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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317481/gut-microbiota-a-new-marker-of-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Antonio Garcia-Rios, Jose David Torres-Peña, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Pablo Perez-Martinez
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the major cause of death in the developed countries. Moreover, the cardiovascular risk factors leading towards the development of CVD, mainly type 2 diabetes and obesity, are on the rise. The current preventive and therapeutic management, centred on the control of traditional risk factors, is clearly not enough to stop this pandemic. Therefore, the search for new biomarkers in CVD is a priority in most clinical research programs. Currently, interest in gut microbiota has peaked due to its association with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316379/high-fat-diet-alters-gut-microbiota-and-the-expression-of-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptides-preceding-changes-of-circulating-inflammatory-cytokines
#2
Xiulan Guo, Jinchao Li, Renyong Tang, Guodong Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Richard J Wood, Zhenhua Liu
Obesity is an established risk factor for many diseases including intestinal cancer. One of the responsible mechanisms is the chronic inflammation driven by obesity. However, it remains to be defined whether diet-induced obesity exacerbates the intestinal inflammatory status by cytokines produced in adipose tissue or the high fat diet first alters the gut microbiota and then drives intestinal inflammation. To address this question, we fed C57BL/6 mice with a high fat diet (HF, 60%) and sacrificed them sequentially after 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and then compositions of gut microbiota and expressions of antimicrobial peptides were determined...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316052/the-gut-microbiome-energy-homeostasis-and-implications-for-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Ruth A Riedl, Samantha N Atkinson, Colin M L Burnett, Justin L Grobe, John R Kirby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The influence of gut bacteria upon host physiology is increasingly recognized, but mechanistic links are lacking. Diseases of energetic imbalance such as obesity and diabetes represent major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Thus, here, we review current mechanistic contributions of the gut microbiota to host energetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut bacteria generate a multitude of small molecules which can signal to host tissues within and beyond the gastrointestinal tract to influence host physiology, and gut bacteria can also influence host digestive efficiency by altering the bioavailability of polysaccharides, yet the quantitative energetic effects of these processes remain unclear...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#4
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302863/transfer-of-dysbiotic-gut-microbiota-has-beneficial-effects-on-host-liver-metabolism
#5
Simon Nicolas, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Audren Fournel, Jerome Gilleron, Pascale Klopp, Aurelie Waget, Franck Ceppo, Alysson Marlin, Roshan Padmanabhan, Jason S Iacovoni, François Tercé, Patrice D Cani, Jean-François Tanti, Remy Burcelin, Claude Knauf, Mireille Cormont, Matteo Serino
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been implicated in a variety of systemic disorders, notably metabolic diseases including obesity and impaired liver function, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. To investigate this question, we transferred caecal microbiota from either obese or lean mice to antibiotic-free, conventional wild-type mice. We found that transferring obese-mouse gut microbiota to mice on normal chow (NC) acutely reduces markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis with decreased hepatic PEPCK activity, compared to non-inoculated mice, a phenotypic trait blunted in conventional NOD2 KO mice...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302214/-research-advances-in-association-between-childhood-obesity-and-gut-microbiota
#6
Xiao-Lin Gao, Chao-Min Wan
In recent years, more and more studies have noted the close association between gut microbiota and the development and progression of obesity. Gut microbiota may act on obesity by increasing energy intake, affecting the secretion of intestinal hormones, inducing chronic systemic inflammation, and producing insulin resistance. This article reviews the association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota, as well as possible mechanisms, in an attempt to provide a reference for the etiology, prevention and treatment of childhood obesity...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300220/effects-of-gliadin-consumption-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#7
Li Zhang, Daniel Andersen, Henrik Munch Roager, Martin Iain Bahl, Camilla Hartmann Friis Hansen, Niels Banhos Danneskiold-Samsøe, Karsten Kristiansen, Ilinca Daria Radulescu, Christian Sina, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Susanne Brix, Lars I Hellgren, Tine Rask Licht
Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut compartments, gut barrier function, gene expression, urinary metabolites and immune profiles in intestinal, lymphoid, liver and adipose tissues was performed...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293234/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-associated-with-clinical-parameters-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
