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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626963/exercise-training-modulates-the-hepatic-renin-angiotensin-system-in-fructose-fed-rats
#1
Eliete Dalla Corte Frantz, Renata Frauches Medeiros, Isabele Gomes Giori, Juliana Bittencourt Silveira Lima, Thais Bento-Bernardes, Thaiane Gadioli Gaique, Caroline Fernandes-Santos, Tiago Fernandes, Edilamar Menezes Oliveira, Carla Paulo Vieira, Carlos Adam Conte-Junior, Karen Jesus Oliveira, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome. We investigated whether the hepatic RAS is modulated by exercise training and if this modulation improves the deleterious effects of fructose overload in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into (n = 8 each) control (CT), exercise control (CT-Ex), high fructose (HFr) and exercise high fructose (HFr-Ex) groups. Fructose-drinking rats received D-fructose (100 g L(-1) ). After two weeks, CT-Ex and HFr-Ex rats were assigned to a treadmill training protocol at moderate-intensity for eight weeks (60 min day(-1) , four days/week)...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624211/translation-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-upon-liver-and-lung-targeted-delivery-of-optimized-chemically-modified-mrna
#2
Eva Schrom, Maja Huber, Manish Aneja, Christian Dohmen, Daniela Emrich, Johannes Geiger, Günther Hasenpusch, Annika Herrmann-Janson, Verena Kretzschmann, Olga Mykhailyk, Tamara Pasewald, Prajakta Oak, Anne Hilgendorff, Dirk Wohlleber, Heinz-Gerd Hoymann, Dirk Schaudien, Christian Plank, Carsten Rudolph, Rebekka Kubisch-Dohmen
Changes in lifestyle and environmental conditions give rise to an increasing prevalence of liver and lung fibrosis, and both have a poor prognosis. Promising results have been reported for recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein administration in experimental liver and lung fibrosis. However, the full potential of ACE2 may be achieved by localized translation of a membrane-anchored form. For this purpose, we advanced the latest RNA technology for liver- and lung-targeted ACE2 translation...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619367/the-vasoprotective-axes-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-physiological-relevance-and-therapeutic-implications-in-cardiovascular-hypertensive-and-kidney-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Xiao C Li, Jianfeng Zhang, Jia L Zhuo
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is undisputedly one of the most prominent endocrine (tissue-to-tissue), paracrine (cell-to-cell) and intracrine (intracellular/nuclear) vasoactive systems in the physiological regulation of neural, cardiovascular, blood pressure, and kidney function. The importance of the RAS in the development and pathogenesis of cardiovascular, hypertensive and kidney diseases has now been firmly established in clinical trials and practice using renin inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, type 1 (AT1) angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor blockers (ARBs), or aldosterone receptor antagonists as major therapeutic drugs...
June 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605813/overexpression-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-ameliorates-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-response-in-human-primary-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#4
Xinyu Fu, Ru Lin, Yiguo Qiu, Peng Yu, Bo Lei
Purpose: Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major constituent of drusen, which is a hallmark of early AMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether enhancement of ACE2, an important component of the protective angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), ameliorates Aβ-induced inflammatory response in human RPE cells. Methods: Annexin-V FITC/propidium iodide assay for detecting apoptosis rate was used to determine the optimum concentration and incubation time of Aβ1-42...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596676/renin-angiotensin-system-in-liver-diseases-friend-or-foe
#5
REVIEW
Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Aline S Miranda, Natália P Rocha, Antônio L Teixeira
In the last three decades, the understanding of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been changed by the discoveries of functional local systems, novel biologically active peptides, additional specific receptors, alternative pathways of angiotensin (Ang) II generation, and new roles for enzymes and precursor components other than those in Ang II synthesis. In this regard, the discovery that Ang-(1-7) opposes the pressor, proliferative, pro-fibrotic, and pro-inflammatory effects mediated by Ang II has contributed to the realization that the RAS is composed of two axes...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560129/existence-of-two-o-like-intermediates-in-the-photocycle-of-acetabularia-rhodopsin-ii-a-light-driven-proton-pump-from-a-marine-alga
#6
Jun Tamogami, Takashi Kikukawa, Toshifumi Nara, Makoto Demura, Tomomi Kimura-Someya, Mikako Shirouzu, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Seiji Miyauchi, Kazumi Shimono, Naoki Kamo
A spectrally silent change is often observed in the photocycle of microbial rhodopsins. Here, we suggest the presence of two O intermediates in the photocycle of Acetabularia rhodopsin II (ARII or also called Ace2), a light-driven algal proton pump from Acetabularia acetabulum. ARII exhibits a photocycle including a quasi-equilibrium state of M, N, and O (M⇄N⇄O→) at near neutral and above pH values. However, acidification of the medium below pH ~5.5 causes no accumulation of N, resulting in that the photocycle of ARII can be described as an irreversible scheme (M→O→)...
