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gut microbiota obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221120/gut-microbial-profile-analysis-by-miseq-sequencing-of-pancreatic-carcinoma-patients-in-china
#1
Zhigang Ren, Jianwen Jiang, Haiyang Xie, Ang Li, Haifeng Lu, Shaoyan Xu, Lin Zhou, Hua Zhang, Guangying Cui, Xinhua Chen, Yuanxing Liu, Liming Wu, Nan Qin, Ranran Sun, Wei Wang, Lanjuan Li, Weilin Wang, Shusen Zheng
Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is a lethal cancer. Gut microbiota is associated with some risk factors of PC, e.g. obesity and types II diabetes. However, the specific gut microbial profile in clinical PC in China has never been reported. This prospective study collected 85 PC and 57 matched healthy controls (HC) to analyze microbial characteristics by MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that gut microbial diversity was decreased in PC with an unique microbial profile, which partly attributed to its decrease of alpha diversity...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220800/exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-overweight-and-obese-adolescents
#2
Tanya L Alderete, Roshonda B Jones, Zhanghua Chen, Jeniffer S Kim, Rima Habre, Frederick Lurmann, Frank D Gilliland, Michael I Goran
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic dysfunction in humans. Animal studies suggest that air pollutants may alter the composition of the gut microbiota, which may negatively impact metabolic health through changes in the composition and/or function of the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine whether elevated TRAP exposure was correlated with gut bacterial taxa in overweight and obese adolescents from the Meta-AIR (Metabolic and Asthma Incidence Research) study...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214176/human-gut-microbiota-associated-with-obesity-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents
#3
Ya-Ping Hou, Qing-Qing He, Hai-Mei Ouyang, Hai-Shan Peng, Qun Wang, Jie Li, Xiao-Fei Lv, Yi-Nan Zheng, Shao-Chuan Li, Hai-Liang Liu, Ai-Hua Yin
Objective: To investigate the gut microbiota differences of obese children compared with the control healthy cohort to result in further understanding of the mechanism of obesity development. Methods: We evaluated the 16S rRNA gene, the enterotypes, and quantity of the gut microbiota among obese children and the control cohort and learned the differences of the gut microbiota during the process of weight reduction in obese children. Results: In the present study, we learned that the gut microbiota composition was significantly different between obese children and the healthy cohort...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#4
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212824/targeted-microbiome-intervention-by-microencapsulated-delayed-release-niacin-beneficially-affects-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#5
Daniela Fangmann, Eva-Maria Theismann, Kathrin Türk, Dominik M Schulte, Isabelle Relling, Katharina Hartmann, Julia K Keppler, Jörg-Rainer Knipp, Ateequr Rehman, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Lennart Lenk, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Esther Appel, Stanislav Gorb, Charles Brenner, Dirk Seegert, Georg H Waetzig, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber, Karin Schwarz, Matthias Laudes
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota represent a potential novel target for future prediabetes and type 2 diabetes therapies. In that respect, niacin has been shown to beneficially affect the host-microbiome interaction in rodent models. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We characterized more than 500 human subjects with different metabolic phenotypes regarding their niacin (nicotinic acid [NA] and nicotinamide [NAM]) status and their gut microbiome. In addition, NA and NAM delayed-release microcapsules were engineered and examined in vitro and in vivo in two human intervention studies (bioavailability study and proof-of-concept/safety study)...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209439/comparative-study-of-probiotic-effects-of-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacteria-strains-on-cholesterol-levels-liver-morphology-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-obese-mice
#6
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Lidiia P Babenko, Liudmyla M Lazarenko, Viktoria V Mokrozub, Oleksandr A Demchenko, Oleksiy V Nechypurenko, Mykola Ya Spivak
Background: Microbiome-modulating interventions are promising for treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The number of probiotic strains demonstrated ability to decrease cholesterol level in vivo, however, it was poorly confirmed in a clinical setting. The aim was to study the effects of L. acidophilus IMV B-7279, L. casei IMV B-7280, B. animalіs VKL and B. animalіs VKB separately and in various compositions on the level of serum cholesterol, gut microbiota contents and liver morphology on a high-calorie-induced obesity model in BALB/c mice...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208770/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-effects-of-maternal-obesity-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-metabolism
#7
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao
Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Specifically, obesity during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disorders in addition to the adverse effects on the mother per se. Large numbers of human and animal studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in obesity and metabolic diseases. Similarly, maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the composition and diversity of the intestine microbial community. Recently, the microbiota in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium in healthy gestations has been investigated, and the results supported the "in utero colonization hypothesis" and challenged the traditional "sterile womb" that has been acknowledged worldwide for more than a century...
