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GABAergic neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922053/electrophysiological-properties-of-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-along-the-longitudinal-axis-of-the-mouse-hippocampus
#1
Giampaolo Milior, Maria Amalia Di Castro, Livio Pepe' Sciarria, Stefano Garofalo, Igor Branchi, Davide Ragozzino, Cristina Limatola, Laura Maggi
Evidence for different physiological properties along the hippocampal longitudinal axis is emerging. Here, we examined the electrophysiological features of neurons at different dorso-ventral sites of the mouse CA1 hippocampal region. Cell position was defined with respect to longitudinal coordinates of each slice. We measured variations in neuronal excitability, subthreshold membrane properties and neurotransmitter responses along the longitudinal axis. We found that (i) pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) were less excitable than those of the ventral hippocampus (VH)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916729/enkephalin-and-neuropeptide-y-interaction-in-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-network-a-part-of-the-mammalian-biological-clock
#2
K Palus, L Chrobok, M Kepczynski, M H Lewandowski
The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) is a flat thalamic nucleus implicated in the modulation of circadian rhythmicity. In rat, two main GABAergic subpopulations can be distinguished in the IGL: neurons synthesising neuropeptide Y (NPY), which directly innervates the suprachiasmatic nuclei, and enkephalinergic cells, which connect contralaterally located leaflets. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of inner IGL neurotransmitters on the spontaneous and synaptic activity of IGL neurons. The data presented in this article provide evidence that enkephalin, and not NPY, could act upon the majority of IGL neurons...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-towards-self-organized-criticality
#3
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914882/representation-of-the-body-in-the-lateral-striatum-of-the-freely-moving-rat-fast-spiking-interneurons-respond-to-stimulation-of-individual-body-parts
#4
Julianna Kulik, Anthony Pawlak, Manraj Kalkat, Kevin Coffey, Mark O West
: Numerous studies have shown that certain types of striatal interneurons play a crucial role in selection and regulation of striatal output. Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons (FSIs) are parvalbumin positive, GABAergic interneurons that constitute less than 1% of the total striatal population. It is becoming increasingly evident that these sparsely distributed neurons exert a strong inhibitory effect on Medium Spiny projection Neurons (MSNs). MSNs in lateral striatum receive direct synaptic input from regions of cortex representing discrete body parts, and show phasic increases in activity during touch or movement of specific body parts...
November 30, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#5
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911754/cortical-control-of-spatial-resolution-by-vip-interneurons
#6
Inbal Ayzenshtat, Mahesh Miikael Karnani, Jesse Jackson, Rafael Yuste
: Neuronal tuning, defined by the degree of selectivity to a specific stimulus, is a hallmark of cortical computation. Understanding the role of GABAergic interneurons in shaping cortical tuning is now possible with the ability to manipulate interneuron classes selectively. Here, we show that interneurons expressing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP(+)) regulate the spatial frequency (SF) tuning of pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using two-photon calcium imaging and optogenetic manipulations of VIP(+) cell activity, we found that activating VIP(+) cells elicited a stronger network response to stimuli of higher SFs, whereas suppressing VIP(+) cells resulted in a network response shift toward lower SFs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909104/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#7
J A Heinsbroek, D N Neuhofer, W C Griffin, G S Siegel, A-C Bobadilla, Y M Kupchik, P W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, while activity in D2-MSNs inhibits motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909103/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#8
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
: Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908749/a-new-role-for-gabaergic-transmission-in-the-control-of-male-rat-sexual-behavior-expression
#9
Gabriela Rodríguez-Manzo, Ana Canseco-Alba
GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABAA receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908611/entorhinal-principal-neurons-mediate-brain-stimulation-treatments-for-epilepsy
#10
Zhenghao Xu, Yi Wang, Bin Chen, Cenglin Xu, Xiaohua Wu, Ying Wang, Shihong Zhang, Weiwei Hu, Shuang Wang, Yi Guo, Xiangnan Zhang, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Zhong Chen
Brain stimulation is an alternative treatment for epilepsy. However, the neuronal circuits underlying its mechanisms remain obscure. We found that optogenetic activation (1Hz) of entorhinal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα)-positive neurons, but not GABAergic neurons, retarded hippocampal epileptogenesis and reduced hippocampal seizure severity, similar to that of entorhinal low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES). Optogenetic inhibition of entorhinal CaMKIIα-positive neurons blocked the antiepileptic effect of LFES...
