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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212603/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-cardiac-oxidative-stress-and-local-activity-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-renin-angiotensin-system-in-acute-myocardial-infracted-dogs
#1
Qiaoli Feng, Chengzhi Lu, Li Wang, Lijun Song, Chao Li, Ravi Chandra Uppada
BACKGROUND: This study sought to evaluate the therapeutic effects of renal denervation (RDN) on acute myocardial infarction (MI) in canines and explore its possible mechanisms of action. METHODS: Eighteen healthy mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to either the control group, the MI group or the MI + RDN group. To assess cardiac function, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESD) and fraction shortening (FS) were recorded...
February 17, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209222/roles-of-angiotensin-peptides-and-recombinant-human-ace2-in-heart-failure
#2
Ratnadeep Basu, Marko Poglitsch, Haran Yogasundaram, Jissy Thomas, Brian H Rowe, Gavin Y Oudit
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is activated in heart failure (HF) and inhibition of RAS is a mainstay therapy for HF. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its product, angiotensin 1-7 (Ang-[1-7]), are important negative regulators of the RAS. OBJECTIVES: A comprehensive examination of angiotensin peptide levels and therapeutic effects of recombinant human ACE2 (rhACE2) on peptide metabolism was evaluated in human plasma and explanted heart tissue from patients with HF...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192475/adverse-cardiac-effects-of-exogenous-angiotensin-1-7-in-rats-with-subtotal-nephrectomy-are-prevented-by-ace-inhibition
#3
Louise M Burrell, Daniel Gayed, Karen Griggs, Sheila K Patel, Elena Velkoska
We previously reported that exogenous angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 has adverse cardiac effects in experimental kidney failure due to its action to increase cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. This study investigated if the addition of an ACE inhibitor (ACEi) to Ang 1-7 infusion would unmask any beneficial effects of Ang 1-7 on the heart in experimental kidney failure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent subtotal nephrectomy (STNx) and were treated with vehicle, the ACEi ramipril (oral 1mg/kg/day), Ang 1-7 (subcutaneous 24 μg/kg/h) or dual therapy (all groups, n = 12)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191736/the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-signaling-is-involved-in-neuroinflammation-in-hypertensive-rats
#4
Xing Tan, Pei-Lei Jiao, Yang-Kai Wang, Zhao-Tang Wu, Xiao-Rong Zeng, Miao-Ling Li, Wei-Zhong Wang
AIMS: It has been demonstrated that neuroinflammation is associated with cardiovascular dysfunction. The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region for sympathetic outflow, is upregulated and contributes to increased blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic outflow in hypertension. This study was designed to determine the role of the PI3K signaling in neuroinflammation in the RVLM of hypertension. METHODS: The normotensive WKY rats were performed by intracisternal infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or angiotensin II (Ang II) for inducing neuroinflammation...
February 12, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174624/sex-differences-in-the-aging-pattern-of-renin-angiotensin-system-serum-peptidases
#5
A Fernández-Atucha, A Izagirre, A B Fraile-Bermúdez, M Kortajarena, G Larrinaga, P Martinez-Lage, E Echevarría, J Gil
BACKGROUND: Serum peptidases, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), aminopeptidase N (APN), and aminopeptidase A (APA), are important elements of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Dysregulation of these enzymes has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk. In the present study, serum activities of RAS peptidases were analyzed to evaluate the existence of sexual differences, with a possible different pattern in pre- and post-andropausal/post-menopausal participants...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160049/prolylcarboxypeptidase-deficiency-is-associated-with-increased-blood-pressure-glomerular-lesions-and-cardiac-dysfunction-independent-of-altered-circulating-and-cardiac-angiotensin-ii
#6
Christoph Maier, Ines Schadock, Philipp K Haber, Jan Wysocki, Minghao Ye, Yashpal Kanwar, Christopher A Flask, Xin Yu, Brian D Hoit, Gregory N Adams, Alvin H Schmaier, Michael Bader, Daniel Batlle
: Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) is a carboxypeptidase that cleaves angiotensin II (AngII) forming Ang(1-7). The impact of genetic PRCP deficiency on AngII metabolism, blood pressure (BP), kidney histology, and cardiac phenotype was investigated in two lines of PRCP-deficient mice: KST302 derived in C57BL/6 background and GST090 derived in FVB/N background. The GST090 line had increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) (113.7 ± 2.07 vs. WT 105.0 ± 1.23 mmHg; p < 0.01) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (ratio of diastolic left ventricular posterior wall dimension to left ventricular diameter 0...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144388/hepatic-structural-enhancement-and-insulin-resistance-amelioration-due-to-at1-receptor-blockade
#7
EDITORIAL
Vanessa Souza-Mello
Over the last decade, the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the development of obesity and its comorbidities has been extensively addressed. Both circulating and local RAS components are up-regulated in obesity and involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease onset. Pharmacological manipulations of RAS are viable strategies to tackle metabolic impairments caused by the excessive body fat mass. Renin inhibitors rescue insulin resistance, but do not have marked effects on hepatic steatosis. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) yield beneficial hepatic remodeling...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142259/ace2-inhibits-angiotensin-ii-induced-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-in-mice
#8
QingQing Hao, XueFei Dong, Xu Chen, Feng Yan, Xiaoyu Wang, Haishui Shi, Bo Dong
Recent study have demonstrated that ACE2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). But, little study was reported about the direct effect of ACE2 overexpression on the aneurysm. In this study, we hypothesize that overexpression of ACE2 may prevent the pathogenesis of aneurysm by decreasing RAS activation. Thirty-nine Mice were assigned to 3 groups randomly (n=13 in each group), ACE2 group, Ad.EGFP group and Control group. After 8-week treatment, abdominal aortas with AAA were obtained for HE staining, VVG, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting...