December 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205651/gut-microbiota-in-early-life-and-its-influence-on-health-and-disease-a-position-paper-by-the-malaysian-working-group-on-gastrointestinal-health
#8
Yeong Yeh Lee, Siti Asma Hassan, Intan Hakimah Ismail, Sze Yee Chong, Raja Affendi Raja Ali, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Way Seah Lee, Noorizan Abdul Majid
The role of gut microbiota in early life and its impact on gut health and subsequent diseases remain unclear. There is a lack of research and awareness in this area, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, including Malaysia. This paper reports the position of a Malaysian Working Group on some key issues surrounding gut microbiota in early life and its role in gut health and diseases, as well as experts' stand on probiotics and prebiotics. The group reached a consensus that certain factors, including elective caesarean; premature deliveries; complementary feeding; use of antibiotics, prebiotics and/or probiotics; and exposure to the external environmental, have an impact on gut microbiota in early life...
December 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204137/microbial-mechanistic-insight-into-the-role-of-inulin-in-improving-maternal-health-in-a-pregnant-sow-model
#9
Pan Zhou, Yang Zhao, Pan Zhang, Yan Li, Taotao Gui, Jun Wang, Chao Jin, Lianqiang Che, Jian Li, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
General consumption of "western diet" characterized by high refined carbohydrates, fat and energy intake has resulted in a global obesity epidemics and related metabolic disturbance even for pregnant women. Pregnancy process is accompanied by substantial hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes during which gut microbiota is also remarkably remodeled. Dietary fiber has been demonstrated to have a striking role in shifting the microbial composition so as to improve host metabolism and health in non-pregnant individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202841/the-response-of-canine-faecal-microbiota-to-increased-dietary-protein-is-influenced-by-body-condition
#10
Jia Xu, Adronie Verbrugghe, Marta Lourenço, An Cools, Daisy J X Liu, Tom Van de Wiele, Massimo Marzorati, Venessa Eeckhaut, Filip Van Immerseel, Lynn Vanhaecke, Miguel Campos, Myriam Hesta
BACKGROUND: High protein diets shift the faecal microbiota into a more unfavourable composition in obese humans. In lean dogs, higher protein consumption is accompanied with increased production of putrefactive fermentation products, whereas obese dogs have a different gut microbiota compared to lean dogs. Still, the impact of high dietary protein on gut microbiota in obese dogs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate faecal microbial changes in lean and obese dogs in response to two different levels of dietary protein...
December 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202334/berberine-treatment-increases-akkermansia-in-the-gut-and-improves-high-fat-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#11
Lin Zhu, Danying Zhang, Hong Zhu, Jimin Zhu, Shuqiang Weng, Ling Dong, Taotao Liu, Yu Hu, Xizhong Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gut microbiota plays a major role in metabolic disorders. Berberine is used to treat obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. The mechanism underlying the role of berberine in modulating metabolic disorders is not fully clear because berberine has poor oral bioavailability. Thus, we evaluated whether the antiatherosclerotic effect of berberine is related to alterations in gut microbial structure and if so, whether specific bacterial taxa contribute to the beneficial effects of berberine...
November 24, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202273/effects-of-barley-variety-dietary-fiber-and-%C3%AE-glucan-content-on-bile-acid-composition-in-cecum-of-rats-fed-low-and-high-fat-diets
#12
Tannaz Ghaffarzadegan, Yadong Zhong, Frida Fåk Hållenius, Margareta Nyman
Diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance have been linked to changes in bile acid (BA) profiles, which in turn are highly dependent on the dietary composition and activity of the gut microbiota. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the type and level of fiber had an effect on cecal BA composition when included in low- and high-fat diets. Groups of rats were fed two barley varieties, which resulted in three test diets containing three levels of β-glucans and two levels of dietary fiber...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198451/development-of-the-microbiota-in-infants-and-its-role-in-maturation-of-the-gut-mucosa-and-the-immune-system
#13
Cecilia Ximenez, Javier Torres
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with increasing numbers of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergy, cancer and even neurologic or behavioral disorders. The other side of the coin is that a healthy microbiota leads to a healthy human development, to a mature and well trained immune system and to an efficient metabolic machinery. What we have learned in adults is in the end the result of a good start, a programmed, healthy development of the microbiota that must occur in the early years of life, probably even starting during the fetal stage...
