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Wnt and steroid

Thierry Jardé, Bethan Lloyd-Lewis, Mairian Thomas, Howard Kendrick, Lorenzo Melchor, Lauriane Bougaret, Peter D Watson, Kenneth Ewan, Matthew J Smalley, Trevor C Dale
The development of in vitro culture systems quantitatively and qualitatively recapitulating normal breast biology is key to the understanding of mammary gland biology. Current three-dimensional mammary culture systems have not demonstrated concurrent proliferation and functional differentiation ex vivo in any system for longer than 2 weeks. Here, we identify conditions including Neuregulin1 and R-spondin 1, allowing maintenance and expansion of mammary organoids for 2.5 months in culture. The organoids comprise distinct basal and luminal compartments complete with functional steroid receptors and stem/progenitor cells able to reconstitute a complete mammary gland in vivo...
October 26, 2016: Nature Communications
Junhua Zhou, Brian Lam, Sudeshna G Neogi, Giles S H Yeo, Elena A B Azizan, Morris J Brown
Primary aldosteronism is present in ≈10% of hypertensives. We previously performed a microarray assay on aldosterone-producing adenomas and their paired zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. Confirmation of top genes validated the study design and functional experiments of zona glomerulosa selective genes established the role of the encoded proteins in aldosterone regulation. In this study, we further analyzed our microarray data using AmiGO 2 for gene ontology enrichment and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify potential biological processes and canonical pathways involved in pathological and physiological aldosterone regulation...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Daniel Ruiz-Pérez, Javier Benito, Carlota Largo, Gonzalo Polo, Susana Canfrán, Ignacio Alvarez Gómez de Segura
Unlike non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), metamizole has poor anti-inflammatory effects; and is suitable for models where analgesia, but not anti-inflammatory effects, is desirable. Like opioids, these drugs produce perioperative analgesia while reducing anaesthetic requirements, but it remains unclear whether they may develop tolerance or hyperalgesia, and thus decrease in analgesic efficacy. The aim was to determine whether tolerance or hyperalgesia to metamizole occurred in rats, and whether the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was affected...
September 30, 2016: Laboratory Animals
Ashley R Hoover, Igor Dozmorov, Jessica MacLeod, Qiumei Du, M Teresa de la Morena, Joseph Forbess, Kristine Guleserian, Ondine B Cleaver, Nicolai S C van Oers
The thymus, an organ responsible for T cell development, is one of the more stress-sensitive tissues in the body. Stress, in the form of infections, radiation exposure, and steroids, impairs thymic epithelial cell (TEC) functions and induces the programmed cell death of immature thymocytes. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs involved in tissue repair and homeostasis, with several supporting T cell development. We report that miR-205, an epithelial-specific miR, maintains thymopoiesis following inflammatory perturbations...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chiara Fiorentini, Martina Fragni, Paola Perego, Sara Vezzoli, Sara A Bonini, Monica Tortoreto, Diego Galli, Melanie Claps, Guido A Tiberio, Massimo Terzolo, Cristina Missale, Maurizio Memo, Giuseppe Procopio, Nadia Zaffaroni, Alfredo Berruti, Sandra Sigala
CONTEXT: Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) frequently suffer from cortisol excess, which portends a negative prognosis. Rapid control of cortisol hypersecretion and tumor growth are the main goals of ACC therapy. Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a potent inhibitor of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, a key enzyme of adrenal steroidogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic use of AA in preclinical models of ACC. DESIGN: AA antisecretive and antiproliferative effects were investigated in vitro using NCI-H295R and SW13 ACC cell lines and human primary ACC cell cultures, as well as in vivo using immunodeficient mice...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Diego Crespo, Luiz H C Assis, Tomasz Furmanek, Jan Bogerd, Rüdiger W Schulz
Spermatogonial stem cells are quiescent, undergo self-renewal or differentiating divisions, thereby forming the cellular basis of spermatogenesis. This cellular development is orchestrated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), through the production of Sertoli cell-derived factors, and by Leydig cell-released androgens. Here, we investigate the transcriptional events induced by Fsh in a steroid-independent manner on the restart of zebrafish (Danio rerio) spermatogenesis ex vivo, using testis from adult males where type A spermatogonia were enriched by estrogen treatment in vivo...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Katharina Dietz, Marta de Los Reyes Jiménez, Eva S Gollwitzer, Adam M Chaker, Ulrich M Zissler, Olof P Rådmark, Hoeke A Baarsma, Melanie Königshoff, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber, Benjamin J Marsland, Julia Esser-von Bieren
BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling is a detrimental and refractory process showing age-dependent clinical manifestations that are mechanistically undefined. The leukotriene (LT) and wingless/integrase (Wnt) pathways have been implicated in remodeling, but age-specific expression profiles and common regulators remained elusive. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the activation of the LT and Wnt pathways during early- or late-onset allergic airway inflammation and to address regulatory mechanisms and clinical relevance in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs) and nasal polyp tissues...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Genna R Prather, James A MacLean, Mingxin Shi, Daniel K Boadu, Marilène Paquet, Kanako Hayashi
Endometriosis causes severe chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Because the standard medication and surgical treatments of endometriosis show high recurrence of symptoms, it is necessary to improve current treatment options. In the initial study, we examined whether niclosamide can be a useful drug for endometriosis in a preclinical setting. Endometriotic implants were induced using an established mouse model involving transimplantation of mouse endometrial fragments to the peritoneal wall of recipient mice...
