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M G Jones, A P Andreou, S B McMahon, D Spanswick
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs are highly sensitive to the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate which triggers attacks in many sufferers. In animal studies, glyceryl trinitrate increases neuronal activity in the trigeminovascular pathway and elevates neurotransmitter levels in the brainstem. Many migraineurs also display alterations in blink reflexes, known to involve brainstem circuits. We investigated the effect of GTN on evoked blinks in the anaesthetised rat to determine whether such reflexes may prove useful as the basis for a novel animal model to evaluate potential anti-migraine therapeutic agents...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Werner R Verslegers, Massimo Leone, Alberto Proietti Cecchini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Neurology
Zaina T Al-Salama, Lesley J Scott
Sumatriptan nasal powder delivered by a breath powered delivery device (ONZETRA(®) Xsail(®)) is indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. This narrative review discusses the clinical use of sumatriptan nasal powder in this population and summarizes its pharmacological properties. In migraineurs, sumatriptan nasal powder treatment was associated with significantly greater rates of pain relief than placebo from 0.5-2 h postdose after a single treatment in the phase 3 TARGET trial, with these benefits sustained at 24 and 48 h postdose...
October 2016: Drugs
Jaakko W Långsjö, Kai Lehtimäki, Jyrki Ruohonen, Anne Sajanti, Satu Sandell, Hannu T Heikkilä, Antti Brander, Kari Saarinen, Lauri Herrala
BACKGROUND: Insufficient understanding of the mechanisms of consciousness can make unconsciousness a diagnostic challenge, directly effecting the treatment and the outcome of the patient. Consciousness is a product of brainstem arousal (wakefulness, the level of consciousness) and cortical information integration (awareness, the contents of consciousness). The thalamus serves as a critical hub in the arousal pathway. The nuclei within the internal medullary lamina, together with the associated thalamocortical connections, have been implicated as being especially important for human consciousness...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Akiko Tanaka, Tomoyuki Furubayashi, Manami Tomisaki, Mayuko Kawakami, Shunsuke Kimura, Daisuke Inoue, Kosuke Kusamori, Hidemasa Katsumi, Toshiyasu Sakane, Akira Yamamoto
Despite the numerous advantages of powder formulations, few studies have described their nasal drug absorption. The first aim of this study was to compare the drug absorption from powder formulation with that from a liquid formulation in rats. Since pharmaceutical excipients are usually added to most powder formulations, the second aim of the study was to investigate the effect of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) on nasal drug absorption from the powder. Three types of HPC with different polymerization degrees were used: HPC(SL), HPC(M), and HPC(H)...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sindhu S Ganti, Ajay K Banga
The advances in laser technology have led to its rapidly expanding applications in dermatology. This study aims at the novel use of a non-ablative fractional laser to enhance transdermal permeation of diclofenac sodium and sumatriptan succinate. The effects of the laser on skin were characterized visually with dye binding, scanning electron microscopy, pore permeability index, and histology. In vitro transdermal permeation of drugs through laser treated and untreated human dermatomed skin was analyzed over 24 h and quantified by HPLC...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sagar Munjal, Anirudh Gautam, Alan M Rapoport, Dennis M Fisher
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI]), age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp) profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. METHODS: We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations) as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0...
2016: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Sagar Munjal, Anirudh Gautam, Elliot Offman, Elimor Brand-Schieber, Kent Allenby, Dennis M Fisher
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Intranasal sumatriptan (Imitrex(®) ) may be an alternative for patients who refuse injections and cannot tolerate oral agents, but due to low bioavailability and slow absorption, the clinical utility of the currently marketed formulation is limited, highlighting an unmet need for an effective non-oral migraine medication with a rapid onset of action. To overcome the slow absorption profile associated with intranasal administration, we evaluated the impact of 1-O-n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltopyranoside (DDM, Intravail A-3™), a permeation enhancer, on sumatriptan's pharmacokinetic profile by comparing the pharmacokinetic characteristics of two commercial sumatriptan products, 4 mg subcutaneous and 6 mg subcutaneous in healthy adults, with DFN-02 - a novel intranasal agent comprised of sumatriptan 10 mg plus 0...