November 30, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197615/interplay-between-the-lung-microbiome-and-lung-cancer
#14
Qixing Mao, Feng Jiang, Rong Yin, Jie Wang, Wenjie Xia, Gaochao Dong, Weidong Ma, Yao Yang, Lin Xu, Jianzhong Hu
The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer...
November 29, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196878/gut-microbiome-production-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-obesity-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Selvasankar Murugesan, Khemlal Nirmalkar, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo, Matilde García-Espitia, Daniela Ramírez-Sánchez, Jaime García-Mena
Obesity has been a worldwide multifactorial epidemic malady for the last 2 decades. Changes in gut microbiota composition and its metabolites - short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) - have been associated with obesity. Recent evidence suggests that SCFAs made by the gut microbiota may regulate directly or indirectly physiological and pathological processes in relation to obesity. We review the influence of gut microbiota in energy, glucose, and lipid homeostasis control via their metabolites. Gut microbial disturbances in obese children may have a role in their metabolism...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195686/role-of-bile-acids-in-metabolic-control
#16
REVIEW
Antonio Molinaro, Annika Wahlström, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
Bile acids are endocrine molecules that in addition to facilitating the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients regulate numerous metabolic processes, including glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. The signaling actions of bile acids are mediated through specific bile-acid-activated nuclear and membrane-bound receptors. These receptors are not only expressed by tissues within the enterohepatic circulation such as the liver and the intestine, but also in other organs where bile acids mediate their systemic actions...
November 28, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193674/potential-impact-of-metabolic-and-gut-microbial-response-to-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-lean-and-diet-induced-obese-rats-on-offspring-obesity-risk
#17
Heather A Paul, Kelsey H Collins, Marc R Bomhof, Hans J Vogel, Raylene A Reimer
SCOPE: Maternal obesity programs metabolic dysfunction in offspring, increasing their susceptibility to obesity and metabolic disease in later life. Moreover, pregnancy and lactation are associated with many metabolic adaptations, yet it is unclear how diet-induced maternal obesity may interrupt these processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed 1 H NMR serum metabolomics analysis on samples collected pre-pregnancy and in pregnant and lactating lean and high fat/sucrose (HFS) diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats to identify maternal metabolic pathways associated with developmental programming of offspring obesity...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188819/colonic-bacteroides-are-positively-associated-with-trabecular-bone-structure-and-programmed-by-maternal-vitamin-d-in-male-but-not-female-offspring-in-an-obesogenic-environment
#18
C R Villa, A Taibi, J Chen, W E Ward, E M Comelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The gut microbiota is determined early in life, possibly including pregnancy. Pioneering data suggests vitamin D, a nutrient important for bone health, affects this microbiota. We found that high maternal vitamin D lowered circulating lipopolysaccharide, improved intestinal barrier and bone health in male but not female offspring in an obesogenic environment. This study determined if high maternal dietary vitamin D programs Bacteroides and Prevotella and whether this associates with bone mineral content, density and structure of male and female adult offspring fed an obesogenic diet...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188139/adipose-tissue-metabolism-and-cancer-progression-novel-insights-from-gut-microbiota
#19
REVIEW
Benedicte F Jordan, Florian Gourgue, Patrice D Cani
Purpose of Review: Obesity is strongly associated with the development of several types of cancers. This review aims to discuss the recent key mechanisms and actors underlying the link between adipose tissue metabolism and cancer, and the unequivocal common mechanisms connecting gut microbes to adipose tissue and eventually cancer development. Recent Findings: Complex interactions among systemic and tissue-specific pathways are suggested to link obesity and cancer, involving endocrine hormones, adipokines, fatty acids, inflammation, metabolic alterations, and hypoxia...
2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186529/protection-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-from-antibiotics
#20
Jean de Gunzburg, Amine Ghozlane, Annie Ducher, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Xavier Duval, Etienne Ruppé, Laurence Armand-Lefevre, Frédérique Sablier-Gallis, Charles Burdet, Loubna Alavoine, Elisabeth Chachaty, Violaine Augustin, Marina Varastet, Florence Levenez, Sean Kennedy, Nicolas Pons, France Mentré, Antoine Andremont
Background: Antibiotics are life-saving drugs but severely affect the gut microbiome with short term consequences including diarrhoea and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Long-term links to allergy and obesity are also suggested. We devised a product, DAV132, and previously showed its ability to deliver a powerful adsorbent, activated charcoal, in the late ileum of human volunteers. Methods: We performed a randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02176005) in 28 human volunteers treated with a 5-day clinical regimen of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic moxifloxacin in two parallel groups, with or without DAV132 co-administration...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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