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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214071/lipocalin-2-a-master-mediator-of-intestinal-and-metabolic-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Alexander R Moschen, Timon E Adolph, Romana R Gerner, Verena Wieser, Herbert Tilg
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is released by various cell types and is an attractive biomarker of inflammation, ischemia, infection, and kidney damage. Both intestinal and metabolic inflammation, as observed in obesity and related disorders, are associated with increased LCN2 synthesis. While LCN2 in the intestinal tract regulates the composition of the gut microbiota and shows anti-inflammatory activities, it also exhibits proinflammatory activities in other experimental settings...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214040/reinforcement-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-by-arabinoxylans-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial-arabinoxylans-in-gut-barrier
#2
Bouke N Salden, Freddy J Troost, Ellen Wilms, Pilar Truchado, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Dietmar H Pieper, Ruy Jáuregui, Massimo Marzorati, Tom van de Wiele, Sam Possemiers, Ad A Masclee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic diseases are associated with alterations in microbial composition and impaired gut barrier. Previous in vitro and animal studies have shown that arabinoxylans (AX) have the potential to modulate gut microbiota and gut barrier and therefore could have a protective role. Primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AX on intestinal permeability. Secondary aims included the effect of AX on gene transcription and protein expression of tight junctions (TJ), intestinal microbiota composition and activity, immune response and metabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213172/diet-induced-obesity-gut-microbiota-and-bone-including-alveolar-bone-loss
#3
REVIEW
Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Obesity is a major risk factor for several pathologies, including jaw bone resorption. The underlying mechanisms involved in pathological conditions resulting from obesity include chronic systemic inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have indicated the importance of the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity, only a few studies have established a relationship between obesity, gut microbiota and status of the jaw bone...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210913/dietary-and-commercialized-fructose-sweet-or-sour
#4
REVIEW
Aslihan Yerlikaya, Tuncay Dagel, Christopher King, Masanari Kubawara, Miguel A Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Adrian Covic, Jacek Manitius, Alan A Sag, Mehmet Kanbay
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are main health problems of modern life in the twenty-first century. Alarming ratios of global prevalence lead to conduct more and more researches about etiological factors and pathogenesis. Disease mechanism is elementary for advancing more efficient and practicable treatment methods. Concurrent increase in both fructose consumption with Western diet and metabolic syndrome has revealed fructose hypothesis that suggests fructose as one of etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, etc...
February 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202625/gut-microbiota-promotes-obesity-associated-liver-cancer-through-pge2-mediated-suppression-of-antitumor-immunity
#5
Tze Mun Loo, Fumitaka Kamachi, Yoshihiro Watanabe, Shin Yoshimoto, Hiroaki Kanda, Yuriko Arai, Yaeko Nakajima-Takagi, Atsushi Iwama, Tomoaki Koga, Yukihiko Sugimoto, Takayuki Ozawa, Masaru Nakamura, Miho Kumagai, Koichi Watashi, Makoto M Taketo, Tomohiro Aoki, Shuh Narumiya, Masanobu Oshima, Makoto Arita, Eiji Hara, Naoko Ohtani
Obesity increases the risk of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, the precise molecular mechanisms through which obesity promotes HCC development are still unclear. Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota may influence liver diseases by transferring its metabolites and components. Here, we show that the hepatic translocation of obesity-induced lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a Gram positive gut microbial component, promotes HCC development by creating a tumor-promoting microenvironment...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199741/melatonin-prevents-obesity-through-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#6
Pengfei Xu, Jialin Wang, Fan Hong, Sheng Wang, Xi Jin, Tingting Xue, Li Jia, Yonggong Zhai
Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197336/embracing-the-gut-microbiota-the-new-frontier-for-inflammatory-and-infectious-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Lieke Wj van den Elsen, Hazel C Poyntz, Laura S Weyrich, Wayne Young, Elizabeth E Forbes-Blom
The gut microbiota provides essential signals for the development and appropriate function of the immune system. Through this critical contribution to immune fitness, the gut microbiota has a key role in health and disease. Recent advances in the technological applications to study microbial communities and their functions have contributed to a rapid increase in host-microbiota research. Although it still remains difficult to define a so-called 'normal' or 'healthy' microbial composition, alterations in the gut microbiota have been shown to influence the susceptibility of the host to different diseases...
