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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027702/per1-gup1-and-cwh43-of-methylotrophic-yeast-ogataea-minuta-are-involved-in-cell-wall-integrity
#1
Xin-Xin Xu, Akiko Komatsuzaki, Yasunori Chiba, Xiao-Dong Gao, Takehiko Yoko-O
In eukaryotes, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification of many glycoproteins on the cell surface is highly conserved. The lipid moieties of GPI-anchored proteins undergo remodeling processes during their maturation. To date, the products of the PER1, GUP1, and CWH43 genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been shown to be involved in the lipid remodeling. Here, we focus on the putative GPI remodeling pathway in the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea minuta. We found that the O. minuta homologs of PER1, GUP1, and CWH43 are functionally compatible with those of S...
October 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023516/hypothalamic-control-systems-show-differential-gene-expression-during-spontaneous-daily-torpor-and-fasting-induced-torpor-in-the-djungarian-hamster-phodopus-sungorus
#2
Ceyda Cubuk, Hanna Markowsky, Annika Herwig
Djungarian hamsters are able to use spontaneous daily torpor (SDT) during the winter season as well as fasting-induced torpor (FIT) at any time of the year to cope with energetically challenging environmental conditions. Torpor is a state of severely reduced metabolism with a pronounced decrease in body temperature, which enables animals to decrease their individual energy requirements. Despite sharing common characteristics, such as reduced body mass before first torpor expression and depressed metabolism and body temperature during the torpid state, FIT and SDT differ in several physiological properties including torpor bout duration, minimal body temperature, fuel utilization and circadian organization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021622/the-circadian-transcriptome-of-marine-fish-sparus-aurata-larvae-reveals-highly-synchronized-biological-processes-at-the-whole-organism-level
#3
M Yúfera, E Perera, J A Mata-Sotres, J Calduch-Giner, G Martínez-Rodríguez, J Pérez-Sánchez
The regulation of circadian gene expression remains largely unknown in farmed fish larvae. In this study, a high-density oligonucleotide microarray was used to examine the daily expression of 13,939 unique genes in whole gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae with fast growth potentiality. Up to 2,229 genes were differentially expressed, and the first two components of Principal Component Analysis explained more than 81% of the total variance. Clustering analysis of differentially expressed genes identified 4 major clusters that were triggered sequentially, with a maximum expression at 0 h, 3 h, 9-15 h and 18-21 h zeitgeber time...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992069/local-delivery-of-liposomal-prednisolone-leads-to-an-anti-inflammatory-profile-in-renal-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-rat
#4
Carla M A van Alem, Mark Boonstra, Jurriën Prins, Taisiya Bezhaeva, Mieke F van Essen, Jurjen M Ruben, Alexander L Vahrmeijer, Eric P van der Veer, Johan W de Fijter, Marlies E Reinders, Onno Meijer, Josbert M Metselaar, Cees van Kooten, Joris I Rotmans
Background: Treatment of inflammatory kidney diseases with systemic high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs) has severe side effects. Liposomal encapsulation could facilitate local delivery of GCs to the inflamed kidney, as liposomes encapsulate their payload until extravasation at sites of inflammation, potentially resulting in local bioactivity. Our aim was to evaluate the ability of liposomes to accumulate locally after renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the rat and to study its effect on macrophages...
July 8, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981604/an-individual-12-h-shift-of-the-light-dark-cycle-alters-the-pancreatic-and-duodenal-circadian-rhythm-and-digestive-function
#5
Liang Xu, Tao Wu, Haifeng Li, Yinhua Ni, Zhengwei Fu
In mammals, behavioral and physiological rhythms are controlled by circadian clocks which are entrained by environmental light and food signals. However, how the environmental cues affect digestive tract's circadian clock remains poorly understood. Therefore, in order to elucidate the effect of light cue on the resetting of the peripheral clocks, we investigated the expressions of clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, Rev-erbα, Per1, and Per2) and digestive function genes (Cck, Cck-1r, Sct, Sctr, and Ctrb1) in the pancreas and duodenum of rats after the light-dark (LD) cycle reversal for 7 days...
