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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031033/the-aceii-recombinant-trichoderma-reesei-qm9414-strains-with-enhanced-xylanase-production-and-its-applications-in-production-of-xylitol-from-tree-barks
#1
Lili Xiong, Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Xi Chen, Zhiyun Guo, Canquan Mao, Sanfeng Chen, Wensheng Qin
BACKGROUND: ACEII transcription factor plays a significant role in regulating the expression of cellulase and hemicellulase encoding genes. Apart from ACEII, transcription factors such as XYR1, CRE1, HAP2/3/5 complex and ACEI function in a coordinated pattern for regulating the gene expression of cellulases and hemicellulases. Studies have demonstrated that ACEII gene deletion results in decreased total cellulase and xylanase activities with reduced transcript levels of lignocellulolytic enzymes...
December 28, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013371/the-effect-of-fluvastatin-on-cardiac-fibrosis-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-expression-in-glucose-controlled-diabetic-rat-hearts
#2
Young Hee Shin, Jeong Jin Min, Jong-Hwan Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Go Eun Kim, Myung Hee Kim, Jeong Jin Lee, Hyun Joo Ahn
Independently of the lipid-lowering effects, statin has been reported to attenuate the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the effect of statin in glucose-controlled diabetic condition has not been demonstrated. We evaluated the effect of fluvastatin on cardiac function, fibrosis, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression in glucose-controlled diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (Group C), diabetes (Group D), diabetes with insulin (Group I), and diabetes with insulin and fluvastatin (Group I+F)...
December 24, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008928/cryo-electron-microscopy-structures-of-the-sars-cov-spike-glycoprotein-reveal-a-prerequisite-conformational-state-for-receptor-binding
#3
Miao Gui, Wenfei Song, Haixia Zhou, Jingwei Xu, Silian Chen, Ye Xiang, Xinquan Wang
The global outbreak of SARS in 2002-2003 was caused by the infection of a new human coronavirus SARS-CoV. The infection of SARS-CoV is mediated mainly through the viral surface glycoproteins, which consist of S1 and S2 subunits and form trimer spikes on the envelope of the virions. Here we report the ectodomain structures of the SARS-CoV surface spike trimer in different conformational states determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The conformation 1 determined at 4.3 Å resolution is three-fold symmetric and has all the three receptor-binding C-terminal domain 1 (CTD1s) of the S1 subunits in "down" positions...
December 23, 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965422/circulating-ace2-activity-correlates-with-cardiovascular-disease-development
#4
Katalin Úri, Miklós Fagyas, Attila Kertész, Attila Borbély, Csaba Jenei, Orsolya Bene, Zoltán Csanádi, Walter J Paulus, István Édes, Zoltán Papp, Attila Tóth, Erzsébet Lizanecz
It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2) elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) n=47). ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956412/expression-of-renin-angiotensin-system-ras-components-in-endometrial-cancer
#5
Sarah J Delforce, Eugenie R Lumbers, Celine Corbisier de Meaultsart, Yu Wang, Anthony Proietto, Geoffrey Otton, Jim Scurry, Nicole M Verrills, Rodney J Scott, Kirsty G Pringle
A dysfunctional endometrial renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could aid the growth and spread of endometrial cancer. To determine if the RAS is altered in endometrial cancer, we measured RAS gene expression and protein levels in 30 human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) endometrioid carcinomas and their adjacent endometrium. All components of the RAS were expressed in most tumours and in adjacent endometrium; mRNA levels of (pro)renin receptor (ATP6AP2), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mRNA levels were greater in tumour tissue than adjacent non-cancerous endometrium (P = 0...
January 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941178/alternative-renin-angiotensin-system-pathways-in-adipose-tissue-and-their-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#6
M Slamkova, S Zorad, K Krskova
Adipose tissue expresses all the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components that play an important role in the adipogenesis, lipid and glucose metabolism regulation in an auto/paracrine manner. The classical RAS has been found to be over-activated during the adipose tissue enlargement, thus elevated generation of angiotensin II (Ang II) may contribute to the obesity pathogenesis. The contemporary view on the RAS has become more complex with the discovery of alternative pathways, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas receptor, (pro)renin receptor, as well as angiotensin IV(Ang IV)/AT4 receptor...
