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Mind and body

Mahulena Mojžíšová
Based on the definition by the WHO from 1998, palliative care for children is the active, total care of the childs body, mind and spirit, and involves giving care to the family. It begins when the illness is diagnosed and continues regardless of whether a child receives treatment directed at the disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of pediatric palliative care was adopted by IMPaCCT (International Meeting for Palliative Care in Children, Trento) and became the key point of document, which defines and determines standards for care of children with life-limiting and life-threatening disease and recommends that these standards should be implemented in all European countries...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Chenchen Wang, Christopher H Schmid, Roger A Fielding, William F Harvey, Kieran F Reid, Lori Lyn Price, Jeffrey B Driban, Robert Kalish, Ramel Rones, Timothy McAlindon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. SETTING: Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016...
March 21, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Eran Ben-Arye, Yaron River, Yael Keshet, Ofer Lavie, Pesi Israeli L, Noah Samuels
OBJECTIVE: Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of cancer treatment impairing quality of life and function. This study explored the impact of a complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) program on taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy (TIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Taxane-treated female patients with breast and gynecological cancer reporting TIPN-related symptoms were referred to an integrative physician, followed by patient-tailored CIM treatments (acupuncture with/without other modalities)...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Amandine Klipfel
Technicized medicine foreshadows a dehumanisation of care : patients are seen as tools for progress, and doctors are focused on the therapeutical means to be developed. Therefore, surgeons are torn between their desires, as technicians, to improve their tech-nical skills, and their duty, as doctors, to look after each patient who needs care. The advent of laparaoscopy has changed the way doctors consider their patients' bodies. The current state of surgery is in crisis insofar as humanist surgery can no longer meet the aspirations of modern surgery...
October 13, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Foozieh Rafati, Esmat Nouhi, Sakineh Sabzevari, Nahid Dehghan-Nayeri
Background: Nursing students in the clinical setting experience a high level of stress. The understanding of people involved in nursing education, from coping strategies of nursing students with clinical stress, is highly important for any kind of planning in this field. Objective: To explore the coping strategies of Iranian nursing students with stress in a clinical setting. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was carried out with twenty nursing students who were selected using purposive sampling at the Razi nursing and midwifery school in Kerman, in Iran during a ten-month period in 2016...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
James E Bennett, Chris Brickell
'Medicalisation' of same sex relations is a phenomenon that reached its peak in the 1950s and 1960s. The rise of gay liberation produced a divisive political contest with the psychiatric profession and adherents of the orthodox 'medical model' in the United States and - to a lesser extent - in the United Kingdom. This socio-historical process occurred throughout the English-speaking world, but much less is known about its dynamics in smaller countries such as New Zealand where the historiography on this issue is very sparse...
April 2018: Medical History
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Michail Mantzios, Helen Egan, Henna Bahia, Misba Hussain, Rebecca Keyte
Contemporary research investigating obesity has focused on grazing (i.e. an uncontrolled and repetitive consumption of small amounts of food). Meanwhile, constructs such as mindfulness, mindful eating and self-compassion have received much attention in assisting individuals with eating behaviours and weight regulation. The association between those constructs and grazing, however, has not been explored. In a cross-sectional study, university students ( n  = 261) were recruited to explore the relationship of mindfulness, mindful eating and self-compassion with current weight and grazing...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
Ad A Kaptein, Brian M Hughes, Michael Murray, Joshua M Smyth
Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres - novels, films, paintings and music - are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
Prabha S Chandra, Soumya Parameshwaran, Veena A Satyanarayana, Meiya Varghese, Lauren Liberti, Mona Duggal, Pushpendra Singh, Sangchoon Jeon, Nancy R Reynolds
This qualitative study assessed psychosocial concerns that rural women with HIV who had multiple psychosocial vulnerabilities were able to express and communicate during a mobile phone intervention delivered by nurses. The study is part of a pilot randomised controlled trial of an mHealth self-care intervention by nurses for women living with HIV in rural India. For the trial, 60 women were randomised to receive the mHealth intervention. All calls were recorded and call logs were maintained. Call logs of 59 women based on 1186 calls were scanned for psychosocial themes...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Shanila Ahmed, Habib Kibzai, Talha Shahzad, Saulat Hasnain Fatimi, Madiha Bilal Qureshi