January 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196965/genomic-microdiversity-of-bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-underlying-differential-strain-level-responses-to-dietary-carbohydrate-intervention
#8
Guojun Wu, Chenhong Zhang, Huan Wu, Ruirui Wang, Jian Shen, Linghua Wang, Yufeng Zhao, Xiaoyan Pang, Xiaojun Zhang, Liping Zhao, Menghui Zhang
The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95) of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196086/nopal-feeding-reduces-adiposity-intestinal-inflammation-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiota-and-metabolism-in-high-fat-fed-rats
#9
Sofia Moran-Ramos, Xuan He, Elizabeth L Chin, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres, Carolyn M Slupsky, Helen E Raybould
Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192102/role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity-and-obesity-related-metabolic-dysfunction
#10
Kristien E Bouter, Daniël H van Raalte, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
The potential role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of various human diseases has attracted massive attention in the last decade. As such, the intestinal microbiota has been advanced as an important partaker in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, amongst others. Experiments in animal models have produced evidence for a causal role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of obesity and insulin resistance. However, with a few exceptions such causal relation is lacking for humans...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173692/insoluble-dietary-fiber-from-pear-pomace-can-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats-mainly-by-improving-the-structure-of-gut-microbiota
#11
Shimin Chang, Xingtian Cui, Mingzhang Guo, Yiling Tian, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang, Yuxing Zhang
Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) was regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long term intake of high-fat diet in current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, while the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent more proportion in plant food, were mistakenly through to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167496/a-maternal-western-diet-during-gestation-and-lactation-modifies-offspring-s-microbiota-activity-blood-lipid-levels-cognitive-responses-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-yucatan-pigs
#12
David Val-Laillet, Marie Besson, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Ameni Kanzari, Hélène Quesnel, Nathalie Bonhomme, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Bas Kemp, Sophie Blat, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Caroline Clouard
A suboptimal early nutritional environment (i.e., excess of energy, sugar, and fat intake) can increase susceptibility to diseases and neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate in nonobese Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) the impact of maternal diet [standard (SD) vs. Western (WD) diet] during gestation and 25 d of lactation on milk composition, blood metabolism, and microbiota activity of sows (n = 17) and their piglets (n = 65), and on spatial cognition (n = 51), hippocampal plasticity (n = 17), and food preferences/motivation (n = 51) in the progeny...
February 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167127/-with-a-little-help-from-my-friends-the-role-of-microbiota-in-thyroid-hormone-metabolism-and-enterohepatic-recycling
#13
Camilla Virili, Marco Centanni
The gut microbiota is composed of over 1200 species of anaerobes and aerobes bacteria along with bacteriophages, viruses and fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota, beside digestive equilibrium, is also crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis. The intestinal microbiota interacts with distant organs by signals which may be part of the bacteria themselves or their metabolites. Dysbiosis has been observed in inflammatory or autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis or type 1 diabetes as well as in obesity and type 2 diabetes...
February 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166818/resistant-starch-can-improve-insulin-sensitivity-independently-of-the-gut-microbiota
#14
Laure B Bindels, Rafael R Segura Munoz, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Valentin Mutemberezi, Inés Martínez, Nuria Salazar, Elizabeth A Cody, Maria I Quintero-Villegas, Hatem Kittana, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Robert J Schmaltz, Giulio G Muccioli, Jens Walter, Amanda E Ramer-Tait
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations, and dietary interventions for their prevention are therefore important. Resistant starches (RS) improve insulin sensitivity in clinical trials, but the mechanisms underlying this health benefit remain poorly understood. Because RS fermentation by the gut microbiota results in the formation of physiologically active metabolites, we chose to specifically determine the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the metabolic benefits of RS...
