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Down syndrome child* language

Jena McDaniel, Paul J Yoder
The behavioral phenotype of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) offers one avenue for developing speech-language therapy services that are tailored to the individual's characteristics that affect treatment response. Behavioral phenotypes are patterns of behavioral strengths and weaknesses for specific genetic disorders that can help guide the development and implementation of effective interventions. Nonetheless, individual differences within children with DS must be acknowledged and addressed because behavioral phenotypes are probabilistic, not deterministic...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Anna Amadó, Elisabet Serrat, Eduard Vallès-Majoral
Many studies show a link between social cognition, a set of cognitive and emotional abilities applied to social situations, and executive functions in typical developing children. Children with Down syndrome (DS) show deficits both in social cognition and in some subcomponents of executive functions. However this link has barely been studied in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the links between social cognition and executive functions among children with DS. We administered a battery of social cognition and executive function tasks (six theory of mind tasks, a test of emotion comprehension, and three executive function tasks) to a group of 30 participants with DS between 4 and 12 years of age...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
David Hessl, Stephanie M Sansone, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Karen Riley, Keith F Widaman, Leonard Abbeduto, Andrea Schneider, Jeanine Coleman, Dena Oaklander, Kelly C Rhodes, Richard C Gershon
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in understanding molecular and synaptic mechanisms of intellectual disabilities (ID) in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS) through animal models have led to targeted controlled trials with pharmacological agents designed to normalize these underlying mechanisms and improve clinical outcomes. However, several human clinical trials have failed to demonstrate efficacy of these targeted treatments to improve surrogate behavioral endpoints. Because the ultimate index of disease modification in these disorders is amelioration of ID, the validation of cognitive measures for tracking treatment response is essential...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Dean D'Souza, Hana D'Souza, Mark H Johnson, Annette Karmiloff-Smith
Typically-developing (TD) infants can construct unified cross-modal percepts, such as a speaking face, by integrating auditory-visual (AV) information. This skill is a key building block upon which higher-level skills, such as word learning, are built. Because word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we assessed the hypothesis that this delay partly results from a deficit in integrating AV speech cues. AV speech integration has rarely been investigated in neurodevelopmental disorders, and never previously in infants...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird, Fred Genesee, Ludo Verhoeven
Children with developmental disabilities (DD) often need and sometimes opt to become bilingual. The context for bilingual acquisition varies considerably and can impact outcomes. In this first article of the special issue, we review research on the timing and amount of bilingual exposure and outcomes of either direct language intervention or educational placements in three groups of children with DD: Specific Language Impairment (SLI), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and Down syndrome (DS). Children with SLI have been studied more than the other two groups...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
Miguel Galeote, Elena Checa, Concepción Sánchez-Palacios, Eugenia Sebastián, Pilar Soto
PURPOSE: The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories are widely used to study early language and communicative development. We recently developed a Spanish version for children with Down syndrome (the CDI-Down) adapted to their particular profile of linguistic and communicative development. The principal aims of this study are to assess the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the vocabulary section of this adaptation. METHOD: Validation for productive vocabulary (Study 1) was achieved by correlating CDI-Down scores on expressive vocabulary and measures on the basis of spontaneous speech samples (n = 29)...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
S R J M Deckers, Y Van Zaalen, E J M Mens, H Van Balkom, L Verhoeven
The expressive vocabulary of children with Down Syndrome (DS) is generally measured with parental reports, such as the Communicative Development Inventory (CDI), given that standardized tests for assessing vocabulary levels may be too difficult for most young children with DS. The CDI provides important insight into the parents' perception of their child's vocabulary development. The CDI has proven to be a valid measurement of expressive vocabulary, spoken and gestural, in typical and atypical populations. The validity in children with DS is not well established and signed vocabulary is often not included...
September 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Marleen Vanvuchelen
A number of studies suggest that imitation is a characteristic strength in children with Down Syndrome (DS). The present study aims to discover whether imitation performances are qualitatively phenotypical in DS. Eight preschoolers with DS were matched on chronological, mental, language and imitation age with 8 preschoolers with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (ID-UND). Imitation performances on the Preschool Imitation and Praxis Scale were videotaped for blind scoring on 30 possible errors...
May 2016: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Vani Rupela, Shelley L Velleman, Mary V Andrianopoulos
PURPOSE: Motor speech characteristics of children with Down syndrome (DS) have historically been viewed as either Childhood Dysarthria (CD) or, more infrequently, as Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). The objective of this study was to investigate motor speech deficits in a systematic manner, considering characteristics from both CAS and CD. METHOD: Motor speech assessments were carried out on seven 3;4-8;11-year old children with DS in comparison with younger, typically-developing children using a Language-Neutral Assessment of Motor Speech for young children (LAMS)...
