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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456073/an-integrated-understanding-of-the-rapid-metabolic-benefits-of-a-carbohydrate-restricted-diet-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-humans
#1
Adil Mardinoglu, Hao Wu, Elias Bjornson, Cheng Zhang, Antti Hakkarainen, Sari M Räsänen, Sunjae Lee, Rosellina M Mancina, Mattias Bergentall, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Sanni Söderlund, Niina Matikainen, Marcus Ståhlman, Per-Olof Bergh, Martin Adiels, Brian D Piening, Marit Granér, Nina Lundbom, Kevin J Williams, Stefano Romeo, Jens Nielsen, Michael Snyder, Mathias Uhlén, Göran Bergström, Rosie Perkins, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Fredrik Bäckhed, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Jan Borén
A carbohydrate-restricted diet is a widely recommended intervention for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but a systematic perspective on the multiple benefits of this diet is lacking. Here, we performed a short-term intervention with an isocaloric low-carbohydrate diet with increased protein content in obese subjects with NAFLD and characterized the resulting alterations in metabolism and the gut microbiota using a multi-omics approach. We observed rapid and dramatic reductions of liver fat and other cardiometabolic risk factors paralleled by (1) marked decreases in hepatic de novo lipogenesis; (2) large increases in serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, reflecting increased mitochondrial β-oxidation; and (3) rapid increases in folate-producing Streptococcus and serum folate concentrations...
February 7, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454391/type-1-diabetes-susceptibility-alleles-are-associated-with-distinct-alterations-in-the-gut-microbiota
#2
Jane A Mullaney, Juliette E Stephens, Mary-Ellen Costello, Cai Fong, Brooke E Geeling, Patrick G Gavin, Casey M Wright, Timothy D Spector, Matthew A Brown, Emma E Hamilton-Williams
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune conditions including type 1 diabetes (T1D). It is unknown whether changes in the gut microbiota observed in T1D are due to environmental drivers, genetic risk factors, or both. Here, we have performed an analysis of associations between the gut microbiota and T1D genetic risk using the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of T1D and the TwinsUK cohort. RESULTS: Through the analysis of five separate colonies of T1D susceptible NOD mice, we identified similarities in NOD microbiome that were independent of animal facility...
February 17, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443403/proceedings-of-the-2017-aspen-research-workshop-gastric-bypass-role-of-the-gut
#3
REVIEW
Ajay Kumar Jain, Carel W le Roux, Puneet Puri, Ali Tavakkoli, Nana Gletsu-Miller, Blandine Laferrère, Richard Kellermayer, John K DiBaise, Robert G Martindale, Bruce M Wolfe
The goal of the National Institutes of Health-funded American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2017 research workshop (RW) "Gastric Bypass: Role of the Gut" was to focus on the exciting research evaluating gut-derived signals in modulating outcomes after bariatric surgery. Although gastric bypass surgery has undoubted positive effects, the mechanistic basis of improved outcomes cannot be solely explained by caloric restriction. Emerging data suggest that bile acid metabolic pathways, luminal contents, energy balance, gut mucosal integrity, as well as the gut microbiota are significantly modulated after bariatric surgery and may be responsible for the variable outcomes, each of which was rigorously evaluated...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437527/first-victim-later-aggressor-how-the-intestinal-microbiota-drives-the-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-dietary-emulsifiers
#4
Emilie Viennois, Benoit Chassaing
The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of bacteria, collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. Composed of 500-1000 distinct species, the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in immunity and metabolism. However, alterations in its composition are associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Among many other factors, our diet impacts microbiota composition and function, in either beneficial or detrimental ways...
February 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434314/elevated-circulating-levels-of-succinate-in-human-obesity-are-linked-to-specific-gut-microbiota
#5
Carolina Serena, Victoria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Noelia Keiran, Maria Isabel Queipo-Ortuño, Rosa Bernal, Ricardo Gomez-Huelgas, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Mónica Sabater, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Andres Moya, Francisco J Tinahones, Jose Manuel Fernández-Real, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Gut microbiota-related metabolites are potential clinical biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Circulating succinate, a metabolite produced by both microbiota and the host, is increased in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to analyze systemic levels of succinate in obesity, a major risk factor for CVD, and its relationship with gut microbiome. We explored the association of circulating succinate with specific metagenomic signatures in cross-sectional and prospective cohorts of Caucasian Spanish subjects...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429278/-the-relationship-between-gut-microbiota-and-diet-and-nutrition-related-diseases
#6
M Q Wang, Y Li, C H Sun
The human gastro-intestinal tract is not only the habitat of gut microbiota, but also the main place that the body gets available nutrients. Therefore, the gut microbiota of human can be inseparable associated with the human nutrition. The common technologies used among gut microbiota research included metageonomic, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics. The research of gut microbiota based on above omics methods confirmed that diets were the main factors influencing the composition and expression of gut microbiota...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427903/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-novel-regulator-of-cardiovascular-function-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
The gut microbiome has emerged as a critical regulator of human physiology. Deleterious changes to the composition or number of gut bacteria, commonly referred to as gut dysbiosis, has been linked to the development and progression of numerous diet-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most CVD risk factors, including aging, obesity, certain dietary patterns, and a sedentary lifestyle, have been shown to induce gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal inflammation and reduced integrity of the gut barrier, which in turn increases circulating levels of bacterial structural components and microbial metabolites that may facilitate the development of CVD...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427518/multi-omics-approach-to-elucidate-the-gut-microbiota-activity-metaproteomics-and-metagenomics-connection
#8
Maria Guirro, Andrea Costa, Andreu Gual-Grau, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Helena Torrell, Pol Herrero, Núria Canela, Lluís Arola
Over the last few years, the application of high-throughput meta-omics methods has provided great progress in improving the knowledge of the gut ecosystem and linking its biodiversity to host health conditions, offering complementary support to classical microbiology. Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in relevant diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular disease, and its regulation be closely influenced by several factors, such as dietary composition. In fact, polyphenol-rich diets are the most palatable treatment to prevent hypertension associated with cardiovascular disease, although the polyphenol-microbiota interactions have not been completely elucidated...