January 31, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138124/comparative-analysis-of-renin-angiotensin-system-ras-related-gene-expression-between-hypertensive-and-normotensive-rats
#9
Chad R Williamson, Sandhya Khurana, Phong Nguyen, Collin J Byrne, T C Tai
BACKGROUND The renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is physiologically important for blood pressure regulation. Altered regulation of RAS-related genes has been observed in an animal model of hypertension (spontaneously hypertensive rats - SHRs). The current understanding of certain RAS-related gene expression differences between Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and SHRs is either limited or has not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare the regulation of key RAS-related genes in the kidneys of adult WKYs and SHRs...
January 31, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135061/neurocytometry-flow-cytometric-sorting-of-specific-neuronal-populations-from-human-and-rodent-brain
#10
David Martin, Jiaxi Xu, Connie Porretta, Charles D Nichols
Flow cytometry has the potential to facilitate understanding of the heterogeneous responses of diverse brain cell populations to a variety of stimuli. However, existing methods of applying flow cytometry to brain tissues are each limited in certain ways. They either require genetically labeled cells to achieve separation of specific populations, are not applicable to previously fixed tissue, or are not compatible with downstream mRNA analysis. Here, we describe a group of related methods that overcome many previous limitations and allow robust sorting and downstream molecular analysis of highly enriched populations of specific neuronal and non-neuronal cells from any mammalian brain...
February 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116711/determining-the-enzymatic-activity-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-ace2-in-brain-tissue-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-using-a-quenched-fluorescent-substrate
#11
Srinivas Sriramula, Kim Brint Pedersen, Huijing Xia, Eric Lazartigues
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and volume homeostasis. Accumulating evidence shows alterations in ACE2 expression and activity in several hypertensive animal models, as well as in patients with hypertension. In order to assess the role of brain ACE2 in hypertension, a specific ACE2 assay is required. Based on a quenched fluorescent substrate, we describe an easy-to-use method for determining ACE2 activity in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116710/measurement-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-activity-in-biological-fluid-ace2
#12
Fengxia Xiao, Kevin D Burns
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a recently described member of the renin-angiotensin system that hydrolyzes angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7), and may thereby protect against cardiovascular and renal diseases. ACE2 is a type 1 integral membrane protein and contains a catalytically active ectodomain that can be shed from the cell surface into the extracellular space, via cleavage by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM-17). ACE2 enzymatic activity and protein can be detected in biological fluids, including urine, plasma, and conditioned cell culture media...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111266/cloning-expression-and-functional-analysis-of-two-acetylcholinesterase-genes-in-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#13
Abdalla M A Salim, Muhammad Shakeel, Jinyun Ji, Tinghao Kang, Yashu Zhang, Ehsan Ali, Zhao Xiao, Yanhui Lu, Hu Wan, Jianhong Li
Two acetylcholinesterase genes (SlAce1 and SlAce2) were cloned from Spodoptera litura, which is an important pest that causes widespread economic damage to vegetables and ornamental plants. We analyzed their expression patterns and compared their biological functions by using RNA interference. Our results showed that SlAce1 and SlAce2 cDNA contains 2085bp and 1917bp nucleotides and encoding proteins of 694 and 638 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenic analysis indicated that the lineage of SlAce genes and SlAce1 was completely different from SlAce2...