2017: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559246/neprilysin-is-required-for-angiotensin-1-7-s-ability-to-enhance-insulin-secretion-via-its-proteolytic-activity-to-generate-angiotensin-1-2
#7
Gurkirat S Brar, Breanne M Barrow, Matthew Watson, Ryan Griesbach, Edwina Choung, Andrew Welch, Bela Ruzsicska, Daniel P Raleigh, Sakeneh Zraika
Recent work has renewed interest in therapies targeting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to improve β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. Studies show that generation of angiotensin-(1-7) by angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its binding to the Mas receptor (MasR) improves glucose homeostasis, partly by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Thus, islet ACE2 upregulation is viewed as a desirable therapeutic goal. Here, we show that although endogenous islet ACE2 expression is sparse, its inhibition abrogates angiotensin-(1-7)-mediated GSIS...
May 30, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541811/future-drug-discovery-in-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-intervention
#8
Maria Tamargo, Juan Tamargo
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASIs), including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), are the cornerstone for the treatment of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Areas covered: The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify eligible full-text English language papers. Herein, the authors discuss AT2-receptor agonists and ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas-receptor axis modulators, direct renin inhibitors, brain aminopeptidase A inhibitors, biased AT1R blockers, chymase inhibitors, multitargeted drugs, vaccines and aldosterone receptor antagonists as well as aldosterone synthase inhibitors...
June 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533754/the-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-receptor-axis-pleiotropic-roles-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Juanjuan Xu, Jinshuo Fan, Feng Wu, Qi Huang, Mengfei Guo, Zhilei Lv, Jieli Han, Limin Duan, Guorong Hu, Lian Chen, Tingting Liao, Wanli Ma, Xiaonan Tao, Yang Jin
Cancer remains one of the most common causes of death and disability and represents a major economic burden in industrialized nations. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been well-recognized as one of the most important regulators of both normal and pathological physiological processes in the brain, kidney, heart, and blood vessels. The activation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mitochondrial assembly receptor [ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR] axis, which is one component of the RAS, has recently been identified as a critical component of pulmonary systems, gastric mucosa, and cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512108/clinical-relevance-and-role-of-neuronal-at1-receptors-in-adam17-mediated-ace2-shedding-in-neurogenic-hypertension
#10
Jiaxi Xu, Srinivas Sriramula, Huijing Xia, Lisa Moreno-Walton, Frank Culicchia, Oliver Domenig, Marko Poglitsch, Eric Lazartigues
Rationale: Neurogenic hypertension is characterized by an increase in sympathetic activity and often resistance to drug treatments. We previously reported that it is also associated with a reduction of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and an increase in A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) activity in experimental hypertension. In addition, while multiple cells within the central nervous system have been involved in the development of neurogenic hypertension, the contribution of ADAM17 has not been investigated...
May 16, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501298/ace2-as-therapy-for-glomerular-disease-the-devil-is-in-the-detail
#11
Michael J Ross, Masaomi Nangaku
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 cleaves angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang(1-7), which antagonizes the deleterious effects of Ang II. In this issue, 2 groups administered angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in murine models of kidney disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 did not improve glomerular injury in 2 models of mild diabetic nephropathy but was partially protective in an Alport syndrome model. These discrepant findings may be explained by the inability of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 to reach the urinary space in the absence of severe proteinuria...
June 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500604/a-primer-to-angiotensin-peptide-isolation-stability-and-analysis-by-nano-liquid-chromatography-with-mass-detection
#12
Mariola Olkowicz, Stefan Chlopicki, Ryszard T Smolenski
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important element of cardiovascular and renal physiology and targeting the RAS by renin inhibitors, angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Ang II type 1 receptor antagonists is effective in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Quantification of Ang peptides is critical to establish the status of the RAS, but it is challenging due to low Ang peptides concentrations (fmol/mL or fmol/g), abundance of interfering substances, post sampling conversions, and difficulties with the specificity of the assay...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500596/measuring-blood-pressure-using-a-noninvasive-tail-cuff-method-in-mice
#13
Yu Wang, Sean E Thatcher, Lisa A Cassis
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is well known for its role in regulating blood pressure (BP). An activated RAS contributes to elevated blood pressure and is evident in both human and animal models of hypertension. Drugs that target the classic vasoconstrictive arm of the RAS (angiotensin II/AT1 receptor signaling) are potent anti-hypertensive agents in clinical setting. However, the newly discovered angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis added new vitality to the hypertension field...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500595/use-of-a-fluorescent-substrate-to-measure-ace2-activity-in-the-mouse-abdominal-aorta
#14
Yu Wang, Lisa A Cassis, Sean E Thatcher