Teratomas can be found in different organs of the body and may involve gonads, saccrococcygeal region, mediastinum and other sites. Intrathoracic teratomas always occur in mediastinum and less often arise within the lung. As teratomas mostly involve sex organs (gonads), they rarely occur as extra-gonadal tumors accounting for only 3% of all the cases and very small percentage of such tumors occur in mediastinum.We reported an interesting case of middle aged male who presented to us with symptoms of cough, hemoptysis and trichoptysis (hair expectoration)...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Anne E Cox, Madeline A Roberts, Hailey L Cates, Amanda K McMahon
An aversion to the sensations of physical exertion can deter engagement in physical activity. This is due in part to an associative focus in which individuals are attending to uncomfortable interoceptive cues. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of mindfulness on affective valence, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and enjoyment during treadmill walking. Participants ( N =23; M age =19.26, SD = 1.14) were only included in the study if they engaged in no more than moderate levels of physical activity and reported low levels of intrinsic motivation...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Paul D Marasco, Jacqueline S Hebert, Jon W Sensinger, Courtney E Shell, Jonathon S Schofield, Zachary C Thumser, Raviraj Nataraj, Dylan T Beckler, Michael R Dawson, Dan H Blustein, Satinder Gill, Brett D Mensh, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Madeline D Newcomb, Jason P Carey, Beth M Orzell
To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Santosh K Ghosh, Zhimin Feng, Hisashi Fujioka, Renate Lux, Thomas S McCormick, Aaron Weinberg
Human beta defensins (hBDs) are small cationic peptides, expressed in mucosal epithelia and important agents of innate immunity, act as antimicrobial and chemotactic agents at mucosal barriers. In this perspective, we present evidence supporting a novel strategy by which the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum induces hBDs and other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in normal human oral epithelial cells (HOECs) and thereby protects them from other microbial pathogens. The findings stress (1) the physiological importance of hBDs, (2) that this strategy may be a mechanism that contributes to homeostasis and health in body sites constantly challenged with bacteria and (3) that novel properties identified in commensal bacteria could, one day, be harnessed as new probiotic strategies to combat colonization of opportunistic pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hilary Richardson, Grace Lisandrelli, Alexa Riobueno-Naylor, Rebecca Saxe
Human adults recruit distinct networks of brain regions to think about the bodies and minds of others. This study characterizes the development of these networks, and tests for relationships between neural development and behavioral changes in reasoning about others' minds ('theory of mind', ToM). A large sample of children (n = 122, 3-12 years), and adults (n = 33), watched a short movie while undergoing fMRI. The movie highlights the characters' bodily sensations (often pain) and mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions), and is a feasible experiment for young children...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Miriam Ratliff, Katherine L Hill-Harfe, Elizabeth J Gleason, Huiping Ling, Tim L Kroft, Steven W L'Hernault
Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to substrate proteins changes their function or marks them for proteolysis, and specificity of ubiquitin attachment is mediated by the numerous E3 ligases encoded by animals. Mind Bomb is an essential E3 ligase during Notch pathway signaling in insects and vertebrates. While C. elegans encodes a Mind Bomb homolog ( mib-1 ), it has never been recovered in the extensive Notch suppressor/enhancer screens that have identified numerous pathway components. Here, we show that C. elegans mib-1 null mutants have a spermatogenesis-defective phenotype that results in a heterogeneous mixture of arrested spermatocytes, defective spermatids and motility-impaired spermatozoa...
March 12, 2018: Genetics
Ezra M Cohen, Michelle L Dossett, Darshan H Mehta, Roger B Davis, Yvonne C Lee
OBJECTIVES: Sleep difficulties are a serious health problem in children, and interest in using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies to treat sleep is growing. In this study, we aimed to identify: the prevalence of sleep difficulties in children, and the prevalence and patterns of CAM use among children with trouble sleeping. METHODS: We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) dataset to estimate the prevalence of sleep difficulties and CAM use in children ages 6-17 years...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
D L Rofey, N E El Nokali, L J Jackson Foster, E Seiler, H L McCauley, E Miller
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of childhood trauma and family history of psychiatric illness on weight loss trajectories of obese, adolescent females with PCOS. DESIGN: Prospective Study SETTING: PCOS and Adolescent Medicine Outpatient Clinics PATIENTS: Participants were, on average, 15.8 years, 80% Caucasian, and had a BMI of 36.8 ± 8.8 kg/m2 . INTERVENTIONS: Healthy Bodies, Healthy Minds is an evidence-based one-on-one intervention consisting of four weekly sessions, four bi-weekly sessions, and three monthly booster sessions...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
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