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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141153/using-observational-data-to-calibrate-simulation-models
#1
Eleanor J Murray, James M Robins, George R Seage, Sara Lodi, Emily P Hyle, Krishna P Reddy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: Individual-level simulation models are valuable tools for comparing the impact of clinical or public health interventions on population health and cost outcomes over time. However, a key challenge is ensuring that outcome estimates correctly reflect real-world impacts. Calibration to targets obtained from randomized trials may be insufficient if trials do not exist for populations, time periods, or interventions of interest. Observational data can provide a wider range of calibration targets but requires methods to adjust for treatment-confounder feedback...
November 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140915/the-actual-versus-idealized-self-exploring-responses-to-feedback-about-implicit-bias-in-health-professionals
#2
Javeed Sukhera, Alexandra Milne, Pim W Teunissen, Lorelei Lingard, Chris Watling
PURPOSE: Implicit bias can adversely affect health disparities. The implicit association test (IAT) is a prompt to stimulate reflection; however, feedback about bias may trigger emotions that reduce the effectiveness of feedback interventions. Exploring how individuals process feedback about implicit bias may inform bias recognition and management curricula. The authors sought to explore how health professionals perceive the influence of the experience of taking the IAT and receiving their results...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140863/practice-patterns-and-job-satisfaction-of-mohs-surgeons
#3
Nita Kohli, Nicholas Golda
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on Mohs surgery workforce patterns. OBJECTIVE: To identify if gender differences exist in practice patterns of Mohs surgeons, factors that influence these differences, and factors influencing job satisfaction among Mohs surgeons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed to dermatology organizations targeting members of the American College of Mohs Surgery (ACMS), from October 2015 to April 2016...
November 14, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140686/the-regulatory-mechanism-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-phosphoserine-phosphatase-serb2
#4
Gregory A Grant
Almost all organisms contain the same biosynthetic pathway for the synthesis of l-serine from the glycolytic intermediate, D-3-phosphoglycerate. However, regulation of this pathway varies from organism to organism. Many organisms control the activity of the first enzyme in the pathway, D-3-phosphoglyerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), by feedback inhibition through the interaction of l-serine with the ACT domains within the enzyme. The last enzyme in the pathway, phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP) has also been reported to be inhibited by l-serine...
November 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140605/highly-transparent-and-integrable-surface-texture-change-device-for-localized-tactile-feedback
#5
Ankit, Naveen Tiwari, Mayank Rajput, Nguyen Anh Chien, Nripan Mathews
Human-machine haptic interaction is typically detected by variations in friction, roughness, hardness, and temperature, which combines to create sensation of surface texture change. Most of the current technologies work to simulate changes in tactile perception (via electrostatic, lateral force fields, vibration motors, etc.) without creating actual topographical transformations. This makes it challenging to provide localized feedback. Here, a new concept for on-demand surface texture augmentation that is capable of physically forming local topographic features in any predesigned pattern is demonstrated...
November 15, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140334/carrier-envelope-offset-stabilization-of-a-ghz-repetition-rate-femtosecond-laser-using-opto-optical-modulation-of-a-sesam
#6
Sargis Hakobyan, Valentin J Wittwer, Kutan Gürel, Aline S Mayer, Stéphane Schilt, Thomas Südmeyer
We demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency stabilization of a GHz femtosecond laser based on opto-optical modulation (OOM) of a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The 1.05-GHz laser is based on a Yb:CALGO gain crystal and emits sub-100-fs pulses with 2.1-W average power at a center wavelength of 1055 nm. The SESAM plays two key roles: it starts and stabilizes the mode-locking operation and is simultaneously used as an actuator to control the CEO frequency...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140157/case-study-body-composition-periodization-in-an-olympic-level-female-middle-distance-runner-over-a-9-year-career
#7
Trent Stellingwerff
This case-study features an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner implementing a science-based approach to body composition periodization. Data is emerging to suggest that it is not sustainable from a health and/or performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Anthropometric (n=44), hematological, other health measures and 1500m race performances (n=83) were periodically assessed throughout a 9-year career. General preparation phase (September to April) featured the athlete at ~2 to 4% over ideal competition phase body weight (BW) and body fat (%) with optimal energy availability being prioritized...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140145/monitoring-rugby-players-for-fitness-and-fatigue-what-do-coaches-want
#8
Lindsay T Starling, Michael I Lambert
