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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923111/evaluation-of-a-pilot-school-based-physical-activity-challenge-for-primary-students
#1
E Passmore, C Donato-Hunt, L Maher, R Havrlant, K Hennessey, A Milat, L Farrell
Issue addressed: Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among children are growing public health concerns. The Culture Health Communities Activity Challenge (hereafter known as the Challenge) is a school-based pedometer program in which classes compete to achieve the highest class average daily steps in an 8-week period. The Challenge aims to encourage physical activity in primary school students, with a focus on engaging Aboriginal students. The program was piloted in 15 classes in New South Wales in 2014...
December 2, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923040/a-low-correlation-resting-state-of-the-striatum-during-cortical-avalanches-and-its-role-in-movement-suppression
#2
Andreas Klaus, Dietmar Plenz
During quiet resting behavior, involuntary movements are suppressed. Such movement control is attributed to cortico-basal ganglia loops, yet population dynamics within these loops during resting and their relation to involuntary movements are not well characterized. Here, we show by recording cortical and striatal ongoing population activity in awake rats during quiet resting that intrastriatal inhibition maintains a low-correlation striatal resting state in the presence of cortical neuronal avalanches. Involuntary movements arise from disturbed striatal resting activity through two different population dynamics...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922635/increased-plasma-levels-of-circulating-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-in-suicide-attempters-associations-with-hpa-axis-hyperactivity
#3
D Lindqvist, J Fernström, C Grudet, L Ljunggren, L Träskman-Bendz, L Ohlsson, Å Westrin
Preclinical data suggest that chronic stress may cause cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially leading to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the bloodstream. Major depressive disorder has been associated with an increased amount of mtDNA in leukocytes from saliva samples and blood; however, no previous studies have measured plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA in a clinical psychiatric sample. In this study, free circulating mtDNA was quantified in plasma samples from 37 suicide attempters, who had undergone a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 37 healthy controls...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922614/molecular-mechanisms-at-the-core-of-the-plant-circadian-oscillator
#4
REVIEW
Maria A Nohales, Steve A Kay
Circadian clocks are endogenous timekeeping networks that allow organisms to align their physiology with their changing environment and to perform biological processes at the most relevant times of the day and year. Initial feedback-loop models of the oscillator have been enriched by emerging evidence highlighting the increasing variety of factors and mechanisms that contribute to the generation of rhythms. In this Review, we consider the two major input pathways that connect the circadian clock of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to its environment and discuss recent advances in understanding of how transcriptional, post-translational and post-transcriptional mechanisms contribute to clock function...
December 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922613/elements-of-biological-oscillations-in-time-and-space
#5
Yangxiaolu Cao, Allison Lopatkin, Lingchong You
Oscillations in time and space are ubiquitous in nature and play critical roles in dynamic cellular processes. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of the dynamics are diverse, several distinct regulatory elements have been recognized as being critical in producing and modulating oscillatory dynamics. These include negative and positive feedback, time delay, nonlinearity in regulation, and random fluctuations ('noise'). Here we discuss the specific roles of these five elements in promoting or attenuating oscillatory dynamics, by drawing on insights from quantitative analyses of natural or synthetic biological networks...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922612/the-intricate-dance-of-post-translational-modifications-in-the-rhythm-of-life
#6
REVIEW
Arisa Hirano, Ying-Hui Fu, Louis J Ptáček
Endogenous biological rhythms with approximately 24-h periodicity are generated by the circadian clock, in which clock genes coordinate with one another and form a transcriptional-translational negative feedback loop. The precision of the circadian clock is further regulated by multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and SUMOylation. Here, we review current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the core clock proteins by PTMs in the mammalian circadian clock...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922570/developing-a-simulation-based-training-program-for-the-prehospital-professionals-and-students-on-the-management-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#7
Melih Elcin, Arif Onan, Orhan Odabasi, Melahat Saylam, Handan Ilhan, Pinar Daylan Kockaya, Ilker Gurcuoglu, Yavuz Uckuyu, Duygu Cengiz, Osman Arikan Nacar
INTRODUCTION: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a major global health threat. Prehospital professionals face the risk of infection as they work to save lives. They should be made aware of the disease and be prepared to handle such cases. The aims of our study are to develop a training program about the prehospital management of a MERS case using standardized patient (SP) scenarios, to evaluate the awareness and preparedness of the participants about MERS, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this training...
