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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455641/circadian-pathway-genetic-variation-and-cancer-risk-evidence-from-genome-wide-association-studies
#1
Simone Mocellin, Saveria Tropea, Clara Benna, Carlo Riccardo Rossi
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the circadian clock and single polymorphisms of some circadian genes have been linked to cancer susceptibility, although data are scarce and findings inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between circadian pathway genetic variation and risk of developing common cancers based on the findings of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 17 circadian genes reported by three GWAS meta-analyses dedicated to breast (Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) Consortium; cases, n = 15,748; controls, n = 18,084), prostate (Elucidating Loci Involved in Prostate Cancer Susceptibility (ELLIPSE) Consortium; cases, n = 14,160; controls, n = 12,724) and lung carcinoma (Transdisciplinary Research In Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) Consortium; cases, n = 12,160; controls, n = 16,838) in patients of European ancestry were utilized to perform pathway analysis by means of the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method...
February 19, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435282/circadian-clock-and-oral-cancer
#2
Minou Nirvani, Cuong Khuu, Tor Paaske Utheim, Lars Peter Sand, Amer Sehic
The circadian clock is comprised of a master component situated in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and subordinate clock genes in almost every cell of the body. The circadian clock genes and their encoded proteins govern the organism to follow the natural signals of time, and adapt to external changes in the environment. The majority of physiological processes in mammals exhibit variable circadian rhythms, which are generated and coordinated by an oscillation in the expression of the clock genes. A number of studies have reported that alteration in the expression level of clock genes is correlated with several pathological conditions, including cancer...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393895/glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchors-from-galactomannan-and-gpi-anchored-protein-are-synthesized-by-distinct-pathways-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#3
Jizhou Li, Isabelle Mouyna, Christine Henry, Frédérique Moyrand, Christian Malosse, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Guilhem Janbon, Jean-Paul Latgé, Thierry Fontaine
Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are lipid anchors allowing the exposure of proteins at the outer layer of the plasma membrane. In fungi, a number of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are involved in the remodeling of the cell wall polymers. GPIs follow a specific biosynthetic pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum. After the transfer of the protein onto the GPI-anchor, a lipid remodeling occurs to substitute the diacylglycerol moiety by a ceramide. In addition to GPI-APs, A. fumigatus produces a GPI-anchored polysaccharide, the galactomannan (GM), that remains unique in the fungal kingdom...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377895/the-non-classical-nuclear-import-carrier-transportin-1-modulates-circadian-rhythms-through-its-effect-on-per1-nuclear-localization
#4
Sandra Korge, Bert Maier, Franziska Brüning, Lea Ehrhardt, Thomas Korte, Matthias Mann, Andreas Herrmann, Maria S Robles, Achim Kramer
Circadian clocks are molecular timekeeping mechanisms that allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in their environment. The fundamental cellular basis of these clocks is delayed negative feedback gene regulation with PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME containing protein complexes as main inhibitory elements. For a correct circadian period, it is essential that such clock protein complexes accumulate in the nucleus in a precisely timed manner, a mechanism that is poorly understood. We performed a systematic RNAi-mediated screen in human cells and identified 15 genes associated with the nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation machinery, whose expression is important for circadian clock dynamics...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371954/integrated-hepatic-transcriptional-and-serum-metabolic-studies-on-circulating-nutrient-metabolism-in-diurnal-laying-hens
#5
Wan Dan, Liu Yi-Lin, Li Guan-Ya, Huang Rui-Lin, Zhang Yi-Ming, Long Ci-Min, Ruan Zheng, Li Lan, Wu Xin, Zhou Xi-Hong, Yin Yu-Long
The aim of the study was to see the diurnal variation of nutrients metabolism and their regulation under the management of large-scaled production. The hepatic transcriptional and serum metabolic studies on circulating nutrient metabolism were investigated in diurnal laying hens. Liver and blood were collected from 36 hens that were slaughtered at 3:30, 7:30, 11:30, 15:30, 19:30, and 23:30 (n = 6), respectively. The serum amino acid, fatty acid and glucose levels, as well as the hepatic transcriptome were analyzed...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364022/micromanaging-the-gut-unravelling-the-regulatory-pathways-that-mediate-the-intestinal-adaptive-response
#6
A Balakrishnan
Short bowel syndrome occurs following the loss of a large portion of functional intestine and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The intestine exhibits pronounced diurnal rhythms in glucose absorption and mounts a profound proliferative response following massive small bowel resection. Understanding the molecular pathways that underpin this could yield novel treatment options. Two in vivo models were employed using the nocturnally active Sprague Dawley® rat, namely daytime feeding and massive small bowel resection...
