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GABAergic neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316020/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-boosts-mitochondrial-and-neuronal-metabolism-but-is-not-preferred-over-glucose-under-activated-conditions
#1
Lavanya B Achanta, Benjamin D Rowlands, Donald S Thomas, Gary D Housley, Caroline D Rae
The ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), is metabolised by the brain alongside the mandatory brain fuel glucose. To examine the extent and circumstances by which βOHB can supplement glucose metabolism, we studied guinea pig cortical brain slices using increasing concentrations of [U-(13)C]D-βOHB in conjunction with [1-(13)C]D-glucose under conditions of normo- and hypoglycaemia, as well as under high potassium (40 mmol/L K(+)) depolarization in normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. The contribution of βOHB to synthesis of GABA was also probed by inhibiting the synthesis of glutamine, a GABA precursor, with methionine sulfoximine (MSO)...
March 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315396/ischemia-deteriorates-spike-encoding-at-cortical-gabaergic-neurons-and-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-by-increasing-the-intracellular-ca-2
#2
Li Huang, Chun Wang, Rongjing Ge, Hong Ni, Shidi Zhao
GABAergic neurons play a critical role in the central nervous system, such as well-organized behaviors. The ischemic cell death is presumably initiated by neuronal excitotoxicity resulted from the dysfunction of GABAergic neurons. It is not clear how ischemia influences different types of GABAergic neurons and whether intracellular Ca(2+) plays a key role in the ischemic excitotoxicity. We have investigated this issue at cortical GABAergic neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells by whole-cell recording in mouse brain slices, and the roles of intracellular Ca(2+) are examined by BABTA infusion...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315308/target-specific-alterations-in-the-vip-inhibitory-drive-to-hippocampal-gabaergic-cells-after-status-epilepticus
#3
Linda Suzanne David, Lisa Topolnik
Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with complex reorganization of hippocampal circuits involving a significant loss of specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons. While adaptive circuit plasticity may increase the chances for recruitment of surviving interneurons, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We studied the alterations in the inhibitory tone received by the hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons from the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and calretinin (CR)-expressing interneurons using the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of epilepsy...
March 14, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294133/the-gabab-positive-allosteric-modulator-adx71441-attenuates-alcohol-self-administration-and-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#4
Eric Augier, Russell S Dulman, Ruslan Damadzic, Andrew Pilling, J Paul Hamilton, Markus Heilig
GABAergic signaling is involved in modulating the reinforcing properties of alcohol, and GABAB receptors have been proposed as a potential target for clinical treatment of alcoholism. The orthosteric GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to suppress operant self-administration of alcohol in animals and alcohol use in alcohol dependent patients, but its utility is limited by a narrow therapeutic index. We tested the effects of ADX71441, a novel GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator on alcohol-related behaviors in rats...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290150/extracellular-matrix-modulation-is-driven-by-experience-dependent-plasticity-during-stroke-recovery
#5
Miriana Jlenia Quattromani, Mathilde Pruvost, Carla Guerreiro, Fredrik Backlund, Elisabet Englund, Anders Aspberg, Tomasz Jaworski, Jakob Hakon, Karsten Ruscher, Leszek Kaczmarek, Denis Vivien, Tadeusz Wieloch
Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory molecules differentially expressed within the ischemic hemisphere, like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans found in perineuronal nets (PNNs)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289379/dichotomous-distribution-of-putative-cholinergic-interneurons-in-mouse-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#6
Sarah Marking, Kurt Krosnowski, Tatsuya Ogura, Weihong Lin
Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288780/neuroprotective-effects-of-gabaergic-phenols-correlated-with-their-pharmacological-and-antioxidant-properties
#7
Leticia Delgado-Marín, Mariela Sánchez-Borzone, Daniel A García
AIMS: Various investigations have demonstrated the protective capacity of general anesthetics as neuroprotective agents. The effects of propofol against ischemia are known to reside in its antioxidant properties and its GABAergic activity. Other aromatic alcohols have also been reported as able to protect neurons against oxidative damage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of some phenols, structurally analogues of propofol, with proven GABAergic activity...
