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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091678/pepsin-egg-white-hydrolysate-modulates-gut-microbiota-in-zucker-obese-rats
#1
Teresa Requena, Marta Miguel, Marta Garcés-Rimón, M Carmen Martínez-Cuesta, Rosina López-Fandiño, Carmen Peláez
There is limited information that relates the intake of food-derived bioactive peptides and the gut microbiota. We have previously described a pepsin hydrolysate of egg white (EWH) that ameliorates fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, while reducing oxidative stress and inflammation markers in obese Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to associate the beneficial effects of EWH with gut microbiota changes in these animals. Obese Zucker rats received daily 750 mg kg(-1) EWH in drinking water for 12 weeks and faeces were analysed for microbial composition and metabolic compounds in comparison with Zucker lean rats and obese controls...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086768/probiotic-mixture-improves-fatty-liver-disease-by-virtue-of-its-action-on-lipid-profiles-leptin-and-inflammatory-biomarkers
#2
Hessah Mohammed Al-Muzafar, Kamal Adel Amin
BACKGROUND: A high fat diet has an essential role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) and is associated with obesity, diabetes, and fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver. Probiotics may be useful in the treatment of steatosis. This study examined the effects of an ingested probiotic formulation on the lipid profiles, liver functions, leptin levels, and inflammatory marker levels of rats with NAFLD that had been induced via high fat and sucrose diet (HFSD)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072592/metabolic-syndrome-associated-osteoarthritis
#3
Alice Courties, Jérémie Sellam, Francis Berenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interest in the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype is increasing. Here, we summarize recently published significant findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses confirmed an association between type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis and between cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Recent advances in the study of metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis have focused on a better understanding of the role of metabolic diseases in inducing or aggravating joint damage...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071010/the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-diseases
#4
Iwona Węgielska, Joanna Suliburska
The incidence of metabolic diseases is increasing rapidly all over the world. This situation has led researchers to attempt to explain the pathomechanisms of these disorders and to develop specific recommendations for the prevention and treatment of diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Recent studies show clear evidence of the role of human intestinal microbiota in health and in predispositions to diseases. Gut microbiota affect a number of complex metabolic reactions, significantly altering the functioning of the human body...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059614/western-diets-gut-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-diseases-are-they-linked
#5
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#6
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034467/maternal-health-and-the-placental-microbiome
#7
REVIEW
Elise Pelzer, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Over the past decade, the role of the microbiome in regulating metabolism, immune function and behavior in humans has become apparent. It has become clear that the placenta is not a sterile organ, but rather has its own endogenous microbiome. The composition of the placental microbiome is distinct from that of the vagina and has been reported to resemble the oral microbiome. Compared to the gut microbiome, the placental microbiome exhibits limited microbial diversity. This review will focus on the current understanding of the placental microbiota in normal healthy pregnancy and also in disease states including preterm birth, chorioamnionitis and maternal conditions such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia...
December 2, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027925/impact-of-prebiotics-on-metabolic-and-behavioral-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#8
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Célia Fourrier, Julie Sauvant, Amandine Everard, Lucile Capuron, Patrice D Cani, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013341/emerging-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-microbial-metabolites-in-metabolic-control
#9
EDITORIAL
Hilde Herrema, Richard G IJzerman, Max Nieuwdorp
The role of the intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in the maintenance of host health and development of metabolic disease has gained significant attention over the past decade. Mechanistic insight revealing causality, however, is scarce. Work by Ussar and co-workers demonstrates that a complex interaction between microbiota, host genetics and environmental factors is involved in metabolic disease development in mice. In addition, Perry and co-workers show that the microbial metabolite acetate augments insulin resistance in rats...
