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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935107/essential-fatty-acids-linoleic-acid-and-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-sex-dependently-regulate-glucose-homeostasis-in-obesity
#1
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Wenqiao Wang, Lilin He, Jun Wang, Jingnan Chen, Yu Zhang, Jingjing Jiao
SCOPE: To assess the associations of dietary linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in a population-based cohort and further explore the mechanism of action in a high-fat-diet induced obese (DIO) mouse model. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of T2D among 15,100 healthy Chinese adults from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, 1997-2011) were followed up for a median of 14 years. The relations of ALA and LA intakes with T2D risk were modified by BMI, with significant associations restricted to obese/overweight subjects...
June 23, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934437/human-gut-microbiome-hopes-threats-and-promises
#2
REVIEW
Patrice D Cani
The microbiome has received increasing attention over the last 15 years. Although gut microbes have been explored for several decades, investigations of the role of microorganisms that reside in the human gut has attracted much attention beyond classical infectious diseases. For example, numerous studies have reported changes in the gut microbiota during not only obesity, diabetes, and liver diseases but also cancer and even neurodegenerative diseases. The human gut microbiota is viewed as a potential source of novel therapeutics...
June 22, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931613/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Ömrüm Aydin, Max Nieuwdorp, Victor Gerdes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to critically assess the contributing role of the gut microbiota in human obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). RECENT FINDINGS: Experiments in animal and human studies have produced growing evidence for the causality of the gut microbiome in developing obesity and T2D. The introduction of high-throughput sequencing technologies has provided novel insight into the interpersonal differences in microbiome composition and function...
June 21, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925774/dietary-supplementation-with-a-magnesium-rich-marine-mineral-blend-enhances-the-diversity-of-gastrointestinal-microbiota
#4
Erin K Crowley, Caitriona M Long-Smith, Amy Murphy, Elaine Patterson, Kiera Murphy, Denise M O'Gorman, Catherine Stanton, Yvonne M Nolan
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that dietary supplementation with functional food ingredients play a role in systemic and brain health as well as in healthy ageing. Conversely, deficiencies in calcium and magnesium as a result of the increasing prevalence of a high fat/high sugar "Western diet" have been associated with health problems such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as metabolic, immune, and psychiatric disorders. It is now recognized that modulating the diversity of gut microbiota, the population of intestinal bacteria, through dietary intervention can significantly impact upon gut health as well as systemic and brain health...
June 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925242/beneficial-metabolic-effects-of-2-3-5-tri-acetyl-n6-3-hydroxylaniline-adenosine-in-multiple-biological-matrices-and-intestinal-flora-of-hyperlipidemic-hamsters
#5
Tianqi Li, Shanshan Sun, Jinyue Zhang, Kai Qu, Liu Yang, Changlu Ma, Xiangju Jin, Haibo Zhu, Yinghong Wang
ABSTRACT:Hyperlipidemia is one of the main causes of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerosis. The adenosine derivative, 2', 3', 5'-tri-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (IMM-H007) is an effective lipid-lowering compound that has important implications for the development of lipid-lowering drugs. Metabolomic analysis based on 1H-NMR was used to monitor dynamic changes in diverse biological media including serum, liver, urine, and feces in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and IMM-H007 treatments...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922272/gut-microbiota-markers-in-obese-adolescent-and-adult-patients-age-dependent-differential-patterns
#6
Federica Del Chierico, Francesca Abbatini, Alessandra Russo, Andrea Quagliariello, Sofia Reddel, Danila Capoccia, Romina Caccamo, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Valerio Nobili, Francesco De Peppo, Bruno Dallapiccola, Frida Leonetti, Gianfranco Silecchia, Lorenza Putignani
Obesity levels, especially in children, have dramatically increased over the last few decades. Recently, several studies highlighted the involvement of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in obese adolescents and adults compared to age-matched normal weight (NW) volunteers in order to assemble age- and obesity-related microbiota profiles. The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA-based metagenomics. Ecological representations of microbial communities were computed, and univariate, multivariate, and correlation analyses performed on bacterial profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910467/gut-microbiota-modulate-neurobehavior-through-changes-in-brain-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#7
Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906245/the-gut-microbiota-metabolite-indole-alleviates-liver-inflammation-in-mice
#8
Martin Beaumont, Audrey M Neyrinck, Marta Olivares, Julie Rodriguez, Audrey de Rocca Serra, Martin Roumain, Laure B Bindels, Patrice D Cani, Pieter Evenepoel, Giulio G Muccioli, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin, Nathalie M Delzenne
The gut microbiota regulates key hepatic functions, notably through the production of bacterial metabolites that are transported via the portal circulation. We evaluated the effects of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota from aromatic amino acids (phenylacetate, benzoate, p-cresol, and indole) on liver inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin. Precision-cut liver slices prepared from control mice, Kupffer cell (KC)-depleted mice, and obese mice ( ob/ ob) were treated with or without LPS and bacterial metabolites...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899272/high-glucose-or-fructose-diet-cause-changes-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-without-body-weight-change
#9
Moon Ho Do, Eunjung Lee, Mi-Jin Oh, Yoonsook Kim, Ho-Young Park
High fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota have been linked to intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia, which is related to metabolic disorders. However, the influence of a high-glucose (HGD) or high-fructose (HFrD) diet on gut microbiota is largely unknown. We performed changes of gut microbiota in HGD- or HFrD-fed C57BL/6J mice by 16S rRNA analysis. Gut microbiota-derived endotoxin-induced metabolic disorders were evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance test, gut permeability, Western blot and histological analysis...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899081/major-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-severe-obesity-fate-after-bariatric-surgery
#10
Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Edi Prifti, Eugeni Belda, Farid Ichou, Brandon D Kayser, Maria Carlota Dao, Eric O Verger, Lyamine Hedjazil, Jean-Luc Bouillot, Jean-Marc Chevallier, Nicolas Pons, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Florence Levenez, Stanislav Dusko Ehrlich, Joel Dore, Jean-Daniel Zucker, Karine Clément
OBJECTIVES: Decreased gut microbial gene richness (MGR) and compositional changes are associated with adverse metabolism in overweight or moderate obesity, but lack characterisation in severe obesity. Bariatric surgery (BS) improves metabolism and inflammation in severe obesity and is associated with gut microbiota modifications. Here, we characterised severe obesity-associated dysbiosis (ie, MGR, microbiota composition and functional characteristics) and assessed whether BS would rescue these changes...
June 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897462/gut-microbiota-and-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-influence-of-sex-sex-hormones-and-obesity
#11
María Insenser, Mora Murri, Rosa Del Campo, M Ángeles Martínez-García, Elena Fernández-Durán, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
Context: Gut microbiota plays a major role in health and disease in by influencing physiology and metabolism, nutrition and immune function. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the composition of gut microbiota in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), focusing on the influence of sex, sex hormones and obesity on the associations found. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Academic hospital. Participants: We recruited 16 non-hyperandrogenic control women, 15 women with PCOS, and 15 control men...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896158/prebiotics-supplementation-impact-on-the-reinforcing-and-motivational-aspect-of-feeding
#12
Anne-Sophie Delbès, Julien Castel, Raphaël G P Denis, Chloé Morel, Mar Quiñones, Amandine Everard, Patrice D Cani, Florence Massiera, Serge H Luquet
Energy homeostasis is tightly regulated by the central nervous system which responds to nervous and circulating inputs to adapt food intake and energy expenditure. However, the rewarding and motivational aspect of food is tightly dependent of dopamine (DA) release in mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system and could be operant in uncontrolled caloric intake and obesity. Accumulating evidence indicate that manipulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis through prebiotic supplementation can have beneficial impact of the host appetite and body weight...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882708/obesity-treatment-by-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-regulated-bile-acid-signaling-and-its-enriched-akkermansia-muciniphila
#13
Lili Sheng, Prasant Kumar Jena, Hui-Xin Liu, Ying Hu, Nidhi Nagar, Denise N Bronner, Matthew L Settles, Andreas J Bäumler, Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan
Dysregulated bile acid (BA) synthesis is accompanied by dysbiosis, leading to compromised metabolism. This study analyzes the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on diet-induced obesity through regulation of BA signaling and gut microbiota. The data revealed that EGCG effectively reduced diet-increased obesity, visceral fat, and insulin resistance. Gene profiling data showed that EGCG had a significant impact on regulating genes implicated in fatty acid uptake, adipogenesis, and metabolism in the adipose tissue...