March 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287593/reliable-identification-of-living-dopaminergic-neurons-in-midbrain-cultures-using-rna-sequencing-and-th-promoter-driven-egfp-expression
#8
Beverley M Henley, Bruce N Cohen, Charlene H Kim, Heather D Gold, Rahul Srinivasan, Sheri McKinney, Purnima Deshpande, Henry A Lester
In Parkinson's Disease (PD) there is widespread neuronal loss throughout the brain with pronounced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc, leading to bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor. The identification of living dopaminergic neurons in primary Ventral Mesencephalic (VM) cultures using a fluorescent marker provides an alternative way to study the selective vulnerability of these neurons without relying on the immunostaining of fixed cells. Here, we isolate, dissociate, and culture mouse VM neurons for 3 weeks...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279352/gabaergic-neurons-in-ferret-visual-cortex-participate-in-functionally-specific-networks
#9
Daniel E Wilson, Gordon B Smith, Amanda L Jacob, Theo Walker, Jordane Dimidschstein, Gord Fishell, David Fitzpatrick
Functional circuits in the visual cortex require the coordinated activity of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Molecular genetic approaches in the mouse have led to the "local non-specific pooling principle" of inhibitory connectivity, in which inhibitory neurons are untuned for stimulus features due to the random pooling of local inputs. However, it remains unclear whether this principle generalizes to species with a columnar organization of feature selectivity such as carnivores, primates, and humans. Here we use virally mediated GABAergic-specific GCaMP6f expression to demonstrate that inhibitory neurons in ferret visual cortex respond robustly and selectively to oriented stimuli...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279351/single-cell-profiling-of-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-of-human-interneuron-development-reveals-temporal-dynamics-of-cell-type-production-and-maturation
#10
Jennie L Close, Zizhen Yao, Boaz P Levi, Jeremy A Miller, Trygve E Bakken, Vilas Menon, Jonathan T Ting, Abigail Wall, Anne-Rachel Krostag, Elliot R Thomsen, Angel M Nelson, John K Mich, Rebecca D Hodge, Soraya I Shehata, Ian A Glass, Susan Bort, Nadiya V Shapovalova, N Kiet Ngo, Joshua S Grimley, John W Phillips, Carol L Thompson, Sharad Ramanathan, Ed Lein
GABAergic interneurons are essential for neural circuit function, and their loss or dysfunction is implicated in human neuropsychiatric disease. In vitro methods for interneuron generation hold promise for studying human cellular and functional properties and, ultimately, for therapeutic cell replacement. Here we describe a protocol for generating cortical interneurons from hESCs and analyze the properties and maturation time course of cell types using single-cell RNA-seq. We find that the cell types produced mimic in vivo temporal patterns of neuron and glial production, with immature progenitors and neurons observed early and mature cortical neurons and glial cell types produced late...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277443/sugarcoated-perineuronal-nets-regulate-gabaergic-transmission-bittersweet-hypothesis-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Jessica A Burket, Maria R Urbano, Stephen I Deutsch
Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing "GABAergic" interneurons regulate synchronous oscillatory output of pyramidal neurons. Metabolic demands of these GABAergic projections are great because local ion concentrations must be optimally maintained; in addition, high rates of mitochondrial respiration necessitate exquisite redox regulation. Interestingly, only fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells coexpressing 3 metalloproteinases seem to be preferentially enwrapped in perineuronal nets (PNNs), a specialized lattice-like structure of the extracellular matrix...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276429/building-a-5-ht3a-receptor-expression-map-in-the-mouse-brain
#12
Yoshihisa Koyama, Makoto Kondo, Shoichi Shimada
Of the many serotonin receptors, the type 3 receptors (5-HT3R) are the only ionotropic ones, playing a key role in fast synaptic transmission and cognitive and emotional brain function through controlled neuronal excitation. To better understand the various functions of 5-HT3Rs, it is very important to know their expression pattern in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, many distributional studies have shown localized 5-HT3R expression in the brain and spinal cord. However, an accurate pattern of 5-HT3R expression in the CNS remains to be elucidated...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275710/intrastriatally-infused-exogenous-cdnf-is-endocytosed-and-retrogradely-transported-to-substantia-nigra
#13
Kert Mätlik, Helena Vihinen, Ali Bienemann, Jaan Palgi, Merja H Voutilainen, Sigrid Booms, Maria Lindahl, Eija Jokitalo, Mart Saarma, Henri J Huttunen, Mikko Airavaara, Urmas Arumäe
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons in rodent models of Parkinson's disease and restores DA circuitry when delivered after these neurons have begun to degenerate. These DA neurons have been suggested to transport striatal CDNF retrogradely to the substantia nigra (SN). However, in cultured cells the binding and internalization of extracellular CDNF has not been reported. The first aim of this study was to examine the cellular localization and pharmacokinetic properties of recombinant human CDNF (rhCDNF) protein after its infusion into rat brain parenchyma...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275162/leptin-signalling-in-agrp-neurons-modulates-puberty-onset-and-adult-fertility-in-mice
#14
Olivia K Egan, Megan A Inglis, Greg M Anderson
The hormone leptin indirectly communicates metabolic information to brain neurons that control reproduction, using GABAergic circuitry. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus are GABAergic, express leptin receptors (LepR) and are known to influence reproduction. This study tested whether leptin actions on AgRP neurons are required and sufficient for puberty onset and subsequent fertility. Firstly, Agrp-Cre and Lepr-flox mice were used to target deletion of LepR to AgRP neurons. AgRP-LepR knockout female mice exhibited mild obesity and adiposity as previously described, as well as a significant delay in the pubertal onset of estrous cycles compared to control animals...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271626/acupuncture-reduces-relapse-to-cocaine-seeking-behavior-via-activation-of-gaba-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#15
Wyju Jin, Min Sun Kim, Eun Young Jang, Jun Yeon Lee, Jin Gyeom Lee, Hong Yu Kim, Seong Shoon Yoon, Bong Hyo Lee, Suchan Chang, Jae Hyo Kim, Kwang H Choi, Ho Koo, Young Seob Gwak, Scott C Steffensen, Yeon-Hee Ryu, Hee Young Kim, Chae Ha Yang
There is growing public interest in alternative approaches to addiction treatment and scientific interest in elucidating the neurobiological underpinnings of acupuncture. Our previous studies showed that acupuncture at a specific Shenmen (HT7) points reduced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) induced by drugs of abuse. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of HT7 acupuncture on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior...