February 10, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427445/green-tea-polyphenols-modulate-colonic-microbiota-diversity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-treated-hfa-mice
#9
Li Wang, Benhua Zeng, Zhiwei Liu, Zhenlin Liao, Qingping Zhong, Lihui Gu, Hong Wei, Xiang Fang
There is an increasing interest in the effect of dietary polyphenols on the intestinal microbiota and the possible associations between this effect and the development of obesity. However, limited information is available on how these polyphenols affect the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism. The co-action of a high-fat diet (HFD) and tea polyphenol (TP) on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using a human flora-associated (HFA) C57BL/6J mice model is studied. TP reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, glucose (GLU) and insulin (INS) levels of HFD mice in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425873/digestibility-of-sulfated-polysaccharide-from-the-brown-seaweed-ascophyllum-nodosum-and-its-effect-on-the-human-gut-microbiota-in-vitro
#10
Ligen Chen, Wei Xu, Dan Chen, Guijie Chen, Junwei Liu, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Rong Shao, Hongjun Zhu
Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae exhibit various bioactivities with potential benefits for human health and well-being. In this study, the in vitro digestibility and fermentability of polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (AnPs) were examined, and the effects of AnPs on gut microbiota were determined using high-throughput sequencing technology. Salivary amylase, artificial gastric juice, and intestinal juice had no effect on AnPs, but the molecular weight of AnPs and reducing sugar decreased significantly after fermentation by gut microbiota...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413971/-gear-mechanism-of-bariatric-interventions-revealed-by-untargeted-metabolomics
#11
Paulina Samczuk, Magdalena Luba, Joanna Godzien, Annalaura Mastrangelo, Hady Razak Hady, Jacek Dadan, Coral Barbas, Maria Gorska, Adam Kretowski, Michal Ciborowski
Mechanisms responsible for metabolic gains after bariatric surgery are not entirely clear. The purpose of this study was evaluation of metabolic changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in semi-annual follow up. The study participants were selected from obese patients with T2DM who underwent one of the mentioned bariatric procedures. Serum metabolic fingerprinting by use of liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was performed on samples obtained from studied patients before, one, and six months post-surgery...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412464/effects-of-bentonite-bgp35b-p-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Eun-Sook Lee, Eun-Ji Song, So-Young Lee, So-Lim Park, Daeyoung Kim, Daniel Kim, Jae-Hwan Kim, Seong-Il Lim, Young-Do Nam
BACKGROUND: Bentonite is a natural clay mineral with health-promoting effects due to high adsorption abilities with high cation exchange capacity. Previously, we found an anti-obesity effect for the Bgp35b-p bentonite produced in South Korea where its high adsorbent ability of dietary lipids possibly partially removed lipidic environment in the gut (under revision). It hypothesized that Bgp35b-p affects the intestinal microbial community, thus the microbial changes were investigated via the next generation sequencing targeting bacterial 16s rRNA gene and the bioinformatics using QIIME were performed in feces of C57BL/6 male mice fed a HFD with the Bgp35b-p...
February 7, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410981/diet-and-microbiota-linked-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
T Requena, M C Martínez-Cuesta, C Peláez
Diet has shaped microbiota profiles through human evolution. Traditional gut microbiomes are described to be driven by high levels of Prevotella. In the present, however, it is consistently described a lower microbial richness in urban industrialized populations compared with individuals living in rural settings, Bacteroides being predominant among urban-industrial gut microbiomes. Components of diet are highly influential in shaping the gut microbiota, being fiber, fat, proteins, polyphenols and micronutrients differentially metabolized by generalist and specialized microorganisms alone or through the phenomenon of cross-feeding...