August 17, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Felicia Leccia, Marie Batisse-Lignier, Isabelle Sahut-Barnola, Pierre Val, A-Marie Lefrançois-Martinez, Antoine Martinez
Adrenal cortex tumors are divided into benign forms, such as primary hyperplasias and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), and malignant forms or adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs). Primary hyperplasias are rare causes of adrenocorticotropin hormone-independent hypercortisolism. ACAs are the most common type of adrenal gland tumors and they are rarely "functional," i.e., producing steroids. When functional, adenomas result in endocrine disorders, such as Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism) or Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism)...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Gang Liu, Gaobin Luo, Zhandong Bo, Xiaonan Liang, Jie Huang, Donghui Li
Connexin(Cx)43 and microRNA(miR)-206 play an important role in osteogenesis. However, their role in steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis (SANFH) is still ambiguous. The present study aimed to establish a rabbit model and investigate osteogenesis in steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis occurring via Cx43/miR-206 and the changes of Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway-related proteins. A total of 72 adult New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into a model group (Group A) and a control group (Group B) of 36 rabbits each...
August 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Andrius Januskevicius, Simona Vaitkiene, Reinoud Gosens, Ieva Janulaityte, Deimante Hoppenot, Raimundas Sakalauskas, Kestutis Malakauskas
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that eosinophils may have a direct effect on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), causing their proliferation in patients with asthma, but the precise mechanism of the interaction between these cells remains unknown. We propose that changes in Wnt signaling activity and extracellular matrix (ECM) production may help explain these findings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eosinophils from asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects on Wnt-5a, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and ECM protein (fibronectin and collagen) gene expression and ASMC proliferation...
2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Wei-Jia Wang, Xiu-Ming Zhang, Yan Zhang, Jin-Shu Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of inhibiting and activating Wnt signalling pathway on monocyte differentiation of HL-60 cells induced with a new steroidal drug NSC67657 and its possible mechamism. METHODS: The HL-60 cells were treated with 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L XAV-939 (inhibitor of Wnt signalling pathway) for 3 days, and with 10, 20 and 30 mmol/L LiCl (activator of Wnt signalling pathway) for 1 day; the expression levels of down-stream genes and proteins of Wnt signolling pathway were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively; the expression of cell surface differentiation antigen CD14 and early apoptosis of HL-60 cells was detected by flow cytometry, moreover the most suitable concentration of Wnt inhibitor and activator for HL-60 cells was determined...
April 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Caroline E Gargett, Shanti Gurung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Biology of Reproduction
J S Wang, W J Wang, T Wang, Y Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of mRNA and proteins of β-catenin, TCF-4 (ICAT) and Wnt signaling pathway-related genes in the monocytic differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells induced by a new steroidal drug NSC67657. METHODS: Wright's staining and α-NBE staining were used to observe the differentiation of HL-60 cells after 5 days of 10 μmol/L NSC67657 treatment. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the differentiation and cell cycles...
April 2016: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
Yasmin M Vasquez, San-Pin Wu, Matthew L Anderson, Shannon M Hawkins, Chad J Creighton, Madhumita Ray, Sophia Y Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai, John P Lydon, Francesco J DeMayo
Epigenetic silencing of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) is lost in endometriosis, potentially contributing to de novo local steroidogenesis favoring inflammation and growth of ectopic endometrial tissue. In this study, we examine the impact of SF1 expression in the eutopic uterus by a novel mouse model that conditionally expresses SF1 in endometrium. In vivo SF1 expression promoted the development of enlarged endometrial glands and attenuated estrogen and progesterone responsiveness. Endometriosis induction by autotransplantation of uterine tissue to the mesenteric membrane resulted in the increase in size of ectopic lesions from SF1-expressing mice...
May 2016: Molecular Endocrinology
Pablo Fernández-Pernas, Juan Fafián-Labora, Iván Lesende-Rodriguez, Jesús Mateos, Alexandre De la Fuente, Isaac Fuentes, Javier De Toro Santos, Fco Blanco García, María C Arufe
Our group focuses on the study of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human umbilical cord stroma or Warthońs jelly and their directed differentiation toward chondrocyte-like cells capable of regenerating damaged cartilage when transplanted into an injured joint. This study aimed to determine whether lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) or 3, 3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the active thyroid hormone, modulates chondrogenesis in our in vitro model of directed chondrogenic differentiation, and whether Wnt signalling is involved in this modulation...
September 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Sunetra Das, Natalie L Pitts, Megan R Mudron, David S Durica, Donald L Mykles
In decapod crustaceans, arthropod steroid hormones or ecdysteroids regulate molting. These hormones are synthesized and released from a pair of molting glands called the Y-organs (YO). Cyclic nucleotide, mTOR, and TGFβ/Smad signaling pathways mediate molt cycle-dependent phase transitions in the YO. To further identify the genes involved in the regulation of molting, a YO transcriptome was generated from three biological replicates of intermolt blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis. Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries generated 227,811,829 100-base pair (bp) paired-end reads; following trimming, 90% of the reads were used for further analyses...
March 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Joshua Faber-Hammond, Manoj P Samanta, Elizabeth A Whitchurch, Dustin Manning, Joseph A Sisneros, Allison B Coffin
Acoustic communication is essential for the reproductive success of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). During the breeding season, type I males use acoustic cues to advertise nest location to potential mates, creating an audible signal that attracts reproductive females. Type II (sneaker) males also likely use this social acoustic signal to find breeding pairs from which to steal fertilizations. Estrogen-induced changes in the auditory system of breeding females are thought to enhance neural encoding of the advertisement call, and recent anatomical data suggest the saccule (the main auditory end organ) as one possible target for this seasonal modulation...
2015: PloS One
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