December 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922559/botulinum-toxin-type-a-bont-a-injections-of-the-corrugator-muscles-for-aesthetics-and-depression
#8
Connie Brennan
The treatment of glabellar lines with botulinum toxin type-A (BoNT-A) is a staple for aesthetic providers who specialize in facial rejuvenation. Clinical efforts are currently underway to substantiate upper facial injections (the corrugator muscles are the target muscles) of BoNT-A as an antidepression therapy. This article describes the origin of "facial feedback" by Charles Darwin nearly 150 years ago, as well as "emotional proprioception"-2 neuroanatomical concepts that help provide the scientific rationale behind the general influence facial muscles have on the emotional centers of the brain, and, specifically, how the corrugator muscles-involved with frowning-promote a gloomy mood...
October 2016: Plastic Surgical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922476/perceptions-of-an-adapted-mindfulness-program-for-persons-experiencing-substance-use-disorders-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Gisli K Kristofersson, Tom Beckers, Rick Krueger
BACKGROUND: Of the 1.4 million Americans who sustain traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) each year up to half experience substance use disorders (SUDs). This often leads to various issues such as increased rates of mental health problems and delay or lack of return to full employment. AIMS: The purpose of this program evaluation was to describe Vinland National Center's (Vinland's) client and staff perceptions of a 4-week mindfulness-based intervention adapted from the original mindfulness-based stress reduction program for persons experiencing SUDs and TBIs...
October 2016: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922290/implementing-an-interprofessional-model-of-self-management-support-across-a-community-workforce-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-study
#10
Stefan Tino Kulnik, Heide Pöstges, Lucinda Brimicombe, John Hammond, Fiona Jones
The importance of implementing self-management support (SMS) is now widely accepted, but questions remain as to how. In 2015, we facilitated the implementation of an interprofessional model of SMS (Bridges Self-Management) for people with complex multiple long-term conditions through community rehabilitation and social care services in one Southeast England locality. Over 90 professionals and support workers from this workforce received interprofessional training to integrate SMS into their care and rehabilitation interactions...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922090/mir-146a-mediated-suppression-of-the-inflammatory-response-in-human-adipocytes
#11
Julian Roos, Eveliina Enlund, Jan-Bernd Funcke, Daniel Tews, Karlheinz Holzmann, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Martin Wabitsch, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky
The obesity-associated inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the factors leading to the development of related diseases such as insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified as important regulators of WAT functions. Herein, we cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes with macrophage-conditioned medium (MacCM) and performed an Affimetrix miRNA array to identify miRNAs differentially expressed under inflammatory conditions. We identified 24 miRNAs differentially expressed upon inflammation in human adipocytes and miR-146a was the most up-regulated miRNA species...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920978/network-interactions-underlying-mirror-feedback-in-stroke-a-dynamic-causal-modeling-study
#12
Soha Saleh, Mathew Yarossi, Thushini Manuweera, Sergei Adamovich, Eugene Tunik
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is potentially a powerful tool to facilitate recovery of disordered movement and stimulate activation of under-active brain areas due to stroke. The neural mechanisms underlying MVF have therefore been a focus of recent inquiry. Although it is known that sensorimotor areas can be activated via mirror feedback, the network interactions driving this effect remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to fill this gap by using dynamic causal modeling to test the interactions between regions in the frontal and parietal lobes that may be important for modulating the activation of the ipsilesional motor cortex during mirror visual feedback of unaffected hand movement in stroke patients...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920963/the-benefits-of-group-supervision-and-a-recommended-structure-for-implementation
#13
Amber L Valentino, Linda A LeBlanc, Tyra P Sellers
Effective supervision practices can facilitate the professional development of the supervisee, the continued growth of the supervisor, and the overall development of our field and its practice. In addition to individual supervision, many aspiring certificants also participate in group supervision experiences either as part of their academic practicum or as part of a supervised independent fieldwork experience. Group supervision can provide unique opportunities to establish critical professional repertoires such as peer feedback skills and public speaking skills...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920960/towards-a-competency-based-ethical-and-socially-valid-approach-to-the-supervision-of-applied-behavior-analytic-trainees
