLGES system...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Man-Ling Kao, Yao-Li Chen, Shu-Ching Lee, Sung-Yen Huang, Ping-Yi Lin
Objective: To compare the efficacy of combined electroacupuncture and metoclopramide treatment with that of metoclopramide only in improving gastric emptying in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Methods: In this prospective case-control pilot study, a total of 16 adult critically ill mechanically ventilated patients who were treated in the surgical intensive care unit were enrolled. Electrical stimulation was applied to 4 pairs of points (maximum intensity < 9...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jesse Paul Somann, Gabriel Albors, Kaitlyn Neihouser, Kun-Han Lu, Zhongming Liu, Matthew Peter Ward, Abigail Durkes, J Paul Robinson, Terry Powley, Pedro Irazoqui
Numerous studies of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) have been published showing it to be a potential treatment for chronic inflammation and other related diseases and disorders. Studies in recent years have shown that electrical stimulation of the vagal efferent fibers can artificially modulate cytokine levels and reduce systematic inflammation. Most VNS research in the treatment of inflammation have been acute studies on rodent subjects. Our study tested VNS on freely moving animals by stimulating and recording from the cervical vagus with nerve cuff electrodes over an extended period of time...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Md Abdul Halim, Marie Degerblad, Magnus Sundbom, Urban Karlbom, Jens Juul Holst, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström
Context: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from l-cells and postprandial inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Objective: Investigate whether physiological plasma concentrations of GLP-1 inhibit human postprandial motility and determine mechanism of action of GLP-1 and analog ROSE-010 action. Design: Single-blind parallel study. Setting: University hospital laboratory. Participants: Healthy volunteers investigated with antroduodenal manometry...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yee Ian Yik, John Hutson, Bridget Southwell
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) for one to two months has produced some improvement in treatment-resistant slow-transit constipation (STC) in children. Optimal parameters for treatment are not known. It is possible that more improvement would occur with stimulation for longer. This study examined the effectiveness of stimulation for six months. METHODS: Children with STC confirmed by nuclear transit study (NTS) were enrolled prospectively...
November 22, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Alberto A Vitores, Stephanie S Sloley, Catalina Martinez, Melissa M Carballosa-Gautam, Ian D Hentall
Prolonged electrical stimulation of the hindbrain's nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) or its major midbrain input region, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), was previously found in rats to promote recovery from sensory-motor and histological deficits of acute thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, some visceral deficits of acute and chronic midline cervical (C5) contusion are similarly examined. Cranially implanted wireless stimulators delivered intermittent 8 Hz, 30-70 µA cathodal pulse trains to a brainstem microelectrode...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Rachele Garella, Eglantina Idrizaj, Chiara Traini, Roberta Squecco, Maria Giuliana Vannucchi, Maria Caterina Baccari
AIM: To investigate whether glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) influences the neurally-induced responses in gastric strips from mice, since no data are available. METHODS: For functional experiments, gastric fundal strips were mounted in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. Mechanical responses were recorded via force-displacement transducers, which were coupled to a polygraph for continuous recording of isometric tension. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) was applied via two platinum wire rings through which the preparation was threaded...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
André Tomalka, Mischa Borsdorf, Markus Böl, Tobias Siebert
The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD) following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE) following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Emma Paulon, Despoina Nastou, Francesca Jaboli, Juana Marin, Eric Liebler, Owen Epstein
BACKGROUND: Gastric electric stimulation (GES) is a treatment approach to refractory gastroparesis, possibly acting centrally via afferent vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Non-invasive VNS (nVNS) is a potential alternative to GES that could eliminate the safety risks of or identify likely responders to implantable neurostimulators. OBJECTIVE: This open-label proof-of-concept study assessed the effects of nVNS in patients with severe drug-refractory gastroparesis. METHODS: Patients used the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) to grade symptoms in diaries daily for 2 weeks before treatment (baseline) and during ≥3 weeks of nVNS therapy...