January 24, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357420/renal-na-handling-defect-associated-with-per1-dependent-non-dipping-hypertension-in-male-mice
#7
Lauren Grace Douma, Meaghan Rayann Holzworth, Kristen Solocinski, Sarah Howland Masten, Amber Holly Miller, Kit-Yan Cheng, I Jeanette Lynch, Brian D Cain, Charles S Wingo, Michelle L Gumz
Many physiological functions have a circadian rhythm, including blood pressure (BP). BP is highest during the active phase whereas during the rest period BP dips 10%-20%. Patients that do not experience this dip at night are termed "non-dippers." Non-dipping hypertension is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying non-dipping hypertension are not understood. Without the circadian clock gene Per1, C57BL/6J mice develop non-dipping hypertension on a high-salt diet plus mineralocorticoid treatment (HS/DOCP)...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356345/four-days-of-simulated-shift-work-reduces-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#8
R Bescos, M J Boden, M L Jackson, A J Trewin, E C Marin, I Levinger, A Garnham, D S Hiam, F Falcao-Tebas, F Conte, J A Owens, D J Kennaway, G K McConell
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of four consecutive simulated night shifts on glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial function and central and peripheral rhythmicity compared with a simulated day shift schedule. METHODS: Seventeen healthy adults (8M:9F) matched for sleep, physical activity, and dietary/fat intake participated in this study (night shift work n= 9; day shift work n= 8). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity before and after 4 nights of shift work were measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, respectively...
January 22, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338076/hypoxia-inducible-transcription-factors-hif1a-and-hif2a-increase-in-aging-mucosal-tissues
#9
Jeffrey L Ebersole, Michael John Novak, Luis Orraca, Janis Martinez-Gonzalez, Sreenatha Kirakodu, Kuey C Chen, Arnold Stromberg, Octavio A Gonzalez
Hypoxia (i.e. oxygen deprivation) activates the hypoxia-signalling pathway, primarily via hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) for numerous target genes, which mediate angiogenesis, metabolism and coagulation, among other processes to try to replenish tissues with blood and oxygen. Hypoxia signalling dysregulation also commonly occurs during chronic inflammation. We sampled gingival tissues from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; 3-25 years old) and total RNA was isolated for microarray analysis. HIF1A, HIF1B and HIF2A were significantly different in healthy aged tissues, and both HIF1A and HIF3A were positively correlated with aging...
January 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305918/circadian-modification-network-of-a-core-clock-driver-bmal1-to-harmonize-physiology-from-brain-to-peripheral-tissues
#10
Teruya Tamaru, Ken Takamatsu
Circadian clocks dictate various physiological functions by brain SCN (a central clock) -orchestrating the temporal harmony of peripheral clocks of tissues/organs in the whole body, with adaptability to environments by resetting their timings. Dysfunction of this circadian adaptation system (CAS) occasionally causes/exacerbates diseases. CAS is based on cell-autonomous molecular clocks, which oscillate via a core transcriptional/translational feedback loop with clock genes/proteins, e.g., BMAL1: CLOCK circadian transcription driver and CRY1/2 and PER1/2 suppressors, and is modulated by various regulatory loops including clock protein modifications...
January 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301134/suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-subordinate-brain-oscillators-clock-gene-desynchronization-by-neuroinflammation
#11
Leila Maria Guissoni Campos, Rogerio Leone Buchaim, Nathani Cristina da Silva, Caio Sergio Galina Spilla, Alessandre Hataka, Luciana Pinato
OBJECTIVE: The clock genes Period (per) 1 and 2 are essential components in the generation and adjustment of biological circadian rhythms by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Both genes are also rhythmically present in extrahypothalamic areas such as the hippocampus and cerebellum, considered subordinate oscillators. Several pathological conditions alter rhythmic biological phenomena, but the mechanisms behind these changes involving the clock genes are not well defined. The current study investigated changes in PER1 and PER2 immunoreactivity in the SCN, hippocampus, and cerebellum in a neuroinflammation model...
January 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246398/doca-salt-hypertension-alters-period1-and-orexin-related-gene-expression-in-the-medulla-and-hypothalamus-of-male-rats-diurnal-influences
#12
M E Hernandez, J M Watkins, J Vu, L F Hayward
In peripheral tissues, aldosterone alters expression of multiple genes, including the clock gene Period 1 (Per1), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11-HSD2), and α-ENAC, the epithelial sodium channel subunit. We evaluated the impact of chronic aldosterone exposure (DOCA) and salt intake on nocturnal changes in gene expression in the male Sprague Dawley rat brain. Additionally, genes associated with the orexin (ORX) system were also evaluated based on the role of this neuropeptide in arousal, feeding and hypertension and an interconnection with Per1 expression...
