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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684719/interhelical-interactions-between-d92-and-c218-in-the-cytoplasmic-domain-regulate-proton-uptake-upon-n-decay-in-the-proton-transport-of-acetabularia-rhodopsin-ii
#1
Jun Tamogami, Takashi Kikukawa, Keisuke Ohkawa, Noboru Ohsawa, Toshifumi Nara, Makoto Demura, Seiji Miyauchi, Tomomi Kimura-Someya, Mikako Shirouzu, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Kazumi Shimono, Naoki Kamo
Acetabularia rhodopsin II (ARII or Ace2), an outward light-driven algal proton pump found in the giant unicellular marine alga Acetabularia acetabulum, has a unique property in the cytoplasmic (CP) side of its channel. The X-ray crystal structure of ARII in a dark state suggested the formation of an interhelical hydrogen bond between C218ARII and D92ARII , an internal proton donor to the Schiff base (Wada et al., 2011). In this report, we investigated the photocycles of two mutants at position C218ARII : C218AARII which disrupts the interaction with D92ARII , and C218SARII which potentially forms a stronger hydrogen bond...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684595/apelin-and-elabela-toddler-double-ligands-for-apj-apelin-receptor-in-heart-development-physiology-and-pathology
#2
Keiji Kuba, Teruki Sato, Yumiko Imai, Tomokazu Yamaguchi
Apelin is an endogenous peptide ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor APJ/AGTRL1/APLNR and is widely expressed throughout human body. In adult hearts Apelin-APJ/Apelin receptor axis is potently inotropic, vasodilatory, and pro-angiogenic and thereby contributes to maintaining homeostasis in normal and pathological hearts. Apelin-APJ/Apelin receptor is also involved in heart development including endoderm differentiation, heart morphogenesis, and coronary vascular formation. APJ/Apelin receptor had been originally identified as an orphan receptor for its sequence similarity to Angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and it was later deorphanized by identification of Apelin in 1998...
April 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682576/effects-of-pravastatin-on-type-1-diabetic-rat-heart-with-or-without-blood-glycemic-control
#3
Jeong Jin Min, Byung-Seop Shin, Jong-Hwan Lee, Yunseok Jeon, Dae Kyun Ryu, Sojin Kim, Young Hee Shin
Although statins have been suggested to attenuate the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, its effect without glycemic control remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of pravastatin on diabetic rat hearts according to glycemic control. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (C), diabetes (D), diabetes with insulin (I), diabetes with pravastatin (P), and diabetes with insulin and pravastatin (IP). Eight weeks after allocated treatments, the heart was extracted and analyzed following echocardiography...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682569/functions-and-signaling-pathways-of-amino-acids-in-intestinal-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Fang He, Chenlu Wu, Pan Li, Nengzhang Li, Dong Zhang, Quoqiang Zhu, Wenkai Ren, Yuanyi Peng
Intestine is always exposed to external environment and intestinal microorganism; thus it is more sensitive to dysfunction and dysbiosis, leading to intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diarrhea. An increasing number of studies indicate that dietary amino acids play significant roles in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. The review aims to summarize the functions and signaling mechanisms of amino acids in intestinal inflammation...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679094/depletion-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-reduces-brain-serotonin-and-impairs-the-running-induced-neurogenic-response
#5
Friederike Klempin, Valentina Mosienko, Susann Matthes, Daniel C Villela, Mihail Todiras, Josef M Penninger, Michael Bader, Robson A S Santos, Natalia Alenina
Physical exercise induces cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus in rodents. Serotonin (5-HT) and angiotensin (Ang) II are important mediators of the pro-mitotic effect of physical activity. Here, we examine precursor cells in the adult brain of mice lacking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, and explore the effect of an acute running stimulus on neurogenesis. ACE2 metabolizes Ang II to Ang-(1-7) and is essential for the intestinal uptake of tryptophan (Trp), the 5-HT precursor. In ACE2-deficient mice, we observed a decrease in brain 5-HT levels and no increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells following exercise...
April 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673971/changes-in-trophoblasts-gene-expression-in-response-to-perchlorate-exposition
#6
De la Peña Sol, Santiago-Roque Isela, Olivo-Vidal Zendy, Navarro-Meza Mónica, Xochihua-Rosas Irene, Arroyo-Helguera Omar
Contaminated water with chlorates is a public health problem associated with iodine deficiency. Epidemiological evidence shows that iodine deficiency is a risk factor for preeclampsia (PE). In this study we use human BeWo trophoblast cells exposed to perchlorate (KClO4 ) and changes in gene expression were analyzed by microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblot. The microarray analysis identified 48 transcripts up-regulated and 112 down-regulated in comparison with non-exposed trophoblast. The qRT-PCR analysis confirmed changes in GAS7, PKP2, Emilin, Dynatic 3, protocadherins 11, 15, gamma A12, EGFR, SAFB1, ACE2, ANXA2, Apoliprotein E, SREBF1, and C/EBP-β...