October 2016: Headache
S Ahmed, S Tabassum, S M Rahman, S Akhter, M M Rahman, F Bayes, S Roy
Recurrent headache is common in children. Among them migraine is the most common disabling cause of primary headache. It causes serious disability in child's life and family. It causes negative impact on their quality of life. Clinical characteristic of migraine in children differ from adult. It may be shorter in duration and bifrontal or bitemporal in location in contrast to adult which is longer in duration and usually unilateral. It is less common before 3 years of age. Males are more affected before puberty...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Matilde Capi, Martina Curto, Luana Lionetto, Fernando de Andrés, Giovanna Gentile, Andrea Negro, Paolo Martelletti
Migraine is a multifactorial, neurological and disabling disorder, also characterized by several autonomic symptoms. Triptans, selective serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonists, are the first-line treatment option for moderate-to-severe headache attacks. In this paper, we review the recent data on eletriptan clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability, and potential clinically relevant interactions with other drugs. Among triptans, eletriptan shows a consistent and significant clinical efficacy and a good tolerability profile in the treatment of migraine, especially for patients with cardiovascular risk factors without coronary artery disease...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Diane S Aschenbrenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Journal of Nursing
Irene Wood, Mónica Pickholz
In order to understand the interaction between naratriptan and a fully hydrated bilayer of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-choline (POPC), we carried out molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations were performed considering neutral and protonated ionization states, starting from different initial conditions. At physiological pH, the protonated state of naratriptan is predominant. It is expected that neutral compounds could have larger membrane partition than charged compounds. However, for the specific case of triptans, it is difficult to study neutral species in membranes experimentally, making computer simulations an interesting tool...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Ikumi Ishibashi-Shiraishi, Seiji Shiraishi, Shinichi Fujita, Saori Ogawa, Masahiko Kaneko, Manabu Suzuki, Tatsuro Tanaka
Amino acids are not only constituents of proteins, but also have multiple physiologic functions. Recent findings have revealed that ingested amino acids either activate luminal receptors or are metabolized, causing physiologic reactions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We examined the effect of oral L-arginine L-glutamate (ArgGlu), a pharmaceutical amino acid salt used i.v. for the treatment of hyperammonemia, on gastric motor function in rats and dogs. Gastric emptying was determined using phenol red and (13)C-breath test methods, whereas gastric relaxation was determined using the barostat method...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ana Beatriz Sant'Ana, Luiz Fernando Weffort, Thatiane de Oliveira Sergio, Rafael Calsoni Gomes, Alana Tercino Frias, Melina Matthiesen, Heloisa Helena Vilela-Costa, Paula Shimene de Melo Yamashita, Alex Teles Vasconcelos, Valquiria de Bortoli, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Helio Zangrossi
The elevated T-maze was developed to test the hypothesis that serotonin plays an opposing role in the regulation of defensive behaviors associated with anxiety and panic. Previous pharmacological exploitation of this test supports the association between inhibitory avoidance acquisition and escape expression with anxiety and fear/panic, respectively. In the present study, we extend the pharmacological validation of this test by investigating the effects of other putative or clinically effective anxiety- and panic-modulating drugs...
December 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Kristian Thorlund, Kabirraaj Toor, Ping Wu, Keith Chan, Eric Druyts, Elodie Ramos, Rahul Bhambri, Anne Donnet, Richard Stark, Peter J Goadsby
INTRODUCTION: Migraine headache is a neurological disorder whose attacks are associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. Treatments for migraine aim to either prevent attacks before they have started or relieve attacks (abort) after onset of symptoms and range from complementary therapies to pharmacological interventions. A number of treatment-related adverse events such as somnolence, fatigue, and chest discomfort have previously been reported in association with triptans...
August 12, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Joanne Kacperski, Andrew D Hershey
Treatment of pediatric migraine remains an unmet medical need. There continues to be a paucity of pediatric randomized controlled trials for the treatment of migraine, both in the acute and preventive settings. Pediatric studies are often complicated by high placebo-response rates and much of our current practice is based on adult trials. This lack of significant pediatric studies results in a wide variation in migraine management both amongst clinicians and between institutions, and evidence-based treatments are not always administered...
September 2016: CNS Drugs
Dikla Gutman, Edward Hellriegel, Ernesto Aycardi, Marcelo E Bigal, Jeevan Kunta, Rohini Chitra, Sujay Kansagra, Orna Srur Kidron, Helena Knebel, Steven Linder, Yuju Ma, Mark Pierce, Paul K Winner, Ofer Spiegelstein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan delivered by the iontophoretic transdermal system (TDS) in adolescent patients. BACKGROUND: Since nausea can be a prominent and early symptom of migraine, nonoral treatment options are often required. Sumatriptan iontophoretic TDS is approved for the acute treatment of migraine in adults. The present study evaluates the pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan administered via the iontophoretic TDS in adolescents, contrasting the findings with historical data from adults...
September 2016: Headache
Carlos M Villalón, Antoinette Maassen VanDenBrink
Migraine is a highly prevalent neurovascular disorder. Of the many factors that have been implicated over the years, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) has long been involved in the pathophysiology of migraine. Certainly, some lines of evidence suggest: (i) a 5-HT depletion from blood platelets resulting in cranial extracerebral vasodilatation; and (ii) the effectiveness of an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of 5 HT to abort migraine in some patients. More direct evidence comes from some drugs that influence 5-HT release and/or interact (as agonists or antagonists) with 5-HT receptors to treat this disorder...
July 28, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Fereshteh Farajdokht, Shirin Babri, Pouran Karimi, Gisou Mohaddes
Systemic administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) consistently provokes spontaneous-like migraine attacks in migraine sufferers, and in rat it induces hyperalgesia and allodynia. In the present study we modeled migraine headache by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a single dose of NTG, which produced widespread thermal allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia, photophobia, and increased anxiety-like behaviors and serum concentration of cortisol. Results suggest that the effects of NTG can be largely reversed by administration of ghrelin, which mimics the effects of sumatriptan used as relevant positive therapeutic control in this study...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Matthew S Robbins, Amaal J Starling, Tamara M Pringsheim, Werner J Becker, Todd J Schwedt
BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH), the most common trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, is an extremely debilitating primary headache disorder that is often not optimally treated. New evidence-based treatment guidelines for CH will assist clinicians with identifying and choosing among current treatment options. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review we appraise the available evidence for the acute and prophylactic treatment of CH, and provide an update of the 2010 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) endorsed systematic review...
July 2016: Headache
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