The use of fluorogenic substrates to measure enzymatic activity is widely used to understand function within different experimental models. ACE2 is important in understanding the balance between AngII and Ang-(1-7) and how this balance could then in turn influence hypertension or other disease outcomes. Here, we describe a method to measure ACE2 activity in abdominal aorta of hyperlipidemic mice under both saline and AngII infusion.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468961/urine-ras-components-in-mice-and-people-with-type-1-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Jan Wysocki, Anne Goodling, Mar Burgaya, Kathryn Whitlock, John Ruzinski, Daniel Batlle, Maryam Afkarian
Pathways implicated in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are largely derived from animal models. To examine if renin-angiotensin system (RAS) changes in humans are concordant with rodent models, we measured concentration of angiotensinogen (AOG), cathepsin D(CTSD), angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE), ACE2 and enzymatic activities of ACE, ACE2 and aminopeptidase-A in FVB mice 13-20 weeks after streptozotocin (n=9) or vehicle (n=15) and people with longstanding type 1 diabetes, with (n=37) or without (n=81) DKD. In streptozotocin-treated mice, urine AOG and CTSD were 10...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456308/functional-characterization-of-two-acetylcholinesterase-genes-in-the-brown-citrus-aphid-aphis-toxoptera-citricidus-kirkaldy-using-heterologous-expression-and-rna-interference
#16
Xing Mou, Guo-Rui Yuan, Hong-Bo Jiang, Zhao Liu, Jin-Jun Wang
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target of organophosphate- and carbamate-based insecticides. We sequenced the full-length cDNAs of two AChE genes from the brown citrus aphid Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus (Kirkaldy). These two genes, Tcace1 and Tcace2, which encode TcAChE1 and TcAChE2, respectively, had a shared amino acid identity of 29% and were highly similar to other insect ace1 and ace2 genes, respectively, having specific functional motifs. Potential differences in enzymatic function were characterized by the heterologous expression of the two genes using a baculovirus system in Sf9 insect cells...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445944/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-overexpression-protects-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy-by-multiple-mechanisms-in-rats
#17
Hui Ma, Jing Kong, Yu-Lin Wang, Jun-Long Li, Nai-Hao Hei, Xin-Ran Cao, Jing-Jing Yang, Wen-Jiang Yan, Wen-Jing Liang, Hong-Yan Dai, Bo Dong
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is considered a potential therapeutic target of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to explore the effects of ACE2 overexpression on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Rats were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The rats of treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 6 doses of doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg) within a period of two weeks. Two weeks after the initial injection of doxorubicin, these rats were randomly divided into Mock, Ad-EGFP, Ad-ACE2, and Cilazapril groups...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443021/functional-and-biochemical-endothelial-profiling-in-vivo-in-a-murine-model-of-endothelial-dysfunction-comparison-of-effects-of-1-methylnicotinamide-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor
#18
Anna Bar, Mariola Olkowicz, Urszula Tyrankiewicz, Edyta Kus, Krzysztof Jasinski, Ryszard T Smolenski, Tomasz Skorka, Stefan Chlopicki
Although it is known that 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) displays vasoprotective activity in mice, as yet the effect of MNA on endothelial function has not been demonstrated in vivo. Here, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we profile the effects of MNA on endothelial phenotype in mice with atherosclerosis (ApoE/LDLR(-/-)) in vivo, in comparison to angiotensin (Ang) -converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (perindopril), with known vasoprotective activity. On a biochemical level, we analyzed whether MNA- or perindopril-induced improvement in endothelial function results in changes in ACE/Ang II-ACE2/Ang-(1-7) balance, and L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) ratio...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440441/preliminary-analysis-of-the-association-between-methylation-of-the-ace2-promoter-and-essential-hypertension
#19
Rui Fan, Shu-Qi Mao, Tian-Lun Gu, Fa-De Zhong, Min-Li Gong, Ling-Mei Hao, Feng-Ying Yin, Chang-Zheng Dong, Li-Na Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether methylation of the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) promoter increases the risk of essential hypertension (EH). A total of 96 patients with EH were recruited and 96 sex‑ and age‑matched healthy controls. Methylation of 5 CpG dinucleotides in the ACE2 promoter was quantified using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression were used to adjust for confounding factors and the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) method was applied to investigate high‑order interactions...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433633/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-is-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-egfr-mutant-lung-adenocarcinoma
#20
Miki Yamaguchi, Sachie Hirai, Toshiyuki Sumi, Yusuke Tanaka, Makoto Tada, Yukari Nishii, Tadashi Hasegawa, Hiroaki Uchida, Gen Yamada, Atsushi Watanabe, Hiroki Takahashi, Yuji Sakuma
EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas contain a subpopulation of cells that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and can grow independently of EGFR. To kill these cancer cells, we need a novel therapeutic approach other than EGFR inhibitors. If a molecule is specifically expressed on the cell surface of such EGFR-independent EGFR-mutant cancer cells, it can be a therapeutic target. We found that a mesenchymal EGFR-independent subline derived from HCC827 cells, an EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell line, expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to a greater extent than its parental cells...
April 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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