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Hiroyuki Yamada, Tatsuo Tsukamoto, Hiromichi Narumiya, Kazumasa Oda, Satoshi Higaki, Ryoji Iizuka, Motoko Yanagita, Masako Deguchi
BACKGROUND: Direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX-DHP) could improve the hemodynamic status of septic shock patients. As PMX-DHP is an invasive and costly procedure, it is desirable to estimate the therapeutic effect before performing the therapy. However, it is still unclear when this therapy should be started and what type of sepsis it should be employed for. In this study, we retrospectively examined the clinical effect of patients treated with PMX-DHP by using central venous pressure (CVP)...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Raquel Girardello, Marina Visconde, Rodrigo Cayô, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo, Marcelo Alves da Silva Mori, Nilton Lincopan, Ana Cristina Gales
Polymyxins have become drugs of last resort for treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections. However, the mechanisms of resistance to this compound have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of resistance to this antimicrobial in two A. baumannii clinical isolates, respectively, susceptible (A027) and resistant (A009) to polymyxin B before and after polymyxin B exposure (A027(ind) and A009(ind)). The pmrAB and lpxACD were sequenced and their transcriptional levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR...
October 8, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sawako Moriwaki, Takeshi Into, Keiko Suzuki, Mutsumi Miyauchi, Takashi Takata, Keigo Shibayama, Shumpei Niida
Chronic inflammation-associated bone destruction, which is observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis, is mediated by excessive osteoclastogenesis. We showed previously that γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), an enzyme involved in glutathione metabolism, acts as an endogenous activator of such pathological osteoclastogenesis, independent of its enzymatic activity. GGT accumulation is clinically observed in the joints of RA patients, and, in animals, the administration of recombinant GGT to the gingival sulcus as an in vivo periodontitis model induces an increase in the number of osteoclasts...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Justin R Lenhard, Jonathan S Gall, Jurgen B Bulitta, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Alan Forrest, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Brian T Tsuji
The objective of this study was to determine the comparative pharmacodynamics of four different carbapenems in combination with polymyxin B (PMB) against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates using time-kill experiments at two different inocula. Two A. baumannii strains (03-149-1 and N16870) with carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 8 to 64 mg/L were investigated in 48-h time-kill experiments using starting inocula of 10(6) CFU/mL and 10(8) CFU/mL. Concentration arrays of ertapenem, doripenem, meropenem and imipenem at 0...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
J D Rodgers, E Simpkin, R Lee, F A Clifton-Hadley, A B Vidal
Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp...
October 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Hironobu Tsubouchi, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Shigehisa Yanagi, Yasuji Arimura, Masamitsu Nakazato
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by the inflammatory response to invading organisms. Polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) is used to reduce blood endotoxin levels and modulate circulating inflammatory cytokine levels in sepsis patients. Here we report that severe sepsis caused by an infection of the gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans in a patient with small cell lung carcinoma was treated successfully with antibiotics and PMX-DHP. The patient, a 49-year-old Japanese male smoker whose condition was complicated with hyponatremia due to SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone), rapidly developed sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) after the administration of cisplatin and irinotecan...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Jinling Xue, Jinshan Zhang, Bi Xu, Jiani Xie, Wenzhao Wu, Yun Lu
Use of reclaimed water for non potable uses requires consideration of potential adverse health effects. Considering that inhalation can be a significant transmission route of microorganisms and inflammatory agents, this study used a mouse model to test the possible adverse effects of reclaimed water use during car washing where aerosols are generated. Intensive innate immune responses were found in the lungs after acute exposure, and lavage polymorphonuclear cell proportion was the most sensitive endpoint. Four types of evidence are presented to demonstrate that the main risk factor initiating innate inflammation is the free endotoxin: 1) Small molecules (<10KD) cannot induce inflammation; 2) The endotoxin levels of 11 water samples from 5 different plants showed positive correlations with inflammatory responses; 3) Actual water samples showed similar activities with free endotoxins other than bacteria-bound endotoxins; and 4) Specific removal of endotoxins with polymyxin B affinity chromatography further confirmed the role of free endotoxins...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