October 1, 2016: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932705/possible-role-for-glomerular-derived-angiotensinogen-in-nephrotic-syndrome
#7
Mihoko Yamazaki, Yoshiyasu Fukusumi, Mutsumi Kayaba, Yukina Kitazawa, Sayuri Takamura, Ichiei Narita, Hiroshi Kawachi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors reduce glomerular injury and proteinuria, indicating that angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in glomerular diseases. Although the local RAS is reported to play an essential role in maintaining local tissue functions, the role of the local RAS in regulating glomerular function is not well evaluated. In this study, we analyzed the glomerular expression of RAS components in nephrotic models and the effect of Ang II receptor blockers (ARB) on the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT)...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931559/role-of-cardiac-renin-angiotensin-system-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-preconditioning-of-heart
#8
REVIEW
Vimal Agrawal, Jeetendra Kumar Gupta, Shaiba Sana Qureshi, Vishal Kumar Vishwakarma
Cardio-vascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Ischemia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tissues, whereas reperfusion is restoration of blood flow in ischemic tissues. Myocardial damage of tissue during reperfusion after ischemic insult is known as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. It induces damage to cardiac muscle via increasing expression of oxygen, sodium and calcium ions which are responsible in the activation of proteases and cell death. Heart renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury...
November 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927599/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-amplification-limited-to-the-circulation-does-not-protect-mice-from-development-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#9
Jan Wysocki, Minghao Ye, Ahmed M Khattab, Agnes Fogo, Aline Martin, Nicolae Valentin David, Yashpal Kanwar, Mark Osborn, Daniel Batlle
Blockers of the renin-angiotensin system are effective in the treatment of experimental and clinical diabetic nephropathy. An approach different from blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II (1-8) that could also be effective involves fostering its degradation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase that cleaves angiotensin II (1-8) to form angiotensin (1-7). Therefore, we examined the renal effects of murine recombinant ACE2 in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy as well as that of amplification of circulating ACE2 using minicircle DNA delivery prior to induction of experimental diabetes...
December 4, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925380/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-polymorphisms-and-postexercise-hypotension-in-hypertensive-medicated-individuals
#10
Karla F Goessler, Marcos D Polito, Gloria de F Mota, Edilamar M de Oliveira, Véronique A Cornelissen
The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is associated with diverse physiological responses and adaptations to exercise. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 has vasodilatory effects, which might be associated with the blood pressure (BP) responses to acute exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ACE2 polymorphisms in postexercise hypotension (PEH). Thirty-four medicated hypertensive (61·3 ± 1·7 years, 76·1 ± 2·7 kg, 160 ± 1·6 cm) men (n = 12) and women (n = 22), participated in a control and a moderate intensity exercise session in a randomized order...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913661/effects-of-exendin-4-on-the-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-and-interstitial-fibrosis-in-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-mice-exendin-4-and-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#11
Ying Le, Zongji Zheng, Junyu Xue, Mengling Cheng, Meiping Guan, Yaoming Xue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the renoprotecive effects of exendin-4 in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and explore the putative mechanisms. METHODS: Male Balbc mice underwent sham operation or UUO surgery, and then received intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or exendin-4, respectively. After 14 days, mice were sacrificed and the left kidneys were collected and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897265/mutations-in-acetylcholinesterase2-ace2-increase-the-insensitivity-of-acetylcholinesterase-to-fosthiazate-in-the-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita
#12
Wen-Kun Huang, Qin-Song Wu, Huan Peng, Ling-An Kong, Shi-Ming Liu, Hua-Qun Yin, Ru-Qiang Cui, Li-Ping Zhan, Jiang-Kuan Cui, De-Liang Peng
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes severe damage to continuously cropping vegetables. The control of this nematode relies heavily on organophosphate nematicides in China. Here, we described resistance to the organophosphate nematicide fosthiazate in a greenhouse-collected resistant population (RP) and a laboratory susceptible population (SP) of M. incognita. Fosthiazate was 2.74-fold less toxic to nematodes from RP than that from SP. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the acetylcholinesterase2 (ace2) transcription level in the RP was significantly higher than that in the SP...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889958/ace2-and-the-homolog-collectrin-in-the-modulation-of-nitric-oxide-and-oxidative-stress-in-blood-pressure-homeostasis-and-vascular-injury
#13
Guang Yang, Pei-Lun Chu, Lars C Rump, Thu H Le, Johannes Stegbauer
SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertension is the leading risk factor causing mortality and morbidity worldwide. Angiotensin (Ang) II, the most active metabolite of the renin-angiotensin system, plays an outstanding role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular injury. Activation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has shown to attenuate devastating effects of Ang II in the cardiovascular system by reducing Ang II degradation and increasing Ang-(1-7) generation leading to Mas receptor activation...