March 7, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271508/alterations-in-expression-of-cat-315-epitope-of-perineuronal-nets-during-normal-ageing-and-its-modulation-by-an-open-channel-nmda-receptor-blocker-memantine
#16
Jun Yamada, Tomohiro Ohgomori, Shozo Jinno
The perineuronal net (PNN), a specialized aggregate of the extracellular matrix, is involved in neuroprotection against oxidative stress, which is now recognized as a major contributor to age-related decline in brain functions. In this study, we investigated the age-related molecular changes of PNNs using monoclonal antibody Cat-315, which recognizes human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) glycan on aggrecan-based PNNs. Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of Cat-315 epitope in the hippocampus were higher in middle-aged (MA, 12-month-old) mice than in young adult (YA, 2-month-old) mice...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271037/cholinergic-neurons-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-regulate-food-intake
#17
Jae Hoon Jeong, Dong Kun Lee, Young-Hwan Jo
OBJECTIVE: Central cholinergic neural circuits play a role in the regulation of feeding behavior. The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is considered the appetite-stimulating center and contains cholinergic neurons. Here, we study the role of DMH cholinergic neurons in the control of food intake. METHODS: To selectively stimulate DMH cholinergic neurons, we expressed stimulatory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) and channelrhodopsins in DMH cholinergic neurons by injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors into the DMH of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IRES-Cre mice...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270566/orbitofrontal-neuroadaptations-and-cross-species-synaptic-biomarkers-in-heavy-drinking-macaques
#18
Sudarat Nimitvilai, Joachim D Uys, John J Woodward, Patrick K Randall, Lauren E Ball, Robert W Williams, Byron C Jones, Lu Lu, Kathleen A Grant, Patrick J Mulholland
Cognitive impairments, uncontrolled drinking, and neuropathological cortical changes characterize alcohol use disorder. Dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a critical cortical sub-region that controls learning, decision-making, and prediction of reward outcomes, contributes to executive cognitive function deficits in alcoholics. Electrophysiological and quantitative synaptomics techniques were used to test the hypothesis that heavy drinking produces neuroadaptations in the macaque OFC. Integrative bioinformatics and reverse genetic approaches were used to identify and validate synaptic proteins with novel links to heavy drinking in BXD mice...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263413/species-specific-diversity-in-the-anatomical-and-physiological-organization-of-the-bnst-vta-pathway
#19
Jennifer Kaufling, Delphine Girard, Marlène Maitre, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, François Georges
The anteromedial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (amBNST) is a limbic structure innervating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that is remarkably constant across species. The amBNST modulates fear and anxiety, and activation of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons by amBNST afferents seems to be the way by which stress controls motivational states associated with reward or aversion. Because fear learning and anxiety states can be expressed differently between rats and mice, we compared the functional connectivity between amBNST and the VTA-DA neurons in both species using consistant methodological approaches...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254942/layer-specific-modulation-of-neocortical-dendritic-inhibition-during-active-wakefulness
#20
William Muñoz, Robin Tremblay, Daniel Levenstein, Bernardo Rudy
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inputs are strategically positioned to gate synaptic integration along the dendritic arbor of pyramidal cells. However, their spatiotemporal dynamics during behavior are poorly understood. Using an optical-tagging electrophysiological approach to record and label somatostatin-expressing (Sst) interneurons (GABAergic neurons specialized for dendritic inhibition), we discovered a layer-specific modulation of their activity in behaving mice. Sst interneuron subtypes, residing in different cortical layers and innervating complementary laminar domains, exhibited opposite activity changes during transitions to active wakefulness...
March 3, 2017: Science
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