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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214009/the-role-of-hoxa11-and-hoxa13-in-the-evolution-of-novel-fin-morphologies-in-a-representative-batoid-leucoraja-erinacea
#1
Shannon N Barry, Karen D Crow
Background: Batoids exhibit unique body plans with derived fin morphologies, such as the anteriorly expanded pectoral fins that fuse to the head, or distally extended anterior pelvic fin lobes used for a modified swimming technique utilized by skates (Rajidae). The little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), exhibits both of these unique fin morphologies. These fin modifications are not present in a typical shark body plan, and little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying their development...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210955/comparison-between-power-off-ice-test-and-performance-on-ice-anaerobic-testing
#2
Vincent Gosselin Boucher, Andrée-Anne Parent, Fanie St-Jean Miron, Mario Leone, Alain Steve Comtois
The importance of specific testing has been shown in ice hockey performance and the understanding and connection between them may lead to adapting training and follow up in elite athletes. The aim of the present study was to compare two off-ice power tests with performances on ice with a complete professional hockey team. The broad jump test and the vertical jump test were used for the off-ice evaluations, while the SAS-40 and the repeated skate sprint modify (RSSm) tests were used as the performance variables...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196236/berries-containing-anthocyanins-with-enhanced-methylation-profiles-are-more-effective-at-ameliorating-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-damage
#3
Emily Skates, John Overall, Katelyn Dezego, Mickey Wilson, Debora Esposito, Mary Ann Lila, Slavko Komarnytsky
Driven by the need for alternative whole food options to manage metabolic syndrome, multiple dietary interventions are suggested to achieve a better control of metabolic risk factors and molecular networks that regulate cellular energy metabolism. It is generally accepted that anthocyanin-rich diets are beneficial for maintaining healthy body weight, improving glucose and lipid metabolism, and determining inflammatory status of key metabolic tissues. However, anthocyanins are a structurally diverse group of phenolic compounds and their individual contributions to improving metabolic health are not clear...
November 28, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167367/embryonic-origin-of-the-gnathostome-vertebral-skeleton
#4
Katharine E Criswell, Michael I Coates, J Andrew Gillis
The vertebral column is a key component of the jawed vertebrate (gnathostome) body plan, but the primitive embryonic origin of this skeleton remains unclear. In tetrapods, all vertebral components (neural arches, haemal arches and centra) derive from paraxial mesoderm (somites). However, in teleost fishes, vertebrae have a dual embryonic origin, with arches derived from somites, but centra formed, in part, by secretion of bone matrix from the notochord. Here, we test the embryonic origin of the vertebral skeleton in a cartilaginous fish (the skate, Leucoraja erinacea) which serves as an outgroup to tetrapods and teleosts...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160140/the-effects-of-weighted-skates-on-ice-skating-kinematics-kinetics-and-muscular-activity
#5
Matthew P Mavor, Dean C Hay, Ryan B Graham
Sport-specific resistance training, through limb loading, can be a complimentary training method to traditional resistance training by loading the working muscles during all phases of a specific movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of skating with an additional load on the skate, using a skate weight prototype, on kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation during the acceleration phase while skating on a synthetic ice surface. 10 male hockey skaters accelerated from rest (standing erect with knees slightly bent) under four non-randomized load conditions: baseline 1 (no weight), light (0...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158392/high-postural-costs-and-anaerobic-metabolism-during-swimming-support-the-hypothesis-of-a-u-shaped-metabolism-speed-curve-in-fishes
#6
Valentina Di Santo, Christopher P Kenaley, George V Lauder
Swimming performance is considered a key trait determining the ability of fish to survive. Hydrodynamic theory predicts that the energetic costs required for fishes to swim should vary with speed according to a U-shaped curve, with an expected energetic minimum at intermediate cruising speeds and increasing expenditure at low and high speeds. However, to date no complete datasets have shown an energetic minimum for swimming fish at intermediate speeds rather than low speeds. To address this knowledge gap, we used a negatively buoyant fish, the clearnose skate Raja eglanteria, and took two approaches: a classic critical swimming speed protocol and a single-speed exercise and recovery procedure...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158384/trunk-neural-crest-origin-of-dermal-denticles-in-a-cartilaginous-fish
#7
J Andrew Gillis, Els C Alsema, Katharine E Criswell