April 16, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667931/ave0991-a-nonpeptide-analogue-of-ang-1-7-attenuates-aging-related-neuroinflammation
#7
Teng Jiang, Liu-Jun Xue, Yang Yang, Qing-Guang Wang, Xiao Xue, Zhou Ou, Qing Gao, Jian-Quan Shi, Liang Wu, Ying-Dong Zhang
During the aging process, chronic neuroinflammation induced by microglia is detrimental for the brain and contributes to the etiology of several aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. As a newly identified axis of renin-angiotensin system, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MAS1 axis plays a crucial role in modulating inflammatory responses under various pathological conditions. However, its relationship with aging-related neuroinflammation is less studied so far. In this study, by using SAMP8 mice, an animal model of accelerated aging, we revealed that the neuroinflammation in the aged brain might be attributed to a decreased level of Ang-(1-7)...
April 17, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663576/neuroprotection-by-post-stroke-administration-of-an-oral-formulation-of-angiotensin-1-7-in-ischemic-stroke
#8
Douglas M Bennion, Chad H Jones, Lauren L Donnangelo, Justin T Graham, Jacob D Isenberg, Alex N Dang, Vermali Rodriguez, Ruben D M Sinisterra, Frederico B Sousa, Robson A S Santos, Colin Sumners
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Angiotensin-(1-7) decreases cerebral infarct volume and improves neurological function when delivered centrally prior to and during ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of angiotensin-(1-7) when delivered orally post-stroke. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that oral delivery of angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates cerebral damage induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, without affecting blood pressure or cerebral blood flow...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582239/effects-of-a-novel-curcumin-derivative-on-the-functions-of-kidney-in-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Xuegu Xu, Yonghao Cai, Yinfei Yu
OBJECTIVE: B6, an analog of curcumin, is a compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Turmeric. In this paper, we aimed to explore the efficacy of B6 on diabetic nephropathy and the related mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of B6 were studied on fast-blood glucose, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, urine albumen/24 h, pathological changes of main organs, the levels of ACE2 and ACE2 mRNA in the rat model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin...
March 26, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570986/ampk-phosphorylation-of-ace2-in-endothelium-mitigates-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Jiao Zhang, Jianjie Dong, Marcy Martin, Ming He, Brendan Gongol, Traci L Marin, Lili Chen, Xinxing Shi, Yanjun Yin, Fenqing Shang, Yan Wu, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Jin Zhang, Yu Zhang, Jian Kang, Esteban A Moya, Hsien-Da Huang, Frank L Powell, Zhen Chen, Patricia A Thistlethwaite, Zu-Yi Yuan, John Y-J Shyy
RATIONALE: Endothelial dysfunction plays an integral role in pulmonary hypertension (PH). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are crucial in endothelial homeostasis. The mechanism by which AMPK regulates ACE2 in the pulmonary endothelium and its protective role in PH remains elusive. OBJECTIVES: We investigate the role of AMPK phosphorylation of ACE2 Ser-680 in ACE2 stability and decipher the functional consequences of this post-translational modification of ACE2 in endothelial homeostasis and PH...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564917/interactive-effects-of-apelin-renin-angiotensin-system-and-nitric-oxide-in-treatment-of-obesity-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-male-albino-rats
#11
Maha Mohamed Sabry, Manal Moustafa Mahmoud, Heba Samy Shoukry, Laila Rashed, Samaa Samir Kamar, Mona Mohamed Ahmed
Apelin and its receptor (APJ) are involved in the regulation of a variety of pathophysiological processes. We studied the effect of apelin treatment on obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and possible interaction between apelin/APJ system and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Forty eight male albino rats were divided into two groups: control group and diabetic group. Diabetic group was subdivided into: control diabetic, apelin-treated, apelin + losartan-treated, apelin + l-NAME-treated and losartan-treated diabetic subgroup...
March 22, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561187/increased-urinary-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-ace2-and-neprilysin-nep-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#12
Sridevi Gutta, Nadja Grobe, Meenasri Kumbaji, Hassan Osman, Mohammad Saklayen, Gengxin Li, Khalid M Elased
ACE2 and NEP are metalloproteases which are highly expressed in the renal proximal tubules. ACE2 and NEP generate renoprotective angiotensin (1-7) from angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang I, respectively, and therefore could have a major role in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent data demonstrated increased urinary ACE2 in diabetic patients with CKD and kidney transplants. We tested the hypothesis that urinary ACE2, NEP and ADAM17 are increased and could be risk predictors of CKD in diabetic patients. Urinary and plasma ACE2, NEP, and ADAM17 were investigated in twenty healthy nondiabetics (ND), and forty diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (Dnormo), microalbuminuria (Dmicro) and macroalbuminuria (Dmacro) using ELISA, Western blot, fluorogenic and novel mass spectrometric-based enzyme assays...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559844/instillation-of-particulate-matter-2-5-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-attenuated-the-injury-recovery-in-ace2-knockout-mice
#13
Chung-I Lin, Chin-Hung Tsai, Yu-Ling Sun, Wen-Yeh Hsieh, Yi-Chang Lin, Cheng-Yi Chen, Chih-Sheng Lin
Inhaled particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) can cause lung injury by inducing serious inflammation in lung tissue. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases and regulates inflammatory response. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), which is produced through the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II) axis, protects against lung disease. However, few studies have focused on the relationships between PM2.5 and ACE2. Therefore, we aimed to explore the role of ACE2 in PM2...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548890/the-expressional-disorder-of-the-renal-ras-mediates-nephrotic-syndrome-of-male-rat-offspring-induced-by-prenatal-ethanol-exposure
#14
Yanan Zhu, Na Zuo, Bin Li, Ying Xiong, Haiyun Chen, Hangyuan He, Zhaoxia Sun, Shuangshuang Hu, Hui Cheng, Ying Ao, Hui Wang
This study aimed to prove that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) can induce nephrotic syndrome in male rat offspring and to explore the underlying intrauterine programming mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered ethanol (4 g/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD 20, and the male fetuses were delivered by cesarean section at GD20 and the male adult offspring were euthanized at postnatal week (PW) 24. In vitro, the primary metanephric mesenchyme cells were treated with ethanol at concentrations of 15-60 mM...