PURPOSE: The advantages of monitoring players in a team are well documented. However, barriers associated with lack of resources and time prevents teams from implementing systematic monitoring programs. This study aims to identify 1) the methods rugby teams use to monitor the training load and associated response to the training load, and 2) prerequisites of a monitoring protocol that are scientifically suitable and practically applicable for monitoring fitness and fatigue of rugby players...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139551/members-of-the-deal-subfamily-of-the-duf1218-gene-family-are-required-for-bilateral-symmetry-but-not-for-dorsoventrality-in-arabidopsis-leaves
#9
David Wilson-Sánchez, Sebastián Martínez-López, Sergio Navarro-Cartagena, Sara Jover-Gil, José Luis Micol
Most plant leaves exhibit bilateral symmetry, which has been hypothesized as an inevitable consequence of the existence of the proximodistal and dorsoventral axes. No gene has been described that affects leaf bilateral symmetry but not dorsoventrality in Arabidopsis thaliana. We screened for viable insertional mutations that affect leaf morphology, and out of more than 700 mutants found only one, desigual1-1 (deal1-1), that exhibited bilateral symmetry breaking but no obvious defects in dorsoventrality. We found that deal1-1 is an allele of VASCULATURE COMPLEXITY AND CONNECTIVITY (VCC)...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139321/effects-of-white-noise-achilles-tendon-vibration-on-quiet-standing-and-active-postural-positioning
#10
Carly C Sacco, Erin M Gaffney, Jesse C Dean
Applying white noise vibration to the ankle tendons has previously been used to improve passive movement detection and alter postural control, likely by enhancing proprioceptive feedback. The aim of the present study was to determine if similar methods focused on the ankle plantarflexors affect the performance of both quiet standing and an active postural positioning task, in which participants may be more reliant on proprioceptive feedback from actively contracting muscles. Twenty young, healthy participants performed quiet standing trials and active postural positioning trials designed to encourage reliance on plantarflexor proprioception...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139302/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-interoception-abnormalities-in-global-integration
#11
Timothy R Hatfield, Rhonda F Brown, Melita J Giummarra, Bigna Lenggenhager
Research over the past three decades has seen a revived interest in the way the human body-and the way in which it is perceived-interacts with aspects of our experience. Consequently, interoception (i.e. the perception of physiological feedback from the body) has recently been shown to be associated with a wide range of cognitive, emotional, and affective functions, making it broadly relevant to the study of autism spectrum disorder. Although limited qualitative accounts and empirical studies suggest that individuals with autism spectrum disorder encounter abnormalities when perceiving and integrating physiological feedback from their bodies, other studies have suggested that people with/without autism spectrum disorder do not differ in interoceptive ability after accounting for alexithymia...
November 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139188/biomimic-peptide-gated-nanoporous-membrane-for-on-demand-molecule-transport
#12
Kai Xiao, Kai Wu, Lu Chen, Xiang-Yu Kong, Yuqi Zhang, Liping Wen, Lei Jiang
The controllable molecule transport is crucial to realize many highly valuable applications both in vivo and in vitro. Nanoporous membrane, with nanoscopic pores, high porosity, uniform pore dimension, and controllable surface chemical properties, hold tremendous potential to achieve this function. Here, we report a nano-gating system for on-demand molecule transport based on peptide-gated nanoporous membrane. Acting as gatekeeper, the peptides introduced to the nanoporous membrane provide an opportunity to realize on-demand on-off-states transport profiles via reversible conformational switch of peptides...
November 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138872/cognitively-and-socially-induced-stress-affects-postural-control
#13
Michail Doumas, Kinga Morsanyi, William R Young
Postural control is an adaptive process that can be affected by many aspects of human behavior, including emotional contexts. The main emotional contexts that affect postural control are postural threat and passive viewing of aversive or threatening images, both of which produce a reduction in postural sway. The aim of the present study was to assess whether similar stress-related changes in postural sway can be observed using stress induced by social evaluative threat (SET) while performing arithmetic tasks...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138865/silencing-of-vacuolar-atpase-c%C3%A2-subunit-atp6v0c-inhibits-the-invasion-of-prostate-cancer-cells-through-a-lass2-tmsg1-independent-manner
#14
Pengcheng Zou, Yifeng Yang, Xiaoyan Xu, Beiying Liu, Fang Mei, Jiangfeng You, Qichen Liu, Fei Pei
Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), widespread in eukaryotic cells, is extensively expressed in many highly metastatic tumors, of which the V-ATPase c subunit ATP6V0C is particularly associated with the invasion and metastasis of cancer. ATP6V0C was directly found to interact with LASS2/TMSG1 which is a new tumor metastasis inhibitory gene identified by our laboratory in 1999. In order to study the role of ATP6V0C, we generated small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting ATP6V0C and investigated its function on the invasion of human prostate cancer cell line PC-3M-1E8 with high metastatic potential and its interplay with LASS2/TMSG1...