February 7, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410697/metabolomics-insights-into-the-modulatory-effects-of-long-term-compound-polysaccharide-intake-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#14
Mingyi Chen, Biyu Lu, Yuan Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Haihui Zheng, Danmin Zhong, Ziqiong Liao, Mengxia Wang, Fangli Ma, Qiongfeng Liao, Zhiyong Xie
Background: Polysaccharides can alleviate obesity in mammals; however, studies on mechanism of this alleviation are limited. A few studies have indicated that polysaccharides improve obesity by regulating the metabolism of the body. Therefore, a metabolomics approach, consisting of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and a multivariate statistical technique, was applied to explore the mechanism of the protective effects of lentinan and Flos Lonicera polysaccharides (LF) on high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409330/bifidobacteria-and-its-rice-fermented-products-on-diet-induced-obese-mice-analysis-of-physical-status-serum-profile-and-gene-expressions
#15
M Ray, P K Hor, D Ojha, J P Soren, S N Singh, K C Mondal
Obesity is highly correlated with the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota, and bifidobacteria are one of the soft targets of this metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Bifidobacterium sp. MKK4 and rice-based fermented foods on physical, haematological, gut microbiota and lypogenic-lypolytic marker genes in diet-induced obese mice. Adult male mice (21±0.7 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=10) according to the type of diet: normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with Bifidobacterium sp...
February 7, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409054/connection-between-bmi-related-plasma-metabolite-profile-and-gut-microbiota
#16
Filip Ottosson, Louise Brunkwall, Ulrika Ericson, Peter M Nilsson, Peter Almgren, Céline Fernandez, Olle Melander, Marju Orho-Melander
Context: Emerging evidence has related the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites to human obesity. Gut microbiota is responsible for several metabolic functions and altered plasma metabolome may reflect differences in the gut microbiome. Objective: To identify a plasma metabolite profile associated with BMI in a general population and to investigate if such metabolite profile is associated with distinct composition of the gut microbiota. Design: Targeted profiling of 48 plasma metabolites was performed in a population of 920 Swedish adults (mean age 39y, 53% women) from the ongoing Malmö Offspring Study using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401621/il-10-suppresses-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-expression-of-human-aromatase-gene-in-mammary-adipose-tissue
#17
Gabriela Martínez-Chacón, Kristy A Brown, Maria M Docanto, Himanshu Kumar, Seppo Salminen, Niina Saarinen, Sari Mäkelä
White adipose tissue inflammation is linked with increased aromatase gene expression and estrogen production, a major risk factor for breast cancer in obese postmenopausal women. TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, is a key driver of aromatase promoter I.4-mediated expression in adipose tissue. In this study, we have shown that IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, suppressed both TNF-α-stimulated human aromatase reporter-luciferase (hARO-Luc) expression in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and aromatase gene expression in human breast adipose stromal cells (ASCs)...
January 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397563/insulin-resistance-in-obesity-an-overview-of-fundamental-alterations
#18
REVIEW
Rocco Barazzoni, Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Maurizio Ragni, Enzo Nisoli
Obesity is a major health risk factor, and obesity-induced morbidity and complications account for huge costs for affected individuals, families, healthcare systems, and society at large. In particular, obesity is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance, which in turn plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated cardiometabolic complications, including metabolic syndrome components, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Insulin sensitive tissues, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver, are profoundly affected by obesity both at biomolecular and functional levels...
February 3, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388394/composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-obese-and-normal-weight-mexican-school-age-children-and-its-association-with-metabolic-traits
#19
B E López-Contreras, S Morán-Ramos, R Villarruel-Vázquez, L Macías-Kauffer, H Villamil-Ramírez, P León-Mimila, J Vega-Badillo, F Sánchez-Muñoz, L E Llanos-Moreno, A Canizalez-Román, B Del Río-Navarro, I Ibarra-González, M Vela-Amieva, T Villarreal-Molina, A Ochoa-Leyva, C A Aguilar-Salinas, S Canizales-Quinteros
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem in Mexico. Adult gut microbiota composition has been linked to obesity, but few studies have addressed the role of gut microbiota in childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare gut microbiota composition in obese and normal-weight children and to associate gut microbiota profiles with amino acid serum levels and obesity-related metabolic traits. METHODS: Microbial taxa relative abundance was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing in 67 normal-weight and 71 obese children aged 6-12 years...
December 5, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384067/interplay-of-gut-microbiota-probiotics-in-obesity-a-review
#20
Ramesh Pothuraju, Raj Kumar Sharma
Excess caloric intake and less energy expenditure (eg. physical inactivity) are associated with acquired metabolic disorders due to sedentary life style. Pharmacological treatments are less effective in preventing obesity. Type of diet influence the gut microbiome alteration and it is interrelated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Modified gut microbiota by the harmful bacterial components (eg: lipopolysaccharides) is linked with the metabolic endotoxemia (low-grade inflammation) which results in damage to the gut barrier function...
January 30, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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