Cartilaginous fishes (e.g., sharks and skates) possess a postcranial dermal skeleton consisting of tooth-like "denticles" embedded within their skin. As with teeth, the principal skeletal tissue of dermal denticles is dentine. In the head, cranial neural crest cells give rise to the dentine-producing cells (odontoblasts) of teeth. However, trunk neural crest cells are generally regarded as nonskeletogenic, and so the embryonic origin of trunk denticle odontoblasts remains unresolved. Here, we use expression of FoxD3 to pinpoint the specification and emigration of trunk neural crest cells in embryos of a cartilaginous fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea)...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140137/v%C3%AC-o2-and-muscle-deoxygenation-kinetics-during-skating-comparison-between-slide-board-and-treadmill-skating
#8
Tatiane Piucco, Rogério Soares, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Guillaume Millet, Juan Murias
PURPOSE: this study aimed to compare the oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics during skating on a treadmill and skating on a slide board and discuss potential mechanisms that might control the V̇O2 kinetics responses during skating. METHODS: breath-by-breath pulmonary V̇O2 and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle deoxygenation ([HHbMb]) were monitored continuously in 12 well-trained young long track speed skaters. On-transient V̇O2 and [HHbMb] responses to skating on a treadmill and skating on a slide board at 80% of the estimated gas exchange threshold were fitted as mono-exponential function...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127930/indoor-air-quality-of-environments-used-for-physical-exercise-and-sports-practice-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Alexandro Andrade, Fábio Hech Dominski
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews have the potential to contribute substantially to environmental health and risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice through a systematic review. METHODS: The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was recorded in the PROSPERO registry (CRD42016036057). The search was performed using the SciELO, Science Direct, Scopus, LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed, and SPORTDiscus databases, from their inception through April 2017...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126337/factors-predicting-lower-leg-chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-in-a-large-population
#10
Johan A de Bruijn, Aniek P M van Zantvoort, David van Klaveren, Michiel B Winkes, Marike van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Adwin R Hoogeveen, Joep A W Teijink, Marc R Scheltinga
Knowledge about lower leg chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is largely obtained from highly selected populations. Patient characteristics may therefore not be appropriate for the general population. Our purpose was to describe a heterogeneous population of individuals suspected of lower leg CECS and to identify predictors of CECS. Charts of individuals who were analyzed for exercise-induced lower leg pain in a referral center between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Patients were included if history and physical examination were suggestive of CECS and if they had undergone a dynamic intracompartmental pressure measurement...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035590/the-impact-of-different-competitive-environments-on-pacing-and-performance
#11
Marco J Konings, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: In real-life competitive situations, athletes are required to continuously make decisions about how and when to invest their available energy resources. This study attempted to identify how different competitive environments invite elite short-track speed skaters to modify their pacing behaviour during head-to-head competition. METHODS: Lap times of elite 500, 1000 and 1500 m short-track speed skating competitions between 2011-2016 (n=34095 races) were collected...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016475/relationship-between-physiological-off-ice-testing-on-ice-skating-and-game-performance-in-division-i-women-s-ice-hockey-players
#12
Michelle Boland, Emily M Miele, Katie Delude
The purpose was to identify off-ice testing variables that correlate to skating and game performance in Division I collegiate women ice hockey players. Twenty female, forward and defensive players (19.95 ± 1.35 yr) were assessed for weight, height, percent fat mass (%FAT), bone mineral density, predicted one repetition maximum (RM) absolute and relative (REL%) bench press (BP) and hex bar deadlift (HDL), lower body explosive power, anaerobic power, countermovement vertical jump (CMJ), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and on-ice repeated skate sprint (RSS) performance...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941956/design-and-verification-of-a-simple-3d-dynamic-model-of-speed-skating-which-mimics-observed-forces-and-motions
#13
E van der Kruk, H E J Veeger, F C T van der Helm, A L Schwab
Advice about the optimal coordination pattern for an individual speed skater, could be addressed by simulation and optimization of a biomechanical speed skating model. But before getting to this optimization approach one needs a model that can reasonably match observed behaviour. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present a verified three dimensional inverse skater model with minimal complexity, which models the speed skating motion on the straights. The model simulates the upper body transverse translation of the skater together with the forces exerted by the skates on the ice...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931992/knee-injury-and-osteoarthritis-outcome-score-of-korean-national-ice-hockey-players
#14
Hyeyoung Kim, Sujin Hwang, Byoung-Hee Lee
