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Somi Patro, Gitanjali Sarangi, Padma Das, Ashoka Mahapatra, Dharitri Mohapatra, Bimoch Projna Paty, Nirupama Chayani
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infection. The etiology of VAP and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern varies with different patient populations and types of ICUs. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was performed over a period of 2 years in a tertiary care hospital to determine the various etiological agents causing VAP and to detect the presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in these VAP patients...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Reza Mirnejad, Mohsen Heidary, Aghil Bahramian, Mehdi Goudarzi, Abazar Pournajaf
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for approximately 10% of all gram-negative nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance genes and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in the clinically A. baumannii . In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 nonduplicative A. baumannii isolates were collected from different clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method. QnrA, anrB, qnrS, aac(3)-IIa, and aac(6')-Ib genes were identified using PCR method...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Sarah Jehad Ismail, Suhad Saad Mahmoud
Background and Objectives: Multidrug resistance and in particular, carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacteria is spreading worldwide at an alarming rate. Among the clinically significant carbapenemases, the New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is one of the most formidable. NDM efficiently hydrolyses β-lactams and is the last-resort among carbapenems. Hence, therapeutic options for NDM producer bacteria become restricted to a handful of antibiotics. The present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of the bla NDM -variants Metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) among isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Baghdad, Iraq...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Hidemasa Nakaminami, Misa Tajima, Koji Koishikawa, Yuma Shiratori, Mana Shioura, Masanori Sasatsu, Norihisa Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: Prevention of bacterial transmission in recipient patients via allograft decontamination with an antimicrobial cocktail consisting of cefmetazole (cefoxitin), vancomycin, lincomycin and polymyxin B is an important procedure commonly practised in tissue banks. However, some allografts are lost due to the failure of decontamination under low temperature conditions. Here, we aimed to develop new antimicrobial cocktails that exert a high bactericidal activity at 4°C. METHODS: Bacterial species used in this study were selected as major causative pathogens of allograft tissue contamination...
July 9, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Mary Sabulski Feigman, Seonghoon Kim, Sean E Pidgeon, Yuming Yu, George Mogambi Ongwae, Dhilon S Patel, Steven Regen, Wonpil Im, Marcos M Pires
While traditional drug discovery continues to be an important platform for the search of new antibiotics, alternative approaches should also be pursued to complement these efforts. We herein designed a class of molecules that decorate bacterial cell surfaces with the goal of re-engaging components of the immune system toward Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More specifically, conjugates were assembled using polymyxin B (an antibiotic that inherently attaches to the surface of Gram-negative pathogens) and antigenic epitopes that recruit antibodies found in human serum...
June 12, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Ali Hajimohammadi, Khalil Badiei, Parviz Kheibari, Meherdad Pourjafar, Aliasghar Chalmeh
Introduction: The experiment evaluated the effects of intravenous administration of polymyxin B on experimental endotoxaemia in sheep. Material and Methods: Twenty clinically healthy fat-tailed sheep were randomly divided into: a group treated with 6,000 U/kg of polymyxin B, a group at 12,000 U/kg, and positive and negative controls. Endotoxaemia was induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E . coli serotype O55:B5 at 0.5 μg/kg. polymyxin was infused intravenously along with 2...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Research
Maros Kolomaznik, Gilda Liskayova, Nina Kanjakova, Lukas Hubcik, Daniela Uhrikova, Andrea Calkovska
After inhalation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules interfere with a pulmonary surfactant, a unique mixture of phospholipids (PLs) and specific proteins that decreases surface tension at the air⁻liquid interphase. We evaluated the behaviour of a clinically used modified porcine pulmonary surfactant (PSUR) in the presence of LPS in a dynamic system mimicking the respiratory cycle. Polymyxin B (PxB), a cyclic amphipathic antibiotic, is able to bind to LPS and to PSUR membranes. We investigated the effect of PxB on the surface properties of the PSUR/LPS system...
July 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Guanhao Zheng, Li Cao, Zaiqian Che, Enqiang Mao, Erzhen Chen, Juan He
BACKGROUND: Polymyxin B (PMB), which is regarded as the ultimate antibacterial treatment against some intractable gram-negative bacteria with its outstanding anti-bacterial activities, inflicts several adverse effects on patients. However, skin hyperpigmentaion (SH) induced by PMB is very rare. Here, we report a case of polymyxin B-induced skin hyperpigmentation (PMB-iSH) in a 21-year-old female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PMB-iSH in China. CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old female patient with sepsis received the administration of PMB by intravenous injection for the treatment of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-KP) infection...
July 4, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Chizuru Yamashita, Kazuhiro Moriyama, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yu Kato, Toshikazu Sakai, Takahiro Kawaji, Yasuyo Shimomura, Yasuyoshi Kurimoto, Mariko Nagata, Osamu Nishida
BACKGROUND: Polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX-F) columns are used as therapeutic interventions for septic shock. The clinical efficacy has been reported for 2-h applications, but their ability to adsorb endotoxin over longer treatments has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that PMX-F columns are capable of endotoxin removal for more than 2 h. METHOD: We designed closed circuits incorporating either a PMX-F column with an 8.5-mL priming volume (PMX-01R) or a sham-control column, and used inactivated fetal bovine serum as the circulating perfusate...
July 3, 2018: Blood Purification
Minjae Kim, Michael R Weigand, Seungdae Oh, Janet K Hatt, Raj Krishnan, Ulas Tezel, Spyros G Pavlostathis, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis
While misuse of antibiotics has clearly contributed to the emergence and proliferation of resistant bacterial pathogens with major health consequences, it remains less clear if the widespread use of disinfectants, a different class of biocides than antibiotics such as benzalkonium chlorides (BAC), has contributed to this problem. Here, we provide evidence that exposure to BAC co-selects for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and describe the underlying genetic mechanisms. BAC-fed bioreactors inoculated with river sediment selected for several bacterial taxa, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa , that were more resistant to several antibiotics compared to their counterparts in a control (no BAC) bioreactor...