November 23, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905023/distinct-cortical-and-sub-cortical-neurogenic-domains-for-gabaergic-interneuron-precursor-transcription-factors-nkx2-1-olig2-and-coup-tfii-in-early-fetal-human-telencephalon
#11
Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan Lindsay, Janet Kerwin, Shi Jie Looi, Fareha Khalil, Gavin J Clowry
The extent of similarities and differences between cortical GABAergic interneuron generation in rodent and primate telencephalon remains contentious. We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using immunohistochemistry on 8-12 post-conceptional weeks (PCW) human telencephalon sections. NKX2.1, OLIG2, and COUP-TFII expression occupied distinct (although overlapping) neurogenic domains which extended into the cortex and revealed three CGE compartments: lateral, medial, and ventral...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903793/the-serotonin-5-ht2c-receptor-and-the-non-addictive-nature-of-classic-hallucinogens
#12
REVIEW
Clinton E Canal, Kevin S Murnane
Classic hallucinogens share pharmacology as serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptor agonists. Unique among most other Schedule 1 drugs, they are generally non-addictive and can be effective tools in the treatment of addiction. Mechanisms underlying these attributes are largely unknown. However, many preclinical studies show that 5-HT2C agonists counteract the addictive effects of drugs from several classes, suggesting this pharmacological property of classic hallucinogens may be significant. Drawing from a comprehensive analysis of preclinical behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurochemistry studies, this review builds rationale for this hypothesis, and also proposes a testable, neurobiological framework...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898427/cocaine-withdrawal-reduces-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-ergic-transmission-and-gephyrin-expression-at-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference-rats-which-shows-increased-cocaine-seeking
#13
Wenqiong Yang, Hongsheng He, Yan Pan, Falan Duan, Dan Zhao, Bo Hu, Qingzhen Zhou, Wanhong Liu
AIMS: Chronic cocaine abuse decreases the inhibitory synaptic transmission via unknown mechanisms, while pharmacologically augmenting gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmission attenuates cocaine craving. Here, we propose that prolonged cocaine withdrawal downregulates GABAergic transmission and its important regulator gephyrin in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in cocaine-conditioned place-preference (CPP) rats. METHODS: CPP test, patch clamp, and Western blot analysis are engaged to test this proposal...
November 30, 2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897203/reducing-gabaa-mediated-inhibition-improves-forelimb-motor-function-after-focal-cortical-stroke-in-mice
#14
Claudia Alia, Cristina Spalletti, Stefano Lai, Alessandro Panarese, Silvestro Micera, Matteo Caleo
A deeper understanding of post-stroke plasticity is critical to devise more effective pharmacological and rehabilitative treatments. The GABAergic system is one of the key modulators of neuronal plasticity, and plays an important role in the control of "critical periods" during brain development. Here, we report a key role for GABAergic inhibition in functional restoration following ischemia in the adult mouse forelimb motor cortex. After stroke, the majority of cortical sites in peri-infarct areas evoked simultaneous movements of forelimb, hindlimb and tail, consistent with a loss of inhibitory signalling...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894927/the-dynamics-of-gaba-signaling-revelations-from-the-circadian-pacemaker-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#15
REVIEW
H Elliott Albers, James C Walton, Karen L Gamble, John K McNeill, Daniel L Hummer
Virtually every neuron within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) communicates via GABAergic signaling. The extra-cellular levels of GABA within the SCN are determined by a complex interaction of synthesis and transport, as well as synaptic and non-synaptic release. The response to GABA is mediated by GABAA receptors that respond to both phasic and tonic GABA release and that can produce excitatory as well as inhibitory cellular responses. GABA also influences circadian control through the exclusively inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors...