February 7, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140325/gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-undernutrition
#15
REVIEW
Nicolien C de Clercq, Albert K Groen, Johannes A Romijn, Max Nieuwdorp
Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been recognized as an important pathophysiologic factor in the development and sustainment of malnutrition. However, to our knowledge, the extent to which the microbiota influences malnutrition has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms via which the gut microbiota may influence energy homeostasis in relation to malnutrition...
November 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134687/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#16
Thomas Malikowski, Sahil Khanna, Darrell S Pardi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of the gut microbiome in human health is being increasingly recognized. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing literature pertaining to alterations in the gut microbiome and the utility of microbiome restoration therapies in gastrointestinal disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Imbalance and maladaptation of the microbiome, termed dysbiosis, has been associated with several disease states such as irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity among others...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133504/egcg-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-changes-in-gut-microbiota-decreases-of-dna-strand-breaks-and-changes-in-expression-and-dna-methylation-of-dnmt1-and-mlh1-in-c57bl-6j-male-mice
#17
Marlene Remely, Franziska Ferk, Sonja Sterneder, Tahereh Setayesh, Sylvia Roth, Tatjana Kepcija, Rahil Noorizadeh, Irene Rebhan, Martina Greunz, Johanna Beckmann, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Siegfried Knasmüller, Alexander G Haslberger
Obesity as a multifactorial disorder involves low-grade inflammation, increased reactive oxygen species incidence, gut microbiota aberrations, and epigenetic consequences. Thus, prevention and therapies with epigenetic active antioxidants, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are of increasing interest. DNA damage, DNA methylation and gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, interleukin 6, and MutL homologue 1 were analyzed in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet (CD) with and without EGCG supplementation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132656/fermented-green-tea-extract-exhibits-hypolipidaemic-effects-through-the-inhibition-of-pancreatic-lipase-and-promotion-of-energy-expenditure
#18
Dae-Bang Seo, Hyun Woo Jeong, Yeon-Ji Kim, Sukyung Kim, Jeongkee Kim, Ji Hae Lee, Kyungmi Joo, Jin Kyu Choi, Song Seok Shin, Sung-Joon Lee
Hyperlipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and related CVD and can be prevented with natural substances. Previously, we reported that a novel Bacillus-fermented green tea (FGT) exerts anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects. This study further investigated the hypotriglyceridaemic and anti-obesogenic effects of FGT and its underlying mechanisms. FGT effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (IC50, 0·48 mg/ml) and ameliorated postprandial lipaemia in rats (26 % reduction with 500 mg/kg FGT)...
January 30, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131791/microbes-and-mental-health-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Ryan Rieder, Paul J Wisniewski, Brandon L Alderman, Sara C Campbell
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the microorganisms inhabiting the gut (gastrointestinal microbiota) and human health. The emergence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis to describe the complex networks and relationship between the gastrointestinal microbiota and host reflects the major influence this environment may have in brain health and disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Bidirectional communication between the microbiota and the CNS occurs through autonomic, neuroendocrine, enteric, and immune system pathways...
January 25, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131576/bovine-milk-oligosaccharides-decrease-gut-permeability-and-improve-inflammation-and-microbial-dysbiosis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#20
Gaëlle Boudry, M Kristina Hamilton, Maciej Chichlowski, Saumya Wickramasinghe, Daniela Barile, Karen M Kalanetra, David A Mills, Helen E Raybould
Obesity is characterized by altered gut homeostasis, including dysbiosis and increased gut permeability closely linked to the development of metabolic disorders. Milk oligosaccharides are complex sugars that selectively enhance the growth of specific beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and could be used as prebiotics. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effects of bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis (B. infantis) on restoring diet-induced obesity intestinal microbiota and barrier function defects in mice...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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