A A Carvalho, L L Cardoso, H S Nogueira, E V Menezes, M A S Xavier, N A P Barreto, L F Fernandes, A R E O Xavier
Acinetobacter sp isolates deserve special attention once they have emerged globally in healthcare institutions because they display numerous intrinsic and acquired drug-resistance mechanisms. This study assessed the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the presence of the genetic marker blaOXA-23, and the clonal relationship among 34 nosocomial isolates of Acinetobacter spp obtained at a hospital in southeastern Brazil. Antibiotic sensitivity analysis was performed by the standard disc-diffusion method. All isolates were found to be extensively resistant to several drugs, but sensitive to polymyxin B...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Chikkamenahalli Lakshminarayana Lakshmikanth, Shancy Petsel Jacob, Avinash Kundadka Kudva, Calivarathan Latchoumycandane, Puttaraju Srikanta Murthy Yashaswini, Mosale Seetharam Sumanth, Cassiano F Goncalves-de-Albuquerque, Adriana R Silva, Sridevi Annapurna Singh, Hugo C Castro-Faria-Neto, Sandeep Kumble Prabhu, Thomas M McIntyre, Gopal Kedihithlu Marathe
The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes sepsis, but bacterial peptides also promote inflammation leading to sepsis. We found, intraperitoneal administration of live or heat inactivated E. coli JE5505 lacking the abundant outer membrane protein, Braun lipoprotein (BLP), was less toxic than E. coli DH5α possessing BLP in Swiss albino mice. Injection of BLP free of LPS purified from E. coli DH5α induced massive infiltration of leukocytes in lungs and liver. BLP activated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) ex vivo to adhere to denatured collagen in serum and polymyxin B independent fashion, a property distinct from LPS...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pooja Manchandani, Yanina Dubrovskaya, Song Gao, Vincent H Tam
Polymyxin B is increasingly used as a treatment of last resort for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. Despite available as a mixture of several structurally-related analogues, the properties are commonly reported as an aggregate of the individual components. We compared the pharmacokinetics of individual polymyxin B components in an animal model and in humans. There were no considerable differences observed in the pharmacokinetics among major components of polymyxin B. Combining different components for pharmacokinetic analysis appeared reasonable...
October 3, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yoshihiro Ojima, Shota Nunogami, Masahito Taya
Enhancement of microbial biofilm formation by low antimicrobial doses is a critical problem in the medical field. The objective of this study was to propose a new drug candidate against the biofilm formation promoted by subinhibitory dose of antimicrobials. To determine the effect on biofilm formation of Escherichia coli, a subinhibitory concentration of lactoferrin (LF), a milk protein involved in a broad range of biological properties including antimicrobial action, or ampicillin (AMP), a typical antibiotic, was added to an E...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Matthew E Falagas
Colistin and polymyxin B (PMB) have different pharmacokinetic profiles and minor differences in antimicrobial activities that may result in discrepancies in mortality and nephrotoxicity. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases were searched. There was no significant difference in unadjusted mortality between patients treated with colistin and PMB [risk ratio (RR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-1.13]. Adjusted data were not available. Unadjusted nephrotoxicity was more common in patients treated with colistin than PMB (RR = 1...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Bailey A Milne-Davies, Patrick J Antonelli, Nicklas C Orobello, Carolyn O Dirain
OBJECTIVE: To assess collagen and α-tubulin levels of mouse tympanic membrane fibroblasts treated with quinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics at concentrations found in eardrops. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective controlled cell culture study. SETTING: Academic tertiary medical center. SUBJECTS: Mouse tympanic membrane fibroblasts. METHODS: In experiment 1, fibroblasts were treated with the following for 24 or 48 hours: phosphate-buffered saline (negative control), dilute hydrochloric acid (positive control), 0...
