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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786958/variability-in-student-perceptions-of-mistreatment
#1
Samantha Ellis, Joel Purkiss, Emily Abdoler, Amanda Opaskar, Rajesh S Mangrulkar, Joseph C Kolars, Sally A Santen
BACKGROUND: As medical schools strive to improve the learning environment, it is important to understand medical students' perceptions of mistreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore student interpretations of previously reported mistreatment incidents to better understand how they conceptualise the interactions. METHODS: Medical students were presented with case scenarios of previously reported instances of mistreatment and asked to indicate their agreement as to whether the scenarios demonstrated mistreatment, using a five-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree)...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786076/c-myc-inhibits-myoblast-differentiation-and-promotes-myoblast-proliferation-and-muscle-fibre-hypertrophy-by-regulating-the-expression-of-its-target-genes-mirnas-and-lincrnas
#2
Wen Luo, Jiahui Chen, Limin Li, Xueyi Ren, Tian Cheng, Shiyi Lu, Raman Akinyanju Lawal, Qinghua Nie, Xiquan Zhang, Olivier Hanotte
The transcription factor c-Myc is an important regulator of cellular proliferation, differentiation and embryogenesis. While c-Myc can inhibit myoblast differentiation, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we found that c-Myc does not only inhibits myoblast differentiation but also promotes myoblast proliferation and muscle fibre hypertrophy. By performing chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified the genome-wide binding profile of c-Myc in skeletal muscle cells...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786074/constitutive-interferon-signaling-maintains-critical-threshold-of-mlkl-expression-to-license-necroptosis
#3
Joseph Sarhan, Beiyun C Liu, Hayley I Muendlein, Chi G Weindel, Irina Smirnova, Amy Y Tang, Vladimir Ilyukha, Maxim Sorokin, Anton Buzdin, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Alexander Poltorak
Interferons (IFNs) are critical determinants in immune-competence and autoimmunity, and are endogenously regulated by a low-level constitutive feedback loop. However, little is known about the functions and origins of constitutive IFN. Recently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IFN was implicated as a driver of necroptosis, a necrotic form of cell death downstream of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase activation and executed by mixed lineage kinase like-domain (MLKL) protein. We found that the pre-established IFN status of the cell, instead of LPS-induced IFN, is critical for the early initiation of necroptosis in macrophages...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786023/near-peer-assisted-learning-to-improve-confidence-for-medical-students-situational-judgment-tests
#4
Naomi Gostelow, Germander Soothill, Seema Vawda, David Annan
Background: The situational judgment test (SJT) was introduced for all graduating United Kingdom medical students in 2013. Students have anxiety over time pressures and heavy weighting of a single examination. Aims: This study aimed to examine formal SJT preparation available, perceptions of a near peer-delivered course, and to measure improvement in students' confidence. Innovation: Foundation doctors ( first 2 years of postgraduate training) produced a "Situational Judgment Test Preparation Course" in November 2015...
September 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785871/strategies-to-improve-impact-efficiency-in-football-kicking
#5
James C A Peacock, Kevin Ball
In football, kicking with high ball velocity can increase scoring opportunities and reduce the likelihood of interception. Efficient energy transfer from foot to ball during impact is important to attain a high ball velocity. It is considered impact efficiency can be increased by reducing the change in ankle plantarflexion during foot-ball impact. However, conflicting evidence exists, questioning its effectiveness as a coaching cue. The aim of the present study was to systematically analyse joint stiffness, foot velocity and impact location with a mechanical kicking machine to determine if change in ankle plantarflexion during foot-ball impact and ball velocity are influenced...
May 22, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785860/the-development-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-multidimensional-assessment-of-teamwork-in-sport
#6
Desmond McEwan, Bruno D Zumbo, Mark A Eys, Mark R Beauchamp
The purpose of this research was to develop a questionnaire to assess the multidimensional construct of teamwork in sport and to examine various aspects of validity related to that instrument. A preliminary questionnaire was first created, and feedback on this instrument was then obtained from a sample of team-sport athletes (n = 30) and experts in sport psychology (n = 8). A modified version of the questionnaire was then completed by 607 athletes from 48 teams, and 5 multilevel confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the structural properties of data derived from this instrument...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785283/reporting-and-appraising-the-context-process-and-impact-of-ppi-on-contributors-researchers-and-the-trial-during-a-randomised-controlled-trial-the-3d-study
#7
Cindy Mann, Simon Chilcott, Katrina Plumb, Edmund Brooks, Mei-See Man
Plain English summary: Including patient and public involvement (PPI) in health research is thought to improve research but it is hard to be clear exactly how it helps. This is because PPI takes many forms, is sometimes only token and is not always reported clearly. This makes it difficult to combine the evidence so that clear conclusions can be reached about the ingredients of successful PPI and what PPI achieves. Previous research that has tried to combine the evidence has led to several guidelines for researchers to use in setting up and reporting PPI...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785174/communication-in-mental-health-nursing-bachelor-students-appraisal-of-a-blended-learning-training-programme-an-exploratory-study
#8
Merete Furnes, Kari Sofie Kvaal, Sevald Høye
Background: It is important that mental health nursing students at Bachelor level obtain effective communication skills. Many students dread the fact that in the mental health field they will encounter patients and relatives with various backgrounds and personalities. Large classes and limited teaching resources in nursing education are challenging. To prepare students for mental health nursing practice, a communication skills course based on the blended learning method was developed and carried out at two different campuses...