January 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884223/local-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-systems-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Walmor C De Mello
The presence of local renin angiotensin aldosterone systems (RAAS) in the cardiovascular and renal tissues and their influence in cardiovascular and renal diseases are described. The fundamental role of ACE/Ang II/AT1 receptor axis activation as well the counterregulatory role of ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor activation on cardiovascular and renal physiology and pathology are emphasized. The presence of a local RAS and its influence on hypertension is discussed, and finally, the hypothesis that epigenetic factors change the RAAS in utero and induce the expression of renin or Ang II inside the cells of the cardiovascular system is presented...
January 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834291/sex-differences-in-the-metabolic-dysfunction-and-insulin-resistance-of-skeletal-muscle-glucose-transport-following-high-fructose-ingestion
#15
Yupaporn Rattanavichit, Natsasi Chukijrungroat, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan
The role of high fructose ingestion (HFI) in the development of conditions mimicking human metabolic syndrome has mostly been demonstrated in male animals; however, the extent of HFI-induced metabolic alterations in females remains unclear. The present study investigated whether HFI-induced metabolic perturbations differ between sexes and whether HFI aggravates the metabolic disturbances under ovarian hormone deprivation. Male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats were given either water or liquid fructose (10% wt/vol) for 6 wk...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815252/chymase-dependent-production-of-angiotensin-ii-an-old-enzyme-in-old-hearts
#16
Ghezal Froogh, John T Pinto, Yicong Le, Sharath Kandhi, Yeabsra Aleligne, An Huang, Dong Sun
Age-dependent alteration of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) and generation of angiotensin II (Ang II) are well documented. By contrast, RAS-independent generation of angiotensin II in aging and its responses to exercise have not been explored. To this end, we examined the effects of chymase, a secretory serine protease, on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-independent conversion of Ang I to Ang II. We hypothesize that age-dependent alteration of cardiac Ang II formation is chymase-dependent in nature and is prevented by exercise training...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806985/high-fat-diet-induced-glucose-dysregulation-is-independent-of-changes-in-islet-ace2-in-mice
#17
Harshita Chodavarapu, Kavaljit H Chhabra, Huijing Xia, Vinayak Shenoy, Xinping Yue, Eric Lazartigues
While restoration of ACE2 activity in the pancreas leads to improvement of glycemia in experimental models of Type 2 diabetes, global deficiency in ACE2 disrupts β-cell function and impairs glucose tolerance in mice, demonstrating the physiological role of ACE2 in glucose homeostasis. Although the contribution of pancreatic ACE2 to glucose regulation has been demonstrated in genetic models of diabetes and in models with overexpression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), it is unclear whether islet ACE2 is involved in glycemic control in common models of human Type 2 diabetes...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775793/microrna-125b-contributes-to-high-glucose-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-apoptosis-in-hk-2-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-by-targeting-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2
#18
Y-F Huang, Y Zhang, C-X Liu, J Huang, G-H Ding
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia induces apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and contributes to tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is known to protect against diabetic kidney injury. However, the mechanism for the dysregulation of ACE2 expression in diabetic nephropathy is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay were done to identify ACE2-targeting microRNAs. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments were performed to determine the biological roles of the ACE2-targeting microRNAs in high glucose-induced damage to renal tubular epithelial cells...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775788/local-bone-marrow-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-genesis-of-leukemia-and-other-malignancies
#19
I C Haznedaroglu, U Y Malkan
The existence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) specific to the hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment had been proposed two decades ago. Most of the RAS molecules including ACE, ACE2, AGT, AGTR1, AGTR2, AKR1C4, AKR1D1, ANPEP, ATP6AP2, CMA1, CPA3, CTSA, CTSD, CTSG, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, DPP3, EGFR, ENPEP, GPER, HSD11B1, HSD11B2, IGF2R, KLK1, LNPEP, MAS1, MME, NR3C1, NR3C2, PREP, REN, RNPEP, and THOP1 are locally present in the BM microenvironment. Local BM RAS peptides control the hematopoietic niche, myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis and the development of other cellular lineages...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754292/br-09-2-novel-approaches-to-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-proteinuric-kideny-disease
#20
James Scholey
The classical view of the RAS is a linear signaling pathway beginning with the conversion of angiotensinogen to ANG I by renin, an enzyme secreted by the kidney. ANG I is converted to ANG II by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ANG II binds to the G-protein coupled angiotensin II receptor type 1. The RAS is a circulating system but we now know that the RAS is also locally expressed in a number of tissues, including the kidneys and the heart. ANG II exerts adverse hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic effects on renal cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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