September 27, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Gosia Malgorzata-Miller, Lena Heinbockel, Klaus Brandenburg, Jos W M van der Meer, Mihai G Netea, Leo A B Joosten
The pattern recognition receptor TLR4 is well known as a crucial receptor during infection and inflammation. Several TLR4 antagonists have been reported to inhibit the function of TLR4. Both natural occurring antagonists, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria as well as synthetic compounds based on the lipid A structure of LPS have been described as potent inhibitors of TLR4. Here, we have examined the characteristics of a natural TLR4 antagonist, isolated from Bartonella quintana bacterium by elucidating its chemical primary structure...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anna Sidoti, Etrusca Brogi, Joshua Morse, Michele Collareta, Luigi Vetrugno, Francesco Giunta, Francesco Forfori
Direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B (PMX-DHP) is an extracorporeal treatment to add to conventional therapy during unresponsive endotoxic septic shock. So far, only heparin has been used as an anticoagulant during polymyxin B therapy. We present a case report of a postsurgical septic patient treated with 2 cycles of PMX-DHP using citrate anticoagulation. Monitoring of serum calcium, postcartridge calcium, and acid-base balance was performed. The treatments were accomplished without complications. To our knowledge, this is the first published report on the use of citrate anticoagulation during PMX-DHP...
September 23, 2016: A & A Case Reports
Akinori Kato
Recombineering has been used to facilitate the development of in vivo cloning methods. However, the method relies heavily on PCR, which still generates a much higher error rate than DNA replication in vivo, even when amplifying large DNA inserts. Here, a precise technique is reported in Salmonella enterica that enables the cloning of up to at least 19 kb target chromosomal DNA segments that had been marked by FRTs, which were derived from two consecutive lambda Red-mediated recombination events. P22 phage was utilized to transduce the target DNA segments from donor strains to recipient strains harboring a derivative of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing a FRT and a plasmid expressing Flp recombinase...
September 23, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Polly Soo Xi Yap, Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Chun Wie Chong, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Kwai Lin Thong, Yao Mun Choo, Mohd Yasim Md Yusof, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh
The prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of intestinal carriage of Gram-negative bacteria among preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia were determined. A total of 34 stool specimens were obtained from preterm infants upon admission and once weekly up to two weeks during hospitalization. The presumptive colonies of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected for identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and subtyping by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Vahid R Adineh, Ross K W Marceau, Tony Velkov, Jian Li, Jing Fu
Emergence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria has caused a global health crisis and last-line class of antibiotics such as polymyxins are increasingly used. The chemical composition at the cell surface plays a key role in antibiotic resistance. Unlike imaging the cellular ultrastructure with well-developed electron microscopy, the acquisition of a high-resolution chemical map of the bacterial surface still remains a technological challenge. In this study, we developed an atom probe tomography (APT) analysis approach to acquire mass spectra in the pulsed-voltage mode and reconstructed the 3D chemical distribution of atoms and molecules in the subcellular domain at the near-atomic scale...
October 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Y L Gong, Z C Yang, S P Yin, M X Liu, C Zhang, X Q Luo, Y Z Peng
Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogen isolated from severely burned patients with bloodstream infection, so as to provide reference for the clinical treatment of these patients. Methods: Blood samples of 162 severely burned patients (including 120 patients with extremely severe burn) with bloodstream infection admitted into our burn ICU from January 2011 to December 2014 were collected. Pathogens were cultured by fully automatic blood culture system, and API bacteria identification panels were used to identify pathogen...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Justin R Lenhard, Jürgen B Bulitta, Terry D Connell, Natalie King-Lyons, Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Soon-Ee Cheah, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Beom Soo Shin, Gauri Rao, Patricia N Holden, Thomas J Walsh, Alan Forrest, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Brian T Tsuji
OBJECTIVES: The pharmacodynamics of polymyxin/carbapenem combinations against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) are largely unknown. Our objective was to determine whether intensified meropenem regimens in combination with polymyxin B enhance killing and resistance suppression of CRAB. METHODS: Time-kill experiments for meropenem and polymyxin B combinations were conducted against three polymyxin B-susceptible (MIC of polymyxin B = 0.5 mg/L) CRAB strains with varying meropenem MICs (ATCC 19606, N16870 and 03-149-1; MIC of meropenem = 4, 16 and 64 mg/L, respectively) at 10(8) cfu/mL...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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