2018: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785147/selection-as-a-learning-experience-an-exploratory-study
#9
Marieke de Visser, Roland F Laan, Rik Engbers, Janke Cohen-Schotanus, Cornelia Fluit
Introduction: Research on selection for medical school does not explore selection as a learning experience, despite growing attention for the learning effects of assessment in general. Insight in the learning effects allows us to take advantage of selection as an inclusive part of medical students' learning process to become competent professionals. The aims of this study at Radboud University Medical Center, the Netherlands, were 1) to determine whether students have learning experiences in the selection process, and, if so, what experiences; and 2) to understand what students need in order to utilize the learning effects of the selection process at the start of the formal curriculum...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784793/camp-inducible-coactivator-crtc3-attenuates-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis
#10
Young-Sil Yoon, Wen-Wei Tsai, Sam Van de Velde, Zhijiang Chen, Kuo-Fen Lee, Donald A Morgan, Kamal Rahmouni, Shigenobu Matsumura, Ezra Wiater, Youngsup Song, Marc Montminy
In response to cold exposure, placental mammals maintain body temperature by increasing sympathetic nerve activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Triggering of β-adrenergic receptors on brown adipocytes stimulates thermogenesis via induction of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Although cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its coactivators-the cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs)-mediate transcriptional effects of cAMP in most tissues, other transcription factors such as ATF2 appear critical for induction of thermogenic genes by cAMP in BAT...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784786/two-ck1%C3%AE-transcripts-regulated-by-m6a-methylation-code-for-two-antagonistic-kinases-in-the-control-of-the-circadian-clock
#11
Jean-Michel Fustin, Rika Kojima, Kakeru Itoh, Hsin-Yi Chang, Ye Shiqi, Bowen Zhuang, Asami Oji, Shingo Gibo, Rajesh Narasimamurthy, David Virshup, Gen Kurosawa, Masao Doi, Ichiro Manabe, Yasushi Ishihama, Masahito Ikawa, Hitoshi Okamura
The N 6 -methylation of internal adenosines (m6A) in mRNA has been quantified and localized throughout the transcriptome. However, the physiological significance of m6A in most highly methylated mRNAs is unknown. It was demonstrated previously that the circadian clock, based on transcription-translation negative feedback loops, is sensitive to the general inhibition of m6A. Here, we show that the Casein Kinase 1 Delta mRNA ( Ck1δ ), coding for a critical kinase in the control of circadian rhythms, cellular growth, and survival, is negatively regulated by m6A...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784779/strong-and-highly-variable-push-of-ocean-waves-on-southern-ocean-sea-ice
#12
Justin E Stopa, Peter Sutherland, Fabrice Ardhuin
Sea ice in the Southern Ocean has expanded over most of the past 20 y, but the decline in sea ice since 2016 has taken experts by surprise. This recent evolution highlights the poor performance of numerical models for predicting extent and thickness, which is due to our poor understanding of ice dynamics. Ocean waves are known to play an important role in ice break-up and formation. In addition, as ocean waves decay, they cause a stress that pushes the ice in the direction of wave propagation. This wave stress could not previously be quantified due to insufficient observations at large scales...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784671/a-non-autonomous-function-of-the-core-pcp-protein-vangl2-directs-peripheral-axon-turning-in-the-developing-cochlea
#13
Satish R Ghimire, Evan M Ratzan, Michael R Deans
The cochlea is innervated by neurons that relay sound information from hair cells to central auditory targets. A subset of these are the TypeΙΙ spiral ganglion neurons which have nociceptive features and contribute to feedback circuits providing neuroprotection in extreme noise. TypeΙΙ neurons make a distinctive 90 degree turn towards the cochlear base to synapse with 10-15 outer hair cells. We demonstrate that this axon turning event requires Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling, is disrupted in Vangl2 and Celsr1 knockout mice, and that VANGL2 acts non-autonomously from the cochlea to direct turning...
