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gut microbiota obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674211/pcbs-high-fat-diet-interactions-as-mediators-of-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-abdominal-fat-accumulation-in-female-mice
#1
Yulang Chi, Yi Lin, Huimin Zhu, Qiansheng Huang, Guozhu Ye, Sijun Dong
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one type of lipophilic pollutant, are ubiquitous in daily life. PCBs exposure has been implicated in the alterations of gut microbial community which is profoundly associated with diverse metabolic disorders, including obesity. High-fat diet (H) is a dietary pattern characterized by a high percentage of fat. According to the theory that similarities can be easily solvable in each other, PCBs and H exposures are inevitably and objectively coexistent in a real living environment, prompting great concerns about their individual and combined effects on hosts...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670255/a-combination-of-lactobacillus-mali-aps1-and-dieting-improved-the-efficacy-of-obesity-treatment-via-manipulating-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#3
Yung-Tsung Chen, Ning-Sun Yang, Yu-Chun Lin, Shang-Tse Ho, Kuan-Yi Li, Jin-Seng Lin, Je-Ruei Liu, Ming-Ju Chen
The difficulty of long-term management has produced a high rate of failure for obesity patients. Therefore, improving the efficacy of current obesity treatment is a significant goal. We hypothesized that combining a probiotic Lactobacillus mali APS1 intervention with dieting could improve the efficacy of obesity and hepatic steatosis treatment compared to dieting alone. Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then treated with: saline + normal diet and APS1 + normal diet (NDAPS1) for 3 weeks. NDAPS1 accelerated body weight loss and reduced caloric intake and fat accumulation...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667480/the-human-gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-perspective-in-obesity
#4
Aline Corado Gomes, Christian Hoffmann, João Felipe Mota
The gut microbiota has been recognized as an important factor in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and is considered an endocrine organ involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and host immunity. Dysbiosis can change the functioning of the intestinal barrier and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) by allowing the passage of structural components of bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which activate inflammatory pathways that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665619/the-endotoxemia-marker-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-is-reduced-in-overweight-obese-subjects-consuming-pomegranate-extract-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Antonio González-Sarrías, María Romo-Vaquero, Rocío García-Villalba, Adrián Cortés-Martín, María Victoria Selma, Juan Carlos Espín
SCOPE: Gut microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier failure, obesity, metabolic endotoxemia and pro-inflammatory status promote cardiovascular risk. However, the modulation of the gut microbiome to prevent endotoxemia in obesity has been scarcely studied. We investigated the association between gut microbiota modulation and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a surrogate marker of endotoxemia, in overweight-obese individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a randomized trial, 49 overweight-obese subjects (BMI>27 kg/m2 ) with mild hypelipidemia daily consumed, in a cross-over fashion, two doses (D1 and D2, lasting 3 weeks each) of pomegranate extract (PE) or placebo alternating with 3 weeks of wash-out periods...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661926/disruptions-in-gut-microbial-host-co-metabolism-and-the-development-of-metabolic-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
The microbial-mammalian metabolic axis has become recognized as an important component governing the overall homeostatic balance of the mammalian host. Disruption of the state of homeostasis among the gut microbiota has been shown to be causally linked to the development of host metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This disruption is often referred to as gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis leads to altered metabolic products derived from the microbiota and these in turn, typically shift the homeostatic metabolic balance of the host towards a low-grade chronic inflammation, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659960/obese-mice-losing-weight-due-to-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-or-food-restriction-harbor-distinct-gut-microbiota
#7
Laura J den Hartigh, Zhan Gao, Leela Goodspeed, Shari Wang, Arun K Das, Charles F Burant, Alan Chait, Martin J Blaser