December 24, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008831/-maternal-obesity-alters-social-brain-programming-by-altering-gut-microbiota-in-progeny
#10
Anne-Laure Barbotin, Paolo Giacobini, Vincent Prévot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008784/therapeutic-interventions-for-gut-dysbiosis-and-related-disorders-in-the-elderly-antibiotics-probiotics-or-faecal-microbiota-transplantation
#11
R C Vemuri, R Gundamaraju, T Shinde, R Eri
Ageing and physiological functions of the human body are inversely proportional to each other. The gut microbiota and host immune system co-evolve from infants to the elderly. Ageing is accompanied by a decline in gut microbial diversity, immunity and metabolism, which increases susceptibility to infections. Any compositional change in the gut is directly linked to gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and metabolic diseases. Increase in opportunistic pathogen invasion in the gut like Clostridium difficile leading to C...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004036/the-microbial-hypothesis-contributions-of-adenovirus-infection-and-metabolic-endotoxaemia-to-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Amos Tambo, Mohsin H K Roshan, Nikolai P Pace
The global obesity epidemic, dubbed "globesity" by the World Health Organisation, is a pressing public health issue. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial incorporating both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, epidemiological studies have observed an association between microbes and obesity. Obesity-promoting microbiome and resultant gut barrier disintegration have been implicated as key factors facilitating metabolic endotoxaemia. This is an influx of bacterial endotoxins into the systemic circulation, believed to underpin obesity pathogenesis...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997970/the-metabolic-role-of-the-microbiome-implications-for-nafld-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Eamonn M M Quigley, Ahmed Abu-Shanab, Eileen F Murphy, Catherine Stanton, Howard P Monsour
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has rapidly emerged as one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide and is set to achieve virtually epidemic proportions if current trends in obesity continue. A considerable volume of data from animal experiments has revealed the magnitude of the metabolic contribution of the gut microbiome and how a disordered microbial population could contribute to the development of obesity and its complications, including NAFLD. Although considerable progress has been made in developing a role for the microbiome in NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatosis (NASH), there are still many issues to be resolved, including the nature and location of the altered microbiome (i...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991713/roles-of-the-gut-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-overview
#14
REVIEW
L Fändriks
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors (central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension), indicating an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The gastrointestinal tract is seldom discussed as an organ system of principal importance for metabolic diseases. The present overview connects various metabolic research lines into an integrative physiological context in which the gastrointestinal tract is included. Strong evidence for the involvement of the gut in the metabolic syndrome derives from the powerful effects of weight-reducing (bariatric) gastrointestinal surgery...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989963/tuning-constitutive-and-pathological-inflammation-in-the-gut-via-the-interaction-of-dietary-nitrate-and-polyphenols-with-host-microbiome
#15
Bárbara Rocha, Carla Nunes, João Laranjinha
Chronic inflammation is currently recognized as a critical process in modern-era epidemics such as diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. However, little attention is paid to the constitutive inflammatory pathways that operate in the gut and that are mandatory for local welfare and the prevention of such multi-organic diseases. Hence, the digestive system, while posing as a barrier between the external environment and the host, is crucial for the balance between constitutive and pathological inflammatory events...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980091/metabolism-of-bile-acids-in-the-post-prandial-state
#16
REVIEW
Jarlei Fiamoncini, Rui Curi, Hannelore Daniel
The modulation of energy expenditure by dietary administration of cholic acid in mice promoted interest in studying bile acid(s) (BA) as adjuvants in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bile acids can modulate intermediary metabolism by acting directly on nuclear as well as G-protein-coupled receptors or indirectly through changes in gut microbiota. Despite the potential of BA to affect intermediary metabolism, plasma kinetics and changes in individual BA in blood in the post-prandial state have been neglected for a long time...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975354/-microbiome-and-winter-flab
#17
Anne Katharina Zschocke
The tendency to increased body fat storage depends on microbiota. Their composition follows a natural annual rhythm, as apparent by hibernating animals and humans living close to nature. Life shaped by "western industrialization", including microbiome shocks such as antibiotics, low-fiber and low-bacteria diets combined with the consumption of industrialized food leads to the loss of bacterial species in the body. This induces deficiency symptoms, diseases and results in lower energy yields from food. It might also result in the loss of intestinal mucous and "leaky gut"...
December 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966036/the-underlying-ecological-processes-of-gut-microbiota-among-cohabitating-retarded-overgrown-and-normal-shrimps
#18
Jinbo Xiong, Wenfang Dai, Jinyong Zhu, Keshao Liu, Chunming Dong, Qiongfen Qiu
Increasing evidence of tight links among the gut microbiota, obesity, and host health has emerged, but knowledge of the ecological processes that shape the variation in microbial assemblages across growth rates remains elusive. Moreover, inadequately control for differences in factors that profoundly affect the gut microbial community, hampers evaluation of the gut microbiota roles in regulating growth rates. To address this gap, we evaluated the composition and ecological processes of the gut bacterial community in cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimps from identically managed ponds...
December 13, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965179/brown-fat-thermogenesis-stability-of-developmental-programming-and-transient-effects-of-temperature-and-gut-microbiota-in-adults
#19
Marika Ziętak, Agnieszka Chabowska-Kita, Leslie Paul Kozak
Evidence from animal studies continues to document the effectiveness of brown fat based thermogenesis in stimulating energy expenditure to reduce obesity. Evidence shows that the number of brown adipocytes in white fat is determined by developmental mechanisms, not the environment. The large variability in the capacity for brown fat thermogenesis comes from genetic variability in developmental mechanisms extent in the animal. This genetic variability ultimately drives the capacity for induction of the brown adipocyte phenotype in response to environmental signals in adult animals...
December 11, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934967/association-between-gut-microbiota-and-diapause-preparation-in-the-cabbage-beetle-a-new-perspective-for-studying-insect-diapause
#20
Wen Liu, Yi Li, Shuang Guo, Han Yin, Chao-Liang Lei, Xiao-Ping Wang
Gut microbiota mediate the nutritional metabolism and play important roles in human obesity. Diapausing insects accumulate large fat reserves and develop obese phenotypes in order to survive unfavorable conditions. However, the possibility of an association between gut microbiota and insect diapause has not been investigated. We used the Illumina MiSeq platform to compare gut bacterial community composition in nondiapause- (i.e. reproductive) and diapause-destined female cabbage beetles, Colaphellus bowringi, a serious pest of vegetables in Asia...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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