October 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Gail A Spiridigliozzi, Sarah J Hart, James H Heller, Heather E Schneider, Jane Ann Baker, Cathleen Weadon, George T Capone, Priya S Kishnani
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have decreased cholinergic function and an uneven profile of cognitive abilities, with more pronounced deficits in learning, memory, and expressive language. Cholinesterase inhibitors may improve cognitive function in adults and adolescents with DS, but studies in children with DS have been limited. This study aimed to: (i) investigate the safety and efficacy of rivastigmine treatment; (ii) build upon our open-label studies in children with DS in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial; and (iii) investigate specific cognitive domains that may respond to rivastigmine treatment...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Henrik Danielsson, Lucy Henry, David Messer, Daniel P J Carney, Jerker Rönnberg
This study examined the development of phonological recoding in short-term memory (STM) span tasks among two clinical groups with contrasting STM and language profiles: those with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Phonological recoding was assessed by comparing: (1) performance on phonologically similar and dissimilar items (phonological similarity effects, PSE); and (2) items with short and long names (word length effects, WLE). Participant groups included children and adolescents with DS (n=29), WS (n=25) and typical development (n=51), all with average mental ages around 6 years...
August 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
M Heimann, E Nordqvist, K Strid, J Connant Almrot, T Tjus
BACKGROUND: Imitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and deferred imitation using both actions with objects and gestures as imitation tasks in these groups. METHODS: Imitation among 19 children with autism was compared with 20 children with DS and 23 TD children matched for mental and language age...
May 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
M Cuskelly, L Gilmore, S Glenn, A Jobling
BACKGROUND: Self-regulation has been found to be an important contributor to a range of outcomes, with delay of gratification (a self-regulatory skill) predicting better academic, social and personal functioning. There is some evidence that individuals with Down syndrome have difficulty with delay of gratification. We investigated the question of whether this difficulty is common to intellectual disability irrespective of aetiology, or whether it presents a particular problem for those with Down syndrome...
September 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Tarek Alsaied, Bradley S Marino, Anna J Esbensen, Julia S Anixt, Jeffery N Epstein, James F Cnota
OBJECTIVE: The impact that congenital heart disease (CHD) has on the neurodevelopment of children with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown and potentially has implications for targeted early intervention. This study assessed the relationship between CHD that required surgery in the first year of life and neurodevelopmental, behavioral and emotional functioning outcomes in children with DS. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 1092 children (0-18 years) with DS who visited a single institution from 8/08-8/13 was performed...
January 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
Glynis Laws, Heather Brown, Elizabeth Main
Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Study 1 confirmed significantly poorer passage-reading comprehension than the typically developing group. In an experimental task, readers with Down syndrome understood fewer written sentences than the typical group and, contrary to prediction, received no advantage from printed sentences compared to spoken sentences, despite the lower memory load...
2016: Reading and Writing
Kari-Anne B Næss
Phonological awareness (PA) is the knowledge and understanding of the sound structure of language and is believed to be an important skill for the development of reading. This study explored PA skills in children with Down syndrome and matched typically developing (TD) controls using a dual approach: a meta-analysis of the existing international literature and a longitudinal empirical study. The results from both the meta-analysis and the empirical study showed that the children with Down syndrome initially had weaker PA skills compared to the controls; in particular, the awareness of rhyme was delayed...
February 2016: Developmental Psychology
Sarah Tapp, Tovi Anderson, Jeannie Visootsak
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability in the United States. The prevalence of seizure in individuals with DS is 1-13%, and infantile spasm (IS) occurs in 6-32% of those with seizures. Since IS is relatively common in children with DS, it is important to understand the impact IS has on the neurodevelopmental outcomes in order to provide appropriate anticipatory guidance to help maximize the potential of these children. Our study is the first to compare the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with DS and IS (DS + IS) to children with DS and no history of seizures (DS - IS)...
June 2015: Journal of Pediatric Neurology: JPN
Annette Uwineza, Janvier Hitayezu, Mauricette Jamar, Jean-Hubert Caberg, Seraphine Murorunkwere, Ndinkabandi Janvier, Vincent Bours, Leon Mutesa
Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ <75 in addition to impairment in adaptive functioning. Cytogenetic studies have been performed in 664 Rwandan pediatric patients presenting GDD/ID and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (MCA)...
February 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Jamie O Edgin, Ursula Tooley, Bianca Demara, Casandra Nyhuis, Payal Anand, Goffredina Spanò
Recent evidence has suggested that sleep may facilitate language learning. This study examined variation in language ability in 29 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to levels of sleep disruption. Toddlers with DS and poor sleep (66%, n = 19) showed greater deficits on parent-reported and objective measures of language, including vocabulary and syntax. Correlations between sleep and language were found in groups with equivalent medical and social backgrounds and after control for relevant behavioral comorbidities, including autism symptoms...
November 2015: Child Development
Dean D'Souza, Hana D'Souza, Mark H Johnson, Annette Karmiloff-Smith
Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls...
2015: PloS One
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