October 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970786/circadian-clock-protein-content-and-daily-rhythm-of-locomotor-activity-are-altered-after-chronic-exposure-to-lead-in-rat
#6
Mariam Sabbar, Ouria Dkhissi-Benyahya, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal
Lead exposure has been reported to produce many clinical features, including parkinsonism. However, its consequences on the circadian rhythms are still unknown. Here we aimed to examine the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity following lead intoxication and investigate the mechanisms by which lead may induce alterations of circadian rhythms in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with lead or sodium acetate (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) during 4 weeks. Both groups were tested in the "open field" to quantify the exploratory activity and in the rotarod to evaluate motor coordination...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956010/cinnamic-acid-shortens-the-period-of-the-circadian-clock-in-mice
#7
Katsutaka Oishi, Saori Yamamoto, Hideaki Oike, Naoki Ohkura, Masahiko Taniguchi
Cinnamic acid (CA) derivatives have recently received focus due to their anticancer, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of cinnamic acid on the circadian clock, which is a cell-autonomous endogenous system that generates circadian rhythms that govern the behavior and physiology of most organisms. Cinnamic acid significantly shortened the circadian period of PER2::LUC expression in neuronal cells that differentiated from neuronal progenitor cells derived from PER2::LUC mouse embryos...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954569/the-dorsal-medial-habenula-minimally-impacts-circadian-regulation-of-locomotor-activity-and-sleep
#8
Yun-Wei A Hsu, Jennifer J Gile, Jazmine G Perez, Glenn Morton, Miriam Ben-Hamo, Eric E Turner, Horacio O de la Iglesia
In nocturnal rodents, voluntary wheel-running activity (WRA) represents a self-reinforcing behavior. We have previously demonstrated that WRA is markedly reduced in mice with a region-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 (Brn3a), which leads to an ablation of the dorsal medial habenula (dMHb). The decrease in WRA in these dMHb-lesioned (dMHb(CKO)) mice suggests that the dMHb constitutes a critical center for conveying reinforcement by exercise. However, WRA also represents a prominent output of the circadian system, and the possibility remains that the dMHb is a source of input to the master circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944015/signatures-of-selection-in-mammalian-clock-genes-with-coding-trinucleotide-repeats-implications-for-studying-the-genomics-of-high-pace-adaptation
#9
Melanie B Prentice, Jeff Bowman, Jillian L Lalor, Michelle M McKay, Lindsay A Thomson, Cristen M Watt, Andrew G McAdam, Dennis L Murray, Paul J Wilson
Climate change is predicted to affect the reproductive ecology of wildlife; however, we have yet to understand if and how species can adapt to the rapid pace of change. Clock genes are functional genes likely critical for adaptation to shifting seasonal conditions through shifts in timing cues. Many of these genes contain coding trinucleotide repeats, which offer the potential for higher rates of change than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at coding sites, and, thus, may translate to faster rates of adaptation in changing environments...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943398/cold-sensing-trpm8-channel-participates-in-circadian-control-of-the-brown-adipose-tissue
#10
Maria Nathália Moraes, Leonardo Vinicius Monteiro de Assis, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Miguel Luiz Batista, Ali D Güler, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are known to regulate energy metabolism, and TRPM8 has become an interesting player in this context. Here we demonstrate the role of the cold sensor TRPM8 in the regulation of clock gene and clock controlled genes in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We investigated TrpM8 temporal profile in the eyes, suprachiasmatic nucleus and BAT; only BAT showed temporal variation of TrpM8 transcripts. Eyes from mice lacking TRPM8 lost the temporal profile of Per1 in LD cycle. This alteration in the ocular circadian physiology may explain the delay in the onset of locomotor activity in response to light pulse, as compared to wild type animals (WT)...
September 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933632/influence-of-light-and-food-on-the-circadian-clock-in-liver-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#11
Juan Hernández-Pérez, Jesús M Míguez, Fatemeh Naderi, José L Soengas, Marcos A López-Patiño
Several reports support the existence of multiple peripheral oscillators in fish, which may be able to modulate the rhythmic functions developed by those tissues hosting them. Thus, a circadian oscillator has been proposed to be located within fish liver. In this vertebrate group, the role played by the circadian system in regulating metabolic processes in liver is mostly unknown. We, therefore investigated the liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a potential element participating in the regulation of circadian rhythms in fish by hosting a functional circadian oscillator...
September 21, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928877/mechanisms-of-breast-cancer-in-shift-workers-dna-methylation-in-five-core-circadian-genes-in-nurses-working-night-shifts
#12
Johanna Samulin Erdem, Øivind Skare, Marte Petersen-Øverleir, Heidi Ødegaard Notø, Jenny-Anne S Lie, Edyta Reszka, Beata Pepłońska, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Shift work has been suggested to be associated with breast cancer risk, and circadian disruption in shift workers is hypothesized as one of the mechanisms of increased cancer risk. There is, however, insufficient molecular evidence supporting this hypothesis. Using the quantitative methodology of pyrosequencing, epigenetic changes in 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) in five circadian genes CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, PER1 and PER2 in female nurses working night shift work (278 breast cancer cases, 280 controls) were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911177/deoxycorticosterone-salt-mediated-cardiac-inflammation-and-fibrosis-are-dependent-on-functional-clock-signaling-in-male-mice
#13
Elizabeth K Fletcher, James Morgan, David R Kennaway, Laura A Bienvenu, Amanda J Rickard, Lea M D Delbridge, Peter J Fuller, Colin D Clyne, Morag J Young
Activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) promotes inflammation, fibrosis, and hypertension. Clinical and experimental studies show that MR antagonists have significant therapeutic benefit for all-cause heart failure; however, blockade of renal MRs limits their widespread use. Identification of key downstream signaling mechanisms for the MR in the cardiovascular system may enable development of targeted MR antagonists with selectivity for pathological MR signaling and lower impact on physiological renal electrolyte handling...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855287/gaba-transporters-regulate-tonic-and-synaptic-gabaa-receptor-mediated-currents-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-neurons
#14
Michael G Moldavan, Olga Cravetchi, Charles N Allen
GABA is a principal neurotransmitter in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that contributes to intercellular communication between individual circadian oscillators within the SCN network and the stability and precision of the circadian rhythms. GABA transporters (GAT) regulate the extracellular GABA concentration and modulate GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated currents. GABA transport inhibitors were applied to study how GABAAR-mediated currents depend on the expression and function of GAT. Nipecotic acid inhibits GABA transport and induced an inward tonic current in concentration-dependent manner during whole-cell patch clamp recordings from SCN neurons...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851928/calorie-restriction-effects-on-circadian-rhythms-in-gene-expression-are-sex-dependent
#15
Artem A Astafev, Sonal A Patel, Roman V Kondratov
The rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes are affected by calorie restriction (CR), a dietary paradigm known to increase lifespan. Many physiological effects of CR differ between males and females; here we investigated if the sex of animals affects the CR induced changes in the circadian rhythms. The liver expression of some circadian clock genes such as Bmal1 and three Periods (Per1, Per2 and Per3) and the effect of CR on the expression of these genes were sex independent, while the expression of Rev-Erb alpha, Ror gamma and both Cryptochome (Cry1 and Cry2) genes was different between males and females...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847141/na%C3%A2-%C2%BA-ca%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C2%BA-exchanger-2-ncx2-in-the-circadian-clock-of-the-rat-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-colocalization-with-neuropeptides-and-daily-profiles-of-gene-expression-and-protein-levels
#16
Pi-Cheng Cheng, Ya-Shuan Chen, Rong-Chi Huang
The plasmalemmal Na⁺/Ca²⁺ changer (NCX) regulates intracellular Ca²⁺ by exchanging 3 Na⁺ for 1 Ca²⁺ in either the Ca²⁺ exit or Ca²⁺ entry mode. All three NCX isoforms NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 are expressed in the rat brain, with isoform-specific differential distribution. In the central clock of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), intracellular Ca²⁺ controls the circadian release of major neuropeptides, which are the arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), and the NCX, most likely NCX1, rapidly clears depolarization-induced somatic Ca²⁺ influx...
August 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830875/influences-of-breakfast-on-clock-gene-expression-and-postprandial-glycemia-in-healthy-individuals-and-individuals-with-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Daniela Jakubowicz, Julio Wainstein, Zohar Landau, Itamar Raz, Bo Ahren, Nava Chapnik, Tali Ganz, Miriam Menaged, Maayan Barnea, Yosefa Bar-Dayan, Oren Froy
OBJECTIVE: The circadian clock regulates glucose metabolism by mediating the activity of metabolic enzymes, hormones, and transport systems. Breakfast skipping and night eating have been associated with high HbA1c and postprandial hyperglycemia after lunch and dinner. Our aim was to explore the acute effect of breakfast consumption or omission on glucose homeostasis and clock gene expression in healthy individuals and individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a cross-over design, 18 healthy volunteers and 18 volunteers with 14...
August 22, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817668/titanium-biomaterials-with-complex-surfaces-induced-aberrant-peripheral-circadian-rhythms-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#18
Nathaniel Hassan, Kirstin McCarville, Kenzo Morinaga, Cristiane M Mengatto, Peter Langfelder, Akishige Hokugo, Yu Tahara, Christopher S Colwell, Ichiro Nishimura
Circadian rhythms maintain a high level of homeostasis through internal feed-forward and -backward regulation by core molecules. In this study, we report the highly unusual peripheral circadian rhythm of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) induced by titanium-based biomaterials with complex surface modifications (Ti biomaterial) commonly used for dental and orthopedic implants. When cultured on Ti biomaterials, human BMSCs suppressed circadian PER1 expression patterns, while NPAS2 was uniquely upregulated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811515/localization-of-photoperiod-responsive-circadian-oscillators-in-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#19
Tomoko Yoshikawa, Natsuko F Inagaki, Seiji Takagi, Shigeru Kuroda, Miwako Yamasaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Sato Honma, Ken-Ichi Honma
The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) yields photoperiodic response to transfer seasonal information to physiology and behavior. To identify the precise location involved in photoperiodic response in the SCN, we analyzed circadian Period1 and PERIOD2 rhythms in horizontally sectioned SCN of mice exposed to a long or short day. Statistical analyses of bioluminescence images with respective luciferase reporters on pixel level enabled us to identify the distinct localization of three oscillating regions; a large open-ring-shape region, the region at the posterior end and a sharply demarcated oval region at the center of the SCN...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797239/nutrient-supply-affects-the-mrna-expression-profile-of-the-porcine-skeletal-muscle
#20
Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Raquel Quintanilla, Joan Tibau, Marta Gil, Emilio Mármol-Sánchez, Olga González-Rodríguez, Rayner González-Prendes, Marcel Amills
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of muscle fat deposition in pigs is not well known. So far, we have only identified a limited number of genes involved in the absorption, transport, storage and catabolism of lipids. Such information is crucial to interpret, from a biological perspective, the results of genome-wide association analyses for intramuscular fat content and composition traits. Herewith, we have investigated how the ingestion of food changes gene expression in the gluteus medius muscle of Duroc pigs...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
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