June 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873429/microbiome-in-normal-and-pathological-pregnancies-a-literature-overview
#14
Carla R Taddei, Ramon V Cortez, Rosiane Mattar, Maria Regina Torloni, Silvia Daher
This review summarizes recent findings on the changes that occur during pregnancy in the composition of the vaginal and gut microbiome and their association with metabolic, hormonal, and immunological factors. Despite many studies on the topic, the vaginal and gut microbial profiles and their influence on the course of pregnancy are still unclear. We present data suggesting that, contrary to traditional understanding, the placenta is not sterile but has a microbial community. We review and discuss new findings on changes in the richness and diversity of the microbiota of pregnant women with term or preterm births, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872744/effects-of-the-gut-microbiota-on-amygdalin-and-its-use-as-an-anti-cancer-therapy-substantial-review-on-the-key-components-involved-in-altering-dose-efficacy-and-toxicity
#15
REVIEW
Vani Jaswal, Jeyanthi Palanivelu, Ramalingam C
Conventional and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is popularly used due to side-effects and failure of approved methods, for diseases like Epilepsy and Cancer. Amygdalin, a cyanogenic diglycoside is commonly administered for cancer with other CAM therapies like vitamins and seeds of fruits like apricots and bitter almonds, due to its ability to hydrolyse to hydrogen cyanide (HCN), benzaldehyde and glucose. Over the years, several cases of cyanide toxicity on ingestion have been documented. In-vitro and in-vivo studies using various doses and modes of administration, like IV administration studies that showed no HCN formation, point to the role played by the gut microbiota for the commonly seen poisoning on consumption...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870676/fecal-transplant-from-resveratrol-fed-donors-improves-glycaemia-and-cardiovascular-features-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#16
Ty T Kim, Nirmal Parajuli, Miranda M Sung, Suresh C Bairwa, Jody Levasseur, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, David S Wishart, Karen Madsen, Jonathan D Schertzer, Jason R B Dyck
Oral administration of resveratrol attenuates several symptoms associated with the metabolic syndrome such as impaired glucose homeostasis and hypertension. Recent work has shown that resveratrol can improve glucose homeostasis in obesity via changes in the gut microbiota. Studies involving fecal microbiome transplants (FMTs) suggest that either live gut microbiota or bacterial-derived metabolites from resveratrol ingestion are responsible for producing the observed benefits in recipients. Herein, we show that obese mice receiving FMTs from healthy resveratrol-fed mice have improved glucose homeostasis within 11 days of the first transplant, and that resveratrol-FMTs is more efficacious than oral supplementation of resveratrol for the same duration...
June 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868719/association-of-exposure-to-formula-in-the-hospital-and-subsequent-infant-feeding-practices-with-gut-microbiota-and-risk-of-overweight-in-the-first-year-of-life
#17
Jessica D Forbes, Meghan B Azad, Lorena Vehling, Hein M Tun, Theodore B Konya, David S Guttman, Catherine J Field, Diana Lefebvre, Malcolm R Sears, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Theo J Moraes, Padmaja Subbarao, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
Importance: The effect of neonatal and infant feeding practices on childhood obesity is unclear. The gut microbiome is strongly influenced by feeding practices and has been linked to obesity. Objective: To characterize the association between breastfeeding, microbiota, and risk of overweight during infancy, accounting for the type and timing of supplementary feeding. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this study of a subset of 1087 infants from the prospective CHILD pregnancy cohort, mothers were recruited between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012...
June 4, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867803/shifts-on-gut-microbiota-associated-to-mediterranean-diet-adherence-and-specific-dietary-intakes-on-general-adult-population
#18
Izaskun Garcia-Mantrana, Marta Selma-Royo, Cristina Alcantara, María C Collado
There is increasing evidence for the interaction between gut microbiome, diet, and health. It is known that dysbiosis is related to disease and that most of the times this imbalances in gut microbial populations can be promoted through diet. Western dietary habits, which are characterized by high intakes of calories, animal proteins, saturated fats, and simple sugars have been linked with higher risk of obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the impact of dietary patterns, dietary components, and nutrients on gut microbiota in healthy people...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867765/a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-lowers-weight-by-modulating-the-structure-of-gut-microbiota
#19
Li Zhao, Yi Chen, Fangzhen Xia, Buatikamu Abudukerimu, Wen Zhang, Yuyu Guo, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
In addition to improving glucose metabolism, liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, has weight-loss effects. The underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. This study was performed to explore whether liraglutide could lower weight by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota in simple obese and diabetic obese rats. In our study, Wistar and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were randomly treated with liraglutide or normal saline for 12 weeks. The biochemical parameters and metabolic hormones were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864068/influence-of-probiotics-administration-on-gut-microbiota-core-a-review-on-the-effects-on-appetite-control-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#20
Silvia Falcinelli, Ana Rodiles, Azadeh Hatef, Simona Picchietti, Lina Cossignani, Daniel L Merrifield, Suraj Unniappan, Oliana Carnevali
An increasing number of studies has shown that dietary probiotics exert beneficial health effects in both humans and animals. It is well established that gut microbiota play a pivotal role in regulating host metabolism, and a growing number of studies has elucidated that probiotics positively interfere with gut microbiota. Accumulating evidence shows that probiotics, through their metabolic activity, produce metabolites that in turn contribute to positively affect host physiology. For these reasons, probiotics have shown significant potential as a therapeutic tool for a diversity of diseases, but the mechanisms through which probiotics act has not been fully elucidated yet...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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