Background: trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) is a dietary supplement that promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation and energy expenditure. We previously reported that in the absence of t10,c12-CLA, mice forced to lose equivalent body weight by food restriction (FR) do not exhibit increases in fat oxidation or energy expenditure but have improved glucose metabolism, consistent with FR as a metabolically healthy weight-loss method. Objective: Because diet is a primary determinant of gut bacterial populations, we hypothesized that the disparate metabolic effects accompanying weight loss from t10,c12-CLA or FR could be related to altered intestinal microbiota...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655462/obesity-thrombotic-risk-and-inflammation-in-cancer
#8
Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E García-Luna, María G Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A Reyes, Arnulfo H Nava-Zavala
Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653264/helminth-infection-in-mice-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#9
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649441/small-intestine-microbiota-regulate-host-digestive-and-absorptive-adaptive-responses-to-dietary-lipids
#10
Kristina Martinez-Guryn, Nathaniel Hubert, Katya Frazier, Saskia Urlass, Mark W Musch, Patricia Ojeda, Joseph F Pierre, Jun Miyoshi, Timothy J Sontag, Candace M Cham, Catherine A Reardon, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota play important roles in lipid metabolism and absorption. However, the contribution of the small bowel microbiota of mammals to these diet-microbe interactions remains unclear. We determine that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and malabsorb fat with specifically impaired lipid digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Small bowel microbes are essential for host adaptation to dietary lipid changes by regulating gut epithelial processes involved in their digestion and absorption...
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#11
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626219/smoking-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#12
REVIEW
Ziv Savin, Shaye Kivity, Hagith Yonath, Shoenfeld Yehuda
Studies are emerging alluding to the role of intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of diseases. Intestinal microbiome is susceptible to the influence of environmental factors such as smoking, and recent studies have indicated microbiome alterations in smokers. The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the impact of smoking on the intestinal microbiome. A literature review of publications in PUBMED was performed using combinations of the terms "Intestinal/Gut/Gastrointestinal/Colonic" with "Microbiome/Microbiota/Microbial/Flora" and "Smoking/Smoker/Tobacco"...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623708/-gut-microbiota-its-development-and-relation-to-certain-diseases
#13
Hana Kiňová Sepová, Boris Dudík, Andrea Bilková
Coexistence of humans with microorganisms is well known for a long time. Besides the association with infectious diseases, personal microbiota is important for human health, possibly for some non-infectious diseases. Colonization of the human body with appropriate microorganisms after delivery is essential for physiological immune system maturation and also has an influence on central nervous system development. The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by the mode of delivery, early life nutrition and last but not least by lifestyle and drug, especially antibiotics intake...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620942/food-withdrawal-alters-the-gut-microbiota-and-metabolome-in-mice
#14
Xiaojiao Zheng, Kejun Zhou, Yunjing Zhang, Xiaolong Han, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Chun Qu, Kun Ge, Fengjie Huang, Brenda Hernandez, Herbert Yu, Jun Panee, Tianlu Chen, Weiping Jia, Wei Jia
Food withdrawal as a health-enhancing measure has beneficial effects on aging, disease prevention, and treatment. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involving gut microbial changes and metabolic consequences resulting from food withdrawal have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we subjected lean and obese mice to a dietary intervention that consisted of a 4-d complete food withdrawal and an 8-d 50% food withdrawal, and we studied changes in cecal microbiome and host serum metabolome. The abundance of potentially pathogenic Proteobacteria was decreased and Akkermansia muciniphila was elevated by food withdrawal in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
April 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615850/interplay-between-the-gut-brain-axis-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#15
REVIEW
Ana Agustí, Maria P García-Pardo, Inmaculada López-Almela, Isabel Campillo, Michael Maes, Marina Romaní-Pérez, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity continues to be one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence and co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities not only include cardiometabolic disorders but also mood and cognitive disorders. Obese subjects often show deficits in memory, learning and executive functions compared to normal weight subjects. Epidemiological studies also indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and vice versa . These associations between pathologies that presumably have different etiologies suggest shared pathological mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615808/long-term-western-diet-fed-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-rats-exhibit-only-modest-early-atherosclerotic-characteristics