November 25, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890827/adolescent-gbr12909-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-disrupts-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-and-leads-to-hyperactivity-and-impulsivity-in-adult-mice
#16
Asma Khan, Loek A W de Jong, Mary E Kamenski, Kerin K Higa, Jacinta D Lucero, Jared W Young, M Margarita Behrens, Susan B Powell
The adolescent period in mammals is a critical period of brain maturation and thus represents a time of susceptibility to environmental insult, e.g. psychosocial stress and/or drugs of abuse, which may cause lasting impairments in brain function and behavior and even precipitate symptoms in at-risk individuals. One likely effect of these environmental insults is to increase oxidative stress in the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that redox dysregulation plays an important role in the development of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and that GABA interneurons are particularly susceptible to alterations in oxidative stress...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888071/cell-type-specific-expression-of-foxp2-in-the-ferret-and-mouse-retina
#17
Chihiro Sato, Lena Iwai-Takekoshi, Yoshie Ichikawa, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Although the anatomical and physiological properties of subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have been extensively investigated, their molecular properties are still unclear. Here, we examined the expression patterns of FoxP2 in the retina of ferrets and mice. We found that FoxP2 was expressed in small subsets of neurons in the adult ferret retina. FoxP2-positive neurons in the ganglion cell layer were divided into two groups. Large FoxP2-positive neurons expressed Brn3a and were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit B injected into the optic nerve, indicating that they are RGCs...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885625/glucose-lactate-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-acetate-gaba-and-succinate-as-substrates-for-synthesis-of-glutamate-and-gaba-in-the-glutamine-glutamate-gaba-cycle
#18
Leif Hertz, Douglas L Rothman
The glutamine-glutamate/GABA cycle is an astrocytic-neuronal pathway transferring precursors for transmitter glutamate and GABA from astrocytes to neurons. In addition, the cycle carries released transmitter back to astrocytes, where a minor fraction (~25 %) is degraded (requiring a similar amount of resynthesis) and the remainder returned to the neurons for reuse. The flux in the cycle is intense, amounting to the same value as neuronal glucose utilization rate or 75-80 % of total cortical glucose consumption...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880913/mdia-and-rock-mediate-actin-dependent-presynaptic-remodeling-regulating-synaptic-efficacy-and-anxiety
#19
Yuichi Deguchi, Masaya Harada, Ryota Shinohara, Michael Lazarus, Yoan Cherasse, Yoshihiro Urade, Daisuke Yamada, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Dai Watanabe, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Shuh Narumiya
Here, we show neuronal inactivation-induced presynaptic remodeling and involvement of the mammalian homolog of Diaphanous (mDia) and Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing kinase (ROCK), Rho-regulated modulators of actin and myosin, in this process. We find that social isolation induces inactivation of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons associated with elevated anxiety-like behavior, and that mDia in NAc neurons is essential in this process. Upon inactivation of cultured neurons, mDia induces circumferential actin filaments around the edge of the synaptic cleft, which contract the presynaptic terminals in a ROCK-dependent manner...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877102/inhibition-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-by-hiv-1-tat-and-opioid-treatment-in-the-striatum-involves-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors
#20
Changqing Xu, Sylvia Fitting
Due to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with high prevalence of mild forms of neurocognitive impairments, also referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although opiate drug use can exacerbate HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal damage, it remains unknown how and to what extent opioids interact with Tat on the GABAergic system. We conducted whole-cell recordings in mouse striatal slices and examined the effects of HIV-1 Tat in the presence and absence of morphine (1 μM) and damgo (1 μM) on GABAergic neurotransmission...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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