#14
Laura B Turner, Aaron J Fischer, James K Luiselli
Competency-based supervision of trainees has recently come to the forefront of behavior analytic practice; however, there are minimal data to support the effectiveness of various supervision practices on trainee outcomes. Accordingly, this paper is intended to spark further discussion and research activity regarding the supervision of those seeking to become Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA). We present a practice model and considerations for supervising applied behavior analytic trainees consistent with the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) Supervisor Training Curriculum Outline (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2012b), the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2014), and extant literature from behavior analysis and related fields...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920880/conditional-electrical-stimulation-in-animal-and-human-models-for-neurogenic-bladder-working-toward-a-neuroprosthesis
#15
C R Powell
Sacral neuromodulation has had a tremendous impact on the treatment of urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms for patients with neurologic conditions. This stimulation does not use real-time data from the body or input from the patient. Incorporating this is the goal of those pursuing a neuroprosthesis to enhance bladder function for these patients. Investigators have demonstrated the effectiveness of conditional (also called closed-loop) feedback in animal models as well as limited human studies...
December 2016: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920669/the-neurovestibular-challenges-of-astronauts-and-balance-patients-some-past-countermeasures-and-two-alternative-approaches-to-elicitation-assessment-and-mitigation
#16
REVIEW
Ben D Lawson, Angus H Rupert, Braden J McGrath
Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920619/the-swiss-master-in-chiropractic-medicine-curriculum-preparing-graduates-to-work-together-with-medicine-to-improve-patient-care
#17
B Kim Humphreys, Cynthia K Peterson
OBJECTIVE: In 2007, chiropractic became 1 of the 5 medical professions in Switzerland. This required a new chiropractic program that was fully integrated within a Swiss medical school. The purpose of this article was to discuss the Master in Chiropractic Medicine (MChiroMed) program at the University of Zürich, including advantages, opportunities, and challenges. DISCUSSION: In 2008, the MChiroMed program began with its first student cohort. The MChiroMed program is a 6-year Bologna model 2-cycle (bachelor and master) "spiral curriculum," with the first 4 years being fully integrated within the medical curriculum...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920495/card9-as-a-potential-target-in-cardiovascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
Matthew R Peterson, Samantha E Haller, Jun Ren, Sreejayan Nair, Guanglong He
Systemic inflammation and localized macrophage infiltration have been implicated in cardiovascular pathologies, including coronary artery disease, carotid atherosclerosis, heart failure, obesity-associated heart dysfunction, and cardiac fibrosis. Inflammation induces macrophage infiltration and activation and release of cytokines and chemokines, causing tissue dysfunction by instigating a positive feedback loop that further propagates inflammation. Cytosolic adaptor caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) is a protein expressed primarily by dendritic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, in which it mediates cytokine secretion...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920384/antibiotic-resistance-in-the-wild-an-eco-evolutionary-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Teppo Hiltunen, Marko Virta, Anna-Liisa Laine
The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920381/harvest-induced-evolution-insights-from-aquatic-and-terrestrial-systems
#20
REVIEW
Anna Kuparinen, Marco Festa-Bianchet
Commercial and recreational harvests create selection pressures for fitness-related phenotypic traits that are partly under genetic control. Consequently, harvesting can drive evolution in targeted traits. However, the quantification of harvest-induced evolutionary life history and phenotypic changes is challenging, because both density-dependent feedback and environmental changes may also affect these changes through phenotypic plasticity. Here, we synthesize current knowledge and uncertainties on six key points: (i) whether or not harvest-induced evolution is happening, (ii) whether or not it is beneficial, (iii) how it shapes biological systems, (iv) how it could be avoided, (v) its importance relative to other drivers of phenotypic changes, and (vi) whether or not it should be explicitly accounted for in management...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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