Rui Liu, Chenhong Zhang, Yu Shi, Feng Zhang, Linxia Li, Xuejiao Wang, Yunxia Ling, Huaqing Fu, Weiping Dong, Jian Shen, Andrew Reeves, Andrew S Greenberg, Liping Zhao, Yongde Peng, Xiaoying Ding
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. Gut microbiota has been implicated to play a critical role in metabolic diseases and may modulate the secretion of mediators of the brain-gut axis. Interaction between gut microbiota and the endocrine and biochemical disturbances in PCOS still remains elusive. Here, we showed an altered gut microbiota significantly correlated with PCOS phenotype. There were 33 patients with PCOS (non-obese PCOS individuals, PN, n = 12; obese PCOS individuals, PO, n = 21) as well as 15 control subjects (non-obese control individuals, CN, n = 9; obese control individuals, CO, n = 6) enrolled in our study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292401/what-bariatric-surgery-can%C3%A2-teach-us-about-endoluminal-treatment-of-obesity%C3%A2-and-metabolic-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Lee M Kaplan
Bariatric surgical procedures, including gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion, are the most effective and durable treatments for obesity. In addition, These operations induce metabolic changes that provide weight-independent improvement in type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. Initially thought to work by mechanical restriction of food intake or malabsorption of ingested nutrients, these procedures are now known to work through complex changes in neuroendocrine and immune signals emanating from the gut, including peptide hormones, bile acids, vagal nerve activity, and metabolites generated by the gut microbiota, all collaborating to reregulate appetite, food preference, and energy expenditure...
April 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290302/the-modulatory-effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-o-3-o-methyl-gallate-egcg3%C3%A2-me-on-intestinal-microbiota-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mice-model
#10
Mei Cheng, Xin Zhang, Yingjie Miao, Jinxuan Cao, Zufang Wu, Peifang Weng
(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3″Me) has exhibited multiple beneficial effects on the prevention of obesity in oolong tea. However, its absorption is relatively low, and the potential to be fully utilized is not completely elucidated. Therefore, with human flora-associated (HFA) mice model, the effect of EGCG3″Me on high fat diet-induced obesity was investigated by high-throughput sequencing. The shifts in relative abundance of the dominant taxa at the phylum, family and genus levels showed the dramatically effects of EGCG3″Me...
February 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290049/type-2-diabetes-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-factors-and-pathogenesis
#11
REVIEW
P Wainwright, E Scorletti, C D Byrne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to assess the epidemiological evidence for a link between type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma and to investigate possible pathophysiological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: The presence of type 2 diabetes significantly increases the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma, and treatment with metformin may be associated with a lower risk. Treatment with insulin and sulphonylureas may be associated with increased risk...
April 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286571/we-are-not-alone-a-case-for-the-human-microbiome-in-extra-intestinal-diseases
#12
EDITORIAL
S Shivaji
BACKGROUND: "Dysbiosis" in the gut microbiome has been implicated in auto-immune diseases, in inflammatory diseases, in some cancers and mental disorders. The challenge is to unravel the cellular and molecular basis of dysbiosis so as to understand the disease manifestation. MAIN BODY: Next generation sequencing and genome enabled technologies have led to the establishment of the composition of gut microbiomes and established that "dysbiosis" is the cause of several diseases...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286339/gut-microbiome-diversity-and-high-fibre-intake-are-related-to-lower-long-term-weight-gain
#13
C Menni, M A Jackson, T Pallister, C J Steves, T D Spector, A M Valdes
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the microbes in the human gut play a role in obesity by influencing the human body's ability to extract and store calories. The aim of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between change in body weight over time and gut microbiome composition. METHODS: We analysed 16S rRNA gene sequence data derived from the faecal samples of 1632 healthy females from TwinsUK to investigate the association between gut microbiome measured cross-sectionally and longitudinal weight gain (adjusted for caloric intake and baseline BMI)...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282253/introduction-to-the-special-focus-issue-on-the-impact-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-and-future-opportunities-for-nutritional-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-to-improve-human-health
#14
Sharon M Donovan