March 13, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540174/prenatal-dexamethasone-and-postnatal-high-fat-diet-have-a-synergistic-effect-of-elevating-blood-pressure-through-a-distinct-programming-mechanism-of-systemic-and-adipose-renin-angiotensin-systems
#15
Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, I-Chun Lin, Shih-Wen Li, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Li-Tung Huang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue. METHODS: RAS and BP of 6-month old rats exposed to prenatal DEX and/or postnatal HF diet were examined...
March 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520166/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-expression-in-human-renal-proximal-tubule-epithelial-cells
#16
Eun Hui Bae, In Jin Kim, Hong Sang Choi, Ha Yeon Kim, Chang Seong Kim, Seong Kwon Ma, In S Kim, Soo Wan Kim
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and the angiotensin system are involved in inflammatory diseases and may contribute to acute kidney injury. We investigated the mechanisms by which TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE) contributes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation and the effect of TACE inhibitor treatment on LPS-induced cellular injury in human renal proximal tubule epithelial (HK-2) cells. Mice were treated with LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and HK-2 cells were cultured with or without LPS (10 µg/ml) in the presence or absence of a type 1 TACE inhibitor (1 µM) or type 2 TACE inhibitor (10 µM)...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516284/stimulation-of-ace2-ang-1-7-mas-axis-by-diminazene-ameliorates-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-d-galactose-ovariectomized-rat-model-role-of-pi3k-akt-pathway
#17
Ahmed S Kamel, Noha F Abdelkader, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman, Marwan Emara, Hala F Zaki, Mahmoud M Khattab
Overactivation of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin 2/angiotensin receptor-1 (ACE/Ang2/AT1) axis provokes amyloid-β-induced apoptosis and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, activation of AT1 impairs the survival pathway phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt). Interestingly, the coupling between ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor (MasR) axis and PI3K/Akt activation opposes AT1-induced apoptosis. However, the effect of in vivo stimulation of MasR against AD and its correlation to PI3K/Akt is not yet elucidated...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506841/impact-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-levels-on-postoperative-pneumonia-after-esophagectomy
#18
Shinsuke Nomura, Hironori Tsujimoto, Suefumi Aosasa, Daizoh Saitoh, Kazuo Hase, Satoshi Ono, Junji Yamamoto, Hideki Ueno
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications after esophagectomy are often fatal. The prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications remains a challenge. Accumulating evidence demonstrates a physiological and pathological role for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the respiratory system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of ACE2 levels for the development of postoperative pneumonia. METHODS: To evaluate the association between serum ACE2 levels and pneumonia after esophagectomy, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 80 patients who underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer from 2009 to 2014...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484978/ras-in-the-central-nervous-system-potential-role-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#19
Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Ana Cristina Simoes E Silva, Thiago Ruiz Rodrigues Prestes, Victor Feracin, Caroline Amaral Machado, Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Aline Silva de Miranda
BACKGROUND: The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a key regulator of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis, but also plays important roles in mediating physiological functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The effects of the RAS were classically described as mediated by angiotensin (Ang) II via angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors. However, another arm of the RAS formed by the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor has been a matter of investigation due to its important physiological roles, usually counterbalancing the classical effects exerted by Ang II...
February 25, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484371/ang-1-7-protects-huvecs-from-high-glucose-induced-injury-and-inflammation-via-inhibition-of-the-jak2-stat3-pathway
#20
Jianfang Chen, Wei Zhang, Qing Xu, Jihua Zhang, Wei Chen, Zhengrong Xu, Chaosheng Li, Zhenhua Wang, Yao Zhang, Yulan Zhen, Jianqiang Feng, Jun Chen, Jingfu Chen
Angiotensin (Ang)‑1‑7, which is catalyzed by angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from angiotensin‑II (Ang‑II), exerts multiple biological and pharmacological effects, including cardioprotective effects and endothelial protection. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in diabetes‑associated cardiovascular complications. The present study hypothesized that Ang‑(1‑7) protects against high glucose (HG)‑induced endothelial cell injury and inflammation by inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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