May 21, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784442/evaluation-of-adenosine-triphosphate-test-for-cleaning-assessment-of-gastroscopes-and-the-effect-on-workload-in-a-busy-endoscopy-center
#14
Cristiane Schmitt, Amanda Luiz Pires Maciel, Icaro Boszczowski, Thaís Pereira da Silva, Eliane Aparecida Job Neves, Giulio Fabio Rossini, Camila Rizek, Silvia Figueiredo Costa, Rogério Ferreira Lourenço, Michelle J Alfa
OBJECTIVE: Using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) tests to assess manual cleaning of gastroscopes and to determine the associated workload in a busy endoscopy unit. METHODS: Patient-used gastroscopes were sampled before and after cleaning to assess ATP levels, bioburden, and protein. Samples were collected by flushing 20 mL of sterile water through the biopsy port to the distal end. Time spent for reprocessing and performing the ATP test was recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-four samples were collected from 10 gastroscopes...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783763/integrated-framework-of-load-monitoring-by-a-combination-of-smartphone-applications-wearables-and-point-of-care-testing-provides-feedback-that-allows-individual-responsive-adjustments-to-activities-of-daily-living
#15
Peter Düking, Silvia Achtzehn, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Billy Sperlich
Athletes schedule their training and recovery in periods, often utilizing a pre-defined strategy. To avoid underperformance and/or compromised health, the external load during training should take into account the individual's physiological and perceptual responses. No single variable provides an adequate basis for planning, but continuous monitoring of a combination of several indicators of internal and external load during training, recovery and off-training as well may allow individual responsive adjustments of a training program in an effective manner...
May 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782968/trainability-of-hemodynamic-parameters-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-neurofeedback-study
#16
Silvia Erika Kober, Vanessa Hinterleitner, Günther Bauernfeind, Christa Neuper, Guilherme Wood
We investigated the trainability of the hemodynamic response as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during one neurofeedback (NF) session. Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to four different groups that tried to either increase or decrease oxygenated (oxy-Hb) or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) over the inferior frontal gyrus during imagery of swallowing movements. Deoxy-Hb could be successfully up-regulated while oxy-Hb could be successfully down-regulated during NF. Participants were not able to down-regulate deoxy-Hb or to up-regulate oxy-Hb...
May 18, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782913/statewide-collaborative-to-reduce-surgical-site-infection-results-of-the-hawaii-surgical-unit-based-safety-program
#17
Della M Lin, Kathryn A Carson, Lisa H Lubomski, Elizabeth C Wick, Julius Cuong Pham
BACKGROUND: Surgical Site Infections (SSI) after colorectal surgery are common, lead to patient harm, and are costly to the healthcare system. This study's purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Safety Program for Surgery in Hawaii. STUDY DESIGN: This pre-post cohort study involved 100% of 15 hospitals in Hawaii from January 2013-June 2015. The intervention was a statewide implementation of the Comprehensive-Unit-based-Safety-Program (CUSP) and individualized bundles of interventions to reduce SSI...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782839/different-regulation-of-cortisol-and-corticosterone-in-the-subterranean-rodent-ctenomys-talarum-responses-to-dexamethasone-angiotensin-ii-potassium-and-diet
#18
Federico Vera, C Daniel Antenucci, Roxana R Zenuto
When harmful environmental stimuli occur, glucocorticoids (GCs), cortisol and corticosterone are currently used to evaluate stress status in vertebrates, since their secretions are primarily associated to an increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To advance in our comprehension about GCs regulation, we evaluated the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum to assess cortisol and corticosterone response to (1) the negative feedback of the HPA axis using the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test, (2) angiotensin II (Ang II), (3) potassium (K+ ) intake, and (4) different diets (vegetables, grasses, acute fasting)...
May 18, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782516/how-a-smiley-protects-health-a-pilot-intervention-to-improve-hand-hygiene-in-hospitals-by-activating-injunctive-norms-through-emoticons
#19
Susanne Gaube, Dimitrios Tsivrikos, Daniel Dollinger, Eva Lermer
Hand hygiene practice in hospitals is unfortunately still widely insufficient, even though it is known that transmitting pathogens via hands is the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections. Previous research has shown that improving knowledge, providing feedback on past behaviour and targeting social norms are promising approaches to improve hand hygiene practices. The present field experiment was designed to direct people on when to perform hand hygiene and prevent forgetfulness. This intervention is the first to examine the effect of inducing injunctive social norms via an emoticon-based feedback system on hand hygiene behaviour...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782510/individual-differences-in-learning-correlate-with-modulation-of-brain-activity-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#20
Brian Falcone, Atsushi Wada, Raja Parasuraman, Daniel E Callan
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance cognitive performance on a variety of tasks. It is hypothesized that tDCS enhances performance by affecting task related cortical excitability changes in networks underlying or connected to the site of stimulation facilitating long term potentiation. However, many recent studies have called into question the reliability and efficacy of tDCS to induce modulatory changes in brain activity. In this study, our goal is to investigate the individual differences in tDCS induced modulatory effects on brain activity related to the degree of enhancement in performance, providing insight into this lack of reliability...
2018: PloS One
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