Over the past decade, application of culture-independent, next generation DNA sequencing has dramatically enhanced our understanding of the composition of the gut microbiome and its association with human states of health and disease. Host genetics, age, and environmental factors such as where and who you live with, use of pre-, pro- and antibiotics, exercise and diet influence the short- and long-term composition of the microbiome. Dietary intake is a key determinant of microbiome composition and diversity and studies to date have linked long-term dietary patterns as well as short-term dietary interventions to the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280490/anti-obesity-effect-of-capsaicin-in-mice-fed-with-high-fat-diet-is-associated-with-an-increase-in-population-of-the-gut-bacterium-akkermansia-muciniphila
#15
Wei Shen, Mengyu Shen, Xia Zhao, Hongbin Zhu, Yuhui Yang, Shuguang Lu, Yinling Tan, Gang Li, Ming Li, Jing Wang, Fuquan Hu, Shuai Le
Capsaicin (CAP) reduces body weight mainly through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel. However, recent evidence indicates that the gut microbiota influences many physiological processes in host and might provoke obesity. This study determined whether the anti-obesity effect of CAP is related to the changes in gut microbiota. C57BL/6 mice were fed either with high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD with CAP (HFD-CAP) for 9 weeks. We observed a significantly reduced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance in HFD-CAP-fed mice compared with HFD-fed mice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279578/sleeve-gastrectomy-drives-persistent-shifts-in-the-gut-microbiome
#16
Cyrus Jahansouz, Christopher Staley, David A Bernlohr, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Sayeed Ikramuddin
BACKGROUND: Changes in the gut microbiome following bariatric surgery have been causally linked to metabolic benefits. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize and assess the stability of gut microbiome shifts following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). SETTING: University laboratories. METHODS: Diet-induced obese mice were randomized to SG or sham surgery. Mice were housed individually or cohoused such that one SG mouse was housed with one weight-matched, sham-operated mouse...
January 4, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279074/oxidized-derivatives-of-linoleic-acid-in-pediatric-metabolic-syndrome-is-their-pathogenic-role-modulated-by-the-genetic-background-and-the-gut-microbiota
#17
Domenico Trico, Anna Di Sessa, Sonia Caprio, Naga Chalasani, Wanqing Liu, Tiebing Liang, Joerg Graf, Raimund Herzog, Casey D Johnson, Giuseoppina Rosaria Umano, Ariel Feldstein, Nicola Santoro
AIMS: We tested whether oxidized metabolites of linoleic acid (OXLAM) are associated with pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a pro-atherogenic lipoprotein profile in 122 obese adolescents. Furthermore, we examined whether genetic and metagenomic factors can modulate plasma OXLAM concentrations by genotyping the Fatty Acid Desaturase 1/2 (FADS) gene and by characterizing the gut microbiota. RESULTS: Subjects with MetS (n=50) showed higher concentrations of 9- and 13-oxooctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-oxo-ODE) than subjects without MetS (n=72)...
March 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276612/a-gut-reaction-the-combined-influence-of-exercise-and-diet-on-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-rats
#18
Romeo Batacan, Andrew Fenning, Vincent J Dalbo, Aaron T Scanlan, Mitch J Duncan, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high intensity interval training, light intensity training, sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266265/effects-of-dietary-iron-modulation-on-gut-microbial-composition-and-function-in-monogastrics-a-review
#19
Guixin Qin, Rui Han, Bao Zhao, Hailong Jiang, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk, Chun Zhang, Dongsheng Che
Dietary iron is a crucial nutrient element for biological processes of both hosts and gut microbiota. Deficiency in dietary iron is a highly common disorder in the developing locations of the world and can be healed by oral iron administration or complementary iron diet. While the redundant iron that enters the gut lumen leads to negative effects, and modulates the gut microbial composition and function. Such modulation led to a significant effect on vital biological pathways of the host, including metabolic disease (obesity and type 2 diabetes), metabolites (SCFA, blood glucose and cholesterol), bile acid metabolism, endocrine, neural, and other well-being patterns...
March 5, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265960/impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-metabolic-and-gut-microbiota-profile-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Dimitrios E Magouliotis, Vasiliki S Tasiopoulou, Eleni Sioka, Christina Chatedaki, Dimitrios Zacharoulis
We aim to review the available literature on obese patients treated with bariatric procedures, in order to assess their effect on the metabolic and gut microbiota profiles. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-two studies (562 patients) met the inclusion criteria. This study points to significant amelioration of postoperative levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HOMA-IR, food intake, and diabetes remission...
March 6, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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