[Purpose] To investigate sports injuries in Korean national ice hockey players by surveying parts, times, types, frequency, cure, and prevention types of sports injuries and provide basic data for injury prevention and performance improvement of ice hockey players. Another purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of ice hockey injuries according to age and the relationship between etiological factors and injuries in high school students. [Subjects and Methods] This was a cross-sectional study. Eighteen female ice hockey players in Korean elite athletes were recruited for this study...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912656/do-maximal-roller-skiing-speed-and-double-poling-performance-predict-youth-cross-country-skiing-performance
#15
Roland Stöggl, Erich Müller, Thomas Stöggl
The aims of the current study were to analyze whether specific roller skiing tests and cycle length are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance, and to evaluate sex specific differences by applying non-invasive diagnostics. Forty-nine young XC skiers (33 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 yrs and 16 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 yrs) performed roller skiing tests consisting of both shorter (50 m) and longer durations (575 m). Test results were correlated with on snow XC skiing performance (PXC) based on 3 skating and 3 classical distance competitions (3 to 6 km)...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902760/common-ice-hockey-injuries-and-treatment-a-current-concepts-review
#16
William Mosenthal, Michael Kim, Robert Holzshu, Bryan Hanypsiak, Aravind Athiviraham
Injuries are common in ice hockey, a contact sport where players skate at high speeds on a sheet of ice and shoot a vulcanized rubber puck in excess of one hundred miles per hour. This article reviews the diagnoses and treatment of concussions, injuries to the cervical spine, and lower and upper extremities as they pertain to hockey players. Soft tissue injury of the shoulder, acromioclavicular joint separation, glenohumeral joint dislocation, clavicle fractures, metacarpal fractures, and olecranon bursitis are discussed in the upper-extremity section of the article...
September 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882216/biodiversity-life-history-and-conservation-of-northeastern-pacific-chondrichthyans
#17
David A Ebert, Jennifer S Bigman, Julia M Lawson
The sharks, batoids, and chimaeras, collectively the class Chondrichthyes, are one of the most successful groups of fishes, with over 1250 species globally. Recent taxonomic revisions have increased their diversity by about 20% over the past 17 years (2000-2016). The Northeast Pacific Ocean is one of the top 20 most diverse regions/countries on the globe with 77 chondrichthyan species, a number less than a quarter that of the most species-rich area (Australia) but that has increased by 10% since 2000 to include three new species (two skates and a chimaera)...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868748/egg-cases-of-the-graytail-skate-bathyraja-griseocauda-and-the-cuphead-skate-bathyraja-scaphiops-from-the-south-west-atlantic-ocean
#18
E Mabragaña, D M Vazquez, V Gabbanelli, D Sabadin, S A Barbini, L O Lucifora
Egg cases of Bathyraja griseocauda were larger (140-142 mm in length) than those of Bathyraja scaphiops (88-90 mm in length) and their surface was relatively smooth, without denticles, prickles or any ornamentation. Egg cases of B. scaphiops had a relative coarse surface, covered with prickles of similar size. An identification key for the all described egg cases from Bathyraja occurring in the south-west Atlantic Ocean is provided.
September 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858060/reliability-of-three-timing-systems-used-to-time-short-on-ice-skating-sprints-in-ice-hockey-players
#19
Colin W Bond, Emily M Willaert, Kyle E Rudningen, Benjamin C Noonan
Speed and acceleration are highly valued in ice hockey and frequently assessed using timing systems. Coaches must use reliable timing systems to assess these attributes, but many systems have not been thoroughly evaluated and the required number of sprint repetitions to obtain the coach's desired degree of reliability for a system may be impractical. This study aimed to compare the reliability of a single photocell (PC), a single laser with a microprocessor (LA), and a digital video camera (VC); and in doing so, evaluate the influence of completing additional sprint repetitions on each systems' reliability...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851492/concentrations-of-mercury-and-other-trace-elements-in-two-offshore-skates-sandy-ray-leucoraja-circularis-and-shagreen-ray-l-fullonica
#20
E E Manuel Nicolaus, Jon Barry, Thi P C Bolam, Pascal Lorance, Florianne Marandel, Sophy R McCully Phillips, Suzanna Neville, Jim R Ellis
Trace metal concentrations in muscle and liver tissues from two offshore species of skate were examined. Concentrations of mercury in muscle of Leucoraja circularis (n=20; 23-110.5cm total length, 157-490m water depth) and L. fullonica (n=24; 28.5-100cm total length, 130-426m water depth) were 0.02-1.8 and 0.04-0.61mgkg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of both As and Hg increased with total length. Only the largest specimen had a concentration of Hg in muscle >1.0mgkg(-1). Data were limited for specimens>90cm long, and further studies on contaminants in larger-bodied skates could usefully be undertaken...
August 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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