#16
Ida Rune, Bidda Rolin, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Łukasz Krych, Jenny E Kanter, Karin E Bornfeldt, Pernille Kihl, Karsten Buschard, Knud Josefsen, Johannes Josef Fels, Alan Mortensen, Berit Christoffersen, Rikke Kaae Kirk, Axel Kornerup Hansen
In the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse, the gut microbiota has an impact on the development of atherosclerosis, but whether such correlations are also present in rats requires investigation. Therefore, we studied female SD-Apoetm1sage (Apoe-/- ) rats fed either a Western diet or a low-fat control diet with or without gluten, which is known to promote gut microbiota changes, until 20 weeks of age. We hypothesized that the manifestation of atherosclerosis would be more severe in Apoe-/- rats fed the Western high-fat diet, as compared with rats fed the low-fat diet, and that atherosclerosis would be accelerated by gluten...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596446/gut-microbiota-varies-by-opioid-use-circulating-leptin-and-oxytocin-in-african-american-men-with-diabetes-and-high-burden-of-chronic-disease
#17
Elena Barengolts, Stefan J Green, Yuval Eisenberg, Arfana Akbar, Bharathi Reddivari, Brian T Layden, Lara Dugas, George Chlipala
OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota is known to be related to type 2 diabetes (T2D), psychiatric conditions, and opioid use. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that variability in gut microbiota in T2D is associated with psycho-metabolic health. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among African American men (AAM) (n = 99) that were outpatients at a Chicago VA Medical Center. The main outcome measures included fecal microbiota ecology (by 16S rRNA gene sequencing), psychiatric disorders including opioid use, and circulating leptin and oxytocin as representative hormone biomarkers for obesity and psychological pro-social behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577618/flavan-3-ol-procyanidin-metabolomics-in-rat-urine-using-hplc-quadrupole-tof-ms
#18
Saeko Masumoto, Shiori Aoki, Tomisato Miura, Toshihiko Shoji
SCOPE: Several studies have demonstrated that flavan-3-ol/procyanidins are associated with biological functions in the prevention of various chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes. Knowledge of their mechanisms including bioavailability has significantly progressed in the last decade. However, the differences of the metabolic signatures among flavan-3-ol/procyanidins remain ambiguous. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the metabolites in urine over time after acute administration of three typical flavan-3-ol/procyanidins (epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and procyanidin dimer) in view of the chemical structure by HPLC-quadrupole TOF/MS...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563885/interplay-between-peripheral-and-central-inflammation-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-possible-nutritional-and-therapeutic-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Claudia Cristiano, Adriano Lama, Francesca Lembo, Maria P Mollica, Antonio Calignano, Giuseppina Mattace Raso
Pre- and post-natal factors can affect brain development and function, impacting health outcomes with particular relevance to neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Maternal obesity and its associated complications have been related to the increased risk of ASDs in offspring. Indeed, animals exposed to maternal obesity or high fat diets are prone to social communication impairment and repetitive behavior, the hallmarks of autism. During development, fatty acids and sugars, as well as satiety hormones, like insulin and leptin, and inflammatory factors related to obesity-induced low grade inflammation, could play a role in the impairment of neuroendocrine system and brain neuronal circuits regulating behavior in offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562949/the-developing-gut-microbiota-and-its-consequences-for-health
#20
M-J Butel, A-J Waligora-Dupriet, S Wydau-Dematteis
The developmental origin of health and disease highlights the importance of the period of the first 1000 days (from the conception to the 2 years of life). The process of the gut microbiota establishment is included in this time window. Various perinatal determinants, such as cesarean section delivery, type of feeding, antibiotics treatment, gestational age or environment, can affect the pattern of bacterial colonization and result in dysbiosis. The alteration of the early bacterial gut pattern can persist over several months and may have long-lasting functional effects with an impact on disease risk later in life...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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