November 10, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138749/auris-system-providing-vibrotactile-feedback-for-hearing-impaired-population
#15
Felipe Alves Araujo, Fabricio Lima Brasil, Allison Candido Lima Santos, Luzenildo de Sousa Batista Junior, Savio Pereira Fonseca Dutra, Carlos Eduardo Coelho Freire Batista
Deafness, an issue that affects millions of people around the globe, is manifested in different intensities and related to many causes. This impairment negatively affects different aspects of the social life of the deaf people, and music-centered situations (concerts, religious events, etc.) are obviously not inviting for them. The Auris System was conceived to provide the musical experimentation for people who have some type of hearing loss. This system is able to extract musical information from audio and create a representation for music pieces using different stimuli, a new media format to be interpreted by other senses than the hearing...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138742/hysterectomy-pathway-as-the-global-engine-of-practice-change-implications-for-value-in-care
#16
Amin Sanei-Moghaddam, Sharon Goughnour, Robert Edwards, John Comerci, Joseph Kelley, Nicole Donnellan, Faina Linkov, Suketu Mansuria
Introduction: In 2012, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) introduced a hysterectomy clinical pathway to reduce the number of total abdominal hysterectomies performed for benign gynecological indications. This study focused on exploring physician and patient factors impacting the utilization of hysterectomy clinical pathways. Methods: An online survey with 24 questions was implemented to explore physicians' attitudes and perceived barriers toward implementing the pathway...
2017: Central Asian Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138681/cell-signaling-with-extracellular-thioredoxin-and-thioredoxin-like-proteins-insight-into-their-mechanisms-of-action
#17
REVIEW
Thierry Léveillard, Najate Aït-Ali
Thioredoxins are small thiol-oxidoreductase enzymes that control cellular redox homeostasis. Paradoxically, human thioredoxin (TXN1) was first identified as the adult T cell leukemia-derived factor (ADF), a secreted protein. ADF has been implicated in a wide variety of cell-to-cell communication systems acting as a cytokine or a chemokine. TRX80 is a truncated TXN1 protein with cytokine activity. The unconventional secretion mechanism of these extracellular thioredoxins is unknown. The thioredoxin system is relying on glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway that provides reducing power in the form of NADPH, the cofactor of thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138532/ubiquitin-specific-protease-2-modulates-the-lipopolysaccharide-elicited-expression-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-macrophage-like-hl-60-cells
#18
Hiroshi Kitamura, Takeshi Ishino, Yoshinori Shimamoto, Jun Okabe, Tomomi Miyamoto, Eiki Takahashi, Ichiro Miyoshi
We investigated the regulatory roles of USP2 in mRNA accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophage-like cells after stimulation with a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Human macrophage-like HL-60 cells, mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells, and mouse peritoneal macrophages demonstrated negative feedback to USP2 mRNA levels after LPS stimulation, suggesting that USP2 plays a significant role in LPS-stimulated macrophages. USP2 knockdown (KD) by short hairpin RNA in HL-60 cells promoted the accumulation of transcripts for 25 of 104 cytokines after LPS stimulation...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138468/increasing-frequency-and-spatial-extent-of-concurrent-meteorological-droughts-and-heatwaves-in-india
#19
Shailza Sharma, Pradeep Mujumdar
The impacts of concurrent droughts and heatwaves could be more serious compared to their individual occurrence. Meteorological drought condition is generally characterized by low rainfall, but impact of such an event is amplified with simultaneous occurrence of heatwaves. Positive feedback between these two extremes can worsen the rainfall deficit situation to serious soil moisture depletion due to enhanced evapotranspiration. In this study, the concurrence of meteorological droughts and heatwaves is investigated in India using Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) high resolution gridded data over a period of 60 years...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138226/insulin-secretory-effect-of-sitagliptin-assessment-with-a-hyperglycemic-clamp-combined-with-a-meal-challenge
#20
Sudha S Shankar, R Ravi Shankar, Lori A Mixson, Deborah L Miller, Helmut O Steinberg, Chan R Beals, David E Kelley
Sitagliptin,a dipeptidylpeptidase-IVinhibitor(DPP-4),sustains activity of the incretin hormones GLP-1andGIP and improves hyperglycemia inT2DM.It has however proven challenging to quantify the effect of sitagliptin on rates of insulin secretion(ISR) during a prandial challenge.The tight feedback governance ofISR by plasma glucose means that in the face of treatment-related lowering of postprandialglycemia,corresponding stimulation ofISR is lessened.We postulated that sustaining a stable level of moderate hyperglycemia prior to and during a mealchallenge(MC)would be a platform that enables greater clarity to assess the effect ofsitagliptin onISR and an approach that could be valuable to evaluate novel targets that increase insulin secretion directly and by augmenting incretins...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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