December 9, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219623/usual-normalization-strategies-for-gene-expression-studies-impair-the-detection-and-analysis-of-circadian-patterns
#13
Diego de Siqueira Figueredo, Mayara Rodrigues Barbosa, Daniel Gomes Coimbra, José Luiz Araújo Dos Santos, Ellyda Fernanda Lopes Costa, Bruna Del Vechio Koike, Magna Suzana Alexandre Moreira, Tiago Gomes de Andrade
Recent studies have shown that transcriptomes from different tissues present circadian oscillations. Therefore, the endogenous variation of total RNA should be considered as a potential bias in circadian studies of gene expression. However, normalization strategies generally include the equalization of total RNA concentration between samples prior to cDNA synthesis. Moreover, endogenous housekeeping genes (HKGs) frequently used for data normalization may exhibit circadian variation and distort experimental results if not detected or considered...
December 8, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186676/the-circadian-clock-regulates-adipogenesis-by-a-per3-crosstalk-pathway-to-klf15
#14
Abhishek Aggarwal, Maria José Costa, Belén Rivero-Gutiérrez, Lijuan Ji, Stefanie L Morgan, Brian J Feldman
The generation of new adipocytes from precursor cells (adipogenesis) has implications for systemic metabolism and is a commonly used model for studying the process of cell differentiation in vitro. Previous studies from us and others suggested that the peripheral circadian clock can influence adipogenesis in vitro, but the mechanisms driving this activity and the relevance for adipogenesis in vivo are unknown. Here we reveal that mouse adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) contain a circadian clock that oscillates in vivo...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176713/rapid-resetting-of-human-peripheral-clocks-by-phototherapy-during-simulated-night-shift-work
#15
Marc Cuesta, Philippe Boudreau, Nicolas Cermakian, Diane B Boivin
A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172740/the-choroid-plexus-harbors-a-circadian-oscillator-modulated-by-estrogens
#16
Telma Quintela, Tânia Albuquerque, Gabriella Lundkvist, Andrea Carmine Belin, Daniela Talhada, Isabel Gonçalves, Eva Carro, Cecília R A Santos
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is considered the master circadian oscillator in mammals. However, extra-SCN structures in the brain also display daily rhythms. Recently, we have demonstrated that the choroid plexus (CP) expresses core clock genes that are subjected to circadian regulation in a sex-dependent manner. By using CP explants cultured from female knock-in mice carrying the Period-luciferase transgene, we show that CP exhibits endogenous circadian rhythms of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE expression...
November 27, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165002/adrenal-dependent-and-independent-stress-induced-per1-mrna-in-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-male-and-female-rats
#17
Lauren E Chun, Jenny Christensen, Elizabeth R Woodruff, Sarah J Morton, Laura R Hinds, Robert L Spencer
Oscillating clock gene expression gives rise to a molecular clock that is present not only in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in extra-SCN brain regions. These extra-SCN molecular clocks depend on the SCN for entrainment to a light:dark cycle. The SCN has limited neural efferents, so it may entrain extra-SCN molecular clocks through its well-established circadian control of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. Glucocorticoids can regulate the normal rhythmic expression of clock genes in some extra-SCN tissues...
November 22, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157002/effects-of-circadian-clock-protein-per1b-on-zebrafish-visual-functions
#18
Ke Nie, Kun Wang, Deng-Feng Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Wu Yin, Da-Long Ren, Han Wang, Bing Hu
The circadian clock is an endogenous and entrainable time-keeping mechanism with a period of approximately 24 h, operated by transcription/translation feedback loops composed of circadian clock genes and their proteins. The visual system displays robust circadian changes. Relatively little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying visual circadian rhythmicity. Zebrafish period1b (per1b), as a canonical circadian clock gene, is involved in circadian regulation. Here, we observed that zebrafish per1b mutants exhibit visual defects including reduced behavioral contrast sensitivity and significant retinal dopaminergic deficiency...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144171/circadian-gene-methylation-in-rotating-shift-nurses-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Edyta Reszka, Edyta Wieczorek, Monika Przybek, Ewa Jabłońska, Paweł Kałużny, Agnieszka Bukowska-Damska, Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Beata Pepłońska
Investigating the methylation status of the circadian genes may contribute to a better understanding of the shift work-related circadian disruption in individuals exposed to artificial light at night. In the present study, we determined the methylation status of the circadian genes associated with a shift work pattern among nurses and midwives participating in a cross-sectional study in Lodz, Poland. Quantitative methylation polymerase chain reaction assays were used to assess promoter CpG methylation in PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 in genomic DNA from whole blood of 347 women having a rotating-shift work schedule and 363 women working days only...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138967/mice-lacking-egr1-have-impaired-clock-gene-bmal1-oscillation-locomotor-activity-and-body-temperature
#20
Casper Schwartz Riedel, Birgitte Georg, Henrik L Jørgensen, Jens Hannibal, Jan Fahrenkrug
Early growth response transcription factor 1 (EGR1) is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after light stimulation. We used EGR1-deficient mice to address the role of EGR1 in the clock function and light-induced resetting of the clock. The diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER1 in the SCN were evaluated by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. We found no difference in the expression of PER1 mRNA between wildtype and EGR1-deficient mice; however, the daily rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA was completely abolished in the EGR1-deficient mice...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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