January 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101449/immunohistochemical-expression-of-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-components-in-response-to-tempol-in-rats-fed-a-high-salt-diet
#14
Gabriel Cao, Silvana Lorena Della Penna, Nicolás Martín Kouyoumdzian, Marcelo Roberto Choi, Susana Gorzalczany, Belisario Enrique Fernández, Jorge Eduardo Toblli, María Inés Rosón
AIM: To determine the effect of tempol in normal rats fed high salt on arterial pressure and the balance between antagonist components of the renal renin-angiotensin system. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 8% NaCl high-salt (HS) or 0.4% NaCl (normal-salt, NS) diet for 3 wk, with or without tempol (T) (1 mmol/L, administered in drinking water). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urinary sodium excretion (UVNa) were measured...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096436/angiotensin-ii-induces-differential-insulin-action-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#15
Juthamard Surapongchai, Mujalin Prasannarong, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan
Angiotensin II (ANGII) is reportedly involved in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The present investigation evaluated the effects of two ANGII doses on the phenotypic characteristics of insulin resistance syndrome and insulin action and signaling in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either saline (SHAM) or ANGII at a commonly used pressor dose (100 ng/kg/min; ANGII-100) or a higher pressor dose (500 ng/kg/min; ANGII-500) via osmotic minipumps for 14 days. We demonstrated that ANGII-100-infused rats exhibited the phenotypic features of non-obese insulin resistance syndrome, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance of glucose uptake in the soleus muscle, whereas ANGII-500-treated rats exhibited diabetes-like symptoms, such as post-prandial hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion and hypertriglyceridemia...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091615/pirfenidone-controls-the-feedback-loop-of-the-at1r-p38-mapk-renin-angiotensin-system-axis-by-regulating-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-in-myocardial-infarction-induced-cardiac-fibrosis
#16
Chunmei Li, Rui Han, Le Kang, Jianping Wang, Yonglin Gao, Yanshen Li, Jie He, Jingwei Tian
Pirfenidone (PFD), an anti-fibrotic small molecule drug, is used to treat fibrotic diseases, but its effects on myocardial infarction (MI)-induced cardiac fibrosis are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of PFD on MI-induced cardiac fibrosis and the possible underlying mechanisms in rats. After establishment of the model, animals were administered PFD by gavage for 4 weeks. During the development of MI-induced cardiac fibrosis, we found activation of a positive feedback loop between the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)/phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway and renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which was accompanied by down-regulation of liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) expression...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031033/the-aceii-recombinant-trichoderma-reesei-qm9414-strains-with-enhanced-xylanase-production-and-its-applications-in-production-of-xylitol-from-tree-barks
#17
Lili Xiong, Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Xi Chen, Zhiyun Guo, Canquan Mao, Sanfeng Chen, Wensheng Qin
BACKGROUND: ACEII transcription factor plays a significant role in regulating the expression of cellulase and hemicellulase encoding genes. Apart from ACEII, transcription factors such as XYR1, CRE1, HAP2/3/5 complex and ACEI function in a coordinated pattern for regulating the gene expression of cellulases and hemicellulases. Studies have demonstrated that ACEII gene deletion results in decreased total cellulase and xylanase activities with reduced transcript levels of lignocellulolytic enzymes...
December 28, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013371/the-effect-of-fluvastatin-on-cardiac-fibrosis-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-expression-in-glucose-controlled-diabetic-rat-hearts
#18
Young Hee Shin, Jeong Jin Min, Jong-Hwan Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Go Eun Kim, Myung Hee Kim, Jeong Jin Lee, Hyun Joo Ahn
Independently of the lipid-lowering effects, statin has been reported to attenuate the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the effect of statin in glucose-controlled diabetic condition has not been demonstrated. We evaluated the effect of fluvastatin on cardiac function, fibrosis, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression in glucose-controlled diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (Group C), diabetes (Group D), diabetes with insulin (Group I), and diabetes with insulin and fluvastatin (Group I+F)...
December 24, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008928/cryo-electron-microscopy-structures-of-the-sars-cov-spike-glycoprotein-reveal-a-prerequisite-conformational-state-for-receptor-binding
#19
Miao Gui, Wenfei Song, Haixia Zhou, Jingwei Xu, Silian Chen, Ye Xiang, Xinquan Wang
The global outbreak of SARS in 2002-2003 was caused by the infection of a new human coronavirus SARS-CoV. The infection of SARS-CoV is mediated mainly through the viral surface glycoproteins, which consist of S1 and S2 subunits and form trimer spikes on the envelope of the virions. Here we report the ectodomain structures of the SARS-CoV surface spike trimer in different conformational states determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The conformation 1 determined at 4.3 Å resolution is three-fold symmetric and has all the three receptor-binding C-terminal domain 1 (CTD1s) of the S1 subunits in "down" positions...
January 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965422/circulating-ace2-activity-correlates-with-cardiovascular-disease-development
#20
Katalin Úri, Miklós Fagyas, Attila Kertész, Attila Borbély, Csaba Jenei, Orsolya Bene, Zoltán Csanádi, Walter J Paulus, István Édes, Zoltán Papp, Attila Tóth, Erzsébet Lizanecz
It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2) elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) n=47). ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
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