June 29, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Vinícius Cardoso-Brito, Ana Cláudia S Raposo, Thaís T Pires, Melissa H Pinna, Arianne P Oriá
PURPOSE: To describe the aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora of 3 especies of free-living and under human care sea turtles and determine its antimicrobial susceptibility in vitro. METHOD: Thirty-six sea turtles (72 eyes), juveniles and adults, 7 free-living Chelonia mydas and 8 Chelonia mydas, 4 Caretta caretta, 11 Eretmochelys imbricata, and 6 Lepidochelys olivacea under human care, were evaluated. Conjunctival cultures were collected for identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxacillin, polymyxin B, tetracycline, and tobramycin using antibiotic disks...
June 28, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Katie E Barber, Jason M Pogue, Henderson D Warnock, Robert A Bonomo, Keith S Kaye
Background: 'Last-line' antimicrobial usage has promoted the emergence of MDR bacteria. Production of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) is increasingly common and leads to resistance to most antimicrobials. However, ceftazidime/avibactam demonstrates activity against KPC-producing strains. Ceftazidime/avibactam in the empirical setting remains unknown. Methods: Strains underwent genetic analysis evaluating blaKPC presence/production and MICs were determined...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Takehiro Sugawara, Sakura Onoue, Hiroaki Takimoto, Kazuyoshi Kawahara
Lauroyltransferase gene (lpxL), Myristoyltransferase gene (lpxM) and palmitoyltransferase gene (crcA) of Escherichia coli BL21 were independently disrupted by the insertional mutations. The knockout mutant of two transferase genes (lpxL and crcA) produced lipid A with no lauric and palmitic acids and only little amount of myristic acid. The mutant was susceptible to polymyxin B, but showed comparable growth with wild-type strain at 30°C. The palmitoyltransferase gene from E. coli (crcA) or Salmonella (pagP) was amplified by PCR, cloned in pUC119, and transferred into the double-knockout mutant by transformation...
June 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Prosenjit Samanta, Rudra Narayan Saha, Goutam Chowdhury, Arindam Naha, Sounak Sarkar, Shanta Dutta, Ranjan Kumar Nandy, Keinosuke Okamoto, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: Two natural epidemic biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, classical and El Tor, exhibit different patterns of sensitivity against the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. This difference in sensitivity has been one of the major markers in biotype classification system for several decades. A recent report regarding the emergence of polymyxin B-sensitive El Tor V. cholerae O1 in Kolkata has motivated us to track the spread of the strains containing this important trait, along with Haitian-like genetic content, in different parts of India...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
B Yun, T Zhang, M A K Azad, J Wang, C J Nowell, P Kalitsis, T Velkov, D F Hudson, J Li
In the original publication of the article, part of Fig. 6 is missing. The missing subpanels, Fig. 6c, d are given below.
June 18, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Rafael De León-Borrás, Julio Álvarez-Cardona, Jorge A Vidal, Humberto M Guiot
A 36-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit due to diabetic ketoacidosis and pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. Three weeks after admission, he developed a refractory bacteremia with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing bacteria (KPC). He remained febrile and with bacteremia for six weeks despite therapy with polymyxin B, carbapenems, and amikacin. Imaging studies looking for deep-seated infection revealed vertebral L1-L2 diskitis and osteomyelitis with pre-vertebral abscess and bilateral psoas pyomyositis that were not amenable for drainage...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Camila M Wilhelm, Luciana de S Nunes, Andreza F Martins, Afonso L Barth
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of imipenem plus amikacin or polymyxin B against six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa by time-kill assay. Synergism was observed in two isolates for combinations with amikacin. For combinations with polymyxin B, synergism and antagonism also occurred in two isolates.
May 12, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Marcel Nani, Andréia Leone, Vinícius Pedro Bom, Andrei Felipe Buszinski, Rebeca Oliveira de Souza, Vanessa Alves Pinheiro, Panagiota Danapoulos, Rosita Swikidisa, Franciane Marquele-Oliveira, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Andresa Aparecida Berretta, Rodrigo José Lupatini Nogueira
Several previous studies have demonstrated improved wound healing associated with natural-based formulations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a topical formulation containing both a Brazilian micronized propolis extract and a Peucedanum ostruthium leaf extract for the treatment of wounds created by surgical punch in rats. The study was conducted for 14 days and animals were treated as follows: gauze group (G), polyethylene glycol base ointment (Control), AlpaWash (an ointment containing a Brazilian micronized propolis extract and Peucedanum ostruthium leaf extract [Treatment]), and polysporin (one of the most commonly used topical antibiotic ointments, based on bacitracin zinc and polymyxin B sulfate [Reference Standard])...
March 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Abdol Ahad Dogonchi, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi, Abdollah Ardebili, Sajjad Yazdansetad, Abazar Pournajaf
Objective: Carbapenems are effective agents to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa . However, there is a potential threat of emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-mediated resistance in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. Materials and Methods: Different clinical specimens were subjected to conventional culture-based identification of P...
April 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Joseph L Kuti, Qi Wang, Hongbin Chen, Henan Li, Hui Wang, David P Nicolau
Objectives: We report the in vitro activity of amikacin and comparators against Gram-negative bacteria collected from blood and respiratory specimens in China during a 1-year period between December 2015 and December 2016. Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution methods using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI breakpoints, except for tigecycline against Enterobacteriaceae...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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