October 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
Saeed Alighaleh, Timothy R Angeli, Shameer Sathar, Gregory O'Grady, Leo K Cheng, Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel
Omnipresent bioelectrical events known as slow waves are responsible for coordinating motility in the gastrointestinal tract. Functional motility diseases, such as gastroparesis, are associated with slow wave dysrhythmias. Electrical stimulation is a potential therapy to correct abnormal slow wave patterns. We present the design and application of a new gastric pacemaker. Real-time changes to the stimulation parameters such as period, amplitude and pulse width were applied using a graphical user interface, which communicated with the microcontroller to deliver the stimulus...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel, Timothy Angeli, Abigail Stocker, Lindsay McElmurray, Gregory O'Grady, Thomas Abell, Leo K Cheng
Dysrhythmic bioelectric slow wave activity have been implicated in major functional motility disorders such as gastroparesis and chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting, but its correlation to symptoms is still unclear. For patients with severe gastroparesis, high-frequency gastric stimulation is offered as a therapy in some centers. Temporary gastric electrical stimulation has also been proposed an approach to screen patients who would benefit from the implantation of a permanent stimulator. In this study we introduced novel methods for recording slow wave activity from the gastric mucosa during the entire temporary stimulation phase of 5 days, in 3 patients...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Yasin B Seven, Nicole L Nichols, Mia N Kelly, Orinda R Hobson, Irawan Satriotomo, Gordon S Mitchell
In SOD1G93A transgenic rat model of ALS, breathing capacity is preserved until late in disease progression despite profound respiratory motor neuron (MN) cell death. To explore mechanisms preserving breathing capacity, we assessed inspiratory EMG activity in diaphragm and external intercostal T2 (EIC2) and T5 (EIC5) muscles in anesthetized SOD1G93A rats at disease end-stage (20% decrease in body mass). We hypothesized that despite significant phrenic motor neuron loss and decreased phrenic nerve activity, diaphragm electrical activity and trans-diaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) are maintained to sustain ventilation...
January 2018: Experimental Neurology
Yanling Gong, Yang Liu, Yaoyao Guo, Manqing Su, Yifan Zhong, Luo Xu, Feifei Guo, Shengli Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ghrelin projection from the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and its regulation of gastric motility in cisplatin-treated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the protein and mRNA expression of ghrelin and its receptor GHSR-1a were measured by Western blot and PCR, respectively. The ghrelin fiber projections arising from the LHA and projecting to the DVC were investigated by retrograde tracing combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining...
September 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
Xiao Luan, Xiangrong Sun, Feifei Guo, Di Zhang, Cheng Wang, Li Ma, Luo Xu
It has been well-known that hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, orexin-A, and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), play important roles in regulation of gastric function. However, what neural pathway mediated by the two neuropeptides affects the gastric function remains unknown. In this study, by way of nucleic stimulation and extracellular recording of single unit electrophysiological properties, we found that electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) or microinjection of orexin-A into the arcuate nucleus (ARC) excited most gastric distension-responsive neurons in the nuclei and enhanced the gastric function including motility, emptying, and acid secretion of conscious rats...
December 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Mette Winther Klinge, Jan Bech Pedersen, Birgit Schelde, Sten Lund, Klaus Krogh
Gastroparesis is defined as impaired gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction and cardinal symptoms including vomiting, nausea, early satiety, and upper abdominal pain. Most cases of gastroparesis are diabetic, idiopathic or post-operative. The correlation between symptoms and objective measures of gastroparesis is poor. Basic treatment includes dietary advices and prokinetics. Selected patients not responding to basic treatment can be offered gastric electrical stimulation. In many cases, gastroparesis is present in combination with other motility disorders, especially constipation...
September 18, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Kotaro Wakamatsu, Federico Perez Quirante, Lisandro Montorfano, Emanuele Lo Menzo, Yasuyuki Seto, Raul J Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis (GP) is a chronic disorder of gastric motility with delayed gastric emptying. Gastric electrical stimulator (GES) implantation and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are surgical options for medically refractory GP. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate operational outcomes and symptom improvement of patients with diabetic (DM) and idiopathic (IP) GP. SETTING: University Hospital, United States. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients who underwent surgical treatment of GP from February 2003 to December 2014...
February 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Mathieu Meleine, Chloé Melchior, Philip Prinz, Alfred Penfornis, Benoît Coffin, Andreas Stengel, Philippe Ducrotté, Guillaume Gourcerol
OBJECTIVES: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is an alternative therapy to treat patients with intractable vomiting. A preclinical study has demonstrated the modulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) peptide ghrelin by GES but such mechanism has never been investigated in patients. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of GES on GI peptide levels in patients with intractable vomiting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients were randomized to receive either ON or OFF GES, 14 completed the study (10 ON, 4 OFF stimulation)...
December 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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